# This is a modified version of the work done by Charles Muller his team in 2003. I have made minor modifications such as adding characters that were not coded (either not identified or not in Unicode in 2003). In a few cases where there was no way to reference the characters, I have omitted a couple of entries.
# The work of digitizing A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms was made possible by a research grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The scanning and OCR work was done in its entirety by Yasuko Suzuki. Ms. Suzuki also did almost all of the editing and correction of Chinese characters contained in the text. Proofreading of the English text, and especially the insertion of diacritical marks was done by Heather Blair, Juhn Ahn, Amanda Goodman, Gina Cogan, James Mark Shields, and Thomas Dreitlein. Please note that due to certain aspects of the process of the project, not all of these corrections appear in the present text, but they are reflected in their entirety within the Digital Dictionary of Buddhism.
# I only intend this modified version for my own personal use. While the original dictionary's copyright expired years ago, if you copy something from here, do give credit to the author, and maybe Charles Muller's team who originally digitized this.
# I make no representation that the pinyin that I had added is entirely correct, nor to I claim this data to be error free. There are 16784 entries here, and I am one guy. There are bound to be mistakes. I welcome you to bring mistakes to my attention: Gary@orientaloutpost.com
# You can select all and copy this to a text file if you want to use it for a CEDICT-like project. If you use this to upload to your existing CEDICT data, keep in mind that many Buddhist entries also have a CEDICT entry, and if you do not code around that fact, you will overwrite your CEDICT definition.
# If you want to save yourself some work, you can always search my Chinese/Japanese/Buddhist dictionary for free at https://www.orientaloutpost.com/dictionary.php
# -Gary Westergren of Oriental Outpost, 2016
# This page is covered under a Creative Commons License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/1.0
# CEDICT format


[yi1 ] /eka. One, unity, monad, once, the same; immediately on (seeing, hearing, etc.)./

一一 一一 [yi1 yi1 ] /One by one, each, every one, severally./

一丈六像 一丈六像 [yi1 zhang4 liu4 xiang4 ] /Sixteen "feet' form, or image, said to be the height of the Buddha's body, or "transformation' body; v. 丈六金身./

一三昧 一三昧 [yi1 san1 mei4 ] /ekāgra, aikāgrya. Undeflected concentration, meditation on one object; v 一行三昧./

一中 一中 [yi1 zhong1 ] /A hall of spread tables; idem一普./

一中一切中 一中一切中 [yi1 zhong1 yi1 qie4 zhong1 ] /One being recognized as "mean' then all is of the "mean'; the three aspects of reality, noumenon, phenomenon, and madhya, are identical in essence; v. 止觀 5./

一乘 一乘 [yi1 cheng2 ] /ekayāna, One yāna, the One yāna, the vehicle of one-ness./

一佛乘 一佛乘 [yi1 fu2 cheng2 ] /The one Buddha-yāna. The One Vehicle, i.e. Mahāyāna, which contains the final or complete law of the Buddha and not merely a part, or preliminary stage, as in Hīnayāna. Mahāyānists claim it as the perfect and only way to the shore of parinirvāṇa. It is especially the doctrine of the 法華經 Lotus Sūtra; v. 大乘./

一乘之珠 一乘之珠 [yi1 cheng2 zhi1 zhu1 ] /The pearl of the One yāna, i.e. The Lotus Scripture./

一乘圓宗 一乘圆宗 [yi1 cheng2 yuan2 zong1 ] /The Tiantai, or Lotus School of the perfect teaching, or the one vehicle; v. 天台宗./

一乘家 一乘家 [yi1 cheng2 jia1 ] /The one-vehicle family or sect, especially the Tiantai or Lotus School./

一乘法 一乘法 [yi1 cheng2 fa3 ] /(一乘法門) The one vehicle method as revealed in the Lotus Sūtra./

一乘究竟教 一乘究竟教 [yi1 cheng2 jiu4 jing4 jiao4 ] /The One Vehicle in its final teaching, especially as found in the Lotus Sūtra./

一乘經 一乘经 [yi1 cheng2 jing1 ] /一乘妙典 (or 一乘妙文) Another name for the Lotus Sūtra, so called because it declares the one way of salvation, the perfect Mahāyāna./

一乘菩提 一乘菩提 [yi1 cheng2 pu2 ti2 ] /The one-vehicle enlightenment./

一乘顯性教 一乘显性教 [yi1 cheng2 xian3 xing4 jiao4 ] /One of the five divisions made by 圭峯 Guifeng of the Huayan 華嚴 or Avataṃsaka School; v. 五教./

一九 一九 [yi1 jiu3 ] /A Shingon term for Amitābha./

一九之生 一九之生 [yi1 jiu3 zhi1 sheng1 ] /Future life in the Amitābha Pure Land./

一人作虛萬人傳實 一人作虚万人传实 [zuo4 xu1 wan4 ren2 chuan2 shi2 ] /One man's untruth is propagated by a myriad men as truth; famae mendacia./

一代 一代 [yi1 dai4 ] /A human lifetime; especially the lifetime of Śākyamuni on earth./

一代三段 一代三段 [yi1 dai4 san1 duan4 ] /The three sections, divisions, or periods of Buddha's teaching in his life- time, known as 序分, i.e. the 華嚴, 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; 正宗分, i.e. 無量義, 法華, and 普賢觀 sūtras; and 流通分, i.e. the 湼槃經; they are known as introductory, main discourse, and final application. There are other definitions./

一代五時佛法 一代五时佛法 [yi1 dai4 wu3 shi2 fo2 fa3 ] /The five period of Buddha's teachings, as stated by Zhiyi 智顗 of the Tiantai School. The five are 華嚴, 阿含, 方等, 般若, 法華湼槃, the last two being the final period./

一代教 一代教 [yi1 dai4 jiao4 ] /The whole of the Buddha's teaching from his enlightenment to his nirvāṇa, including Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna teaching./

一位一切位 一位一切位 [yi1 wei4 yi1 qie4 wei4 ] /idem 一門不門./

一佛世界 一佛世界 [yi1 fu2 shi4 jie4 ] /A Buddha-cosmos; a world undergoing transformation by a Buddha./

一佛乘 一佛乘 [yi1 fu2 cheng2 ] /The Mahāyāna, or one-Buddha vehicle, especially the teaching of the Lotus Sūtra./

一佛土 一佛土 [yi1 fu2 tu3 ] /(一佛國土); idem一佛世界 A Buddha-domain; or a one-Buddha region; also the Pure Land./

一佛多佛 一佛多佛 [yi1 fu2 duo1 fu2 ] /One Buddha or many Buddhas, i.e. some Hīnayāna Schools say only one Buddha exists in the same aeon; Mahāyāna says many Buddhas appear in the same aeon in many worlds./

一佛淨土 一佛净土 [yi1 fu2 jing4 tu3 ] /A Buddha's Pure Land, especially that of Amitābha./

一來 一来 [yi1 lai2 ] /(一來向) sakṛdāgāmin. Only one more return to mortality, v. 斯 and 四向./

一來果 一来果 [yi1 lai2 guo3 ] /v. 四果./

一個半個 一个半个 [yi1 ge4 ban4 ge4 ] /A particle, the very least./

一光三尊 一光三尊 [yi1 guang1 san1 zun1 ] /Three honoured ones in one light or halo—Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta; or Śākyamuni, Bhaiṣajya the 藥王 and 藥上 his younger brother./

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一兎毛塵 一兎毛尘 [yi1 tu4 mao2 chen2 ] /An atom of dust on a hare's down (śaśorṇa). A measure, the 22,588,608,000th part of a yojana./

一囘忌 一回忌 [yi1 hui2 ji4 ] /The first anniversary of a death; any such anniversary; also 一周忌./

一刀三禮 一刀三礼 [yi1 dao1 san1 li3 ] /In carving an image of Buddha, at each cut thrice to pay homage to the triratna. 一筆三禮 and 一字三禮 indicate a similar rule for the painter and the writer./

一分家 一分家 [yi1 fen1 jia1 ] /A school founded by 安慧 Anhui, teaching 心識之一分說 that cognition is subjective./

一分菩薩 一分菩萨 [yi1 fen1 pu2 sa4 ] /A one-tenth bodhisattva, or disciple; one who keeps one-tenth of the commandments./

一切 一切 [yi1 qie4 ] /sarva. All, the whole; 普, 遍, 具./

一切一心識 一切一心识 [yi1 qie4 yi1 xin1 shi2 ] /That all things are mind, or mental./

一切世尊最尊特身 一切世尊最尊特身 [yi1 qie4 shi4 zun1 zui4 zun1 te4 shen1 ] /The most honoured of all the world-honoured; a title of Vairocana; v. 毘./

一切人中尊 一切人中尊 [yi1 zhong1 zun1 ] /The most honoured among men, especially Vairocana; v. 毘./

一切佛心印 一切佛心印 [yi1 qie4 fu2 xin1 yin4 ] /trikona. The sign on a Buddha's breast, especially that on Vairocana's; the sign of the Buddha-mind; it is a triangle of flame pointing downwards to indicate power overall temptations; it is also 一切徧智印 the sign of omniscience./

一切佛會 一切佛会 [yi1 qie4 fu2 hui4 ] /The assembly of all the Buddhas, a term for the two maṇḍalas, or circles; v. 胎藏界 and, 金剛界, i.e. the Garbhadhātu and the Vajradhātu./

一切卽一 一切卽一 [yi1 qie4 ji2 yi1 ] /v. 一卽一切./

一切如來 一切如来 [yi1 qie4 ru2 lai2 ] /sarvatathāgata, all Tathāgatas, all the Buddhas./

一切如來定 一切如来定 [yi1 qie4 ru2 lai2 ding4 ] /The highest of the 108 degrees of samādhi practised by bodhisattvas, also called 大空三昧 śūnyasamādhi, i.e. of the great void, or immateriality, and 金剛三昧 vajrasamādhi, Diamond samādhi. A samādhi on the idea that all things are of the (same) Buddha-nature./

一切如來寶 一切如来宝 [yi1 qie4 ru2 lai2 bao3 ] /The talismanic pearl of all Buddhas, especially one in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala who holds a lotus in his left hand and the talismanic pearl in his right./

一切如來必定印 一切如来必定印 [yi1 qie4 ru2 lai2 bi4 ding4 yin4 ] /The sign of the assurance of attaining Buddhahood./

一切如來智印 一切如来智印 [yi1 qie4 ru2 lai2 zhi4 yin4 ] /A sign of the wisdom of all buddhas, a triangle on a lotus in the Garbhadhātu group./

一切如來眼色如明照三摩地 一切如来眼色如明照三摩地 [yi1 qie4 ru2 lai2 yan3 se4 ru2 ming2 zhao4 san1 mo2 de ] /A Vairocana-samādhi, in which the light of the Tathāgata-eye streams forth radiance. Vairocana by reason of this samādhi is accredited with delivering the "true word' which sums up all the principles and practices of the masters./

一切如來諸法本性淸淨蓮華三昧 一切如来诸法本性淸净莲华三昧 [yi1 qie4 ru2 lai2 zhu1 fa3 ben3 xing4 qing1 jing4 lian2 hua2 san1 mei4 ] /A lotus-samādhi of Vairocana from which Amitābha was born. It is a Tathāgata meditation, that the fundamental nature of all existence is pure like the lotus./

一切如來金剛誓誡 一切如来金刚誓诫 [yi1 qie4 ru2 lai2 jin1 gang1 shi4 jie4 ] /The original oath of every Tathāgata, when as with the roar of a lion he declares that all creatures shall become as himself./

一切智 一切智 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 ] /sarvajña; v. 薩, i.e. 佛智Buddha-wisdom, perfect knowledge, omniscience./

一切智地 一切智地 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 de ] /The state or place of such wisdom./

一切智藏 一切智藏 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 cang2 ] /The thesaurus of 一切智; Buddha./

一切智人 一切智人 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 ren2 ] /or 一切智者 Buddha./

一切智舟 一切智舟 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 zhou1 ] /or 一切智船 The vehicle of 一切智 (Mahāyāna), which carries men to the 一切智地./

一切智相 一切智相 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 xiang1 ] /sarvajñatā, omniscience, or the state or condition of such wisdom./

一切智經 一切智经 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 jing1 ] /The 59th chapter of the 中阿含經./

一切智智 一切智智 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 zhi4 ] /The wisdom of all wisdom, Buddha's wisdom, including bodhi, perfect enlightenment and purity; 大悲 great pity (for mortals); and 方便 tact or skill in teaching according to receptivity./

一切智句 一切智句 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 ju4 ] /The state or abode of all wisdom, i.e. of Buddha; 句 is 住處./

一切智天 一切智天 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 tian1 ] /薩婆愼若提婆 Sarvajñadeva, the deva (i.e. Buddha) of universal wisdom./

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一切智心 一切智心 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 xin1 ] /The Buddha-wisdom mind./

一切智慧者 一切智慧者 [yi1 qie4 zhi4 hui4 zhe3 ] /The all-wise one, a title of Vairocana; v. 毘./

一切普門身 一切普门身 [yi1 qie4 pu3 men2 shen1 ] /The one who completely fills all the "four realms' (dharmadhātu), a doctrine of the 華嚴 School./

一切有 一切有 [yi1 qie4 you3 ] /sarvabhāva. All things or beings; tr. of the name of Viśvabhū; v. 毘./

一切有情 一切有情 [yi1 qie4 you3 qing2 ] /一切衆生 All sentient beings./

一切有根本 一切有根本 [yi1 qie4 you3 gen1 ben3 ] /The Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, a branch of the Sarvāstivādin sect, which asserted the reality of things./

一切有爲 一切有为 [yi1 qie4 you3 wei4 ] /All phenomena, the phenomenal; all that is produced by causative action; everything that is dynamic and not static./

一切有部 一切有部 [yi1 qie4 you3 bu4 ] /The realistic School, Sarvāstivādaḥ, a branch of the Vaibhāṣika, claiming Rāhula as founder, asserting the reality of all phenomena: 說一切有部; 薩婆多部; 薩婆阿私底婆拖部; 一切語言部. It divided, and the following seven schools are recorded, but the list is doubtful: — Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ 一切有根本部. Kāśyapīyaḥ 迦葉毘維, also known as Suvarṣakāḥ 蘇跋梨柯部; 遊梨沙部; 蘇梨沙部; and 善歲部. Dharmaguptāḥ 法密部; 法藏部; 法護部. Mahīśāsakāḥ or Mahīśāsikāḥ 摩醯奢婆迦部; 彌喜捨婆阿部; 彌沙塞部; 化地部; 正地部. Tāmraṣāṭīyāḥ. Vibhajyavādinaḥ 分別說部. Bahuśrutīyāḥ 婆收婁多柯 or 多聞部./

一切施 一切施 [yi1 qie4 shi1 ] /sarvadā. 薩縛達 One who gives his all; all-bestowing./

一切法 一切法 [yi1 qie4 fa3 ] /一切萬法; 一切諸法 sarvadharma. All things; all laws, existences, or beings./

一切法界生印 一切法界生印 [yi1 qie4 fa3 jie4 sheng1 yin4 ] /One of the three signs in the maṇḍala of the Shingon School — the sign of producing all things or realms./

一切法界決定智印 一切法界决定智印 [yi1 qie4 fa3 jie4 jue2 ding4 zhi4 yin4 ] /The "true word' of assurance of Vairocana and of all the eight classes of beings, as the symbol through which all may attain the sure Buddha-wisdom./

一切法界自身表 一切法界自身表 [yi1 qie4 fa3 jie4 zi4 shen1 biao3 ] /Buddha's self-manifestation to all creation./

一切法空 一切法空 [yi1 qie4 fa3 kong1 ] /sarvadharma-śūnyatā, the emptiness or unreality of all things./

一切無障法印明 一切无障法印明 [yi1 qie4 wu2 zhang4 fa3 yin4 ming2 ] /A sign for overcoming all hindrances, i.e. by making the sign of a sword through lifting both hands, palms outward and thumbs joined, saying Hail! Bhagavat! Bhagavat svāhā!/

一切無障礙 一切无障碍 [yi1 qie4 wu2 zhang4 ai4 ] /Absolutely free or unhindered, e.g. like air; illimitable, universal./

一切皆成 一切皆成 [yi1 qie4 jie1 cheng2 ] /All beings become Buddhas, for all have the Buddha-nature and must ultimately become enlightened, i.e. 一切衆生皆悉成佛. This is the doctrine of developed Mahāyāna, or universalism, as opposed to the limited salvation of Hīnayāna and of undeveloped Mahāyāna; 法華經方便品; 若有聞法者無一不成佛 if there be any who hear the dharma, not one will fail to become Buddha./

一切皆空宗 一切皆空宗 [yi1 qie4 jie1 kong1 zong1 ] /The sects which maintain the unreality of all things; v. 十宗./

一切眞言王 一切眞言王 [yi1 qie4 zhen1 yan2 wang2 ] /All the "true word' rulers, shown in the Garbhadhātu and Vajradhātu groups./

一切眞言心 一切眞言心 [yi1 qie4 zhen1 yan2 xin1 ] /The first Sanskrit letter "a'; it is pronounced "an' by the Shingon School and emphasized as the heart of all wisdom. In India "a' is the "name of Vishṇu (especially as the first of the three sounds in the sacred syllable oṃ or aum), also of Brahmā, Śiva, and Vaiśvānara (Agni)' M. W./

一切種妙三昧 一切种妙三昧 [yi1 qie4 zhong3 miao4 san1 mei4 ] /The samādhi, or trance, which brings every kind of merit for one's adornment./

一切種智 一切种智 [yi1 qie4 zhong3 zhi4 ] /see 三智./

一切種識 一切种识 [yi1 qie4 zhong3 shi2 ] /The 8th of the 八識 q.v./

一切經 一切经 [yi1 qie4 jing1 ] /The Tripiṭaka 大藏經 or 藏經, i.e. the whole of the Buddhist Canon. The collection was first made in China in the first year of 開皇 A.D. 581. See B. N./

一切義成 一切义成 [yi1 qie4 yi4 cheng2 ] /Sarvārthasiddha, or Siddhārtha; all wishes realized, name given to Śākyamuni at his birth; v. 悉, 薩./

一切萬 一切万 [yi1 qie4 wan4 ] /一切諸法; 一切物 All things, idem 一切法./

一切處 一切处 [yi1 qie4 chu4 ] /samanta. Everywhere, universal; a universal dhyāna./

一切處無不相應眞言 一切处无不相应眞言 [yi1 qie4 chu4 wu2 bu4 xiang1 ying1 zhen1 yan2 ] /The Shingon or "True word' that responds everywhere./

一切衆生之父 一切众生之父 [yi1 qie4 zhong4 sheng1 zhi1 fu4 ] /The Father of all the living, Brahmā 梵王./

一切衆生喜見佛 一切众生喜见佛 [yi1 qie4 zhong4 sheng1 xi3 jian4 fu2 ] /Sarvasattva-priya-darśana. The Buddha at whose appearance all beings rejoice. (1) A fabulous Bodhisattva who destroyed himself by fire and when reborn burned both arms to cinders, an act described in the Lotus Sūtra as the highest form of sacrifice. Reborn as Bhaiṣajyarāja 藥王. (2) The name under which Buddha's aunt, Mahāprajāpatī, is to be reborn as Buddha./

一切衆生精氣 一切众生精气 [yi1 qie4 zhong4 sheng1 jing1 qi4 ] /Sarvasattvāujohārī. Lit. subtle vitality of all beings; the quintessence or energy of all living beings. A certain rākṣasī, wife of a demon./

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一切衆生離諸惡趣 一切众生离诸恶趣 [yi1 qie4 zhong4 sheng1 li2 zhu1 e4 qu4 ] /sarvasattva-pāpa-prahāṇa. A samādhi on a world free from all the evil destinies./

