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Perseverance Will-Power in Chinese / Japanese...

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Perseverance / Will-Power

China yì lì
Perseverance / Will-Power Vertical Wall Scroll

These two characters are a way to express "perseverance" with the idea of "willpower" in Chinese and old Korean Hanja. It can also mean "strong willed."

The first character means "strong" and "persistent," while the second means "strength" and "power."

Strong Hearted / Strong Willed

China yì zhì jiān qiáng
Strong Hearted / Strong Willed Vertical Wall Scroll

This phrase can mean either "strong hearted," "strong willed" or "determination."

The first two characters can be translated as "will," "willpower," "determination," "volition," "intention," or "intent." But, it should be noted that this first part possess the element of "heart" in the lower portion of both characters (they also partially carry the meaning "with whole heart").

The last two characters mean "strong" or "staunch."

Chinese word order and grammar is a bit different than English, so in this case, they are in reverse order of English but have the correct meaning in a natural form.


See Also:  Strong Willed | Discipline | Will-Power

Perseverance

China
Japan see note
Perseverance Vertical Wall Scroll

毅 is the simplest way to express perseverance in Chinese and Korean Hanja.
This single-character version leaves a bit of mystery about what kind of perseverance you might want to convey.

In Korean, this is usually associated with "strength of character."

In Japanese, this character can be pronounced about a dozen different ways (so we have left out the Japanese pronunciation guide that normally appears above). In Japanese this Kanji would usually be translated "strong" (perhaps strong-willed).


See Also:  Tenacity | Fortitude | Strength | Undaunted

Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks

Persistence to overcome all challenges
China bǎi zhé bù náo
Japan hyaku setsu su tou
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll

This Chinese proverb means "Be undaunted in the face of repeated setbacks." More directly-translated, it reads, "[Overcome] a hundred setbacks, without flinching." 百折不撓 is of Chinese origin but is commonly used in Japanese, and somewhat in Korean (same characters, different pronunciation).

This proverb comes from a long, and occasionally tragic story of a man that lived sometime around 25-220 AD. His name was Qiao Xuan and he never stooped to flattery but remained an upright person at all times. He fought to expose corruption of higher-level government officials at great risk to himself.

Then when he was at a higher level in the Imperial Court, bandits were regularly capturing hostages and demanding ransoms. But when his own son was captured, he was so focused on his duty to the Emperor and common good that he sent a platoon of soldiers to raid the bandits' hideout, and stop them once and for all even at the risk of his own son's life. While all of the bandits were arrested in the raid, they killed Qiao Xuan's son at first sight of the raiding soldiers.

Near the end of his career a new Emperor came to power, and Qiao Xuan reported to him that one of his ministers was bullying the people and extorting money from them. The new Emperor refused to listen to Qiao Xuan and even promoted the corrupt Minister. Qiao Xuan was so disgusted that in protest he resigned his post as minister (something almost never done) and left for his home village.

His tombstone reads "Bai Zhe Bu Nao" which is now a proverb used in Chinese culture to describe a person of strength will who puts up stubborn resistance against great odds.

My Chinese-English dictionary defines these 4 characters as, "keep on fighting in spite of all setbacks," "be undaunted by repeated setbacks" and "be indomitable."

Our translator says it can mean, "never give up" in modern Chinese.

Although the first two characters are translated correctly as "repeated setbacks," the literal meaning is "100 setbacks" or "a rope that breaks 100 times." The last two characters can mean "do not yield" or "do not give up."
Most Chinese, Japanese, and Korean people will not take this absolutely literal meaning but will instead understand it as the title suggests above. If you want a single big word definition, it would be indefatigability, indomitableness, persistence, or unyielding.


See Also:  Tenacity | Fortitude | Strength | Perseverance | Persistence

Not the results for perseverance will-power that you were looking for?

Below are some entries from our dictionary that may match your perseverance will-power search...

