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Sangha / Order of Monks

China sēng
Japan sou
Sangha / Order of Monks Vertical Wall Scroll

僧 is the single-character or short form of Sangha, the Buddhist idea of community or order (of monks, nuns, or followers of the Buddha). Alone, this character can simply mean "monk" (Just means monk in Japanese).

僧僧 Note that when writing this as Kanji, Japanese will tend to write this in the form shown to the right. If you select our Japanese master calligrapher, please expect this special Kanji form.


China sēng qié
Japan sougya
Sangha Vertical Wall Scroll

In Buddhism, this term refers to a community of monks and/or nuns (one of the "Three Jewels"). In general terms, it can simply mean "all followers of the Buddha."

Notes: Though there are not vast numbers of Chinese Hindus, in the Hindu faith, this term means "community together."
The original Sanskrit word is also Romanized as samgha.
The first character means "monk." The second character means Buddha or Shakyamuni.
僧伽 is really a transliteration of the original Sanskrit but it uses two very profound Chinese characters related to Buddhism.

Some may pronounce this as "seng qie" or "seng jia" in Mandarin (two possible pronunciations for second character). Note that "qie" would sound a bit like "chee-ah" using typical English pronunciation. Chinese Romanization is not actually designed to match English sounds.

僧僧Note that when writing this as Kanji, Japanese will tend to write the first character in the form shown to the right. If you select our Japanese master calligrapher, please expect this special Kanji form. However, it should also be noted that this is not a common term in Japanese (except by certain sects of Buddhism or perhaps devout Buddhists in Japan).

Buddhist Monk

Japan sou ryo
Buddhist Monk Vertical Wall Scroll

The first Kanji means Buddhist priest or monk by itself.
The second Kanji means follower or companion.

僧Note, if you order this from the Japanese master calligrapher, the first character will look a bit more like the Kanji shown to the right than the Kanji shown above. Let us know if you have a preference, as both versions are technically-correct in both Chinese and Japanese.

Heart Sutra Mantra

China jiē dì jiē dì bō luō jiē dì bō luō sēng jiē dì pú tí sà pó hē
Heart Sutra Mantra Vertical Wall Scroll

This is the Mantra included within the Heart Sutra.

Heart Sutra

Heart Sutra Vertical Wall Scroll

This is the short version of the Heart Sutra as translated by Xuanzang. It is often cited as the best-known and most popular of all Buddhist scriptures.

Notes: There are too many characters for this to be done by the economy calligrapher. You must choose a Master Calligrapher.

With this many characters, and the fact that one tiny mistake wipes out hours of work, keep in mind that writing the Heart Sutra is usually a full day of work for a calligrapher. This work and personal energy should be cherished and respected. In other words, the calligrapher is not charging enough money for the value that you are getting here.

Not the results for 僧 that you were looking for?

Below are some entries from our dictionary that may match your search...


If shown, 2nd row is Simp. Chinese

Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin sēng / seng1
Taiwan seng
Japanese sou / so / そう
Heart Sutra Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese monk; Sangha, the Buddhist monastic order
Japanese monk; priest; (surname) Sou
伽 saṅgha, an assembly, collection, company, society. The corporate assembly of at least three (formerly four) monks under a chairman, empowered to hear confession, grant absolution, and ordain. The church or monastic order, the third member of the triratna. The term used alone has come to mean a monk, or monks in general. Also佉, 加, 企耶.; A fully ordained monk, i.e. a bhikṣu as contrasted with the śramaņa.


see styles
Mandarin sēng qié / seng1 qie2
Taiwan seng ch`ieh / seng chieh
Japanese sougya / sogya / そうぎゃ
Heart Sutra Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese (Buddhism) sangha; the monastic community; monk
Japanese sangha (the Buddhist community) (san: samgha)
(Skt. saṃgha)



see styles
Mandarin sēng lǚ / seng1 lu:3
Taiwan seng lü
Japanese souryo / soryo / そうりょ
Heart Sutra Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese monk
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) {Buddh} priest; monk
Monastic companions, or company; the members of the Buddhist order


see styles
Mandarin qī sēng / qi1 seng1
Taiwan ch`i seng / chi seng
Japanese shichisō
A monastery is supposed to possess the following seven monks: 咒願師 invoker; 導師 leader; 唄師 intoner, or leader of the chanting; 散花師 flower-scatterer; 梵音師 master of sacred words, or Sanskrit; 錫杖師 shaker of the rings on the metal staff, or crozier; 堂達 distributor of missals, etc. Another division is 講師 expounder; 讀師 reader; 咒願師; 三禮師 director of the three ceremonies; 唄師; 散花師; and 堂達.