一切語言部 一切语言部 [yi1 qie4 yu3 yan2 bu4 ] /idem 一切有部./

一切諸佛 一切诸佛 [yi1 qie4 zhu1 fu2 ] /All Buddhas./

一切遍智印 一切遍智印 [yi1 qie4 bian4 zhi4 yin4 ] /trikoṇa. A triangle above a white lotus, apex downward, of pure white colour, representing wisdom as a flame which burns up all passion and overcomes all opposition; the symbol of every Tathāgata. It is specially connected with Vairocana. Also 一切佛心印; 諸佛心印./

一刹 一刹 [yi1 sha1 ] /v. 掣. A kṣetra, a land, a Buddha-realm or chiliocosm./

一刹那 一刹那 [yi1 ] /A kṣaṇa, the shortest space of time, a moment, the 90th part of a thought and 4,500th part of a minute, during which 90 or 100 are born and as many die./

一化 一化 [yi1 hua4 ] /The teaching and influence of a Buddha during one Buddha-period; also the teaching of the whole truth at once; also an instantaneous reform./

一化五味之教 一化五味之教 [yi1 hua4 wu3 wei4 zhi1 jiao4 ] /The Five Tastes or periods of the Buddha's teaching as defined by the Tiantai School, i.e. the 華嚴; 阿含; 方等; 般若 and 法華湼槃 q.v. and v. 五味./

一千 一千 [yi1 qian1 ] /sahasra; a thousand./

一千二百 一千二百 [yi1 qian1 er4 bai3 ] /1200/

一千二百功德 一千二百功德 [yi1 qian1 er4 bai3 gong1 de2 ] /The 1,200 merits or powers of the organs of eye, tongue, and mind predicted in the Lotus Sutra, but, generally, the merits therein predicted to all six organs./

一印 一印 [yi1 yin4 ] /A seal, sign, symbol./

一印會 一印会 [yi1 yin4 hui4 ] /The sixth of the nine Vajradhātu groups./

一卽一切一切卽一 一卽一切一切卽一 [yi1 ji2 yi1 qie4 yi1 qie4 ji2 yi1 ] /One is all and all is one.' Expressing the essential unity of all things; a tenet of the Huayan and Tiantai schools./

一卽三 一卽三 [yi1 ji2 san1 ] /One is (or includes) three; especially the one yāna (the Buddha vehicle) is, or includes the three vehicles, i.e. bodhisattva, pratyekabuddha, and śrāvaka./

一卽十 一卽十 [yi1 ji2 shi2 ] /One is ten, or, if one then ten, one being the root or seed of numbers, and containing all the rest. There are many other forms, e.g. 一心卽一切心 and so on./

一叉鳩王 一叉鸠王 [yi1 cha1 jiu1 wang2 ] /Ikṣvāku Virūḍhaka or Videhaka, translated by 甘蔗王 Sugar-cane king, also 日種善生 Sūryavaṃśa, an ancient king of Potala and ancestor of the Śākya line./

一句 一句 [yi1 ju4 ] /A word, or sentence; 一句子 a subordinate or explanatory word or sentence; 句 is also used for 處./

一句投火 一句投火 [yi1 ju4 tou2 huo3 ] /For but one sentence of the Truth willingly to cast oneself into the fire./

一句道盡 一句道尽 [yi1 ju4 dao4 jin3 ] /With one word to make clear the whole Law./

一合相 一合相 [yi1 he2 xiang1 ] /An organism, a cosmos, or any combined form, e.g. a man, a world./

一向 一向 [yi1 xiang4 ] /One direction, each direction; with single mind, the mind fixed in one direction undistracted; e.g. 一向淸淨無有女人 (The land of that Buddha is) everywhere pure; no women are there./

一向宗 一向宗 [yi1 xiang4 zong1 ] /The 眞宗 Shin or Pure-land Shin Sect founded by Shinran, in Japan, whose chief tenet is unwavering reflection on Amida (by repeating his name)./

一向小乘寺 一向小乘寺 [yi1 xiang4 xiao3 cheng2 si4 ] /A monastery wholly Hīnayāna./

一向大乘寺 一向大乘寺 [yi1 xiang4 da4 cheng2 si4 ] /A monastery wholly Mahāyāna./

一向記 一向记 [yi1 xiang4 ji4 ] /A confirmatory reply to a question, e.g. Do not all die? All die./

一吹 一吹 [yi1 chui1 ] /v. 一唾./

一味 一味 [yi1 wei4 ] /One, or the same flavour, kind or character, i.e. the Buddha's teaching./

一味瀉甁 一味泻甁 [yi1 wei4 xie4 ping2 ] /Completely, exhaustively, e.g. as water can be poured from one bottle to another without loss, so should be a master's pouring of the Law into the minds of his disciples./

一品 一品 [yi1 pin3 ] /(一品經) varga 跋渠; a chapter, or division (of a sūtra)./

一周忌 一周忌 [yi1 zhou1 ji4 ] /Anniversary of a death; also 一周關 and 一囘忌./

一唾一吹 一唾一吹 [yi1 tuo4 yi1 chui1 ] /A spit or a puff, i.e. as futile as thinking that a man could puff out a burning world and blow it again into complete existence, or could with a spit or a puff put it out./

一喝 一喝 [yi1 he1 ] /A call, shout, deafening shout./

一四句偈 一四句偈 [yi1 si4 ju4 ji4 ] /A four-character line of a gāthā, or verse./

一四天下 一四天下 [yi1 si4 tian1 xia4 ] /A world of four great continents surrounding a Mt. Sumeru./

一因 一因 [yi1 yin1 ] /A cause; the cause from which the Buddha-law arises./

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一地 一地 [yi1 de ] /The one ground; the same ground; the Buddha-nature of all living beings i.e. as all the plants grow out of the one ground, so all good character and works grow from the one Buddha-nature./

一坐食 一坐食 [yi1 zuo4 shi2 ] /One meal a day taken before noon and without rising from the seat; it is the 5th of the 12 dhūtas./

一境 一境 [yi1 jing4 ] /One region, realm, order, or category./

一境三諦 一境三谛 [yi1 jing4 san1 di4 ] /The three axioms in the one category; the three are 空, 假, and 中, which exist in every universe; v. 三諦. It is a principle of the Tiantai 圓教./

一境四心 一境四心 [yi1 jing4 si4 xin1 ] /Four different ways of looking at the same thing. Similar to 一水四見 i.e. one and the same reality though seen from different aspects./

一塵 一尘 [yi1 chen2 ] /A grain of dust, an atom, a particle./

一塵法界 一尘法界 [yi1 chen2 fa3 jie4 ] /The whole in an atom, a universe in a grain of dust, one grain of dust is a microcosm of the universal whole./

一增一減 一增一减 [yi1 zeng1 yi1 jian3 ] /A kalpa during which a human lifetime increases from ten years to 80,000 years and then decreases back to ten. At the end of the first century the increase is to 11 years; at the end of the second century to 12 years, and so on till a lifetime lasts 80,000 years; then decrease follows in the same ratio till 10 is reached. The whole period of accretion and declension covers a small kalpa, i.e. 16,800,000 years; also called 中刧./

一壇構 一坛构 [yi1 tan2 gou4 ] /The setting up of altars before the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu maṇḍalas, each erected and worshipped separately; also 一檀構./

一夏 一夏 [yi1 xia4 ] /The summer retreat in India of, 90 days, from the 16th of the 4th moon to the 15th of the 7th; v. 雨./

一大三千世界 一大三千世界 [yi1 da4 san1 qian1 shi4 jie4 ] /A great chiliocosmos or universe of the three kinds of thousands of worlds. The three 千 are termed 一千; 中千; 大千. A great chiliocosmos is also termed 三千大千世界 q.v. Each world consists of its central mountain Sumeru, surrounded by four continents, its seas being surrounded by a girdle or wall of iron; 1,000 such worlds make a small chiliocosmos; 1,000 of these make a medium chiliocosmos; 1,000 of these make a great chiliocosmos, or 1,000,000,000 worlds. Later Buddhists increased this number to a figure with 4,456,489 digits. It is a Buddha-universe./

一大宅 一大宅 [yi1 da4 zhai2 ] /The great house, i.e. the burning house (of the world) in the Lotus Sūtra; also 火宅./

一大車 一大车 [yi1 da4 che1 ] /The one great salvation vehicle of the Lotus Sūtra, the Mahāyāna./

一大事 一大事 [yi1 da4 shi4 ] /The one great work of a Buddha, universal enlightenment and release; also a life, or lifetime./

一如 一如 [yi1 ru2 ] /The one ru, i.e. the bhūtatathatā, or absolute, as the norm and essence of life. The 眞如 true suchness, or true character, or reality; the 法性 nature of things or beings. The whole of things as they are, or seem; a cosmos; a species; things of the same order. Name of a celebrated monk, Yiru. V. 一眞; 一實./

一如觀音 一如观音 [yi1 ru2 guan1 yin1 ] /One of the 33 representations of Guanyin ascending on the clouds./

一如頓證 一如顿证 [yi1 ru2 dun4 zheng4 ] /Immediate experiential enlightenment by the Tathāgata truth; the immediate realization that all is 眞如 bhūtatathatā./

一字 一字 [yi1 zi4 ] /One word; a magic or esoteric word./

一字三禮 一字三礼 [yi1 zi4 san1 li3 ] /Three homages at every word one copies of the sūtras./

一字文殊 一字文殊 [yi1 zi4 wen2 shu1 ] /The "Single-word Mañjuśrī', the magic word is 齒 M063830; or 體哩呬 淫; or 叱洛呬燄, and is used to avoid difficult parturition and to heal arrow-wounds. The image used is of a youthful smiling Mañjuśrī, wearing the felicitous pearl, with one tress on his head, hence also called 一髻文殊./

一字禪 一字禅 [yi1 zi4 chan2 ] /A cryptic single-word reply to a question, requiring meditation for its apprehension; it is a Chan or Zen method./

一字金輪法 一字金轮法 [yi1 zi4 jin1 lun2 fa3 ] /(一字金輪頂法) The one word golden-wheel magical method (Shingon), the one word is bhrūṃ; also 一字金輪佛頂法./

一家宴 一家宴 [yi1 jia1 yan4 ] /A monasterial family party, i.e. when a monk, on becoming head of a monastery, invites its inmates to a feast./

一寧 一宁 [yi1 ning2 ] /Yining, a monk who went to Japan in 1299; v. 一山./

一實 一实 [yi1 shi2 ] /The one reality; the bhūtatathatā; idem 一如, 一眞./

一實乘 一实乘 [yi1 shi2 cheng2 ] /The one method, of salvation, the 一實 School./

一實圓乘 一实圆乘 [yi1 shi2 yuan2 cheng2 ] /The Tathāgata's perfect vehicle, i.e. that of the Lotus Scripture./

一實圓宗 一实圆宗 [yi1 shi2 yuan2 zong1 ] /The one real and perfect school, i.e. the Tiantai or Lotus School./

一實境界 一实境界 [yi1 shi2 jing4 jie4 ] /The state or realm of 一實; the realization of the spirituality of all things; it is the 如來法身 the tathāgata-dharmakāya./

一實相 一实相 [yi1 shi2 xiang1 ] /The state of bhūtatathatā, above all differentiation, immutable; it implies the Buddha-nature, or the immateriality and unity of all things; 眞如之理無二無別, 離諸虛妄之相; it is undivided unity apart from all phenomena./

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一實無相 一实无相 [yi1 shi2 wu1 xiang1 ] /The one reality being indivisible is apart from all transient (or empty) forms, and is therefore styled the formless, e.g. the invisible./

一寶 一宝 [yi1 bao3 ] /The one precious thing, the spirit, or intelligent nature; the intelligent mind (behind all things)./

一小劫 一小劫 [yi1 xiao3 jie2 ] /A small kalpa; a period of the growth and decay of a universe. See 一增一滅 and 劫./

一山 一山 [yi1 shan1 ] /A hill; a monastery; Yishan, the name of a Chinese monk who voyaged to Japan in A.D. 1299 and who was also styled 一寧 Yining./

一形 一形 [yi1 xing2 ] /An appearance, a lifetime, the period of an individual existence, also 一期 and 一生涯./

一往 一往 [yi1 wang3 ] /One passage, or time, once; on one superficial going./

一微塵 一微尘 [yi1 wei2 chen2 ] /A particle of dust; an atom, the smallest particle, a microcosm of the universe./

一心 一心 [yi1 xin1 ] /With the whole mind or heart; one mind of heart; also the bhūtatathatā, or the whole of things; the universe as one mind, or a spiritual unity./

一心稱名 一心称名 [yi1 xin1 cheng1 ming2 ] /With undivided mind to call on the name (of Guanyin)./

一心三惑 一心三惑 [yi1 xin1 san1 huo4 ] /同體三惑The Tiantai "three doubts' in the mind of a bodhisattva, producing fear of illusion, confusion through multiplicity of duties, and ignorance, i.e. 見思; 塵沙 and 無明 q.v./

一心三智 一心三智 [yi1 xin1 san1 zhi4 ] /One mind and three aspects of knowledge. The 別教 separates the three aspects into 空, 假, and 中 q.v.; Tiantai unifies them into one immediate vision, or regards the three as aspects of the one mind./

一心三觀 一心三观 [yi1 xin1 san1 guan1 ] /The Tiantai insight 一心三智; also simultaneous vision of past, present, and future; also called 圓融三觀; 不可思議三觀./

一心金剛寶戒 一心金刚宝戒 [yi1 xin1 jin1 gang1 bao3 jie4 ] /圓頓戒 The infrangible-diamond rules of all bodhisattvas and Buddhas, a term of Tiantai School, founded on the 梵網經./

一念 一念 [yi1 nian4] /A kṣaṇa, or thought; a concentration of mind; a moment; the time of a thought, of which there are varying measurements from 60 kṣaṇa upwards; the Fan-yi-ming-yi makes it one kṣaṇa. A reading. A repetition (especially of Amitābha's name). The Pure-land sect identify the thought of Buddha with Amitābha's vow, hence it is an assurance of salvation./

一念不生 一念不生 [bu4 sheng1 ] /Not a thought arising; beyond the necessity of thinking, as in the case of a Buddha./

一念三千 一念三千 [san1 qian1 ] /In one thought to survey or embrace the 3,000 worlds, or a chiliocosmos with all its forms of existence; to see the universe as a thought; it is a Tiantai mode of meditation./

一念業成 一念业成 [ye4 cheng2 ] /At one thought the work completed; karma complete in one thought. One repetition, or sincere thought of or faith in Amitābha's vow, and entrance into the Pure Land is assured./

一念萬年 一念万年 [wan4 nian2 ] /In a moment's thought to obtain a myriad years and no return to mortality./

一性宗 一性宗 [yi1 xing4 zong1 ] /Monophysitic or "pantheistic' sects of Mahāyāna, which assert that all beings have one and the same nature with Buddha./

一息 一息 [yi1 xi1 ] /A breath, i.e. inspiration-cum-expiration; a rest, or cessation./

一息半步 一息半步 [yi1 xi1 ban4 bu4 ] /Half a step at a breathing on arising from meditation./

一恒河沙 一恒河沙 [yi1 heng2 he2 sha1 ] /(一恒) As one Ganges, i.e. as the sands of one Ganges river./

一成一切成 一成一切成 [yi1 cheng2 yi1 qie4 cheng2 ] /The Huayan doctrine that the law of the universal runs through the phenomenal, therefore a speck of dust is a microcosmos; also that with the Tathāgata's enlightenment all beings were enlightened in him; in the perfection of one all are perfected; one deed includes all./

一持 一持 [yi1 chi2 ] /Adherence to one Buddha and one sūtra./

一拶 一拶 [yi1 za1 ] /A sudden remark, or question, by a monk or master to test a disciple, a Chan (Zen) method./

一指頭禪 一指头禅 [yi1 zhi3 tou2 chan2 ] /The one finger-tip contemplation used by a certain monk to bring to another a conception of the universe. Also a parable in the 楞伽經 Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra. The Chan or Zen sect 禪宗 regard the sūtras merely as indicators, i.e. pointing fingers, their real object being only attained through personal mediation./

一揣食 一揣食 [yi1 chuai1 shi2 ] /A ball (or handful) of food; one helping; a frugal meal, the sixth of the 12 dhūtas; also called 節量食 and 一摶食./

一日 一日 [yi1 ri4 ] /A sun, or day from sunrise to sunset./

一日一夜 一日一夜 [yi1 ri4 yi1 ye4 ] /ahorātra. One day one night, a day and night, a division of time./

一日三時 一日三时 [yi1 ri4 san1 shi2 ] /The three divisions of a day, morning, noon, evening./

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一日佛 一日佛 [yi1 ri4 fu2 ] /A one-day Buddha, i.e. he who lives a whole day purely./

一日經 一日经 [yi1 ri4 jing1 ] /A sūtra copied in one day (perhaps by many hands); also styled 頓寫./

一明 一明 [yi1 ming2 ] /ming (i.e. bright, clear, illuminating) is the Shingon word for a dhāraṇī, or magical formula; especially applied to a magical acts./

一時 一时 [yi1 shi2 ] /ekasmin samaye (Pali: ekaṃ samayaṃ); "on one occasion,' part of the usual opening phrase of a sūtra— "Thus have I heard, once,' etc. A period, e.g. a session of expounding a sūtra./

一普 一普 [yi1 pu3 ] /A company; a general assembly of monks in a monastery./

一月三舟 一月三舟 [yi1 yue4 san1 zhou1 ] /The one moon represents Buddha, the three boats represent varying ways of viewing him, e.g. according as those in a anchored boat and those in two others sailing in opposite directions see different aspects of the moon, so is it in regard to the Buddha./

一月三身 一月三身 [yi1 yue4 san1 shen1 ] /The allegorical trikāya or three bodies of the moon, i.e. form as 法身, its light as 報身, its reflection as 應身; the Buddha-truth 法 has also its 體 body, its light of wisdom 智, and its application or use 用, but all three are one, or a trinity; see trikāya, 三身./

一期 一期 [yi1 qi1 ] /A date, fixed time; a life time./

一極 一极 [yi1 ji2 ] /The one ultimate, or finality; ultimate enlightenment; the one final truth or way; the 一實 or Absolute./

一業 一业 [yi1 ye4 ] /A karma; a 業困 karma-cause, causative of the next form of existence./

一機一境 一机一境 [yi1 ji1 yi1 jing4 ] /The 機 is subjective; the 境 is objective, e.g. smoke is the objective phenomenon, fire the subjective inference./

一段事 一段事 [yi1 duan4 shi4 ] /The unity or continuity in the unbroken processes of nature; all nature, all being is but one continuous process./

一殺多生 一杀多生 [yi1 sha1 duo1 sheng1 ] /To kill one that many may live./

一毛端 一毛端 [yi1 mao2 duan1 ] /A hair's tip; the smallest division (of space or time)./

一水四見 一水四见 [yi1 shui3 si4 jian4 ] /The same water may be viewed in four ways— devas see it as bejewelled land, men as water, hungry ghosts as pus and blood, fish as a place to live in. Cf. 一境四心./

一法 一法 [yi1 fa3 ] /A dharma, or law; an ordered something, a thing, a matter./

一法印 一法印 [yi1 fa3 yin4 ] /The seal or assurance of the one truth or law, see 一如 and 一實; the criterion of Mahāyāna doctrine, that all is bhūtatathatā, as contrasted with the Hīnayāna criteria of impermanence, non-personality, and nirvāṇa./

一法句 一法句 [yi1 fa3 ju4 ] /The one-law abode, i.e. the sum of the 29 particular 句 or states of perfection in the Pure-land śāstra of Vasubandhu./

一法界 一法界 [yi1 fa3 jie4 ] /The bhūtatathatā considered in terms of mind and as a whole; a law-realm; a spiritual realm; a universe./