Characters

If shown, 2nd row is Simp. Chinese

Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin xiān / xian1
Taiwan hsien
Japanese sen / せん
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese immortal
Japanese hermit; wizard; (personal name) Hisa; (personal name) Nori; (personal name) Sonhi; (personal name) Senji; (surname, female given name) Sen
僊 ṛṣi, 哩始 an immortal. 仙人; 人仙 the genī, of whom there is a famous group of eight 八仙; an ascetic, a man of the hills, a hermit; the Buddha. The 楞嚴經 gives ten kinds of immortals, walkers on the earth, fliers, wanderers at will, into space, into the deva heavens, transforming themselves into any form, etc. The names of ten ṛṣis, who preceded Śākyamuni, the first being 闍提首那? Jatisena; there is also a list of sixty-eight 大仙 given in the 大孔雀咒經下 A classification of five is 天仙 deva genī, 神仙 spirit genī, 人仙 human genī, 地仙 earth, or cavern genī, and 鬼仙 ghost genī.

see styles
Mandarin xìn / xin4
Taiwan hsin
Japanese shin / しん
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese letter; mail; CL:封[feng1]; to trust; to believe; to profess faith in; truthful; confidence; trust; at will; at random
Japanese (1) honesty; sincerity; fidelity; (2) trust; reliance; confidence; (3) (religious) faith; devotion; (counter) (4) counter for received messages; (female given name) Yuki; (female given name) Michi; (female given name) Makoto; (personal name) Noburu; (personal name) Nobutsugu; (surname) Nobutaka; (personal name) Nobuji; (surname) Nobusaki; (personal name) Nobukatsu; (female given name) Nobu; (personal name) Shinji; (surname, female given name) Shin; (female given name) Shino; (female given name) Akira
śraddhā. Faith; to believe; belief; faith regarded as the faculty of the mind which sees, appropriates, and trusts the things of religion; it joyfully trusts in the Buddha, in the pure virtue of the triratna and earthly and transcendental goodness; it is the cause of the pure life, and the solvent of doubt. Two forms are mentioned: (1) adhimukti, intuition, tr. by self-assured enlightenment. (2) śraddhā, faith through hearing or being taught. For the Awakening of Faith, Śraddhotpāda, v. 起信論.

see styles
Mandarin guāng / guang1
Taiwan kuang
Japanese hikari / ひかり
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese light; ray; CL:道[dao4]; bright; only; merely; to use up
Japanese (1) light; (2) illumination; ray; beam; gleam; glow; (3) happiness; hope; (4) influence; power; (5) vision; eyesight; (female given name) Mitsu; (given name) Hiroshi; (surname, female given name) Hikaru; (surname) Hikarizaki; (p,s,f) Hikari; (given name) Teru; (female given name) Tekari; (female given name) Sakae; (personal name) Kousou; (personal name) Kouji; (personal name) Koushou; (surname) Kouzaki; (surname) Kousaki; (personal name) Koukun; (female given name) Kouka; (female given name) Kou; (female given name) Kirara; (personal name) Kaizechuu; (female given name) Akira; (female given name) Aki; (female given name) Akari
光明 prabha, light, brightness, splendour, to illuminate.

see styles
Mandarin/ li4
Taiwan li
Japanese ryoku / りょく    riki / りき    chikara / ちから
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese power; force; strength; ability; strenuously; surname Li
Japanese (suffix) strength; power; proficiency; ability; (1) strength; power; proficiency; ability; (suffix noun) (2) (after a number of people) the strength of ... people; the strength of ... men; (1) force; strength; might; vigour (vigor); energy; (2) capability; ability; proficiency; capacity; faculty; (3) efficacy; effect; (4) effort; endeavours (endeavors); exertions; (5) power; authority; influence; good offices; agency; (6) (See 力になる) support; help; aid; assistance; (7) stress; emphasis; (8) means; resources; (given name) Riki; (given name) Teiriki; (male given name) Tsuyoshi; (given name) Tsutome; (male given name) Tsutomu; (surname, female given name) Chikara; (surname) Takariki; (given name) Isamu; (given name) Isao
bala; power, strength, of which there are several categories: 二力 power of choice and of practice; 三力 the power of Buddha; of meditation (samādhi) and of practice. 五力 pañcabala, the five powers of faith, zeal, memory (or remembering), meditation, and wisdom. 六力 A child's power is in crying; a woman's in resentment; a king's in domineering; an arhat's in zeal (or progress); a Buddha's in mercy; and a bhikṣu's in endurance (of despite) . 十力 q.v. The ten powers of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.


