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See also: Martial Arts Words and Phrases
2. Aiki Jujutsu
柔術 has been somewhat incorrectly spelled and pronounced "Jujitsu" for some time in the English-speaking world. The correct Japanese Romaji is Jujutsu or Juujutsu.
A little background on the word: By combining the Kanji pronounced "Ju" (which means flexible, pliable, gentle, yielding) with the Kanji pronounced "Jutsu" (which means art, or technique), we get a meaning that can be translated as "flexible technique", "gentle art" or "yielding technique".
柔術 does make sense in Chinese as well, although pronounced, "rou shu" in China.
The Jujutsu system has a history in Japan that started well-before the 1600's. Some see this style as a variation of the "Empty Hand Method" (Karate-do). Even the samurai of old used some Jujutsu methods in defending themselves with their unarmed hands against weapons that could pierce their heavy armor.
There are convoluted relationships between various schools and systems of martial arts but it's generally accepted that Jujutsu led to the development of Judo and a few other variations.
大東流合気柔術 is Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, a Japanese martial art established by Takeda Sōkaku.
The most famous student of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu is Morihei Ueshiba who later founded the school or branch of martial arts known as Aikido.
Note: 大東流合気柔術 can also be romanized as Daito-ryu Aiki-Jujutsu, Daitou-ryuu Aiki-Juujutsu or Daito-ryu Aiki-Jujitsu.
This is the Japanese martial arts title, Daitō-ryū Aiki-Jūjutsu.
If you want this title, you probably already know enough about the meaning.
If not, here's the Wikipedia entry: Daitō-ryū Aiki-Jūjutsu.
Wado-Ryu is a style of Karate or Jujutsu (Jujitsu).
Note: Many will argue as to whether this is a style of Karate or Jujutsu.
While some find Wado-Ryu similar to Shotokan Karate, enough differences exist in perspective and technique that it stands by itself.
Breaking down the characters into the proper Japanese Romaji, you have "wa dou ryuu" or "wa dō ryū". The meaning is roughly-translated as "Harmony Way Style" or "Peace Method Style". The first Kanji should probably be read as harmony, rather than peace in this case.
See Also: Wado-Kai
八光流 (Hakkō-Ryū) is a style of jujutsu associated with Daito-Ryu.
The title Hakko-Ryu comes from the Japanese phrase which translates as "The Style of the Eighth Light", or more literally "Eighth Light Style".
The 光 character is associated with brightness or brilliance. It can be a used to describe someone of great talent or potential. So the meaning goes far beyond just light.
This 柔 Kanji literally means flexible, pliable, gentle, or yielding.
柔 is also the first Kanji of the Japanese martial arts titles of Judo and Jujutsu (Jujitsu). In those cases, it's pronounced "ju" in Japanese. However, alone, the classic pronunciation is "yawara". Some translate this Kanji (in the context of martial arts) as "The Heart of Judo".
Please note that this just means pliable, gentle, and yielding in Chinese and old Korean Hanja. They do know what Judo and Jujitsu are but if this character is seen alone in China or Korea, people generally will not think of the martial arts context.
This form of martial arts can be translated in several ways. Some will call it "fist principles" or "the way of the fist", or even "law of the fist". The first character literally means fist. The second can mean law, method, way, principle or Buddhist teaching.
Kempo is really a potluck of martial arts. Often a combination of Chinese martial arts such as Shaolin Kung Fu with Japanese martial arts such as Karate, Jujutsu (Jujitsu), Aikido, and others. You may see the term "Kempo Karate" which basically means Karate with other disciplines added. In this way, Kempo becomes an adjective rather than a title or school of martial arts.
These facts will long be argued by various masters and students of Kempo. Even the argument as to whether it should be spelled "kenpo" or "Kempo" ensues at dojos around the world (the correct Romaji should actually be "kenpou" if you precisely follow the rules).