一法界心 一法界心 [yi1 fa3 jie4 xin1 ] /A mind universal, above limitations of existence or differentiation./

一浮漚 一浮沤 [yi1 fu2 ou1 ] /A floating bubble (on the ocean), a man's life, or body./

一流 一流 [yi1 liu2 ] /In one, or the same flow; of the same class./

一炷 一炷 [yi1 zhu4 ] /One burning of incense; a candle, or lamp./

一無礙道 一无碍道 [yi1 wu2 ai4 dao4 ] /The one way without barrier, i.e. the end of reincarnations in nirvāṇa; a meditation on it./

一物不將來 一物不将来 [yi1 wu4 bu4 jiang1 lai2 ] /A Chan sect idea— not a thing to bring or carry away, empty-handed, i.e. nothingness./

一生 一生 [yi1 sheng1 ] /All one's life, a whole life time./

一生不犯 一生不犯 [yi1 sheng1 bu4 fan4 ] /Life-long innocence— especially sexual./

一生入妙覺 一生入妙觉 [yi1 sheng1 ru4 miao4 jue2 ] /A Tiantai doctrine that Buddha-enlightenment can be attained by any in one lifetime, i.e. the present life./

一生所繫菩薩 一生所系菩萨 [yi1 sheng1 suo3 xi4 pu2 sa4 ] /idem 一生補處菩薩./

一生果遂 一生果遂 [yi1 sheng1 guo3 sui4 ] /In this one life to accomplish the three stages for final entry; it is associated with the 20th vow of Amitābha; cf. 三生果遂./

一生補處 一生补处 [yi1 sheng1 bu3 chu4 ] /Eka-jāti-prati-baddha; a name or Maitreya, who is to be the next Buddha in this world. Another definition is— from one enlightenment to attain to Buddhahood./

一生補處菩薩像 一生补处菩萨像 [yi1 sheng1 bu3 chu4 pu2 sa4 xiang4 ] /A 30-armed image of Maitreya./

一異 一异 [yi1 yi4 ] /Unity-cum-differentiation; monism and pluralism; one and many; ekatva-anyatva, oneness and otherness./

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一白三羯磨 一白三羯磨 [yi1 bai2 san1 jie2 mo2 ] /One announcement, or reading, and three responses, or promises of performance (karman); it is the mode of ordaining monks, three responses to the one call of the abbot./

一百 一百 [yi1 bai3 ] /śata. A hundred./

一百八 一百八 [yi1 bai3 ba1 ] /百八 aṣṭaśatam. The 108 kleśa, distresses, disturbing passions, or illusions 煩惱 of mankind, hence the 108 beads on a rosary, repetitions of the Buddha's name, strokes of a bell, etc., one for each distress. Also, one of the Mahārājas, with 108 hands, each holding a different implement./

一目多伽 一目多伽 [yi1 mu4 duo1 jia1 ] /itivṛttaka; stories of the lives of saints, part of the canon; also 一曰多伽./

一相 一相 [yi1 xiang1 ] /lakṣana. One aspect, form, or side; ekatva, unity as contrasted with diversity; monism; the bhūtatathatā; the one mind in all things; cf. 一異./

一相一味 一相一味 [yi1 xiang1 yi1 wei4 ] /The term 一相 is defined as the common mind in all beings, or the universal mind; the 一味 is the Buddha's Mahāyāna teaching; the former is symbolized by the land, the latter by the rain fertilizing it./

一相三昧 一相三昧 [yi1 xiang1 san1 mei4 ] /A state of samādhi in which are repressed hate and love, accepting and rejecting, etc., and in which the mind reaches an undivided state, being anchored in calm and quiet./

一相智 一相智 [yi1 xiang1 zhi4 ] /The wisdom that all is bhūtatathatā and a unity./

一相法門 一相法门 [yi1 xiang1 fa3 men2 ] /The unitary or monistic method is interpreted in more than a dozen ways; in general it means to reach a stage beyond differentiation where all is seen as a unity./

一相無相 一相无相 [yi1 xiang1 wu1 xiang1 ] /One-ness means none-ness; in ultimate unity, or the unity of the absolute, there is no diversity./

一眞 一眞 [yi1 zhen1 ] /The whole of reality, the universe, the all, idem 眞如; cf. 一如, 一實 bhūtatathatā./

一眞地 一眞地 [yi1 zhen1 de ] /The state of meditation on the absolute./

一眞法界 一眞法界 [yi1 zhen1 fa3 jie4 ] /The dharma realm of the one reality, i.e. of the bhūtatathatā, complete in a speck of dust as in a universe; such is the dharmakāya, or spiritual body of all Buddhas, eternal, above terms of being, undefinable, neither immanent nor transcendent, yet the one reality, though beyond thought. It is the fundamental doctrine of the 華嚴宗. The 法界 is 諸佛平等法身, 從本以來不生不滅, 非空非有, 離名離相, 無內無外, 惟一眞實, 不可思議, 是名一眞法界; see 三藏法數 4./

一眞無爲 一眞无为 [yi1 zhen1 wu2 wei4 ] /The 一眞法界 one reality, or undivided absolute, is static, not phenomenal, it is effortless, just as it is 自然 self-existing./

一眼之龜 一眼之龟 [yi1 yan3 zhi1 gui1 ] /A sea turtle with only one eye, and that underneath, entered a hollow in a floating log; the log, tossed by the waves, happened to roll over, whereupon the turtle momentarily saw the sun and moon; an illustration of the rareness of the appearance of a Buddha; also of the difficulty of being reborn as a man./

一禿乘 一秃乘 [yi1 tu1 cheng2 ] /A bald-pated "vehicle'— an unproductive monk or disciple./

一空 一空 [yi1 kong1 ] /All is empty, or of the void, non-material./

一等 一等 [yi1 deng3 ] /Equal, all equal; of the first stage; a grade, rank, step./

一筆三禮 一笔三礼 [yi1 bi3 san1 li3 ] /Three salutations at each (use of the) pen, on painting a picture of the Buddha, or copying a scripture; cf. 一刀三禮./

一筆勾 一笔勾 [yi1 bi3 gou1 ] /(一筆勾銷) "Crossed out' with a stroke of the pen; expunged; forgiven./

一篋四蛇 一箧四蛇 [yi1 qie4 si4 she2 ] /Four snakes in one basket, i.e. the four passions in one body, cf. 四大./

一箭道 一箭道 [yi1 jian4 dao4 ] /An arrow's flight, two li./

一縷一觸 一缕一触 [yi1 lv3 yi1 chu4 ] /A thread, a butt'; the dragon which snatched a thread of a monk's robe and was consequently protected from a dangerous bird; the ox which butted a monk's robe and became a monk at its next transmigration; e.g. the virtue of the robe./

一翳 一翳 [yi1 yi4 ] /A film on the eye; a hindrance to enlightenment./

一臈 一臈 [yi1 la4 ] /一臘 The end of the monastic year at the summer retreat; a monastic year; also called 法臈? or 法歲, the religious year; cf. 一夏./

一色 一色 [yi1 se4 ] /A colour, the same colour; the same; especially a thing, or a form, v. rūpa 色; minute, trifling, an atom./

一色一香無非中道 一色一香无非中道 [yi1 se4 yi1 xiang1 wu2 fei1 zhong1 dao4 ] /An atom or an odour is a complete microcosm of the 中道 middle way or golden mean; the Mean is found in all things./

一莖草 一茎草 [yi1 jing1 cao3 ] /A blade of grass—may represent the Buddha, as does his image; it is a Buddha-centre./

一葉 一叶 [yi1 ye4 ] /A leaf; a palm-leaf or page of a sūtra./

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一葉觀音 一叶观音 [yi1 ye4 guan1 yin1 ] /One of the 33 forms of Guanyin, standing on a lotus leaf./

一蓮 一莲 [yi1 lian2 ] /The Lotus-flower of the Pure-land of Amitābha, idem 蓮臺./

一蓮之實 一莲之实 [yi1 lian2 zhi1 shi2 ] /The certainty of being born in the Pure-land./

一蓮托生 一莲托生 [yi1 lian2 tuo1 sheng1 ] /One lotus bearing all the living, i.e. the Pure-land of Amitābha./

一蟣 一虮 [yi1 ji3 ] /A likṣā, a nit, the 131,712,000th part of a yojana, seven times the smallest atom./

一行 一行 [yi1 xing2 ] /One act (of body, mouth, or mind); holding to one course; devoted. Yixing, A.D. 672-717, a celebrated monk whose secular name was 張遂 Zhang Sui, posthumous title 大慧禪師; he was versed in mathematics and astronomy, a reformer of the Chinese calendar, and author of several works./

一行一切行 一行一切行 [yi1 xing2 yi1 qie4 xing2 ] /In one act to do all other acts; the act which includes all other acts. e.g. the first step; the one discipline which embraces all discipline; the fourth degree of a samādhi./

一行三昧 一行三昧 [yi1 xing2 san1 mei4 ] /眞如三昧, 一相三昧 A samādhi for realizing that the nature of all Buddhas is the same; the 起信論 says all Buddhas and all beings. Another meaning is entire concentration of the mind on Buddha./

一角仙人 一角仙人 [yi1 jiao3 ] /Ekaśṛṅga ṛṣi; also 獨角仙人 The unicorn ṛṣi, an ascetic born of a deer; ensnared by a woman, he lost his power, and became a minister of state; he is one of the previous incarnations of Śākyamuni./

一觸 一触 [yi1 chu4 ] /See 一縷./

一訶子 一诃子 [yi1 he1 zi ] /haritaki. A fruit of the yellow myrobolan. Also阿黎勒果 (or 訶黎勒果)./

一說部 一说部 [yi1 shuo1 bu4 ] /Ekavyāvahārika 猗柯毘與婆訶利柯 or (Pali) Ekabyohāra 鞞婆訶羅 One of the 20 Hīnayāna schools, a nominalistic school, which considered things as nominal, i.e. names without any underlying reality; also styled 諸法但名宗 that things are but names./

一諦 一谛 [yi1 di4 ] /The doctrine of fundamental unity; an abbrev. for 一實諦 the Mādhyamika fundamental doctrine; also, generally, in the sense of an axiom, or fundamental truth; there are varying definitions of the one fundamental truth./

一識 一识 [yi1 shi2 ] /One sense or perception; the one individual intelligence or soul which uses the various senses, likened to a monkey which climbs in and out of the various windows of a house— a Satyasiddhi and Sautrāntika doctrine. Also, a Vairocana maṇḍala./

一識外道 一识外道 [yi1 shi2 wai4 dao4 ] /Followers of the一識 heretical view./

一轉語 一转语 [yi1 zhuan3 yu3 ] /A turning word; a fateful word./

一遍 一遍 [yi1 bian4 ] /Once, one recital of Buddha's name, or of a sūtra, or magic formula; style of 智眞 Zhizhen, founder of the 時宗 Ji-shū (Japan)../

一道 一道 [yi1 dao4 ] /One way, the one way; the way of deliverance from mortality, the Mahāyāna. Yidao, a learned monk of the Pure-land sect./

一道法門 一道法门 [yi1 dao4 fa3 men2 ] /The "a' school (Shingon) which takes a as the alpha (and even omega) of all wisdom; the way by which all escape mortality./

一道無爲心 一道无为心 [yi1 dao4 wu2 wei2 xin1 ] /Mind apart from all ideas of activity or inactivity. Also styled, or explained, by 如實一道心, 如實知自心, 空性無境心, 一如本淨心. The third of the ten mental resting places of the esoteric school./

一道神光 一道神光 [yi1 dao4 shen2 guang1 ] /Inner light; intuitive wisdom./

一門 一门 [yi1 men2 ] /The one door out of mortality into nirvāṇa, i.e. the Pure-land door./

一門普門 一门普门 [yi1 men2 pu3 men2 ] /The one door is the all-door; by entering the one door all doors of the faith are opened./

一間 一间 [yi1 jian1 ] /ekavīcika 翳迦鼻致迦 Still one final stage of mortality before nirvāṇa. Also wrongly styled bījaka 鼻致迦, a seed 一種 which leads to one more reincarnation./

一間聖者 一间圣者 [yi1 jian1 sheng4 zhe3 ] /The holy ones who have only one interval, or stage of mortality before nirvāṇa./

一闡提 一阐提 [yi1 chan3 ti2 ] /(一闡提迦) icchantika. Also 一顚迦, 阿闡底迦 One without desire for Buddha enlightenment; an unbeliever; shameless, an enemy of the good; full of desires; 斷善根者 one who has cut off his roots of goodness; it is applied also to a bodhisattva who has made a vow not to become a Buddha until all beings are saved. This is called 大悲闡提 the icchantika of great mercy./

一際 一际 [yi1 ji4 ] /Of the same realm or boundary, i.e. the world and nirvāṇa are one./

一雨 一雨 [yi1 yu3 ] /A rain, i.e. a lesson from the Buddha, or his teaching, see Lotus V./

一音教 一音教 [yi1 yin1 jiao4 ] /The one-sound teaching, i.e. the totality of the Buddha's doctrine; a school founded by Kumārajīva and Bodhiruci./

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一願建立 一愿建立 [yi1 yuan4 jian4 li4 ] /The one vow, i.e. the 18th of the 48 vows of Amitābha, on which his sect is established./

一顚迦 一顚迦 [yi1 dian1 jia1 ] /idem 一闡提迦./

一食 一食 [yi1 shi2 ] /A meal a day, one of the twelve dhūtas./

一體 一体 [yi1 ti3 ] /Though externally differing, in nature the same; the fundamental unity of the universe. 天地與我同根, 萬物與我一體 Heaven, earth, and myself have the same root; all things are one corpus with me./

一體三分 一体三分 [yi1 ti3 san1 fen1 ] /The trinity of 摩醯首羅 Maheśvara (Śiva), 那羅延 Nārāyaṇa (Viṣṇu), and 梵天 Brahmā. One being in three manifestations./

一體三寶 一体三宝 [yi1 ti3 san1 bao3 ] /In the one body of the saṅgha is the whole triratna, Buddha, Dharma, and saṅgha. Also, Mind, Buddha, and the living, these three are without differentiation, 心佛與衆生是三無差別, i.e. are all one./

一體三身自性佛 一体三身自性佛 [yi1 ti3 san1 shen1 zi4 xing4 fu2 ] /In one's own body to have the trikāya of the self-natured, Buddha, i.e. by personal surrender to the Buddha./

一體速疾力三昧 一体速疾力三昧 [yi1 ti3 su4 ji2 li4 san1 mei4 ] /A samādhi in which instantaneous powers are acquired./

一髻 一髻 [yi1 ji4 ] /A topknot./

一髻文殊 一髻文殊 [yi1 ji4 wen2 shu1 ] /The one topknot Mañjuśrī; there are other representations with 5 and 8; cf. 一字文殊./

一髻羅刹女 一髻罗刹女 [yi1 ji4 luo1 sha1 nv3 ] /The female rakṣaḥ styled "Single top-knot', wife of a great rakṣaḥ who dwells by a great ocean; on scenting blood, she can fly to it in a night 80, 000 yojanas./

一髻羅刹王菩薩 一髻罗刹王菩萨 [yi1 ji4 luo1 sha1 wang2 pu2 sa4 ] /The four-handed, dark-blue rakṣaḥ with the flame of fire coming out of his head, a bodhisattva in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala./

一麻一米 一麻一米 [yi1 ma2 yi1 mi3 ] /A hempseed and a grain of rice a day, the scanty diet to which Śākyamuni reduced himself before his enlightenment./

一魔萬箭 一魔万箭 [yi1 mo2 wan4 jian4 ] /One demon a myriad arrows, i.e. to listen to one Māra-temptation opens the way for a myriad Māra-arrows./


[qi1 ] /sapta, seven./

七七 七七 [qi1 qi1 ] /The period of forty-nine days after death, when masses are said every seventh day till the seventh seventh day./

七七忌 七七忌 [qi1 qi1 ji4 ] /The seventh seventh day of the masses for the dead./

七七齋 七七斋 [qi1 qi1 zhai1 ] /Masses for the dead on every seventh day for seven times. During this period the deceased is in the antarābhava or intermediate state, known as 中有 and 中陰; at the end of forty-nine days, judgment having been made, he enters upon his next state. By observing the proper rites, his family may aid him in overcoming his perils and attaining to a happy destiny./

七丈夫 七丈夫 [qi1 zhang4 fu1 ] /also 七士夫趣; v. 七賢七聖./

七不可避 七不可避 [qi1 bu4 ke3 bi4 ] /The seven unavoidables— rebirth, old age, sickness, death, punishment (for sin), happiness (for goodness), consequences (cause and effect 因緣)./

七事隨身 七事随身 [qi1 shi4 sui2 shen1 ] /The seven appurtenances of a monk— the three garments, bowl, censer, duster (or fly-brush), stool (niṣīdana), paper, and material for washing./

七佛 七佛 [qi1 fu2 ] /sapta Buddha. The seven ancient Buddhas, viz. Vipaśyin 毘婆尸, Śikhin 尸棄, Viśvabhū 毘舍婆, Krakucchanda 拘樓孫, Kanakamuni 倶那含牟尼 or 拘那含, Kāśyapa 迦葉, and Śākyamuni 釋迦. The last four are said to be of the present kalpa./

七佛藥師 七佛药师 [qi1 fu2 yao4 shi1 ] /The seven healing Buddhas, also 七躬醫王, of whom there are two descriptions, one representing them as at various places in the eastern regions of space; another gives five in the east and two in the south./

七使 七使 [qi1 shi3 ] /The seven messengers, agents, or kleśas—desire 欲愛; anger, or hate 瞋恚; attachment, or clinging 有愛; pride or arrogance 慢; ignorance, or unenlightenment 無明; false views 見; and doubt 疑./

七例句 七例句 [qi1 li4 ju4 ] /v. 七轉九例./

七倶胝佛母尊 七倶胝佛母尊 [qi1 ju4 zhi1 fu2 mu3 zun1 ] /Saptakotibuddha-mātṛ. The fabulous mother of seven koṭīs of Buddhas; i.e. Marīci 摩利支; also 準提 Cundī, or Cundā; or 準提觀音 Cundī-Guanyin, q.v., who is represented as of whitish color, with eighteen hands and three eyes./

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七條 七条 [qi1 tiao2 ] /(衣 or 袈裟 ) The outer mantle, or toga, of a monk, composed of seven pieces; the Uttara-sanga, v. 鬱./

七僧 七僧 [qi1 seng1 ] /A monastery is supposed to possess the following seven monks: 咒願師 invoker; 導師 leader; 唄師 intoner, or leader of the chanting; 散花師 flower-scatterer; 梵音師 master of sacred words, or Sanskrit; 錫杖師 shaker of the rings on the metal staff, or crozier; 堂達 distributor of missals, etc. Another division is 講師 expounder; 讀師 reader; 咒願師; 三禮師 director of the three ceremonies; 唄師; 散花師; and 堂達./

七僧法會 七僧法会 [qi1 seng1 fa3 hui4 ] /An assembly of a monasterial fraternity./

七僧齋 七僧斋 [qi1 seng1 zhai1 ] /A "western″ term meaning an endowment for a complete monastic fraternity of seven monks./

七八行 七八行 [qi1 ba1 xing2 ] /The practice of the seven bodhyaṅga 七菩提分, and the 八正道 eight marga or noble paths./

七加行 七加行 [qi1 jia1 xing2 ] /idem 七方便 ./

七勝事 七胜事 [qi1 sheng4 shi4 ] /The seven surpassing qualities of a Buddha; v. also 七種無上; they are his body, or person, his universal law, wisdom, perfection, destination (nirvana), ineffable truth, and deliverance./