see styles
Mandarin shì / shi4
Taiwan shih
Japanese zei / ze / ぜい    sei / se / せい
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese power; influence; potential; momentum; tendency; trend; situation; conditions; outward appearance; sign; gesture; male genitals
Japanese (suffix) groups engaged in some activity (players, companies, forces, etc.); (n,n-suf) (1) energy; (2) military strength; (personal name) Seiji; (surname, given name) Sei; (surname) Kioi
bala, sthāman. Power, influence, authority; aspect, circumstances.

see styles
Mandarin/ de2
Taiwan te
Japanese toku
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese virtue; goodness; morality; ethics; kindness; favor; character; kind; Germany; German; abbr. for 德國|德国[De2 guo2]
Virtue, moral excellence, moral power, power; also translates guṇa; translit. ta; attribute, merit

see styles
Mandarin rěn / ren3
Taiwan jen
Japanese nin / にん
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese to bear; to endure; to tolerate; to restrain oneself
Japanese (archaism) endurance; forbearance; patience; self-restraint; (given name) Nin; (surname, female given name) Shinobu; (place-name) Shinobi; (female given name) Shino; (p,s,g) Oshi; (female given name) Azumi
kṣānti, 羼提 (or 羼底); patience, endurance, (a) in adverse circumstances, (b) in the religious state. There are groups of two, three, four, five, six, ten, and fourteen, indicating various forms of patience, equanimity, repression, forbearance, endurance, constancy, or "perseverance of the saints," both in mundane and spiritual things; to endure

see styles
Mandarin/ yi4
Taiwan i
Japanese i / い
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese idea; meaning; thought; to think; wish; desire; intention; to expect; to anticipate; Italy; Italian; abbr. for 意大利[Yi4 da4 li4]
Japanese (1) feelings; thoughts; (2) meaning; (personal name) Kokoro
Manas, the sixth of the ṣaḍāyatanas or six means of perception, i.e. sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and mind. Manas means "mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers), intellect, intelligence, understanding, perception, sense, conscience, will". M.W. It is "the intellectual function of consciousness", Keith. In Chinese it connotes thought, idea, intention, meaning, will; but in Buddhist terminology its distinctive meaning is mind, or the faculty of thought; mentation

see styles
Mandarin huì / hui4
Taiwan hui
Japanese megumi / めぐみ    muu / mu / むう    fui / ふい    takashi / たかし    sui / すい    sayaka / さやか    satoru / さとる    satori / さとり    satoshi / さとし    satoi / さとい    sato / さと    keiji / keji / けいじ    kei / ke / けい    e / え    akira / あきら
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese intelligent
Japanese (1) wisdom; enlightenment; (2) (Buddhist term) prajna (one of the three divisions of the noble eightfold path); wisdom; (female given name) Megumi; (female given name) Muu; (female given name) Fui; (given name) Toshi; (personal name) Takashi; (female given name) Sui; (female given name) Sayaka; (given name) Satoru; (female given name) Satori; (male given name) Satoshi; (female given name) Satoi; (female given name) Sato; (personal name) Keiji; (female given name) Kei; (personal name) E; (female given name) Akira
prajñā ; sometimes jñāna. Wisdom, discernment, understanding; the power to discern things and their underlying principles and to decide the doubtful. It is often interchanged with 智, though not correctly, for zhi means knowledge, the science of the phenomenal, while hui refers more generally to principles or morals. It is part of the name of many monks, e.g. 慧可 Huike; 慧思Huisi.