The benefit of Kempo is that the techniques are easier to learn and master compared to pure Kung Fu (wu shu). Students are often taught basic Karate moves, kicks, and punches before augmenting the basic skills with complex Kung Fu techniques. This allows students of Kempo achieve a level where they can defend themselves or fight in a relatively short amount of time (a few years rather than a decade or more).
Because the definition of this word is so fluid, I should make some notes here:
1. Purists in Okinawa will claim that "Okinawa Kenpo" or "Ryukyu Hon Kenpo" is the original and true version of this martial art from the old kingdom. There is actually little or no connection between Okinawa Kenpo and the way the word is used elsewhere.
2. In Chinese, where these characters are pronounced "quan fa" (sometimes Romanized as "chuan fa" because the Chinese-pinyin "q" actually sounds like an English "ch" sound), these characters do not hold the connotation of being a mixed martial art. It is simply defined as "the law of the fist".
3. In my Japanese dictionary, it oddly defines Kenpo as "Chinese art of self-defense". I personally don't feel this is the most common way that people perceive the word but just something you should know.
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The following table may be helpful for those studying Chinese or Japanese...
|Title||Characters||Romaji (Romanized Japanese)||Various forms of Romanized Chinese|
|juu jutsu / juujutsu / ju jutsu / jujutsu||róu shù / rou2 shu4 / rou shu / roushu||jou shu / joushu|
|Aiki Jujutsu||合気柔術 / 合氣柔術|
|ai ki juu jutsu|
ai ki ju jutsu
|dai tou ryuu ai ki ju jutsu|
dai to ryu ai ki ju jutsu
|Daito Ryu Aiki Jujutsu||大東流合気柔術|
|dai tou ryuu ai ki juu jutsu|
dai to ryu ai ki ju jutsu
|Bushi-Ryu Jujutsu||武士流柔術||bu shi ryuu ju jutsu|
bu shi ryu ju jutsu
|Wado-Ryu||和道流||wa dou ryuu|
wa do ryu
|ai ki jutsu|
|Heart of Judo||柔||yawara||róu / rou2 / rou||jou|
|拳法||kenpou / kenpo||quán fǎ / quan2 fa3 / quan fa / quanfa||ch`üan fa / chüanfa / chüan fa|
|In some entries above you will see that characters have different versions above and below a line.|
In these cases, the characters above the line are Traditional Chinese, while the ones below are Simplified Chinese.
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When the calligrapher finishes creating your artwork, it is taken to my art mounting workshop in Beijing where a wall scroll is made by hand from a combination of silk, rice paper, and wood.
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Professional calligraphers are getting to be hard to find these days.
Instead of drawing characters by hand, the new generation in China merely type roman letters into their computer keyboards and pick the character that they want from a list that pops up.
There is some fear that true Chinese calligraphy may become a lost art in the coming years. Many art institutes in China are now promoting calligraphy programs in hopes of keeping this unique form of art alive.
Even with the teachings of a top-ranked calligrapher in China, my calligraphy will never be good enough to sell. I will leave that to the experts.
The same calligrapher who gave me those lessons also attracted a crowd of thousands and a TV crew as he created characters over 6-feet high. He happens to be ranked as one of the top 100 calligraphers in all of China. He is also one of very few that would actually attempt such a feat.
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Some people may refer to this entry as Jujutsu Kanji, Jujutsu Characters, Jujutsu in Mandarin Chinese, Jujutsu Characters, Jujutsu in Chinese Writing, Jujutsu in Japanese Writing, Jujutsu in Asian Writing, Jujutsu Ideograms, Chinese Jujutsu symbols, Jujutsu Hieroglyphics, Jujutsu Glyphs, Jujutsu in Chinese Letters, Jujutsu Hanzi, Jujutsu in Japanese Kanji, Jujutsu Pictograms, Jujutsu in the Chinese Written-Language, or Jujutsu in the Japanese Written-Language.