七十 七十 [qi1 shi2 ] /saptati' seventy./

七十三尊 七十三尊 [qi1 shi2 san1 zun1 ] /The "Diamond world' maṇḍala, or pantheon, of the esoteric sect, containing seventy-three honoured ones./

七十二天 七十二天 [qi1 shi2 er4 tian1 ] /The seventy-two devas, namely, sixty-nine devas, the lord of Tai Shan, the god of the five roads, and 大吉祥天 Mahāśrī ./

七十二字 七十二字 [qi1 shi2 er4 zi4 ] /Brahma obtained seventy-two words with which to save the world, but failing he swallowed seventy, leaving one at each side of his mouth 阿 and 漚 , i.e. 無 and 有 things are, things are not, being and non-being./

七十二歳 七十二歳 [qi1 shi2 er4 sui4 ] /The age, 72, at which Buddha is reputed to have preached the Lotus Sutra./

七十五 七十五 [qi1 shi2 wu3 ] /pañcasaptati; "75./

七十五法 七十五法 [qi1 shi2 wu3 fa3 ] /The seventy-five dharmas of the Abhidharmakośa-bhāsya, which classifies all phenomena under seventy-five categories or elements, divided into five groups; cf. 五根, 五境, 無表色. (1) Material 色法 rūpāṇi, 11 . (2) Mind 心法 cittam, 1. (3) Mental qualities 心所有法 citta-saṃprayukta-saṃskārāḥ, 46. (4) Non-mental 心不相應行法 cittaviprayukta-saṃskārāḥ, 14. These are the seventy-two Sarvastivadin divisions (v. Keith, B. I. , p. 201 ). (5) In addition there are three unconditioned or non-phenomenal elements 無爲法 asaṃskṛta dharma, 3 (v. Keith, p. 160) ./

七善 七善 [qi1 shan4 ] /The seven exce1lences claimed for the Buddha's teaching good in its 時 timing or seasonableness, 義 meaning, 語 expression, 濁法 uniqueness, 具足 completeness, 淸淨調柔 pure adaptability, and 凡行 its sole objective, nirvana. There are other similar groups./

七喩 七喩 [qi1 yu4 ] /The seven parables of the Lotus Sutra./

七垢 七垢 [qi1 gou4 ] /The seven defilements―desire 欲, false views 見, doubt 疑, pride 慢, arrogance 憍 torpor 隨眠, and 慳 stinginess; cf. 七使./

七夢 七梦 [qi1 meng4 ] /Ānanda's seven dreams, which are explained in the 七夢經./

七大 七大 [qi1 da4 ] /Earth , water, fire, wind, space (or ether), sight, and perception 地, 水, 火, 風, 空, 見, 証識; cf. 大, 五大and 六境; 見大 and 六根; 識大 and 六識./

七如衆 七如众 [qi1 ru2 zhong4 ] /sapta-tathāgatāḥ. The seven tathāgatas whose names are inscribed on a heptagonal pillar (七如來寶塔) in some Buddhist temples. One list 阿彌陀, 甘露飯王, 觀音, 毘耶娑, 色妙身, 羅担納担羅耶and 寶勝. Another list gives Amitābha, Kan-lu-wang, 離怖畏, 廣博身, Miaoseshen, Baosheng (Ratnasaṃbhava) 多寶 (Prabhūtaratna)./

七子 七子 [qi1 zi ] /The parable in the Nirvana Sutra of the sick son whose parents, though they love all their sons equally, devote themselves to him. So does the Buddha specially care for sinners. The seven sons are likened to mankind, devas, sravakas, pratyeka-buddhas, and the three kinds of bodhisattvas of the 藏, 通 and 別教./

七宗 七宗 [qi1 zong1 ] /The seven Japanese sects of 律 Ritsu (or Risshū), 法相 Hossō, 論 Sanron 華嚴Kegon, 天台 Tendai, 眞言 Shingon, and 禪Zen./

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七寶 七宝 [qi1 bao3 ] /sapta ratna 薩不荅羅的捺 The seven treasures, or precious things, of which there are varying descriptions, e.g. 金 suvarna, gold; 銀rūpya, silver; 鐂璃 vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli; 玻瓈sphaṭika, crystal; 硨磲 musāragalva, agate; 赤珠 rohita-mukta, rubies or red pearls; 瑪瑙 aśmagarbha, cornelian. Also the seven royal (cakravartin) treasures―the golden wheel; elephants; dark swift horses; the divine pearl, or beautiful pearls; able ministers of the Treasury; jewels of women; and loyal generals./

七寶樹林 七宝树林 [qi1 bao3 shu4 lin2 ] /The grove of jewel trees, or trees of the seven precious things―a part of the "Pure-land", or Paradise./

七微 七微 [qi1 wei1 ] /The seven atoms composing an aṇu 阿耨; 阿拏, 阿菟色. Eitel's definition is seven atoms of dust, but the definition is doubtful. This molecule is larger than an "atom" , and according to the Sarvāstivāda it is the smallest visible particle. It is also a division of a yojana./

七心界 七心界 [qi1 xin1 jie4 ] /The seven realms of vijñāna, or perception, produced by eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind, to which is added thought, 意 根 q.v./

七情 七情 [qi1 qing2 ] /The seven emotions : pleasure, anger, sorrow, joy, love, hate, desire./

七慢 七慢 [qi1 man4 ] /The seven pretensions or arrogances 慢 asserting superiority over inferiors and equality with equals, 過慢 superiority over equals and equality with superiors, 慢過慢 superiority over manifest superiors, 我慢 egotism or overweening pride, 增上慢 vaunting assertion of possessing the Truth, 卑慢 vaunting one's inferiority (or false humility), and 邪慢 vaunting lack of virtue for virtue./

七摩怛里 七摩怛里 [qi1 mo2 da2 li3 ] /saptamātṛ. The seven divine mothers, or personified energies of the principal deities; they are associated with the worship of the god Śiva, and attend on his son Skanda or Kārttikeya, to whom at first only seven Mātṛs were assigned, but in the later mythology an innumerable number, who are sometimes represented as having displaced the original divine mothers M.W. Their names are given as (1) Cāmuṇḍā 遮文茶 or 左問拏 (2) Gaurī嬌吠哩; (3) Vaiṣṇavī 吠瑟拏微 (4) Kaumārī 嬌麼哩; (5) Indrāṇī, Aindrī, or Māhendrī 燕捺利 or 印捺哩; (6) Raudrī 勞捺哩; and (7) Vārāhī 末羅呬弭; cf. 七母天./

七支 七支 [qi1 zhi1 ] /The seven (spreading) branches—three sins of the body and four of speech, 身三 killing, robbing, adultery; 口四 lying, slander, abuse, double-tongue (or vain conversation). These are the first seven of the ten evils 十惡./

七支念誦 七支念诵 [qi1 zhi1 nian4 song4 ] /A method of invocation in which only seven kinds of signs and magical words are required. It is explained in the 七支念誦隨行法 part of the Vairocana Sutra./

七支業 七支业 [qi1 zhi1 ye4 ] /The karma resulting from the above seven sins./

七方便 七方便 [qi1 fang1 bian4 ] /(七方便位) (1) The seven "expedient" or temporary attainments or positions of Hīnayāna, superseded in Mahayana by the 七賢 (位) or 七加行 (位) all preparatory to the 七聖 (位) (2) The seven vehicles, i.e. those of ordinary human beings, of devas, of śrāvakas, of pratyekabuddhas' and of the three bodhisattvas of the three teachings 藏, 通 and 別. (3) Also, 藏教之聲縁二人, 通教之聲縁菩三人, 別教and 圓教之二菩薩; (2) and (3) are Tiantai groups./

七星 七星 [qi1 xing1 ] /Ursa major; Worshipped in Japan as 妙見菩薩 Wonderful Sight Bodhisattva who protects this world./

七曇 七昙 [qi1 tan2 ] /Siddham, idem. 悉曇./

七曜 七曜 [qi1 yao4 ] /The seven brilliant ones — the sun and moon, together with the five planets which are connected with fire, water, wood, metal, and earth. Their essence shines in the sky, but their spirits are over men as judges of their good and evil, and as rulers over good and evil fortune. The following list shows their names in Chinese and Sanskrit: Sun 日, 太陽; aditya 阿彌底耶
Moon月, 太陰; soma 蘇摩
Mars火星, 勢惑勞; aṅgāraka 盎哦囉迦
Mercury水星, 辰星; budha 部陀
Jupiter木星, 歳星; bṛhaspati 勿哩訶娑跛底
Venus金星, 太白; śukra 戌羯羅
Saturn土星, 鎭星; śanaiścara 賖乃以室折羅./

七最勝 七最胜 [qi1 zui4 sheng4 ] /The seven perfections, see唯識論, 9. 安住最勝 Perfect rest in the bodhisattva nature. 依止最勝 perfect reliance on, or holding fast to the great bodhi (awakened mind). 意果最勝 perfect resultant aim in-pity for all 事業最勝 Perfect in constant performance. 巧便最勝 Perfect in able device (for spiritual presentation). 廻向最勝 Perfect direction towards the highest bodhi. 滿淨最勝 Perfect purity and peace./

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七有 七有 [qi1 you3 ] /七生 The seven stages of existence in a human world, or in any 欲界 desire-world. Also (1) in the hells, (2) as animals, (3) hungry ghosts, (4) gods, (5) men, (6) karma 業, and (7) in the intermediate stage./

七生 七生 [qi1 sheng1 ] /same as 七有./

七有依福業 七有依福业 [qi1 you3 yi1 fu2 ye4 ] /The seven grounds for a happy karma through benevolence to the needy―almsgiving to visitors, to travelers' to the sick, to their nurses, gifts of gardens and groves to monasteries, etc., regular provision of food for them, and seasonable clothing and food for their occupants./

七歩蛇 七歩蛇 [qi1 bu4 she2 ] /A snake whose bite brings death before seven steps can be taken./

七母天 七母天 [qi1 mu3 tian1 ] /The seven divine mothers, also styled the seven sisters 七姉妹; v. 七摩怛里./

七姉妹 七姊妹 [qi1 zi3 mei4 ] /The seven sisters. See 七摩怛里./

七毘尼 七毗尼 [qi1 pi2 ni2 ] /The seven vinaya, v. 七滅諍法./

七治 七治 [qi1 zhi4 ] /Seven forms of punishment for monks. v. 七羯磨./

七法 七法 [qi1 fa3 ] /The seven (unavoidable) things, v. 七不避./

七法財 七法财 [qi1 fa3 cai2 ] /The seven riches, or seven ways of becoming rich in the Law : 信 faith, 進 zeal, 戒 moral restraint, 漸愧 shame, 聞 obedient hearing (of the Law), 捨 abnegation, and 定慧 wisdom arising from meditation./

七淨華 七净华 [qi1 jing4 hua2 ] /See 七華./

七滅諍法 七灭诤法 [qi1 mie4 zheng1 fa3 ] /saptādhikaraṇa-śamatha. Seven rules given in the Vinaya for settling disputes among the monks. Disputes arise from causes : from arguments; from discovery of misconduct; judgment and punishment of such; the correctness or otherwise of a religious observance. The seven rules are : 現前毘尼 saṃmukha-vinaya, face to face evidence, or appeal to the law; 憶念毘尼 smṛti-vinaya, witness or proof; 不痴毘尼 amūḍha-vinaya, irresponsibility, e.g. lunacy; 自言毘尼 tatsvabhavaiṣīya-vinaya, voluntary confession; 多語毘尼 pratijñākāraka-vinaya, decision by majority vote; 罪處所毘尼 yadbhūyasikīya-vinaya, condemnation of unconfessed sin by the 白四 or jñapticaturthin method, i.e. to make a statement and ask thrice for judgment; 草覆地毘尼 tṛṇastāraka-vinaya. , i.e. covering the mud with straw, i.e. in protracted disputes the appointment by each side of an elder to spread the straw of the law over the mud of the dispute./

七災難 七灾难 [qi1 zai1 nan2 ] /v. 七難 prajñā./

七無上道 七无上道 [qi1 wu2 shang4 dao4 ] /idem 七種無上./

七珍 七珍 [qi1 zhen1 ] /idem 七寶./

七生 七生 [qi1 sheng1 ] /idem 七有./

七百賢聖 七百贤圣 [qi1 bai3 xian2 sheng4 ] /The 700 disciples who met the second synod at Vaiśālī; also 七百結集./

七如眞 七如眞 [qi1 ru2 zhen1 ] /The seven aspects of the bhūta-tathatā , v. 如眞 One list is 流轉如眞 實相如眞, 唯識如眞, 安立如眞, 邪行如眞, 淸淨如眞, 正行如眞. From the 唯識論 8./

七知 七知 [qi1 zhi1 ] /The seven knowings - to know the Law, its meaning, the times for all duties, moderation, oneself, the different classes of people, and people as individuals./

七祖 七祖 [qi1 zu3 ] /(1) The seven founders of the 華嚴 Huayan School, whose names are given as 馬鳴 Aśvaghoṣa, 龍樹 Nāgārjuna 杜順 (i.e. 法順) , Zhiyan 智儼, Fazang 法藏, Chengguan 澄觀 and Zongmi 宗密; (2) the seven founders of the 禪Chan School, i.e. 達磨 or 菩提達磨 Bodhidharma, Huike 慧可, Sengcan 僧璨, Daoxin 道信, Hongren 弘忍, Huineng 慧能 and Heze 荷澤 (or Shenhui 神曾); (3) The seven founders of the 淨土 Pure Land School, i.e. Nagarjuna, 世親 Vasubandhu, Tanluan 曇鸞, Daochuo 道綽, Shandao 善導, Yuanxin 源信 and Yuankong 源空 (or Faran 法然), whose teaching is contained in the Qizushengjiao 七祖聖教./

七種不淨 七种不净 [qi1 zhong3 bu4 jing4 ] /seven kinds of uncleanness, derived from the parental seed, parental intercourse, the womb, the prenatal blood of the mother, birth, one's own flesh, one's own putrid corpse./

七種布施 七种布施 [qi1 zhong3 bu4 shi1 ] /The seven kinds of almsgiving—to callers, travelers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries, regular food (to monks), general alms; v. 七有, etc./

七種懺悔心 七种忏悔心 [qi1 zhong3 chan4 hui3 xin1 ] /The seven mental attitudes in penitential meditation or worship : shame, at not yet being free from mortality 慚愧心; fear, of the pains of hell, etc.; turning from the evil world; desire for enlightenment and complete renunciation; impartiality in love to all; gratitude to the Buddha; meditation on the unreality of the sin-nature, that sin arises from perversion and that it has no real existence./

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七種捨 七种舍 [qi1 zhong3 she3 ] /Seven abandonments or riddances―cherishing none and nothing, no relations with others, riddance of love and hate, of anxiety about the salvation of others, of form, giving to others (e.g. supererogation), benefiting others without hope of return. Another form is―cherishing nothing, riddance of love and hate, of desire, anger, etc., of anxiety about, etc., as above./

七種無上 七种无上 [qi1 zhong3 wu2 shang4 ] /The seven peerless qualities of a Buddha:―his body 身 with its thirty-two signs and eighty-four marks; his way 道 of universal mercy; his perfect insight or doctrine 見; his wisdom 智; his supernatural power 神 力; his ability to overcome hindrances 斷障, e.g. illusion, karma, and suffering; and his abiding place 住 i.e. Nirvana. Cf. 七勝事./

七種無常 七种无常 [qi1 zhong3 wu2 chang2 ] /sapta-anitya. The seven impermanences, a non-Buddhist nihilistic doctrine discussed in the 楞 伽 經 4./

七種生死 七种生死 [qi1 zhong3 sheng1 si3 ] /The seven kinds of mortality, chiefly relating to bodhisattva incarnation./

七種禮佛 七种礼佛 [qi1 zhong3 li3 fu2 ] /Seven degrees of worshipping Buddha, ranging from the merely external to the highest grade./

七種自性 七种自性 [qi1 zhong3 zi4 xing4 ] /The seven characteristics of a Buddha's nature, v. 自性./

七種般 七种般 [qi1 zhong3 ban1 ] /v. 不還./

七種衣 七种衣 [qi1 zhong3 yi1 ] /The seven kinds of clothing, i.e. of hair, hemp, linen, felt, fine linen, wool, or silk./

七種語 七种语 [qi1 zhong3 yu3 ] /Buddha's seven modes of discourse: 因語 from present cause to future effect; 果語 from present effect to past cause; 因果語 inherent cause and effect; 喩語 illustrative or figurative; 不應説語 spontaneous or parabolic; 世界流語 ordinary or popular; 如意語 unreserved, or as he really thought, e.g. as when he said that all things have the Buddha-nature./

七種辯 七种辩 [qi1 zhong3 bian4 ] /The seven rhetorical powers or methods of bodhisattvas :― direct and unimpeded; acute and deep; unlimited in scope; irrefutable; appropriate, or according to receptivity; purposive or objective (i.e. nirvana); proving the universal supreme method of attainment, i.e. Mahayana./

七種食 七种食 [qi1 zhong3 shi2 ] /The seven kinds of food or āhāra, sustenance :―sleep for eyes, sound for ears, fragrance for nose, taste for tongue, fine smooth things for the body, the Law for the mind, and freedom from laxness for nirvana./

七空 七空 [qi1 kong1 ] /The seven unrealities or illusions,v.空. There are two lists:(1)相空,性自性空,行空,無行空,一切法離言説空,第一義聖智大空 and彼彼空; v.Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 1.(2) 性空, 自相空, 諸法空, 不可得空,無法空, 有法空, and 有法無法空.智度論36./

七等覺支 七等觉支 [qi1 deng3 jue2 zhi1 ] /See 七菩提分./

七羯磨 七羯磨 [qi1 jie2 mo2 ] /karmavācā; the 七治The seven punishments of a monk./

七聖 七圣 [qi1 sheng4 ] /v.七賢, 七聖, 七聖財, saptadhana. The seven sacred graces variously defined, e.g. 信 faith, 戒 observation of the commandments, 聞hearing instruction, 慙 shame (for self), 愧 shame (for others); 捨 renunciation; and慧 wisdom./

七聖覺 七圣觉 [qi1 sheng4 jue2 ] /See 七菩提分./

七聲 七声 [qi1 sheng1 ] /See 七轉九列./

七菩提分 七菩提分 [qi1 pu2 ti2 fen1 ] /saptabodhyaṅga, also 七菩提寶, 七覺分, 七覺支, 七等覺支. Seven characteristics of bodhi; the sixth of the 七科七道品 in the seven categories of the bodhipakṣika dharma, v. 三十七菩提分 it represents seven grades in bodhi,viz,(1)擇法覺支(or 擇法菩提分 and so throughout), dharma-pravicaya-saṃbodhyaṇga, discrimination of the true and the fa1se : (2) 精進 vīrya-saṃbodhyaṇga, zeal, or undeflected progress;(3) 喜prīti-saṃbodhyaṇga., joy, delight; (4) 輕安 or 除 praśrabdhi-saṃbodhyaṇga. Riddance of all grossness or weight of body or mind, so that they may be light, free, and at ease; (5) 念 smrti-saṃbodhyaṇga, power of remembering the various states passed through in contemplation; (6) 定 samādhi-saṃbodhyaṇga.the power to keep the mind in a given realm undiverted; (7) 行捨 or 捨 upekṣā-saṃbodhyaṇga or upekṣaka, complete abandonment, auto-hypnosis, or indifference to all disturbances of the sub-conscious or ecstatic mind./

七華 七华 [qi1 hua2 ] /The seven flowers of enlightenmenmt, idem. 七善提分. Another versionispure in the commandments, in heart, in views, in doubt-discrimination, in judgment, in conduct, and in nirvana./

七葉巖 七叶岩 [qi1 ye4 yan2 ] /The crag at Rājagṛha on which the "seven-leaf tree" grew in the cave beneath which the first "synod" is said to have been held after the Buddha's death, to recall and determine his teaching./