see styles
Mandarin fāng / fang1
Taiwan fang
Japanese hou / ho / ほう    gata / がた    kata / かた
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese square; power or involution (mathematics); upright; honest; fair and square; direction; side; party (to a contract, dispute etc); place; method; prescription (medicine); just when; only or just; classifier for square things; abbr. for square or cubic meter; surname Fang
Japanese (1) direction; way; side; area (in a particular direction); (2) side (of an argument, etc.); one's part; (3) type; category; (4) field (of study, etc.); (5) indicates one side of a comparison; (6) way; method; manner; means; (7) length (of each side of a square); (suffix) (1) (honorific or respectful language) (pluralizing suffix) Sirs; Mesdames; (2) (also かた) around (the time that, etc.); about; (1) (also ほう) direction; way; (2) (honorific or respectful language) person; lady; gentleman; (n,n-suf) (3) method of; manner of; way of; (suffix noun) (4) care of ...; (5) (also がた) person in charge of ...; (6) (also がた) side (e.g. "on my mother's side"); (given name) Michi; (female given name) Masani; (given name) Masashi; (surname) Hon; (surname, female given name) Hou; (surname) Fuon; (surname) Pan; (surname) Ban; (surname) Tokukata; (given name) Tamotsu; (given name) Tadashi; (surname) Kata; (personal name) Ataru
Square; place; correct; a means, plan, prescription; then, now, just; to make even

see styles
Mandarin míng / ming2
Taiwan ming
Japanese mei / me / めい    min / みん    myou / myo / みょう
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese bright; opposite: dark 暗[an4]; (of meaning) clear; to understand; next; public or open; wise; generic term for a sacrifice to the gods; Ming Dynasty (1368-1644); surname Ming; Ming (c. 2000 BC), fourth of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝[Yan2 di4] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shen2 nong2] Farmer God
Japanese (1) brightness; (2) clarity; acumen; (3) power of vision; Ming (dynasty of China, 1368-1644); (1) {Buddh} vidya (wisdom); (2) (See 真言・1) mantra; (prefix) (3) the coming (4th of July, etc.); (given name) Tooru; (female given name) Sayaka; (female given name) Saya; (male given name) Satoshi; (personal name) Asumi; (surname) Akera; (personal name) Akemine; (surname) Akesaki; (place-name, surname) Ake; (female given name) Akuru; (surname) Akiraka; (surname, female given name) Akira; (personal name) Akinori; (personal name) Akitsugu; (surname, female given name) Aki; (female given name) Akaru; (surname, female given name) Akari; (personal name) Akamine; (personal name) Akajio; (personal name) Akashio; (surname, female given name) Akashi
vidyā, knowledge. ming means bright, clear, enlightenment, intp. by 智慧 or 聰明 wisdom, wise; to understand. It represents Buddha-wisdom and its revelation; also the manifestation of a Buddha's light or effulgence; it is a term for 眞言 because the 'true word' can destroy the obscurity of illusion; the 'manifestation' of the power of the object of worship; it means also dhāraṇīs or mantras of mystic wisdom. Also, the Ming dynasty A. D. 1368-1644.

see styles
Mandarin yǎn / yan3
Taiwan yen
Japanese manako / まなこ
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese eye; small hole; crux (of a matter); CL:隻|只[zhi1],雙|双[shuang1]; classifier for big hollow things (wells, stoves, pots etc)
Japanese (1) eye; eyeball; (2) (archaism) pupil and (dark) iris of the eye; (3) (archaism) insight; perceptivity; power of observation; (4) (archaism) look; field of vision; (5) (archaism) core; center; centre; essence; (surname) Mesaki; (female given name) Manako
cakṣuh, the eye.

see styles
Mandarin shén / shen2
Taiwan shen
Japanese shin;jin / しん;じん    kami(p);kamu(ok);kan(ok) / かみ(P);かむ(ok);かん(ok)
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese deity; soul; spirit; unusual; mysterious; lively; expressive; expression; look; CL:個|个[ge4]; (slang) awesome; amazing; God; abbr. for 神舟[Shen2 zhou1]
Japanese (1) spirit; psyche; (2) (See 神・かみ・1) god; deity; divinity; kami; (1) god; deity; divinity; spirit; kami; (n,n-pref) (2) (slang) (also written ネ申) incredible; fantastic; (3) (honorific or respectful language) (archaism) emperor of Japan; (4) (archaism) thunder; (female given name) Miwa; (personal name) Jinji; (surname, female given name) Jin; (surname) Shin; (surname) San; (surname) Kou; (surname) Kanzaki; (surname, female given name) Kan; (surname) Kamimura; (surname) Kamitaka; (surname) Kamizaki; (surname) Kamisaki; (surname) Kami; (surname) Kanazaki; (surname) Kauzaki
Inscrutable spiritual powers, or power; a spirit; a deva, god, or divinity; the human spirit; divine, spiritual, supernatural; psychic power