see styles
Japanese gesou / geso / げそう Japanese low-rank priest



see styles
Mandarin luàn sēng / luan4 seng1
Taiwan luan seng
Japanese ransō
A disorderly monk.


see styles
Mandarin wáng sēng / wang2 seng1
Taiwan wang seng
Japanese mōsō
dead monk


see styles
Japanese bussou / busso / ぶっそう Japanese Buddhist priest; (place-name) Bussou


see styles
Japanese daisou / daiso / だいそう Japanese substitute priest


see styles
Mandarin bàn sēng / ban4 seng1
Taiwan pan seng
Japanese bansou / banso / ばんそう
Japanese priests assisting at a Buddhist service


see styles
Japanese juusou / juso / じゅうそう Japanese chief priest (of a Buddhist temple)


see styles
Japanese jisou / jiso / じそう Japanese acolyte


see styles
Japanese gusou / guso / ぐそう Japanese (1) (abbreviation) (See 供奉僧・1) monk who attends to the principal image of a temple; (2) Buddhist monk serving at an attached Shinto shrine


see styles
Japanese zokusou / zokuso / ぞくそう Japanese worldly priest


see styles
Mandarin sēng zhōng / seng1 zhong1
Taiwan seng chung
Japanese sōchū
within the saṃgha


see styles
Mandarin sēng liàng / seng1 liang4
Taiwan seng liang
Japanese souryou / soryo / そうりょう
Japanese (personal name) Souryou


see styles
Mandarin sēng rén / seng1 ren2
Taiwan seng jen
Chinese monk


see styles
Mandarin sēng wǔ / seng1 wu3
Taiwan seng wu
Japanese sōgo
The monastic ranks.


see styles
Mandarin sēng xiū / seng1 xiu1
Taiwan seng hsiu
Japanese Sōkyū


see styles
Mandarin sēng qū / seng1 qu1
Taiwan seng ch`ü / seng chü
Japanese sōkya
saṅkhyā, 企耶; intp. 數 number, reckon, calculate; Saṅkhyā, 'one of the great divisions of Hindu philosophy ascribed to the sage Kapila, and so called as 'reckoning up' or 'enumerating' twenty-five Tattvas or true principles, its object being to effect the final liberation of the twenty-fifth (Purusha, the Soul) from the fetters of the phenomenal creation by conveying the correct knowledge of the twenty-four other Tattvas, and rightly discriminating the soul from them.' M.W. Cf. 迦 and 數; Sāṃkhya


see styles
Mandarin sēng wèi / seng1 wei4
Taiwan seng wei
Japanese soui / soi / そうい
Japanese priestly rank
monk's rank


see styles
Japanese soutai / sotai / そうたい Japanese (See 俗体・1) appearance of a Buddhist priest


see styles
Japanese sougu / sogu / そうぐ Japanese (archaism) giving to a monk; offerings made to monks


see styles
Mandarin sēng sú / seng1 su2
Taiwan seng su
Japanese souzoku / sozoku / そうぞく
Chinese laymen; laity
Japanese priests and laymen
Monks and the laity.



see styles
Mandarin sēng yí / seng1 yi2
Taiwan seng i
Japanese sōgi
The monastic custom, i.e. shaving head and beard, wearing the robe, etc; monastic deportment


see styles
Mandarin sēng bīng / seng1 bing1
Taiwan seng ping
Japanese souhei / sohe / そうへい
Japanese priest soldier; warrior monk
armed monks


see styles
Mandarin sēng kě / seng1 ke3
Taiwan seng k`o / seng ko
Japanese Sōka
Name of 慧可 Huike, second patriarch of the Intuitive School; Sengke


see styles
Japanese sougou / sogo / そうごう Japanese priest's religious name


see styles
Mandarin sēng dì / seng1 di4
Taiwan seng ti
Japanese souchi / sochi / そうち
Japanese (place-name) Souchi
the land held by the saṃgha


see styles
Mandarin sēng fāng / seng1 fang1
Taiwan seng fang
Japanese soubou / sobo / そうぼう
Japanese priests' temple quarters; (place-name) Soubou
房 A vihāra, or saṅghārāma, a monastery; also a nunnery.