七處八會 七处八会 [qi1 chu4 ba1 hui4 ] /The eight assemblies in seven different places, at which the sixty sections of the 華嚴經 Avataṃsaka-sūtra are said to have been preached; the same sutra in eighty sections is accredited to the 七處九會. 七處平等相 One of the thirty-two signs on the Budda's body—the perfection of feet, hands, shoulders, and head./

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七衆 七众 [qi1 zhong4 ] /The seven classes of disciples:―(1)比丘 bhikṣu,monk;(2) bhikṣuṇī a female observer of all commandments; (3) 式叉摩那śikṣamāṇa, a novice, or observer of the six commandments; (4) 沙彌 śrāmaṇera, and (5) 沙彌尼 śrāmaṇerika, male and female observers of the minor commandments; (6) 優婆塞 upāsaka, male observers of the five commandments; and (7) 優婆夷upāsikā, female ditto. The first five have left home, the last two remain at home. Tiantai makes nine groups by dividing the last two into four, two remaining at home, two leaving home and keeping the eight commandments. Others make four groups, i.e. (1), (2), (6), and (7) of the above. Tiantai also has a four-group./

七衆溺水 七众溺水 [qi1 zhong4 ni4 shui3 ] /The seven types who fall into the waters of this life—the first is drowned, the seventh is a Buddha; the seven are icchantika, men amd devas, ordinary believers, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas; also ca11ed 七衆人./

七見 七见 [qi1 jian4 ] /The seven heretical views, v. 見. They are 邪見 , 我見 , 常見 , 斷見 , 戒盜見, 果盜見, and 疑見./

七覺分 七觉分 [qi1 jue2 fen1 ] /or 支, v. 七菩提分./

七證 七证 [qi1 zheng4 ] /(師) v. 三師七證./

七識住 七识住 [qi1 shi2 zhu4 ] /v. 九有情層./

七識十名 七识十名 [qi1 shi2 shi2 ming2 ] /The ten names of the seventh vijñāna, v. manas 未那識./

七財 七财 [qi1 cai2 ] /v. 七法財./

七賢 七贤 [qi1 xian2 ] /(七賢位) Also七方便位, 七加行位 The seven grades or steps in virtue preceding the entry into見道faultless wisdom, or faultlessness in its first realization. These seven are preliminary to the七聖 (七聖位). Both are grades of the倶舍 Kośa school of Hīnayāna./

七賢七聖 七贤七圣 [qi1 xian2 qi1 sheng4 ] /The 七聖 are the seven developments of holiness, which follow the 七賢. In the Huayan 華嚴school they are called 七士夫, 七大夫 or七聖人. Cf. 倶舍論25./

七趣 七趣 [qi1 qu4 ] /The seven gati or states of sentient beings- nārakagati, in hell; preta, hungry ghost; tiryagyoni, animal; manuṣya, man; ṛṣi, a genius or higher spiritual being; deva, god; asura, demon of the higher order./

七躬醫王 七躬医王 [qi1 gong1 yi1 wang2 ] /v. 七佛藥師./

七轉九例 七转九例 [qi1 zhuan3 jiu3 li4 ] /The seven Sanskrit cases and nine conjugations. The former are also styled 七聲 and 七例 subanta 蘇漫 (or 盤多); sometimes with the Vocative called 八轉彈. The九例 or tiṅanta 丁彦多 are also styled 二九韻, i.e. nine parasmai and nine ātmane./

七逆 七逆 [qi1 ni4 ] /(七逆罪) The seven rebellious acts, or deadly sins — shedding a Buddha's blood, killing father, mother, monk, teacher, subverting or disrupting monks, killing an arhat. V. 梵綱經下./

七遮罪 七遮罪 [qi1 zhe1 zui4 ] /concealing, or non-confession of, any one of the seven deadly sins 七逆, for which it is also used./

七重行樹 七重行树 [qi1 zhong4 xing2 shu4 ] /The seven avenues of gem trees in Paradise./

七金山 七金山 [qi1 jin1 shan1 ] /The seven concentric mountain ranges around Sumeru, the central mountain of a universe, each range separated from the others by a sea; see 九山八海. Their names are 持隻, 持軸, 雙木 (雙木樹), 擔見, 馬耳 , 障礙 (or 象鼻), 持地 (or 遠) 山./

七難 七难 [qi1 nan2 ] /The seven calamities in the仁王經, 受持品 during which that sūtra should be recited: sun and moon losing their order (eclipses), conste11ations, irregular, fire, flood, wind-storms, drought, brigands Another set is — pestilence, invasion, rebe11ion, unlucky stars, eclipses, too early monsoon, too late monsoon. Another is — fire, flood, rakṣas, misrule, evil spirits, cangue and prison, and robbers./

七顚倒 七顚倒 [qi1 dian1 dao4 ] /v. 顛倒; viparyaya, the seven inversions, or upside-downs, i.e. contrary or false positions — 想, 見, 心, 常無常, 苦築, 淨不淨, 我無我./

乃至 乃至 [nai3 zhi4 ] /(1) A translation of antaśas meaning "at least"; and (2) of yāvat, as far as./

乃至一念 乃至一念 [nai3 zhi4 ] /Even, or at least, a thought./

乃往 乃往 [nai3 wang3 ] /As far as the past (is concerned)./

[jiu3 ] /Navan; nava. Nine./

九上緣惑 九上缘惑 [jiu3 shang4 yuan2 huo4 ] /The nine kinds of error or illusion 見, i.e. views or mental processes, found also in higher conditions of development./

九世 九世 [jiu3 shi4 ] /In past, present, and future worlds, each has its own past, present, and future, hence nine worlds or ages./

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九世間 九世间 [jiu3 shi4 jian1 ] /The nine lower of the ten worlds, the highest or tenth being the Buddha-world; the nine are always subject to illusion, confused by the senses./

九住心 九住心 [jiu3 zhu4 xin1 ] /Nine stages of mental concentration when in dhyāna meditation, viz, 安, 攝 , 解, 轉, 伏, 息, 滅, 性, and 持 (住心)./

九條衣 九条衣 [jiu3 tiao2 yi1 ] /九條袈裟 The lowest rank of the patch-robe, v. 九品大衣./

九儀 九仪 [jiu3 yi2 ] /The nine "Indian" ways of showing respect, according to Xuanzang — asking about welfare; bowing the head; holding high the hands; bowing with folded hands; bending the knee; kneeling; hands and knees on the ground; elbows and knees ditto; the whole body prostrate./

九人 九人 [jiu3 ren2 ] /v. 九孔./

九劫 九劫 [jiu3 jie2 ] /The nine kalpas; though Śākyamuni and Maitreya started together, the zeal of the first enabled him to become Buddha nine kalpas sooner; see 大賓積經 111./

九十六術 九十六术 [jiu3 shi2 liu4 shu4 ] /Also 九十六種外道. Ninety-six classes of non-Buddhists or heretics and their practices, i.e. their six founders and each of them with fifteen schools of disciples; some say 九十五種外道./

九十八使 九十八使 [jiu3 shi2 ba1 shi3 ] /Also 九十八隨眠 The Hīnayāna ninety-eight tempters, or temptations, that follow men with all subtlety to induce laxity. They are the ninety-eight kleśas, or moral temptations in the realm of 見思 view and thought, or external and internal ideas./

九句因 九句因 [jiu3 ju4 yin1 ] /A term in Buddhist logic; the nine possible combinations of like and unlike examples in a syllogism./

九品 九品 [jiu3 pin3 ] /Nine classes, or grades, i.e. 上上, 上中, 上下 upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, and so on with 中 and 下. They are applied in many ways, e.g. 上品上生 the highest type of incarnate being, to 下品下生, the lowest, with corresponding karma; see 九品淨土. Each grade may also be subdivided into nine, thus making a list of eighty-one grades, with similar further subdivision ad infinitum./

九品上 九品上 [jiu3 pin3 shang4 ] /An abbreviation for 上品上生 the highest grade in the Pure Land, see 九品淨土./

九品大衣 九品大衣 [jiu3 pin3 da4 yi1 ] /The 僧伽梨 saṇghāṭī. There are nine grades of the monk's patch robe; the three lowest ranks have 9, 11, and 13 patches, two long patches to one short one; the three middle 15, 17, 19, three long to one short; and the three superior 21, 23, 25, four long to one short./

九品安養之化生 九品安养之化生 [jiu3 pin3 an1 yang3 zhi1 hua4 sheng1 ] /Those born by transformation from the (heavenly) lotus into the ninefold 安養 Paradise, idem 九品淨土./

九品彌陀 九品弥陀 [jiu3 pin3 mi2 tuo2 ] /The nine forms of Amitābha, corresponding to the nine departments of the Pure Land; chiefly used with reference to the manual signs of his images./

九品往生 九品往生 [jiu3 pin3 wang3 sheng1 ] /The ninefold future life, in the Pure Land, v. 九品淨土. It is detailed in the sutra of this name whose full title is 阿彌陀三摩地集陀羅尼經./

九品惑 九品惑 [jiu3 pin3 huo4 ] /Also九品煩惱 The four 修惑, i.e. illusions or trials in the practice of religion, i.e. desire, anger, pride, ignorance; these are divided each into 九品 q.v.; hence desire has all the nine grades, and so on with the other three./

九品淨土 九品净土 [jiu3 pin3 jing4 tu3 ] /also 九品淨刹 , 九品安養, 九品蓮臺, 九品往生 The nine grades, or rewards, of the Pure Land, corresponding to the nine grades of development in the previous life, upon which depends, in the next life, one's distance from Amitābha, the consequent aeons that are needed to approach him, and whether one's lotus will open early or late./

九品行業 九品行业 [jiu3 pin3 hang2 ye4 ] /The nine karma to be attained by the conduct or practice through which one may be born into the above Pure Land./

九品覺王 九品觉王 [jiu3 pin3 jue2 wang2 ] /The king or lord of the bodhi of the Pure Land, Amitābha./

九喩 九喩 [jiu3 yu4 ] /The nine similes: stars, eye-film, lamp, prestidigitation, dew, bubble, dream, lightning, cloud. There is also another group./

九因一果 九因一果 [jiu3 yin1 yi1 guo3 ] /Nine of the 十界 ten dhātu or regions are causative, the tenth is the effect or resultant./

九地 九地 [jiu3 de ] /The nine lands, i.e. the 欲界 realm of desire or sensuous realm the four 色界 realms of form or material forms; and the four 無色界 formless realms, or realms beyond form; v. 九有, 九有情居, 禪 and 定. The nine realms are:—(1) 欲界五趣地; the desire realm with its five gati, i.e. hells, hungry ghosts, animals, men, and devas. In the four form-realms are:— (2) 離生喜樂地 Paradise after earthly life, this is also the first dhyāna, or subject of meditation, 初禪. (3) 定生喜樂地 Paradise of cessation of rebirth, 二禪. (4) 離喜妙樂地 Land of wondrous joy after the previous joys, 三禪. (5) 捨念淸淨地 The Pure Land of abandonment of thought, or recollection (of past delights), 四禪. The four formless, or infinite realms, catur arūpa dhātu, are:—(6) 空無邊處地 ākāśānantyā-yatanam, the land of infinite space; also the first samādhi, 第一定. (7) 識無邊處地 vijñānānamtyāyatanam, the land of omniscience, or infinite perception, 二定. (8) 無所有處地 ākiñcanyāyatana, the land of nothingness, 三定. (9) 非想非非想處地 naivasaṁjñānā-saṁjñāyatana, the land (of knowledge) without thinking or not thinking, or where there is neither consciousness nor unconsciousness, i.e. above either; this is the 四定. Eitel says that in the last four, "Life lasts 20,000 great kalpas in the 1st, 40,000 in the 2nd, 60,000 in the 3rd, and 80,000 great kalpas in the 4th of these heavens."/

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九地九品思惑 九地九品思惑 [jiu3 de jiu3 pin3 si1 huo4 ] /v. 八十一品思惑./

九域 九域 [jiu3 yu4 ] /idem 九地 and 九界./

九執 九执 [jiu3 zhi2 ] /The nine graha, i.e. "seizers" or upholders, i.e. luminaries or planets, idem 九曜./

九士生地 九士生地 [jiu3 shi4 sheng1 de ] /idem Kuśinagara; v. 拘./

九孔 九孔 [jiu3 kong3 ] /Also 九入, 九竅, 九漏, 九流, 九瘡 the nine orifices, cavities, entrances, leakages, or suppurations, i.e. the two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, mouth, and two lower organs./

九字 九字 [jiu3 zi4 ] /The nine magical characters 臨兵鬪者皆陳列在前 implying that the armed forces are arrayed against the powers of evil. After reciting these words, four vertical and five horizontal lines, forming a grid, are drawn in the air to show that the forces are arrayed. It was used among Taoists and soldiers, and is still used in Japan, especially when going into the mountains./

九字曼荼羅 九字曼荼罗 [jiu3 zi4 man4 tu2 luo1 ] /The nine character maṇḍala, i.e. the lotus, with its eight petals and its centre; Avalokiteśvara may be placed in the heart and Amitābha on each petal, generally in the shape of the Sanskrit "seed" letter, or alphabetic letter./

九宗 九宗 [jiu3 zong1 ] /The eight sects 八宗 (q.v.) plus the 禪宗 Chan or Zen, or the Pure-land or Jōdo sect./

九尊 九尊 [jiu3 zun1 ] /The nine honoured ones in the eight-petalled hall of the Garbhadhātu, i.e. Vairocana in the centre of the lotus, with four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the petals, the lotus representing the human heart; v. 五佛./

九居 九居 [jiu3 ju1 ] /v. 九有情居./

九山八海 九山八海 [jiu3 shan1 ba1 hai3 ] /The nine cakravāla, or concentric mountain ranges or continents, separated by eight seas, of a universe. The central mountain of the nine is Sumeru 須彌 and around it are the ranges Khadiraka 佶提羅, Īṣādhara 伊沙陀羅, Yugaṃdhara 遊乾陀羅, Sudarśaṇa 蘇達梨舍那, Aśvakarṇa 安濕縛竭拏, Nemiṃdhara 尼民陀羅, Vinataka 毘那多迦, Cakravāda 斫迦羅; v. 七金山. The Abhidharma Kośa gives a different order: Sumeru, Yugaṃdhara, Īṣādhara, Khadiraka, Sudarśana, Aśvakarṇa, Vinataka, Nemiṃdhara, with an "iron-wheel" mountain encompassing all; there are also differences in the detail./

九參上堂 九参上堂 [jiu3 can1 shang4 tang2 ] /The nine monthly visits or ascents to the hall for worship, every third day./

九徧知 九遍知 [jiu3 bian4 zhi1 ] /The nine forms of complete knowledge of the four axioms and the cutting off of passion, delusion, etc., in the processes of 見 and 修, as distinct from 無學./

九徹 九彻 [jiu3 che4 ] /The nine penetrating fames of the sword of Acala, 不動明王, emblem of the destruction of illusions and hindrances in the nine realms, v. 九地; also used for the 九尊 q.v./

九心輪 九心轮 [jiu3 xin1 lun2 ] /The nine evolutions, or movements of the mind in perception./

九想 九想 [jiu3 xiang3 ] /(九想觀) or 九相 navasaṃjñā. Meditation on a corpse in order to curb desire; one of the meditations on the unclean: vyādhmātakasaṃjñā, its tumefaction; vinīlakas., its blue, mottled colour; vipadumakas., its decay; vilohitakas., its mess of blood,etc.; vipūyakas., its discharges and rotten flesh; vikhāditakas., its being devoured by birds and beasts; vikṣiptakas., its dismembering; asthis., its bones; vidagdhakas., their being burnt and returning to dust./

九惱 九恼 [jiu3 nao3 ] /also 九難, 九橫, 九罪報 The nine distresses borne by the Buddha while in the flesh, i.e. the two women Sundarā and Cañcā; others from Devadatta, Ajātaśatru, etc.; v. 智度論 9./

九慢 九慢 [jiu3 man4 ] /The nine forms of pride: that I surpass, am equal to, not so bad as others; that others surpass, are as bad as, are inferior to me; that none surpass, are equal to, or worse than me./

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九方便 九方便 [jiu3 fang1 bian4 ] /The nine suitable stages in religious service; cf. 大日經, 7; 作禮 salutation to the universal Triratna; 出罪 repentance and confession; 歸依 trust (in the Triratna); 施身 giving of self (to the Tathāgata); 發菩提心 vowing to devote the mind to bodhi; 隨喜 rejoicing (in all good); 勸請 beseeching (all Tathāgatas to rain down the saving law); 奉請法身 praying for the Buddha-nature in self and others for entry in the Pure Land; 迴向 demitting the good produced by the above eight methods, to others, universally, past, present, and future. This form of service is generally performed before engaging in esoteric observances. The verses in which these nine stages are presented are of a commendably devotional character./

九方便十波羅蜜菩薩 九方便十波罗蜜菩萨 [jiu3 fang1 bian4 shi2 bo1 luo2 mi4 pu2 sa4 ] /Of the ten pāramitā bodhisattvas, q.v., in the tenth or empyrean court of the Garbhadhātu, the first nine are associated with the above nine progressive steps, the tenth is associated with the last four of the nine./

九會 九会 [jiu3 hui4 ] /(九會曼陀羅) The nine groups in the diamond-realm maṇḍala./

九會說 九会说 [jiu3 hui4 shuo1 ] /The Huayan sutra 華嚴經 in its older sixty chuan version is said to have been delivered at eight assemblies in seven places; the newer eighty chuan at nine assemblies in seven places; cf. 九處./

九曜 九曜 [jiu3 yao4 ] /九執 q.v. Navagraha. The nine luminaries: 日 Āditya, the sun; 月 Sōma, the moon; the five planets, i.e. 火星 Aṅgāraka, Mars; 水 Budha, Mercury; 木 Bṛhaspati, Jupiter; 金 Sukra, Venus; and 土 Śanaiścara, Saturn; also 羅睺 Rāhu, the spirit that causes eclipses; and 計都 Ketu, a comet. Each is associated with a region of the sky and also with a bodhisattva, etc., e.g. the sun with Guanyin, Venus with Amitābha, etc./

九有 九有 [jiu3 you3 ] /The nine realities, states, or conditions in which sentient beings enjoy to dwell, v. next./

九有情居 九有情居 [jiu3 you3 qing2 ju1 ] /(or 九有情處), 九衆生居, 九居, 九門, see also 九有, 九地, 九禪 and 九定; the nine happy abodes or states of sentient beings of the 長阿含經 9; they are the 七識住seven abodes or stages of perception or consciousness to which are added the fifth and ninth below: (1) 欲界之人天 the world and the six deva-heavens of desire in which there is variety of bodies (or personalities) and thinking (or ideas); (2) 梵衆天the three brahma heavens where bodies differ but thinking is the same, the first dhyāna heaven; (3) 極光淨天 the three bright and pure heavens where bodies are identical but thinking diners, the second dhyāna heaven; (4) 遍淨天the three universally pure heavens where bodies and thinking are the same, the third dhyāna heaven; (5) 無想天 the no-thinking or no-thought heaven, the highest of the four dhyāna heavens; (6) 空無邊處 limitless space, the first of the formless realms; (7) 識無邊處 limitless percepton, the second ditto; (8) 無所有處 nothingness, the place beyond things, the third ditto; and (9) 非想非非想beyond thought or non-thought, the fourth ditto./

九梵 九梵 [jiu3 fan4 ] /The nine heavens of the fourth dhyāna heaven. /

九業 九业 [jiu3 ye4 ] /The nine kinds of karma, i.e. the desire realm and the form realm each has conduct that causes karma, does not cause karma, or is neutral, making 6; in the formless realm there are non-causative deeds, neutrality, and immortality, making 9; 成實論 8./