see styles
Mandarin néng / neng2
Taiwan neng
Japanese nou / no / のう
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese can; to be able to; might possibly; ability; (physics) energy; surname Neng
Japanese (1) talent; gift; function; (2) noh (theatre); (surname) Nozaki; (surname) Nouzaki; (surname, female given name) Nou; (given name) Chikara; (surname) Takumi; (female given name) Kanae; (given name) Atou
śak. Able to, can; capability, power.

see styles
Mandarin shēn / shen1
Taiwan shen
Japanese mi / み
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese body; life; oneself; personally; one's morality and conduct; the main part of a structure or body; pregnant; classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset; Kangxi radical 158
Japanese (1) body; (2) oneself; (3) one's place; one's position; (4) main part; meat (as opposed to bone, skin, etc.); wood (as opposed to bark); blade (as opposed to its handle); container (as opposed to its lid); (surname) Misaki
kāya; tanu; deha. The body; the self.; Two forms of body; there are numerous pairs, e. g. (1) (a) 分段身 The varied forms of the karmic or ordinary mortal body, or being; (b) 變易身 the transformable, or spiritual body. (2) (a) 生身 The earthly body of the Buddha; (b) 化身 hinirmāṇakāya, which may take any form at will. (3) (a) 生身 his earthly body; (b) 法身 his moral and mental nature—a Hīnayāna definition, but Mahāyāna takes his earthly nirmāṇakāya as the 生身 and his dharmakāya or that and his saṃbhogakāya as 法身. (4) 眞應二身 The dharmakāya and nirmāṇakāya. (5) (a) 實相身 The absolute truth, or light, of the Buddha, i. e. the dharmakāya; (b) 爲物身 the functioning or temporal body. (6) (a) 眞身 the dharmakāya and saṃbhogakāya; (b) 化身 the nirmāṇakāya. (7) (a) 常身 his permanent or eternal body; (b) 無常身 his temporal body. (8) (a) 實身 and 化身 idem 二色身.

三昧

see styles
Mandarin sān mèi / san1 mei4
Taiwan san mei
Japanese sanmai;zanmai / さんまい;ざんまい
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Samadhi (Buddhist term)
Japanese (1) (さんまい only) {Buddh} samadhi (state of intense concentration achieved through meditation) (san:); (suffix noun) (2) (usu. ざんまい) being immersed in; being absorbed in; indulging in; doing to one's heart's content; (3) (usu. ざんまい) prone to; apt to; (given name) Sanmai
(三昧地) Samādhi, "putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect absorption, union of the meditator with the object of meditation." (M. W.) Also 三摩地 (三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底). Interpreted by 定 or 正定, the mind fixed and undisturbed; by 正受 correct sensation of the object contemplated; by 調直定 ordering and fixing the mind; by 正心行處 the condition when the motions of the mind are steadied and harmonized with the object; by 息慮凝心 the cessation of distraction and the fixation of the mind; by 等持 the mind held in equilibrium; by 奢摩他, i.e. 止息 to stay the breathing. It is described as concentration of the mind (upon an object). The aim is 解脫, mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions and reincarnations. It may pass from abstraction to ecstasy, or rapture, or trance. Dhyāna 定 represents a simpler form of contemplation; samāpatti 三摩鉢底 a stage further advanced; and samādhi the highest stage of the Buddhist equivalent for Yoga, though Yoga is considered by some as a Buddhist development differing from samādhi. The 翻譯名義 says: 思專 when the mind has been concentrated, then 志一不分 the will is undivided; when 想寂 active thought has been put to rest, then 氣虛神朗 the material becomes etherealized and the spirit liberated, on which 智 knowledge, or the power to know, has free course, and there is no mystery into which it cannot probe. Cf. 智度論 5, 20, 23, 28; 止觀 2; 大乘義章 2, 9, 1 3, 20, etc. There are numerous kinds and degrees of samādhi.