Search for in my Japanese & Chinese Dictionary

The following table may be helpful for those studying Chinese or Japanese...

Title CharactersRomaji(Romanized Japanese)Various forms of Romanized Chinese
Order of Monks
sou / sosēng / seng1 / seng
Sangha僧伽sougya / sogyasēng qié / seng1 qie2 / seng qie / sengqieseng ch`ieh / sengchieh / seng chieh
Buddhist Monk僧侶 / 僧侶
sou ryo / souryo / so ryo / soryo
Heart Sutra Mantra揭諦揭諦波羅揭諦波羅僧揭諦菩提薩婆訶
jiē dì jiē dì bō luō jiē dì bō luō sēng jiē dì pú tí sà pó hē
jie1 di4 jie1 di4 bo1 luo1 jie1 di4 bo1 luo1 seng1 jie1 di4 pu2 ti2 sa4 po2 he1
jie di jie di bo luo jie di bo luo seng jie di pu ti sa po he
chieh ti chieh ti po lo chieh ti po lo seng chieh ti p`u t`i sa p`o ho
chieh ti chieh ti po lo chieh ti po lo seng chieh ti pu ti sa po ho
Heart Sutra觀自在菩薩行深般若波羅蜜多時照見五蘊皆空度一切苦厄舍利子色不異空空不異色色即是空空即是色受想行識亦復如是舍利子是諸法空相不生不滅不垢不淨不增不減是故空中無色無受想行識無眼耳鼻舌身意無色聲香味觸法無眼界乃至無意識界無無明亦無無明盡乃至無老死亦無老死盡無苦集滅道無智亦無得以無所得故菩提薩埵依般若波羅蜜多故心無罣礙無罣礙故無有恐怖遠離顛倒夢想究竟涅盤三世諸佛依般若波羅蜜多故得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提故知般若波羅蜜多是大神咒是大明咒是無上咒是無等等咒能除一切苦真實不虛故說般若波羅蜜多咒即說咒曰揭諦揭諦波羅揭諦波羅僧揭諦菩提薩婆訶
In some entries above you will see that characters have different versions above and below a line.
In these cases, the characters above the line are Traditional Chinese, while the ones below are Simplified Chinese.

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All of our calligraphy wall scrolls are handmade.

When the calligrapher finishes creating your artwork, it is taken to my art mounting workshop in Beijing where a wall scroll is made by hand from a combination of silk, rice paper, and wood.
After we create your wall scroll, it takes at least two weeks for air mail delivery from Beijing to you.

Allow a few weeks for delivery. Rush service speeds it up by a week or two for $10!

When you select your calligraphy, you'll be taken to another page where you can choose various custom options.

A nice Chinese calligraphy wall scroll

The wall scroll that Sandy is holding in this picture is a "large size"
single-character wall scroll.
We also offer custom wall scrolls in small, medium, and an even-larger jumbo size.

A professional Chinese Calligrapher

Professional calligraphers are getting to be hard to find these days.
Instead of drawing characters by hand, the new generation in China merely type roman letters into their computer keyboards and pick the character that they want from a list that pops up.

There is some fear that true Chinese calligraphy may become a lost art in the coming years. Many art institutes in China are now promoting calligraphy programs in hopes of keeping this unique form of art alive.

Trying to learn Chinese calligrapher - a futile effort

Even with the teachings of a top-ranked calligrapher in China, my calligraphy will never be good enough to sell. I will leave that to the experts.

A high-ranked Chinese master calligrapher that I met in Zhongwei

The same calligrapher who gave me those lessons also attracted a crowd of thousands and a TV crew as he created characters over 6-feet high. He happens to be ranked as one of the top 100 calligraphers in all of China. He is also one of very few that would actually attempt such a feat.

Check out my lists of Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Wall Scrolls and Old Korean Hanja Calligraphy Wall Scrolls.

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