九橫 九横 [jiu3 heng2 ] /See also 九惱./

九橫死 九横死 [jiu3 heng4 si3 ] /The nine kinds of irregular death; there are two groups, one connected with improper food or meals, another with improper medical treatment, law‐breaking, drowning, etc. ./

九橫經 九横经 [jiu3 heng2 jing1 ] /A sūtra translated in the later Han dynasty by 安世高 An Shigao./

九次第定 九次第定 [jiu3 ci4 di4 ding4 ] /The samādhi of the nine degrees, i.e. the four dhyānas 四禪, the four realms beyond form 四無色, and the samādhi beyond sensation and thought 滅受想定; see 九有情居 and 九地./

九流 九流 [jiu3 liu2 ] /九漏 idem | 孔./

九無學 九无学 [jiu3 wu2 xue2 ] /The nine grades (of arhats) who are no longer learning, having attained their goal./

九無爲 九无为 [jiu3 wu2 wei4 ] /The nine kinds of, and meditations on, 無爲 q.v. There are two somewhat different groups; one has 擇滅, 非擇滅, 虛空, 空無邊處, 識無邊處, 無所有處, 非想非非想處 (v. 九有情處), 緣起支性, and 聖道支性./

九無間道 九无间道 [jiu3 wu2 jian4 dao4 ] /In every universe there are nine realms, in every realm there are nine illusions in practice 修, and nine ways of relief; hence the nine ways of overcoming hindrances; also there are nine uninterrupted ways of advance from one stage to another of the nine stages of the 三界 trailokya, by the wisdom of overcoming delusion in each stage; also 九無礙道 ; and cf. 九解脫道./

九界 九界 [jiu3 jie4 ] /(九界情執) The nine realms of error, or subjection to the passions, i.e. all the realms of the living except the tenth and highest, the Buddha-realm./

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九瘡 九疮 [jiu3 chuang1 ] /idem 九孔./

九祖 九祖 [jiu3 zu3 ] /(相承) The succession of nine founders of the Tiantai School; v. 天台九宗./

九種大禪 九种大禅 [jiu3 zhong3 da4 chan2 ] /The nine kinds of Mahāyāna dhyāna for bodhisattvas, given in the 菩薩地持經 6 and in other works; they are associated with the patience 忍 pāramitā and with the dhyāna of the super-realms. The nine are meditations: (1) 自性禪 on the original nature of things, or mind as the real nature, from which all things derive; (2) 一切禪 on achieving the development of self and all others to the utmost; (3) 難禪 on the difficulties of certain dhyāna conditions; (4) 一切禪 on the entrance to all the (superior) dhyāna conditions; (5) 善人禪 on the good; (6) 一切行禪 on all Mahāyāna practices and actions; (7) 除煩惱禪 on ridding all sufferers from the miseries of passion and delusion; (8) 此世他世樂禪 on the way to bring joy to all people both in this life and hereafter; (9) 淸淨淨禪 on perfect purity in the termination of all delusion and distress and the obtaining of perfect enlightenment./

九竅 九窍 [jiu3 qiao4 ] /v. 九孔./

九結 九结 [jiu3 jie2 ] /The nine bonds that bind men to mortality: love, hate, pride, ignorance, (wrong)views, possessions (or grasping), doubt, envy, meanness (or selfishness). They are the 六隨眠 plus grasping, envy, and meanness./

九經 九经 [jiu3 jing1 ] /idem 九部經./

九縛一脫 九缚一脱 [jiu3 fu4 yi1 tuo1 ] /The nine states of bondage and the one state of liberation. The nine states are the hells of fire, of blood, of swords; asuras, men, devas, māras, nirgranthas, form and formless states; these are all saṃsāra states, i.e. of reincarnation. The one state of freedom, or for obtaining freedom, is nirvāṇa./

九罪報 九罪报 [jiu3 zui4 bao4 ] /v. 九惱./

九蓮 九莲 [jiu3 lian2 ] /The paradise of Amitābha, i.e. 九品蓮臺./

九華山 九华山 [jiu3 hua4 shan1 ] /Formerly called 九子山, which was changed by the Tang poet Li Bai to the above; it is one of the four sacred mountains of Buddhism, situated in Anhui, and its patron Bodhisattva is Dizang 地藏./

九衆 九众 [jiu3 zhong4 ] /The 七衆 q.v. plus junior monks and nuns, i.e. novices who have received the eight commandments./

九衆生居 九众生居 [jiu3 zhong4 sheng1 ju1 ] /v. 九有情居./

九解脫道 九解脱道 [jiu3 jie3 tuo1 dao4 ] /In the nine stages trailokya三界 each has its possible delusions and erroneous performances; the latter are overcome by the九無間道q.v./

九道 九道 [jiu3 dao4 ] /The nine truths, or postulates: impermanence; suffering; voidness (or unreality of things); no permanent ego, or soul; love of existence or possessions, resulting in suffering; the opposite (or fear of being without them), also resulting in suffering; the cutting off of suffering and its cause; nirvāṇa with remainder still to be worked out; complete nirvāṇa./

九識 九识 [jiu3 shi2 ] /The kinds of cognition or consciousness (vijñāna); those of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, mind, mānas (or阿陁那識 ādāna), i.e. mental perception; 阿賴耶 ālāya, bodhi-consciousness, and 阿摩羅識 amala, purified or Buddha-consciousness. There is considerable difference as to the meaning of the last three./

九輪 九轮 [jiu3 lun2 ] /The nine wheels or circles on the top of a pagoda, also called 空輪the wheels of space; the nine should only be on the stūpa of a Buddha, others are entitled to as many as eight and a few as one./

九轍 九辙 [jiu3 zhe2 ] /Kumārajīva's nine divisions of the meaning of the Lotus Sūtra, whence he was styled the 九轍法師./

九道 九道 [jiu3 dao4 ] /idem 九有情居./

九部 九部 [jiu3 bu4 ] /(九部經) Nine of the Hīnayāna twelve classes of sūtras, that is, all except the 方廣, 授記 and 無門自說. Generally the term is thus interpreted, but there is also a Mahāyāna division of nine of the twelve sūtras, i.e. all except the 緣起, 譬喩, 論議. These are: sūtras, the Buddha's sermons; geyas, metrical pieces; vyākaraṇas, prophecies; gāthās, chants or poems; udāṇas, impromptu or unsolicited addresses; ityuktas, or itivṛttakas, marratives; jātakas, stories of former lives of Buddha, etc.; vaipulyas, expanded sūtras, etc.; adbhutadharmas, miracles, etc.; v. 十二部經./

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九門 九门 [jiu3 men2 ] /v. 九有情居./

九難 九难 [jiu3 nan2 ] /v 九惱./

九類生 九类生 [jiu3 lei4 sheng1 ] /The nine kinds of birth; the four from the womb, egg, moisture, transformation are common to devas, earth, and the hells; the five others are birth into the heavens of form, of non-form, of thought, of non-thought, and of neither (i.e. beyond either)./

九鬼 九鬼 [jiu3 gui3 ] /The nine classes of ghosts are of three kinds: without means, small means, rich. The first group have 炬口 burning torch-like mouths, or 鍼口 narrow needle mouths, or 臭口 stinking mouths; the second group have hair like needles, or stinking hair, or tumours; the rich ghosts haunt sacrifices to the dead, or eat human leavings, or live truculently./

九陰 九阴 [jiu3 yin1 ] /The five elements together with time, space, mind (manas), and soul (ātman) according to the teaching of the "heretical" Vaiśeṣika sect; v. 鞞./

九齋日 九斋日 [jiu3 zhai1 ri4 ] /the nine kinds of days of abstinence on which no food is eaten after twelve o'clock: noon and the commands are observed. They are: Every day of the first month, of the fifth month, of the ninth month, and the following six days of each month, 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th. On these days Indra and the four deva-kings investigate the conduct of men./

[le ] /To end, see through, understand, thoroughly, know, make clear, thoroughly, completely, final./

了了見 了了见 [le le jian4 ] /The complete vision obtained when the body is in complete rest and the mind freed from phenomenal disturbance./

了因 了因 [le yin1 ] /A revealing cause, v. 二因 , i.e. 生因 a producing or direct cause, e.g. a seed; and 了因 a revealing "cause", e.g. a light, as indicating the effect; knowledge or wisdom./

了因佛性 了因佛性 [le yin1 fu2 xing4 ] /The second of the three Buddha-nature "causes", i.e. 正因佛性 is the 眞如 as direct cause of attaining the perfect Buddha-nature, associated with the 法身; 了因佛性 is the revealing or enlightening cause, associated with the Buddha-wisdom; 緣因佛性 is the environing cause, e.g. his goodness and merits which result in deliverance, or salvation./

了徹禪定 了彻禅定 [le che4 chan2 ding4 ] /The mastery of abstract contemplation./

了悟 了悟 [liao3 wu4 ] /Complete enlightenment, or clear apprehension./

了教 了教 [le jiao4 ] /A noted disciple named Ajñāta-Kauṇḍinya, v. 阿, also known as拘鄰鄰,了本際 and 知本際. He is described as "a prince of Magadha, maternal uncle of Śākyamuni, whose first disciple he became". He is "to be reborn as Buddha under the name of Samanṭa-Prabhāsa". Eitel./

了知 了知 [le zhi1 ] /Parijñā, thorough knowledge./

了義 了义 [le yi4 ] /Revelation of the whole meaning, or truth, as 不了義 is partial revelation adapted (方便) to the capacity of the hearers./

了義教 了义教 [le yi4 jiao4 ] /Teaching of the whole truth./

了義經 了义经 [le yi4 jing1 ] /The sūtras containing it. Mahāyāna counts all Hīnayāna sutras as 不了義經; Mahāyāna sūtras are divided into both kinds according to different schools./

了達 了达 [le da2 ] /Thorough penetration, clear understanding./

[er4 ] /Dvā, dvau. Two; dvitīya, second./

二三 二三 [er4 san1 ] /The six non-Buddhist philosophers, 二三邪徒./

二世 二世 [er4 shi4 ] /This life and the hereafter./

二世尊 二世尊 [er4 shi4 zun1 ] /Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna, the Buddha 多賓 in the eleventh chapter of the Lotus Sūtra; see also 二尊./

二世間 二世间 [er4 shi4 jian1 ] /The two realms of conscious or sentient beings 有情世間, and unconscious or material things 器世間./

二乘 二乘 [er4 cheng2 ] /dviyāna. The two vehicles conveying to the final goal. There are several definitions: (1) Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna. (2) 聲聞 and 緣覺 or 聲覺二乘 . Śrāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. (3) 二乘作佛 The Lotus Sūtra teaches that śrāvakas and pratyekas also become Buddhas. (4) 三一二乘 The "two vehicles" of "three" and "one", the three being the pre-Lotus ideas of śrāvaka, pratyeka, and bodhsattva, the one being the doctrine of the Lotus Sūtra which combined all three in one./

二九五部 二九五部 [er4 jiu3 wu3 bu4 ] /The eighteen Hīnayāna sects and the five Vinaya 律sects./

二九韻 二九韵 [er4 jiu3 yun4 ] /The eighteen 丁岸哆 tiṇanta, personal endings of the Sanskrit verb./

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二二合緣 二二合缘 [er4 er4 he2 yuan2 ] /A method of meditation by coupling 法 with 身, 受, 心, respectively. Cf. 四念處觀./

二五食 二五食 [er4 wu3 shi2 ] /The two groups of food, each of five kinds: bhojanīya, v. 蒲 cereals, fish, and flesh; and khādanīya, v. 佉fruits and sweetmeats./

二佛並坐 二佛并坐 [er4 fu2 bing4 zuo4 ] /The two Buddhas sitting together, v. 二世尊./

二佛中門 二佛中门 [er4 fu2 zhong1 men2 ] /The period between the nirvāṇa of Śākyamuni and the future advent of Maitreya, i.e. the present period./

二佛性 二佛性 [er4 fu2 xing4 ] /Dual aspects of the Buddha-nature, i.e., 理佛性 the Buddha-nature which is fundamentally in all sentient beings, and 行佛性 the functioning Buddha-nature active and effective in some, but not in others, a doctrine of the 法相 school./

二佛身 二佛身 [er4 fu2 shen1 ] /v. 二身./

二修 二修 [er4 xiu1 ] /Two kinds of devotion or practice, 專修 and 雜修 sole or single-minded, and miscellaneous or varied, defined as (1) chief or sole duty, and (2) aids thereto or adjunctive observances. Also 緣修 causative devotion of a bodhisattva in former life, and 眞修 its actual manifestation here./

二倶犯過 二倶犯过 [er4 ju4 ] /or 二人倶犯 A term applied by Tiantai in criticism of Huayan, which while it is a 圓敎 perfect or complete doctrine, yet has the "crudities" of the 別敎 and comes short of the really perfect Lotus doctrine./

二假 二假 [er4 jia3 ] /Two hypotheses in the 唯識論1:— (1) 無體隨情假the non-substantial hypothesis, that there is no substantial entity or individuality, i.e. no 見分 and 相分, no 實我 and 實法, no real subject and object but that all is transient subject and object, but that all is transient emotion; (2) 有體施設假 the factual hypothesis, that there is entity or individuality, subject and object, etc./

二光 二光 [er4 guang1 ] /The dual lights, i.e. 色光 the halo from a Buddha's body and 心光 the light from his mind. Also 常光 the constant halo from the bodies of Buddhas and 神通光 the supernatural light sent out by a Buddha (e.g. from between his eyebrows) to illuminate a distant world./

二入 二入 [er4 ru4 ] /The two ways of entering the truth:— 理入 by conviction intellectually, 行入 by (proving it in) practice./

二八 二八 [er4 ba1 ] /The sixteen meditations. V. 十六觀./

二六 二六 [er4 liu4 ] /Twelve./

二六之緣 二六之缘 [er4 liu4 zhi1 yuan2 ] /idem 十二因緣./

二六之願 二六之愿 [er4 liu4 zhi1 yuan4 ] /the twelve vows of 藥師./

二六時中 二六时中 [er4 liu4 shi2 zhong1 ] /during the twelve (=twenty-four) hours of the day./

二凡 二凡 [er4 fan2 ] /The two external and internal, or ordinary ranks, 外凡 and 内凡, in the first forty of the fifty-two stages 位; the 外凡 are ordinary believers who pursue the stages of 十信; the 内凡 are the zealous, who are advancing through the next three groups of stages up to the fortieth./

二出 二出 [er4 chu1 ] /The two modes of escape from mortality, 堅出 the long way called the 聖道門 or 自力敎, i.e. working out one's own salvation; and 橫出 the across or short way of the Pure-land sect or 他力敎 faith in or invocation of another, i.e. Amitābha./

二利 二利 [er4 li4 ] /The dual benefits, or profits: benefiting or developing oneself and others; 自利 in seeking enlightenment in bodhisattvahood, 利他 in saving the multitude. Hīnayāna "seeks only one's own benefit"; the bodhisattva rule seeks both one's own benefit and that of others, or personal improvement for the improving of others./

二力 二力 [er4 li4 ] /Dual powers; there are three definitions: (1) 自力 one's own strength, or endeavours, i.e. salvation by cultivating 戒, 定, and 慧; 他カ another's strength, e.g. the saving power of Amitābha. (2) 思擇力 Power of thought in choosing (right principles); 修習力 power of practice and performance. (3) 有力 and 無力 positive and negative forces: dominant and subordinate; active and inert energy./

二加 二加 [er4 jia1 ] /The dual aid bestowed by the Buddha, 顯加 manifest or external aid bestowed by the Buddha, in the blessings and powers of this life; 冥加 invisible aid bestowed by the Buddha, in getting rid of sins, increasing virtue, etc./

二勝果 二胜果 [er4 sheng4 guo3 ] /The two surpassing fruits, or rewards given by Buddha, i.e. final nirvāṇa and perfect enlightenment./

二十 二十 [er4 shi2 ] /viṃśati. Twenty./

二十二品 二十二品 [er4 shi2 er4 pin3 ] /Twenty-two of the 三十七道品 q.v.; they are 四念處, 四正勤、四如意, 足五根 and 五力./

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二十二根 二十二根 [er4 shi2 er4 gen1 ] /The twenty-two roots, organs, or powers, v. 根. They are: (1) 眼根 eye, cakṣurindriya; (2) 耳 根 ear, śrotrendriya; (3) 鼻根 nose, ghrāṇendriya; (4) 舌根 tongue, jihvendriya; (5) 身根 body, kāyendriya; (6) 意根 mind, manaīndriya (the above are the 六根); (7) 女根 female organ, strīndriya; (8) 男根 male organ, puruṣendriya; (9) 命根 life, jīvitendriya; (10) 苦根 suffering (or pain), duḥkhendriya; (11) 樂根 pleasure, sukhendriya; (12) 憂根 sorrow, daurmanasyendriya; (13) 喜根 joy, saumanas-yendriya; (14) 捨根 abandoning, upekṣendriya (from 10 to 14 they are the 五受); (15) 信根 faith, śraddhendriya; (16) 精進根 zeal, vīryendriya; (17) 念根 memory, smṛtīndriya; (18) 定根 meditation, or trance, samādhīndriya; (19) 慧根 wisdom, prajñendriya (these are the 信等之五根); (20) 未知當知根 the power for learning (the Four Noble Truths) anājñātamājñāsyāmīndriya; (21) 巳知根 the power of having learned (them), ājñendriya; (22) 具知根 the power of perfect knowledge (of them), ājñātādvīndriya (these three are called the 無漏根) ./

二十二門 二十二门 [er4 shi2 er4 men2 ] /The Abhidharma-kośa divides the eighteen realms 十八界 into twenty-two categories. Also, there are twenty-two modes or processes in the perfect development of a Buddha and his works./

二十五條 二十五条 [er4 shi2 wu3 tiao2 ] /The monk's twenty-five-patch garment, v. 袈./

二十五圓通 二十五圆通 [er4 shi2 wu3 yuan2 tong1 ] /The twenty-five kinds of perfect understanding of the truth; they refer to the 六塵, 六根, 六識, and 七大; disciples of the Buddha are said each to have acquired a special knowledge of one of these twenty-five and to have been recognized as its authority, e. g. Guanyin of the ear, Dignāga of sound, etc./

二十五方便 二十五方便 [er4 shi2 wu3 fang1 bian4 ] /Tiantai's twenty-five aids to meditation, v. 止觀./

二十五有 二十五有 [er4 shi2 wu3 you3 ] /The twenty-five forms of existence, fourteen in the desire realms 欲界, seven in the realms of form 色界, and four in the formless realms 無色界, v. 有./

二十五神 二十五神 [er4 shi2 wu3 shen2 ] /The twenty-five guardian deities who protect any keeper of the commandments, i.e. five for each of the commandments against killing, robbing, adultery, lying, and drinking./

二十五菩薩 二十五菩萨 [er4 shi2 wu3 pu2 sa4 ] /The twenty-five bodhisattvas who protect all who call on Amitābha i. e. 觀音, 大勢至, 藥王, 藥上, 普賢, 法自在, 師子吼, 陀羅尼, 虛空藏, 佛藏, 菩藏, 金藏, 金剛藏, 山海慧, 光明王, 華嚴王, 衆賓王, 月光王, 日照王, 三昧王, 定自在王, 大自在王, 自象王, 大威德王 and 無邊身菩薩./

二十五點 二十五点 [er4 shi2 wu3 dian3 ] /Each of the five 更 night watches is divided into five making twenty-five dian./

二十億耳 二十亿耳 [er4 shi2 yi4 er3 ] /Sroṇakoṭīviṁśa. Defined as the most zealous of Śākyamuni's disciples, who became an arhat. Having lived in a heaven for ninety-one kalpas, where his feet did not touch the ground, he was born with hair on his soles two inches long, an omen which led his father and brothers to endow him with twenty kotis of ounces of gold, hence this name. v. 智度論 22./