力量

see styles
Mandarin lì liang / li4 liang5
Taiwan li liang
Japanese rikiryou / rikiryo / りきりょう
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese power; force; strength
Japanese (1) ability; capacity; capability; talent; (2) physical strength

動力


动力

see styles
Mandarin dòng lì / dong4 li4
Taiwan tung li
Japanese douryoku / doryoku / どうりょく
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese motive power; force; (fig.) motivation; impetus
Japanese (n,adj-f) (1) power; motive power; dynamic force; (2) {engr} (See 三相交流・さんそうこうりゅう) three-phase electricity; (personal name) Ichiriki

化身

see styles
Mandarin huà shēn / hua4 shen1
Taiwan hua shen
Japanese keshin / けしん
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese incarnation; reincarnation; embodiment (of abstract idea); personification
Japanese (n,vs,adj-no) {Buddh} incarnation; impersonation; personification; avatar
nirmāṇakāya, 應身, 應化身; 變化身 The third characteristic or power of the trikāya 三身, a Buddha's metamorphosic body, which has power to assume any shape to propagate the Truth. Some interpret the term as connoting pan-Buddha, that all nature in its infinite variety is the phenomenal 佛身 Buddha-body. A narrower interpretation is his appearance in human form expressed by 應身, while 化身 is used for his manifold other forms of appearances.

善意

see styles
Mandarin shàn yì / shan4 yi4
Taiwan shan i
Japanese zeni / ぜんい
Chinese goodwill; benevolence; kindness
Japanese (1) virtuous mind; (2) good intentions; good will; (3) positive mindset; (4) {law} (See 悪意・3) bona fides; good faith; (personal name) Yoshii
good intentions

四諦


四谛

see styles
Mandarin sì dì / si4 di4
Taiwan ssu ti
Japanese shitai / したい
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese the Four Noble Truths (Budd.), covered by the acronym 苦集滅道: all life is suffering 苦, the cause of suffering is desire 集, emancipation comes only by eliminating passions 滅|灭, the way 道 to emancipation is the Eight-fold Noble Way 八正道
Japanese {Buddh} (See 苦集滅道) The Four Noble Truths (of Buddhism)
catvāri-ārya-satyāni; 四聖諦; 四眞諦. The four dogmas, or noble truths, the primary and fundamental doctrines of Śākyamuni, said to approximate to the form of medical diagnosis. They are pain or 'suffering, its cause, its ending, the way thereto; that existence is suffering, that human passion (taṇhā, 欲 desire) is the cause of continued suffering, that by the destruction of human passion existence may be brought to an end; that by a life of holiness the destruction of human passion may be attained'. Childers. The four are 苦, 聚 (or 集), 滅, and 道諦, i. e. duḥkha 豆佉, samudaya 三牟提耶, nirodha 尼棲陀, and mārga 末加. Eitel interprets them (1) 'that 'misery' is a necessary attribute of sentient existence'; (2) that 'the 'accumulation' of misery is caused by the passions'; (3) that 'the 'extinction' of passion is possible; (4) mārga is 'the doctrine of the 'path' that leads to the extinction of passion'. (1) 苦 suffering is the lot of the 六趣 six states of existence; (2) 集 is the aggregation (or exacerbation) of suffering by reason of the passions; (3) 滅 is nirvana, the extinction of desire and its consequences, and the leaving of the sufferings of mortality as void and extinct; (4) 道 is the way of such extinction, i. e. the 八正道 eightfold correct way. The first two are considered to be related to this life, the last two to 出世間 a life outside or apart from the world. The four are described as the fundamental doctrines first preached to his five former ascetic companions. Those who accepted these truths were in the stage of śrāvaka. There is much dispute as to the meaning of 滅 'extinction' as to whether it means extinction of suffering, of passion, or of existence. The Nirvana Sutra 18 says that whoever accepts the four dogmas will put an end to births and deaths 若能見四諦則得斷生死 which does not of necessity mean the termination of existence but that of continued transmigration. v. 滅.

