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入定 is a title that can be defined as Zen contemplation in Japanese or sitting quietly in (Buddhist) meditation in Chinese. It also carries a similar meaning in Korean Hanja. Therefore, this is a universal term for meditation in the context of Buddhism throughout the Orient.
Can also be translated as “Meditatively equipoised” or “enter into meditation by stilling the karmic activities of deed, speech, and thought.”
The original Sanskrit word is samapanna. In Tibetan: snyoms par zhugs pa.
...as in Zen Buddhism
First, let's correct something: The Japanese romanization for this character, “Zen” has penetrated the English language. In English, it's almost always incorrectly used for phrases like “That's so zen.” Nobody says, “That's so meditation” - right? As the title of a sect, this would be like saying, “That's so Baptist!"
禪 by itself just means “meditation.” In that context, it should not be confined to use by any one religion or sect.
Regardless of the dictionary definition, more often than not, this character is associated with Buddhism. And here is one of the main reasons:
Zen is used as the title of a branch of Mahayana Buddhism, which strongly emphasizes meditation practice.
However, it should be noted that Buddhism came from India, and “Chan Buddhism” evolved and developed in medieval China. The Chinese character “Chan” was eventually pronounced as “Zen” in Japanese. Chan Buddhists in China have much in common with Zen Buddhists in Japan.
More about the history of Zen Buddhism here.
Please also note that the Japanese Kanji character for Zen has evolved a little in Japan, and the two boxes (kou) that you see at the top of the right side of the character have been replaced by three dots with tails. The original character would still be generally understood and recognized in Japanese (it's considered an ancient version in Japan) but if you want the specifically modern Japanese version, please click on the zen Kanji to the right. Technically, there is no difference between the Tensho and Reisho versions of Zen since they are ancient character styles that existed long before Japan had a written language.
There is also an alternate/shorthand/simplified Chinese version, which has two dots or tails above the right-side radical. This version is also popular for calligraphy in China. If you want this version, just click the character to the right.
Further notes: Zen is just one of seven sects of Buddhism practiced in Japan. The others are 律 Ritsu (or Risshū), 法相 Hossō, 論 Sanron 華嚴 Kegon, 天台 Tendai, and 眞言 Shingon.
理念/理唸 means idea, notion, concept, principle, theory, philosophy*, or doctrine in Chinese, Japanese Kanji, and old Korean Hanja.
This word is OK for a wall scroll, although it's more commonly used as an oral/informal word in Asia.
* This is not the title for philosophy but rather is about having a certain philosophy or approach to something.
意見 means idea, thought, opinion, or view in Japanese.
This word also has a similar meaning in Chinese, just often used in China.
思想 means thought, thinking, or idea in Chinese, Japanese Kanji, and old Korean Hanja. Sometimes it can mean ideology, depending on context.
This can refer to someone's personality - like saying, “he is a thinker.”
反省 is the Chinese, Japanese Kanji, and old Korean Hanja means several things, including reflecting upon oneself, examining one's conscience, questioning oneself, searching one's soul, reflection, reconsideration, introspection, meditation, contemplation, regret, repentance, remorse.
This encompasses the idea of meditation.
It's also a term used to describe a deep form of daydreaming, exploring one's imagination, the act of contemplating, or the idea of contemplation. 冥想 is often associated with Buddhism; however, the word “Zen” in Japanese (or “Chan” in Chinese) is probably more commonly used (or better known in the west).
See Also: Zen
三昧 is the Chinese, Japanese Kanji, and old Korean Hanja way to write Samādhi.
Samadhi is the state of intense concentration achieved through meditation.
Some will define Samādhi as putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect absorption, or union of the meditator with the object of meditation.
坐禪 describes the act of sitting in a state of deep meditation.
You'll notice that the second character is Chan/Zen (often used to title the meditative form of Buddhism).
In Korean Hanja, this means “religious meditation” (roughly the same as the Chinese definition).
Buddhists may define this as sitting in dhyāna, abstract meditation, fixed abstraction, or contemplation.
Japanese note: This will make sense in Japanese but the Kanji shown to the left are partially in ancient/traditional Japanese form. Japanese Buddhists may use 坐禪, 坐禅, 座禪, or 座禅. The most standard/modern Japanese form of this word is shown to the right. Click on the Kanji to the right (instead of the button above) if you want this specifically Japanese version.
念 is the simplest way to write “mindfulness” in Chinese, Japanese Kanji, and old Korean Hanja.
念 can be defined these ways: To read; to study (a degree course); to read aloud; to miss somebody (keeping them in your mind); idea; remembrance; sense; thought; feeling; desire; concern; attention; recollection; memory; to think on/about; reflect; repeat, intone; a moment.
Obviously, the context in which the character is used determines which definition or meaning is perceived. As a single character, it's open and perhaps ambiguous. Thus, it can be read with any or all of these meanings.
念 is used in a Buddhist context (often written as 正念 or “right mindfulness”) with similar meanings of thought and contemplation.
In Japanese, this character is sometimes used as the name “Nen.”
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These search terms might be related to Contemplation:
2. Right Resolve / Right Thought / Right Intention / Perfect Resolve
Appreciation of Truth by Meditation
Consideration / Meticulous Care
Consideration / Thought / Ikko
Diligent Study Proverb
Far-Sighted in Deep Thought
Good Good Study, Day Day Up
Idea / Thought
Idea / Thought / Meaning
Inner Bliss and Peace From Meditation
Keiko / Shadow / Reflection
Learning Leads to Knowledge, Study Leads to Benevolence, Shame Leads to Courage
Mokuso - Silent Meditation
Reach Peace and Calm Through Meditation
Read / Study
Sit in Meditation
Sit Quietly in Meditation
Study / Learn / School
Thought / Thinking / Idea
Zen / Chan / Meditation
The following table may be helpful for those studying Chinese or Japanese...
|Title||Characters||Romaji (Romanized Japanese)||Various forms of Romanized Chinese|
|Zen Contemplation||入定||rù dìng / ru4 ding4 / ru ding / ruding||ju ting / juting|
|zen||chán / chan2 / chan||ch`an / chan|
|理念 / 理唸|
|ri nen / rinen||lǐ niàn / li3 nian4 / li nian / linian||li nien / linien|
|意見||i ken / iken||yì jiàn / yi4 jian4 / yi jian / yijian||i chien / ichien|
|意念 / 意唸|
|yì niàn / yi4 nian4 / yi nian / yinian||i nien / inien|
|思想||shisou / shiso||sī xiǎng / si1 xiang3 / si xiang / sixiang||ssu hsiang / ssuhsiang|
|Mokuso - Silent Meditation||黙想||mokusou / mokuso|
mokuso / mokuso
|Reflect||反省||hansei / hanse||fǎn xǐng / fan3 xing3 / fan xing / fanxing||fan hsing / fanhsing|
|Truth Flashed Through The Mind||參悟|
|cān wù / can1 wu4 / can wu / canwu||ts`an wu / tsanwu / tsan wu|
|Meditation||冥想||mei sou / meisou / mei so||míng xiǎng|
|Samadhi||三昧||san mai / sanmai||sān mèi / san1 mei4 / san mei / sanmei|
|Sit in Meditation||坐禪|
|za zen / zazen||zuò chán / zuo4 chan2 / zuo chan / zuochan||tso ch`an / tsochan / tso chan|
|Mindfulness||念||nen||niàn / nian4 / nian||nien|
|In some entries above you will see that characters have different versions above and below a line.|
In these cases, the characters above the line are Traditional Chinese, while the ones below are Simplified Chinese.
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Professional calligraphers are getting to be hard to find these days.
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