二十八天 二十八天 [er4 shi2 ba1 tian1 ] /The twenty-eight heavens, or devalokas: six of the desire-world 欲界, eighteen of the form-world 色界, and four arūpa or formless heavens 無色界. The heavens of the world of form are sixteen according to the 薩婆多部 Sarvāstivāda School, seventeen according to 經部 Sūtra School, and eighteen according to the 上座 Sthavirāḥ./

二十八宿 二十八宿 [er4 shi2 ba1 su4 ] /The twenty-eight nakṣatras or constellations, divided into four mansions of seven each, referred to East, or Spring; South, Summer; West, Autumn; and North, Winter. The month-names derived from them differ slightly in form. E.: 角 Citrā, 亢 Niṣṭyā (or Svāti), 氏 Viśākhā, 房 Anurādhā, 心Rohiṇī, Jyeṣṭhaghnī (or Jyesthā), 尾 Mūlabarhaṇī (or Mūla), 箕 Pūrva-Aṣādha. N.: 斗 Uttara-Aṣāḍhā, 牛 Abhijit, 女Śravaṇā, 盧Śraviṣṭha (or Dhaniṣṭhā) 危Śatabhiṣā, 室 Pūrva-Proṣṭhapada, 壁 Uttara-Proṣṭhapada. W.: 奎 Revatī, 婁 Aśvayuj (or Aśvinī), 胃 Apabharaṇī (or Bharaṇī), 昴 Kṛttikā, 畢 Rohiṇī, 觜 Invakā (or Mṛgaśiras), 參 Bāhu (or Ārdrā). S.: 井 Punarvasu, 鬼 Tiṣya (or Puṣya), 柳 Aśleṣā, 星 Maghā, 張 Pūrva-Phalgunī, 翼 Uttara-Phalgunī, 軫 Hastā./

二十八有 二十八有 [er4 shi2 ba1 you3 ] /or 生The twenty-eight forms of existence, or birth. 二十九有 the twenty-ninth is the non-existent; v. 有./

二十八祖 二十八祖 [er4 shi2 ba1 zu3 ] /The twenty-eight Buddhist patriarchs as stated by the Mahāyānists. The Tiantai school reckons twenty-three, or twenty-four, with the addition of Śaṇakavāsa, contemporary with his predecessors, but the Chan school reckons twenty-eight: (1) Mahākāśyapa, 摩訶迦葉 (摩訶迦葉波); (2) Ānanda, 阿難; (3) Śāṇakavāsa, 商那和修; 4) Upagupta, 優婆毱多; (5) Dhṛṭaka, 提多迦; (6) Mikkaka, or Miccaka, or Micchaka, 彌遮迦; (7) Vasumitra, 婆須蜜; (8) Buddhanandi, 佛陀難提; (9) Buddhamitra, 伏駄蜜多; (10) Pārśva, or Pārśvika, 波栗溼縛or 脇尊者; (11) Puṇyayaśas 那尊耶舍; (12) Aśvaghoṣa, 馬鳴大士; (13) Kapimala, 迦毘摩羅; (14) Nāgārjuna, 龍樹; (15) Kāṇadeva, 迦那提婆; (16) Rāhulata, 羅睺羅多; (17) Saṅghanandi, 僧伽難提; (18) Gayāśata, 伽耶舍多; (19) Kumārata, 鳩摩羅多; (20) Jayata, 闍夜多; (21) Vasubandhu, 婆修盤頭; (22) Manorhita, 摩撃羅; (23) Haklena, 鶴輸勒; (24) Ārasiṁha, 師子尊者; (25) Basiasita, 婆舍新多; (26) Puṇyamitra, 不如密多; (27) Prajñātāra, 般若多羅; (28) Bodhidharma, 菩提達磨./

二十八藥叉 二十八药叉 [er4 shi2 ba1 yao4 cha1 ] /The twenty-eight yakṣas./

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二十八部衆 二十八部众 [er4 shi2 ba1 bu4 zhong4 ] /The thousand-hand Guanyin has twenty-eight groups of 大仙衆great ṛṣis or genii, under the direction of the 孔雀王 Peacock king, Mayūrarāja; also each of the 四天王 mahārājas, or guardians of the four regions, has the same provision of demons, known as 鬼神衆 company of spirits./

二十唯識 二十唯识 [er4 shi2 wei2 shi2 ] /The name of the 唯識二十論./

二十天 二十天 [er4 shi2 tian1 ] /The twenty devas. (1) 大梵天王 (Mahābrahman), (2) 帝釋尊天(Śakra devānām Indra), (3) 多聞天王 (Vaiśravana, 毘沙門, or Dhanada), (4) 持國天王(Dhṛtarāṣṭra), (5) 增長天王 (Virūḍhaka), (6) 廣目天王 (Virūpākṣa), (7) 金剛密迹(?Gunyapati), (8) 摩醯首羅 (Maheśvara), (9) 散脂 (迦) 大將 (Pañcika), (10) 大辯才天 (Sarasvatī), (11) 大功德天 (Lakṣmī), (12) 韋驛天神 (Skanda), (13) 堅牢地神 (Pṛthivī), (14) 善提樹神 (Bodhidruma, or Bodhi-vṛkṣa), (15) 鬼子母神 (Hāritī), (16) 摩利支天 (Marīci), (17) 日宮天子 (Sūrya), (18) 月宮天子 (Candra, etc. There are many different names), (19) 裟竭龍王(Sāgara), (20) 閣摩羅王 (Yama-rāja)./

二十智 二十智 [er4 shi2 zhi4 ] /The twenty kinds of wisdom or knowledge as denied by Tiantai i.e. the Hīnayāna (or三藏) with seven kinds, 通教 five, 別教four, and 圓教 four; cf. 智./

二十犍度 二十犍度 [er4 shi2 jian1 du4 ] /The twenty skandhas intp. as 章篇 sections or chapters, i.e. the thirty-one to the fifty-three chuan of the 四分律, beginning with受戒犍度 and ending with 雜犍度; they are twenty sections containing rules for the monastic life and intercourse./

二十部 二十部 [er4 shi2 bu4 ] /The eighteen Hīnayāna sects, together with the two original assemblies of elders./

二受 二受 [er4 shou4 ] /The dual receptivity or karma of pleasure and pain, the physical and the mental, i.e. 身 and 心./

二吉羅 二吉罗 [er4 ji2 luo1 ] /The two duṣkṛta, doing evil and speaking evil; v. 突吉羅 ./

二和 二和 [er4 he2 ] /The double harmony or unity, i. e. 理 and 事, indicating those who are united in doctrine and practice, or the saṅgha./

二善 二善 [er4 shan4 ] /The two good things, 定善 the good character that arises from meditation or contemplation mdash especially of the Pure Land; 散善 the good character attainable when, though not in meditation, one controls oneself in thought, word, and deed;. Also 未生善 the good character not yet evolved; and 已生善 the good character already evolved;. Also 事理善 goodness in theory and practice./

二因 二因 [er4 yin1 ] /Two causes, of which there are various definitions: (1) 生因 The producing cause (of all good things); and 了因 the revealing or illuminating cause i.e. knowledge, or wisdom. (2) 能生因 The 8th 識 q. v.: the cause that is able to produce all sense and perceptions, also all good and evil; and 方便因 the environmental or adaptive cause, which aids the 8th 識, as water or earth does the seed, etc. (3) 習因 or 同類因 Practice or habit as cause e. g. desire causing desire; and 報因 or 果熟因 the rewarding cause, or fruit-ripening cause, e. g. pleasure or pain caused by good or evil deeds. (4) 正因 Correct or direct cause i.e. the Buddha-nature of all beings; and 緣因 the contributory cause, or enlightenment (see 了因 above) which evolves the 正因 or Buddha-nature by good works. (5) 近因 Immediate or direct cause and 遠因 distant or indirect cause or causes./

二圓 二圆 [er4 yuan2 ] /The two perfect doctrines, a term of the Tiantai School, called 今圓 (also 開顯圓 and 絶待圓) and 昔圓 (also 相待圓 ). 今圓 is the present really perfect 一實 doctrine arising from the Lotus Sūtra; 昔圓 is the older, or 相待 comparatively speaking perfect doctrine of the pre-Lotus teaching, that of the 藏, 通, and 別 schools; but the older was for limited salvation and not universal like the 今圓; these two are also termed 部圓 and 教圓 . The Huayan school has a division of the two perfections into 漸圓 gradual perfection and 頓圓 immediate perfection./

二嚴 二严 [er4 yan2 ] /The dual adornment, that of 智慧 wisdom and that of 福德; good deeds, 涅槃經 27./

二土 二土 [er4 tu3 ] /There are three groups: 性土 and 相土 : the former is the ubiquitous, unadulterated or innocent 法性之理 dharma-name, or essence of things; the latter is the form-nature, or formal existence of the dharma, pure or impure according to the mind and action of the living. The 淨土 and 穢土 are Pure-land or Paradise; and impure land, e.g. the present world. In the Pure-land there are also 報土 , the land in which a Buddha himself dwells and 化土 in which all beings are transformed. There are other definitions, e. g. the former is Buddha's Paradise, the latter the world in which he dwells and which he is transforming, e. g. this Sahā-world./

二執 二执 [er4 zhi2 ] /The two (erroneous) tenets, or attachments: (1) 我執 or 人執 that of the reality of the ego, permanent personality, the ātman, soul or self. (2) 法執 that of the reality of dharma, things or phenomena. Both are illusions. "All illusion arises from holding to the reality of the ego and of things."/

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二報 二报 [er4 bao4 ] /The dual reward. (1) 依報 or 依果 The material environment on which a person depends, resulting from former karma, e.g. country, house, property, etc. (2) 正報 or 正果 his direct reward, i. e. his body, or person./

二增菩薩 二增菩萨 [er4 zeng1 pu2 sa4 ] /The two superior kinds of bodhisattvas, 智增菩薩 bodhisattva superior in wisdom (chiefly beneficial to self); 悲增菩薩 bodhisattva superior in pity for others and devotion to their salvation./

二天 二天 [er4 tian1 ] /The two devas. (1) 日天 and 月天Sun-deva and Moon-deva. (2) 同生天A deva born simultaneously with the individual and 同名天 a deva with the same name as the individual; both devas have the duty of watching over the individual. (3) 梵天 and 帝釋天 Brahma and Indra./

二天三仙 二天三仙 [er4 tian1 san1 xian1 ] /The two devas are Maheśvara and Viṣṇu; the three ṛṣi are Kapila, Ulūka, and Ṛṣabha; v. 迦, 優, and 勒./

二女 二女 [er4 nv3 ] /The two sisters, one the deva 功德女 "merit" or "achieving", who causes people to acquire wealth; the other, 黑闇女 the "dark" one, who causes them to spend and waste; these sisters always accompany each other./

二如 二如 [er4 ru2 ] /There are various definitions of the two aspects of the 眞如 bhūtatathatā. (1) (a) 不變眞如 The changeless essence or substance, e.g. the sea; (b) 隨緣眞如 its conditioned or ever-changing forms, as in the phenomenal world, e.g. the waves. (2) (a) 離言眞如 The inexpressible absolute, only mentally conceivable; (6) 依言眞如 aspects of it expressible in words, its ideal reflex. (3) (a) 空眞如 The absolute as the void, e.g. as space, the sky, a clear mirror; (b) 不空眞如 the absolute in manifestation, or phenomenal, e. g. images in the mirror: the womb of the universe in which are all potentialities. (4) (a) 在纏眞如The Buddha-nature in bonds, i.e. all beings in suffering; (b) 出纏真如the Buddha-nature set free by the manifestation of the Buddha and bodhisattvas. (5) (a) 有垢眞如The Buddha-nature defiled, as in unenlightened man, etc., e.g. the water-lily with its roots in the mud; (b) 無垢眞如 the pure Buddha-nature, purifed or bright as the full moon. (6) 安立 and 非安立眞如 similar to the first definition given above./

二妙 二妙 [er4 miao4 ] /The dual "marvel" of the Lotus sūtra, the 相待妙 or comparative view, i.e. compared with all previous teaching, which is the rough groundwork; and the 絕待妙 or view of it as the perfection of teaching; hence it is "wonderful" in comparison with all previous doctrine, and absolutely "wonderful' in itself; cf. 二圓./

二始 二始 [er4 shi3 ] /The two beginnings, i.e. of Hīnayāna, by the preaching of the 阿含 Āgama sūtras; and of Mahāyāna by the preaching of the 華嚴 Avataṁsaka sūtra./

二字 二字 [er4 zi4 ] /Double-letters, i.e. a monk-because a monk's name consists of two characters./

二字文殊 二字文殊 [er4 zi4 wen2 shu1 ] /The two-character Mañjuśrī./

二學 二学 [er4 xue2 ] /The two kinds of study or learning: (a) reading and reciting, (b) meditation and thought./

二宗 二宗 [er4 zong1 ] /Two theories or schools stated by the Huayan (Kegon) school as 法相宗 and 法性宗 q.v., known also as 相宗 and 性宗. There are ten point of difference between them. Another division is the 空宗 and 性宗 q. v./

二密 二密 [er4 mi4 ] /The two esoteric aspects, i.e. 理密 and 事密 , the former referring to the doctrine, the latter to the esoteric acts of a Tathāgata./

二尊 二尊 [er4 zun1 ] /The two honoured ones, Śākyamuni and Amitābha./

二尊一教 二尊一教 [er4 zun1 yi1 jiao4 ] /(or 致) The two honored ones (Śākyamuni and Amitābha) as one in teaching./

二尊二教 二尊二教 [er4 zun1 er4 jiao4 ] /The two honored ones (Śākyamuni and Amitābha) as teacher and saviour, with reference to the teaching of the way of salvation of the first, and the consequent saving vows of the second./

二世尊二師 二世尊二师 [er4 shi4 zun1 er4 shi1 ] /The two sages, or preceptors in the Lotus Sūtra, Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna. Also sages and ordinary preceptors./

二序 二序 [er4 xu4 ] /The two kinds of introductory phrase: (a) the ordinary opening phrase of a sutra— "Thus have I heard"; and (b) specific openings referring to the circumstances in which the sūtra was produced./

二往 二往 [er4 wang3 ] /再往 Twice over, a second time./

二德 二德 [er4 de2 ] /The two kinds of power or virtue are 智德 and 斷德; also 悲德 and 智德; also 性德 and 修德; q.v. and v. 德./

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二心 二心 [er4 xin1 ] /The two minds, 眞心 the original, simple, pure, natural mind of all creatures, the Buddha-mind, i.e. 如來藏心; and 妄心 the illusion-mind, which results in complexity and confusion. Also, 定心 the meditative mind, or mind fixed on goodness; and the 散心 the scattered, inattentive mind, or mind that is only good at intervals./

二忍 二忍 [er4 ren3 ] /The two patiences or endurances: 衆生忍 patience towards all under all circumstances; 無生(法)忍 calm rest, as a bodhisattva、in the assurance of no (re-) birth, i.e. in immortality. Also 安受苦忍 patience under suffering, and 觀察法忍 imperturbable examination of or meditation in the law or of all things. Also, physical and mental patience, or endurance./

二悟 二悟 [er4 wu4 ] /The two awakenings, or kinds of entry into bodhisattvahood, i.e. 頓悟 immediate and 漸悟 gradual./

二惑 二惑 [er4 huo4 ] /The two aspects of illusion: 見惑 perplexities or illusions and temptations arise from false views or theories. 思惑 or 修惑, ditto from thoughts arising through contact with the world, or by habit, such as desire, anger, infatuation, etc. They are also styled 理惑 illusions connected with principles and 事惑 illusions arising, in practice; v. 見思./

二愛 二爱 [er4 ai4 ] /The two kinds of love, 欲愛 ordinary human love springing from desire; 法愛 bodhisattva or religious love, i.e. desiring to save all creatures./

二應身 二应身 [er4 ying1 shen1 ] /The two kinds of transformation-body of a Buddha, i.e. 勝應身 the Buddha's surpassing body as seen by bodhisattvas, and 劣應身 the Buddha's inferior human body as seen by ordinary people./

二戒 二戒 [er4 jie4 ] /The two grades of commandments, or prohibitions, e. g. 十戒 and 具足戒 for monks; 五戒 and 八戒 for the laity; 邪戒 and 正戒 heretical rules and correct rules; and numerous other pairs./

二我 二我 [er4 wo3 ] /(二我見) The two erroneous views of individualism: (a) 人我見 The erroneous view that there is an independent human personality or soul, and (b) 法我見 the like view that anything exists with an independent nature./

二我執 二我执 [er4 wo3 zhi2 ] /The two reasons for clinging to the idea of the self: (a) 具生我執 the natural, or instinctive cleaving to the idea of a self, or soul; (b) 分別我執 the same idea developed as the result of (erroneous) reasoning. Cf. 二法執./

二持 二持 [er4 chi2 ] /The two values of the commandments: (a) 止持 prohibitive, restraining from evil; (b) 作持 constructive, constraining to goodness./

二教 二教 [er4 jiao4 ] /Dual division of the Buddha's teaching. There are various definitions: (1) Tiantai has (a) 顯教 exoteric or public teaching to the visible audience, and (b) 密教 at the same time esoteric teaching to an audience invisible to the other assembly. (2) The 眞言 Shingon School by "exoteric" means all the Buddha's preaching, save that of the 大日經 which it counts esoteric. (3) (a) 漸教 and (b) 頓教 graduated and immediate teaching, terms with various uses, e.g. salvation by works Hīnayāna, and by faith, Mahāyāna, etc.; they are applied to the Buddha's method, to the receptivity of hearers and to the teaching itself. (4) Tiantai has (a) 界内教 and (b) 界外教 teachings relating to the 三界 or realms of mortality and teachings relating to immortal realms. (5) (a) 半字教 and (b) 滿字教 Terms used in the Nirvāṇa sūtra, meaning incomplete word, or letter, teaching and complete word teaching, i.e. partial and complete, likened to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. (6) (a) 捃收教 and (b) 扶律談常教 of the Nirvāṇa sūtra, (a) completing those who failed to hear the Lotus; (b) "supporting the law, while discoursing on immortality," i.e. that the keeping of the law is also necessary to salvation. (7) Tiantai's division of (a) 偏教 and (b) 圓教 the partial teaching of the 藏, 通, and schools as contrasted with the perfect teaching of the 圓 school. (8) Tiantai's division of (a) 構教 and (6) 實教 temporary and permanent, similar to the last two. (9) (a) 世間教 The ordinary teaching of a moral life here; (b) 出世間教 the teaching of Buddha-truth of other-worldly happiness in escape from mortality. (10) (a) 了義教 the Mahāyāna perfect or complete teaching, and (b) 不了義教 Hīnayāna incompleteness. (11) The Huayan division of (a) 屈曲教 indirect or uneven teaching as in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, and (b) 平道教 direct or levelled up teaching as in the Huayan sūtra. (12) The Huayan division of (a) 化教 all the Buddha's teaching for conversion and general instruction, and (b) 制教 his rules and commandments for the control and development of his order./

二時 二时 [er4 shi2 ] /The two times or periods— morning and evening. Also 迦羅 kāla, a regular or fixed hour for meals, and 三昧耶 samaya, irregular or unfxed hours or times./

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二智 二智 [er4 zhi4 ] /The two kinds of wisdom; there are various pairs. The Huayan school uses 如理智 and 如量智; the Faxiang (法相) uses 根本智 and 後得智; the Tiantai uses 權智 and 實智. (1) (a) 如理智 or 根本智, 無分別智, 正體智, 眞智, 實智 is Buddha-wisdom, or Bodhisattva real wisdom; (b) 如量智 or 後得智, the same wisdom in its limitation and relation to ordinary human affairs. (2) (a) 實智 Absolute wisdom and (b) 權智 or 方便智 | relative or temporal wisdom. (3) (a) 一切智 wisdom of the all, (b) 一切種智 wisdom of all the particulars./