地獄


地狱

see styles
Mandarin dì yù / di4 yu4
Taiwan ti yü
Japanese jigoku / じごく
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese hell; infernal; underworld
Japanese hell; (place-name) Jigoku
naraka, 捺落迦 (or 那落迦) ; niraya 泥犂; explained by 不樂 joyless; 可厭 disgusting, hateful; 苦具, 苦器 means of suffering; if 地獄 earth-prison; 冥府 the shades, or departments of darkness. Earth-prison is generally intp. as hell or the hells; it may also be termed purgatory; one of the six gati or ways of transmigration. The hells are divided into three classes: I. Central, or radical, 根本地獄 consisting of (1) The eight hot hells. These were the original hells of primitive Buddhism, and are supposed to be located umder the southern continent Jambudvīpa 瞻部州, 500 yojanas below the surface. (a) 等活 or 更活 Saṃjīva, rebirth, where after many kinds of suffering a cold wind blows over the soul and returns it to this life as it was before, hence the name 等活. (b) 黑繩 Kaslasūtra, where the sufferer is bound with black chains and chopped or sawn asunder. (c) 線合; 衆合; 堆壓 Saṃghāta, where are multitudes of implements of torture, or the falling of mountains upon the sufferer. (d) 號呌; 呼呼; 叫喚 Raurava, hell of wailing. (e) 大呌; 大號呌; 大呼 Mahāraurava, hell of great wailing. (f) 炎熱; 燒炙 Tapana, hell of fames and burning. (g) 大熱; 大燒炙; 大炎熱 Pratāpana, hell of molten lead. (h) 無間; 河鼻旨; 阿惟越致; 阿毗至; 阿鼻; 阿毗 Avīci, unintermitted suffering, where sinners die and are reborn to suffer without interval. (2) The eight cold hells 八寒地獄. (a) 頞浮陀地獄 Arbuda, where the cold causes blisters. (b) 尼刺部陀 Nirarbuda, colder still causing the blisters to burst. (c) 頞哳吒; 阿吒吒 Atata, where this is the only possible sound from frozen lips. (d) 臛臛婆; 阿波波 Hahava or Apapa, where it is so cold that only this sound can be uttered. (e) 虎虎婆 Hāhādhara or Huhuva, where only this sound can be uttered. (f) 嗢鉢羅; 鬱鉢羅 (or 優鉢羅) Utpala, or 尼羅鳥 (or 漚) 鉢羅 Nīlotpala, where the skin is frozen like blue lotus buds. (g) 鉢特摩 Padma, where the skin is frozen and bursts open like red lotus buds. (h) 摩訶鉢特摩 Mahāpadma, ditto like great red lotus buds. Somewhat different names are also given. Cf. 倶舍論 8; 智度論 16; 涅槃經 11. II. The secondary hells are called 近邊地獄 adjacent hells or 十六遊增 each of its four sides, opening from each such door are four adjacent hells, in all sixteen; thus with the original eight there are 136. A list of eighteen hells is given in the 十八泥梨經. III. A third class is called the 孤地獄 (獨地獄) Lokāntarika, or isolated hells in mountains, deserts, below the earth and above it. Eitel says in regard to the eight hot hells that they range 'one beneath the other in tiers which begin at a depth of 11,900 yojanas and reach to a depth of 40,000 yojanas'. The cold hells are under 'the two Tchahavālas and range shaft-like one below the other, but so that this shaft is gradually widening to the fourth hell and then narrowing itself again so that the first and last hell have the shortest, those in the centre the longest diameter'. 'Every universe has the same number of hells, ' but 'the northern continent has no hell whatever, the two continents east and west of Meru have only small Lokāntarika hells... whilst all the other hells are required for the inhabitants of the southern continent '. It may be noted that the purpose of these hells is definitely punitive, as well as purgatorial. Yama is the judge and ruler, assisted by eighteen officers and a host of demons, who order or administer the various degrees of torture. 'His sister performs the same duties with regard to female criminals, ' and it may be mentioned that the Chinese have added the 血盆池 Lake of the bloody bath, or 'placenta tank' for women who die in childbirth. Release from the hells is in the power of the monks by tantric means.

堅忍


坚忍

see styles
Mandarin jiān rěn / jian1 ren3
Taiwan chien jen
Japanese kennin / けんにん
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese persevering
Japanese (noun/participle) perseverance

天意

see styles
Mandarin tiān yì / tian1 yi4
Taiwan t`ien i / tien i
Japanese teni / てんい
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese providence; the Will of Heaven
Japanese divine will; providence

忍耐

see styles
Mandarin rěn nài / ren3 nai4
Taiwan jen nai
Japanese nintai / にんたい
Chinese to endure; to bear with; to exercise patience; to restrain oneself; patience; endurance
Japanese (noun/participle) endurance; perseverance; patience
forbearance

悟性

see styles
Mandarin wù xìng / wu4 xing4
Taiwan wu hsing
Japanese gosei / gose / ごせい
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese perception; wits; power of understanding; comprehension
Japanese wisdom; understanding

意志

see styles
Mandarin yì zhì / yi4 zhi4
Taiwan i chih
Japanese ishi / いし
Chinese will; willpower; determination; CL:個|个[ge4]
Japanese will; volition; intention; intent; determination; (given name) Ishi
intention

慧能

see styles
Mandarin huì néng / hui4 neng2
Taiwan hui neng
Japanese enou / eno / えのう
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Huineng (638-713), the Sixth Patriarch of Chan Buddhism
Japanese (person) Huineng (638-713)
The power of wisdom. Huineng, name of a noted monk, sixth patriarch of the Intuitional or Meditation sect; died 713.

我慢

see styles
Mandarin wǒ màn / wo3 man4
Taiwan wo man
Japanese gaman / がまん
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Japanese (noun/participle) patience; endurance; perseverance; tolerance; self-control; self-denial; (surname) Gaman
abhimāna, ātma-mada. Egoism exalting self and depreciating others; self-intoxication, pride; identity

毅力

see styles
Mandarin yì lì / yi4 li4
Taiwan i li
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese perseverance; willpower

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Dictionary

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The following table may be helpful for those studying Chinese or Japanese...

Title CharactersRomaji(Romanized Japanese)Various forms of Romanized Chinese
Perseverance
Will-Power
毅力yì lì / yi4 li4 / yi li / yilii li / ili
Strong Hearted
Strong Willed
意志堅強
意志坚强
yì zhì jiān qiáng
yi4 zhi4 jian1 qiang2
yi zhi jian qiang
yizhijianqiang
i chih chien ch`iang
ichihchienchiang
i chih chien chiang
Perseverancesee note / seenote / se note / senoteyì / yi4 / yii
Undaunted After Repeated Setbacks百折不撓
百折不挠
hyaku setsu su tou
hyakusetsusutou
hyaku setsu su to
hyakusetsusuto
bǎi zhé bù náo
bai3 zhe2 bu4 nao2
bai zhe bu nao
baizhebunao
pai che pu nao
paichepunao
In some entries above you will see that characters have different versions above and below a line.
In these cases, the characters above the line are Traditional Chinese, while the ones below are Simplified Chinese.



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A nice Chinese calligraphy wall scroll

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A professional Chinese Calligrapher

Professional calligraphers are getting to be hard to find these days.
Instead of drawing characters by hand, the new generation in China merely type roman letters into their computer keyboards and pick the character that they want from a list that pops up.

There is some fear that true Chinese calligraphy may become a lost art in the coming years. Many art institutes in China are now promoting calligraphy programs in hopes of keeping this unique form of art alive.

Trying to learn Chinese calligrapher - a futile effort

Even with the teachings of a top-ranked calligrapher in China, my calligraphy will never be good enough to sell. I will leave that to the experts.

A high-ranked Chinese master calligrapher that I met in Zhongwei

The same calligrapher who gave me those lessons also attracted a crowd of thousands and a TV crew as he created characters over 6-feet high. He happens to be ranked as one of the top 100 calligraphers in all of China. He is also one of very few that would actually attempt such a feat.


Check out my lists of Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Wall Scrolls and Old Korean Hanja Calligraphy Wall Scrolls.

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