二智圓滿 二智圆满 [er4 zhi4 yuan2 man3 ] /The two kinds of Tathāgata-wisdom, 實 and 權 absolute and functional (or relative), both perfect and complete./

二果 二果 [er4 guo3 ] /Sakṛdāgāmin; v. 裟 and 斯. The second "fruit" of the four kinds of Hīnayāna arhats, who have only once more to return to mortality. Also the two kinds of fruit or karma: (a) 習氣果 The good or evil characteristics resulting from habit or practice in a former existence; (b) 報果the pain or pleasure resulting (in this life) from the practices of a previous life./

二根 二根 [er4 gen1 ] /The two "roots" or natural powers. (1) (a) 利根 keen, able (in the religion); (b) 鈍根 dull. (2) (a) 正根; 勝義根The power or ability which uses the sense organs to discern the truth; (b) 扶根; 扶 (or浮) 塵根the sense organs 五根 as aids. (3) The male and female sexual organs./

二業 二业 [er4 ye4 ] /Two classes of karma. (1) (a) 引業 leads to the 總報, i.e. the award as to the species into which one is to be born, e.g. men, gods, etc.; (6) 滿業 is the 別報 or fulfillment in detail, i.e. the kind or quality of being e.g. clever or stupid, happy or unhappy, etc. (2) (a) 善業 and (b) 惡業 Good and evil karma, resulting in happiness or misery. (3) (a) 助業 Aids to the karma of being reborn in Amitābha's Pure—land e. g. offerings, chantings, etc.; (b) 正業 thought and invocation of Amitābha with undivided mind, as the direct method./

二檀 二檀 [er4 tan2 ] /The two dāna 檀那, i. e, kinds of donating, or almsgiving: (a) 世間檀 ordinary alms, and (b) 出世間檀 spiritual, or other-worldly gifts./

二求 二求 [er4 qiu2 ] /The two kinds of seeking: 得求 seeking to get (e.g. pleasure) and 命求 seeking long life./

二法執 二法执 [er4 fa3 zhi2 ] /The two tenets in regard to things; of. 二我執, i.e. 倶生法執 the common or natural tendency to consider things as real; 分別法執 the tenet of the reality of things as the result of false reasoning and teaching./

二法身 二法身 [er4 fa3 shen1 ] /Contrasted types of the Dharmakāya; five pairs are given, 理法身 and 智法身; 果極 and 應化法身 ; 自性法身 and 應化法身 ; 法性法身 and 方便法身 ; 理法身 and 事法身 ; cf. 法身./

二河白道 二河白道 [er4 he2 bai2 dao4 ] /The two rivers and the white path, i.e. the path leading to life between the rivers of desire and hatred, which are compared to water and fire./

二流 二流 [er4 liu2 ] /The two ways in the current of transmigration: 順流 to flow with it in continual re-incarnation; 逆流 resist it and seek a way of escape by getting rid of life's delusions, as in the case of the saints./

二涅槃 二涅槃 [er4 nie4 pan2 ] /Two Nirvanas, v. 二種涅槃./

二漏 二漏 [er4 lou4 ] /The two conditions relating to the passions and delusions: 有漏 the condition in which they can prevail; 無漏 that in which they cannot prevail./

二無常 二无常 [er4 wu2 chang2 ] /Two kinds of impermanence, immediate and delayed. 念念無常 things in motion, manifestly transient; 相續無常 things that have the semblance of continuity, but are also transient, as life ending in death, or a candle in extinction./

二無我 二无我 [er4 wu2 wo3 ] /The two categories of anātman: — 人無我 no (permanent) human ego, or soul; 法無我 no (permanent) individuality in or independence of self or of things./

二無我智 二无我智 [er4 wu2 wo3 zhi4 ] /The wisdom that recognizes the two categories of anātman, v. 四諦./

二無記 二无记 [er4 wu2 ji4 ] /The two neutrals, or indeterminates which cannot be noted as good or evil./

二煩惱 二烦恼 [er4 ] /The two kinds of kleśa, i.e. passions, delusions, temptations, or trials. (1) (a) 根本煩惱 The six fundamental kleśas arising from the six senses; (b) 隨煩惱 the twenty consequent kleśas arising out of the six. (2) (a) 分別起煩惱 Kleśa arising from false reasoning; (b) 倶生起煩惱 that which is natural to all. (3) (a) 大煩惱地法The six great, e.g. extravagance, and (b) 小煩惱地法 ten minor afflictions, e.g. irritability. (4) (a) 數行煩惱 Ordinary passions, or temptations; (b) 猛利煩惱fierce, sudden, or violent passions, or temptations./

二犯 二犯 [er4 fan4 ] /The two kinds of sin, 止犯 and 作犯./

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二王 二王 [er4 wang2 ] /The two guardian spirits represented on the temple gates, styled Vajrayakṣa 金剛夜叉 or 神 or 夜叉神./

二現 二现 [er4 xian4 ] /The two kinds of manifestation, or appearance, 須現 the necessary appearance in the flesh of the Buddha for ordinary people, and 不須現 the non-necessity for this to those of spiritual vision./

二百五十戒 二百五十戒 [er4 bai3 wu3 shi2 jie4 ] /The 250 commandments, or 具足戒 perfect or complete commandments, which are obligatory on monks and nuns. They are 四波羅夷 or 四根本極惡the four pārājika; 十三殘 thirteen saṅghāvaseṣa; 二不定法 two aniyata; 三十捨隨 thirty naiḥsargikāḥ-pāyattikāḥ; 九十波逸提ninety prāyaścittikāḥ; 四提舍尼four pratideśanīya; 百衆學 hundred śikṣākaraṇīya, and 七滅諍 seven kinds of vinaya for ending disputes./

二益 二益 [er4 yi4 ] /The dual advantages or benefits: profitable to the life which now is, and that which is to come./

二相 二相 [er4 xiang1 ] /The two forms, or characteristics, of the bhutatathata, universal and particular. The 起信論 gives (a) 淨智相 pure wisdom, cf. ālaya-vijñāna, out of whose primary condition arise (b) 不思議用相 inconceivable, beneficial functions and uses. The same śāstra gives also a definition of the 眞如 as (a) 同相 that all things, pure or impure, are fundamentally of the same universal, e.g. clay which is made into tiles; (b) 異相 but display particular qualities, as affected by pure or impure causes, e.g. the tiles. Another definition, of the 智度論 31, is (a) 總相 universals, as impermanence; (b) 別相 particulars, for though all things have the universal basis of impermanence they have particular qualities, e.g. earth-solidity, heat of fire, etc./

二眞如 二眞如 [er4 zhen1 ru2 ] /v. 二如 and 眞如./

二礙 二碍 [er4 ai4 ] /idem 二障./

二祖 二祖 [er4 zu3 ] /The second patriarch of the Chan school, Huike 慧可./

二祖斷臂 二祖断臂 [er4 zu3 duan4 bi4 ] /the second patriarch in China 慧可 of the Chan school, who, to induce bodhidharma to receive him, is said to have cut of his left arm in the snow in order to prove his firmness and determination./

二福 二福 [er4 fu2 ] /The bliss of the gods, and the bliss of the saints 聖; v. also 福./

二福田 二福田 [er4 fu2 tian2 ] /The two fields for the cultivation of happiness: (a) 學人田 the eighteen Hīnayāna classes of those under training in religion; (b) 無學人田 the nine divisions of those no longer in training, i.e. who have completed their course. Also (a) 悲田 the pitable or poor and needy, as the field or opportunity for charity; (b) 敬田the field of religion and reverence of the Buddhas, the saints, the priesthood./

二種 二种 [er4 zhong3 ] /Two kinds or classes For those not given below see under二, etc., as for instance 二種世間 see under二世間./

二種佛境 二种佛境 [er4 zhong3 fo2 jing4 ] /The two Buddha-domains: (a) 證境 the Buddha's domain or state of absolute enlightenment; (b) 化境 the domain that the Buddha is transforming./

二種供養 二种供养 [er4 zhong3 gong4 yang3 ] /The two forms of service, or offerings: (1) (a) 出纏供養 to those who have escaped from the toils, e.g. Buddhas; (b) 在纏供養 to those still living in the toils. (2) (a) 財供養 offerings of goods; (b) 法供養 of the Buddha-truth./

二種光明 二种光明 [er4 zhong3 guang1 ming2 ] /The two kinds of light: (1) (a) 色光明 physical light; (b) 智慧光明 or 心光明 wisdom or mental light. (2) (a) 魔光 Māra's delusive light; (b) 佛光 the true light of the Buddha. (3) (a) 常光The constant or eternal light; (b) 現起光 the light in temporary manifestations./

二種因果 二种因果 [er4 zhong3 ] /Two aspects of cause and effect, a division of the 四諦 "four noble truths" (a) 世間因果 in the present life, the 苦諦 being the effect, and the 集諦 the cause; (b) 出世間因果 in the future life, the 滅諦, extinction (of passion, or mortality) being the fruit, and the 道諦 the " eightfold noble path " the cause./

二種子 二种子 [er4 zhong3 zi ] /Two kinds of seed: (1) (a) 本有種子 the seed or latent undivided (moral) force immanent in the highest of the eight 識, i.e. the ālaya-vijñāna; (b) 新薰種子the newly influenced, or active seed when acted upon by the seven other 識, thus becoming productive. (2) (a) 名言種子 The so-called seed which causes moral action similar to 本有種子, e.g. good or evil seed producing good or evil deeds; (b) 業種子 karma seed, the sixth 識 acting with the eighth./

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二種寂靜 二种寂静 [er4 zhong3 ji4 jing4 ] /Two kinds of seclusion, or retirement from the world: Bodily withdrawal into seclusion. Spiritual withdrawal from all evil, and into meditation./

二種布施 二种布施 [er4 zhong3 bu4 shi1 ] /Two kinds of charity: (1) (a) goods; (b) the saving truth. (2) (a) 淨施 Pure charity, expecting no return; (b) the opposite./

二種心相 二种心相 [er4 zhong3 xin1 xiang1 ] /Two kinds of mind: mind in its inner character and influence; in its outer manifestations./

二種忍辱 二种忍辱 [er4 zhong3 ] /Two kinds of patience, or endurance: (a) of the assaults of nature, heat, cold, etc.; (b) of human assaults and insults./

二種性 二种性 [er4 zhong3 xing4 ] /Two kinds of seed-nature, the character of the ālaya seed and its development: (1) (a) 性種子 The original good seed-nature; (b) 習種子 the seed-nature in practice or development. (2) (a) 本性住種性 The immanent abiding original good seed-nature; (b) 習所成種性 the seed productive according to its ground. (3) (a) 聖種性 The seed-nature of the saints, by which they attain nirvana; (b) 愚夫種性 the seed-nature in the foolish and ignorant./

二種授記 二种授记 [er4 zhong3 shou4 ji4 ] /Two classes of Buddha's predictions of a disciple's destiny, 無餘授記prediction in finality, or complete detail; 有餘授記 partial, or incomplete prediction./

二種施 二种施 [er4 zhong3 shi1 ] /v. 二種布施./

二種死 二种死 [er4 zhong3 si3 ] /The two kinds of death, 命盡死 natural death, and 外緣死 violent death, or death from external cause./

二種比丘 二种比丘 [er4 zhong3 bi3 qiu1 ] /Two classes of monks: 多聞比丘 monks who hear and repeat many sūtras, but are not devoted doers; 寡淺比丘 monks who read and repeat few sutras but are devoted in their lives./

二種淸淨 二种淸净 [er4 zhong3 qing1 jing4 ] /Two kinds of purity, according to the Huayan sūtra; 自性淸淨 natural purity, i.e. the natural 眞如 purity; and 離垢淸淨 acquired purity through avoiding pollution./

二種涅槃 二种涅槃 [er4 zhong3 nie4 pan2 ] /Two nirvanas: (1) 有餘涅槃 also 有餘依 That with a remnant; the cause 因 has been annihilated, but the remnant of the effect 果 still remains, so that a saint may enter this nirvana during life, but have to continue to live in this mortal realm till the death of his body. (2) 無餘涅槃 or 無餘依 Remnantless nirvāṇa, without cause and effect, the connection with the chain of mortal life being ended, so that the saint enters upon perfect nirvāṇa on the death of the body; cf. 智度論 31. Another definition is that Hīnayāna has further transmigration, while Mahāyāna maintains final nirvana. "Nothing remnaining" is differently interpreted in different schools, by some literally, but in Mahāyāna generally, as meaning no further mortal suffering, i.e. final nirvāṇa./

二種灌頂 二种灌顶 [er4 zhong3 guan4 ding3 ] /Two forms of esoteric baptism, v. 灌./

二種舍利 二种舍利 [er4 zhong3 she4 li4 ] /Two kinds of relics— the whole body, or parts of it. Also, the Buddha's physical remains or relics, and the sutras, which form his spiritual (dharmakāya) remains./

二種菩薩 二种菩萨 [er4 zhong3 pu2 sa4 ] /Monastic and lay bodhisattvas./

二種菩薩身 二种菩萨身 [er4 zhong3 pu2 sa4 shen1 ] /A bodhisattva's mortal and immortal bodies./

二種病 二种病 [er4 zhong3 bing4 ] /Two kinds of sickness: physical and mental or spiritual./

二種聖 二种圣 [er4 zhong3 sheng4 ] /Two classes of saints or, preachers: those who preach and those who preach without words./

二種資糧 二种资粮 [er4 zhong3 zi1 liang2 ] /The two kinds of (spiritual) provender: charity and wisdom./

二種邪見 二种邪见 [er4 zhong3 xie2 jian4 ] /The two false views, one that of a nihilistic school which denied that earthly happiness is dependent on a moral life; the other a materialistic school which maintained the moral life in the interests of self, sought earthly happiness, and failed to apprehend nirvāṇa./

二種闡提 二种阐提 [er4 zhong3 chan3 ti2 ] /(二種一闡提) Two kinds of icchantika, q.v.: (a) the utterly depraved, abandoned, and blasphemers of Buddha-truth; (b) bodhisattvas who refuse to enter upon their Buddhahood in order to save all beings./

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二空 二空 [er4 kong1 ] /The two voids, unrealities, or immaterialities; v. 空. There are several antitheses: (1) (a) 人空; 我空 The non-reality of the atman, the soul, the person; (6) 法空 the non-reality of things. (2) (a) 性空 The Tiantai division that nothing has a nature of its own; (b) 相空 therefore its form is unreal, i.e. forms are temporary names. (3) (a) 但空 Tiantai says the 藏 and 通 know only the 空; (b) 不但空 the 別 and 圓 have 空, 假, and 中 q.v. (4) (a) 如實空 The division of the 起信論 that the 眞如 is devoid of all impurity; (b) 如實不空 and full of all merit, or achievement./

二空觀 二空观 [er4 kong1 guan1 ] /Two kinds of meditation on the "void', or unreality: (a) 無生觀 the meditation that things are unproduced, having no individual or separate natures, i.e. that all things are void and unreal; cf. 性空; (b) 無相觀 that they are therefore formless, cf. 相空. Also 人 and 法空觀 see above./

二答 二答 [er4 da2 ] /Two kinds of reply, one by words, the other by signs./

二經體 二经体 [er4 jing1 ti3 ] /The two bodies or elements in a sūtra: 文 and 義 the words and the meaning, or ideas./

二罪 二罪 [er4 zui4 ] /The two classes of offence: (a) 性罪 crime which is wrong in itself, e.g. murder, etc.; (b) 遮罪 crime not wrong in itself, e.g. taking alcohol, but forbidden by the Buddha for the sake of the other commandments; transgression of this is therefore a sin against the Buddha./

二美 二美 [er4 mei3 ] /Two excellent things, i.e. meditation and wisdom./

二義 二义 [er4 yi4 ] /The two meanings or teachings, partial and complete; v. 二教./

二翼 二翼 [er4 yi4 ] /A pair of wings: charity and wisdom./

二聖 二圣 [er4 sheng4 ] /Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna 多寶./

二脇士 二胁士 [er4 xie2 shi4 ] /二挾侍 The two attendants by the side of Amitābha, i.e. 觀音 Guanyin and 大勢至 Mahāsthāmaprāpta; also the two by Yaoshi, the Master of Medicine, i.e. 日光 sunlight and 月光 moonlight; also the two by Śākyamuni, i.e. 文殊 Mañjuśrī and 普賢 Samantabhadra./

二般若 二般若 [er4 ban1 ruo4 ] /Two kinds of prajñā, or wisdom. (1) (a) 共般若 The prajñā of the three stages of śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and imperfect Bodhisattva schools; (b) 不共般若 the prajñā of the perfect Bodhisattva teaching—a Tiantai division. (2) (a) 世間般若 temporal prajñā; (b) 出世間般若 supernatural. (3) (a) 實相般若 The first part of the Prajñāpāramitā; (b) 觀照般若 the second part./

二色身 二色身 [er4 se4 shen1 ] /The two rūpakāya or incantation-bodies of a Buddha, his 報身 and 應身 or saṁbhogakāya and nirmāṇakāya, as distinguished from 法身 the dharmakāya./

二處三會 二处三会 [er4 chu4 san1 hui4 ] /The two places from which the Buddha is supposed to have preached the Lotus Sūtra, i.e. the Vulture Peak, the sky, and again the Vulture Peak; the three assemblies are (1) those he addressed from the Peak, chapters 1 to the middle of the eleventh chapter; (2) those addressed from the sky, to the end of the twenty-second chapter; and (3) again those on the Vulture Peak, from the twenty-third chapter to the end./

二苦 二苦 [er4 ku3 ] /Two kinds of suffering: within, e.g. sickness, sorrow; from without, e.g. calamities./

二藏 二藏 [er4 cang2 ] /The two piṭakas or tripiṭakas, i.e. the Buddhist canon: (a) 聲聞藏 the Śrāvaka, or Hīnayāna canon: (b) 菩薩藏 the Bodhisattva, or Mahāyanā canon./

二衆 二众 [er4 zhong4 ] /The two groups: the monks, or clergy; the laity who observe the five and the eight commands./

二行 二行 [er4 xing2 ] /Two classes of conduct: following wrong views; following wrong desires, or emotions. There are other pairs./

二衣 二衣 [er4 yi1 ] /The two kinds of clothing: (a) 制衣 the regulation three robes for monks and five for nuns, which must be worn; (b) 聽衣optional garments./

二見 二见 [er4 jian4 ] /Two (wrong) views: (1) Looking on people grudgingly with regard to almsgiving and preaching the Buddha-truth. (2) (a) 有見 Holding to the real existence of (material) things; (b) 無見 holding to their entire unreality. (3) (a) 斷見 Holding to the view of total annihilation; (b) 常見 to that of permanence or immortality./

二覺 二觉 [er4 jue2 ] /The two enlightenments: (1) The 起信論 has two—(a) 本覺 the immanent mind in all things, e.g. "which lighteth every man that cometh into the world", also defined as the 法身 dharmakāya; (b) 始覺 initial enlightenment or beginning of illumination; this initiation leads on to Buddhahood, or full enlightenment. (2) (a) 等覺 The fifty-first stage of a bodhisattva's 行 位 practice; (b) 妙覺 the fifty-second stage, or enlightenment of Buddhahood.(3) (a)自覺 A Buddha's own or natural enlightenment; (b) 覺他 his enlightening of all others./

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二觀 二观 [er4 guan1 ] /The two universal bases of meditation: 事觀 the external forms, or the phenomenal, and 理觀 the real or underlying nature, i. e. practice and theory./

二解脫 二解脱 [er4 jie3 tuo1 ] /Two kinds of deliverance, mukti or mokṣa: (1) (a) 有爲解脫 Active or earthly deliverance to arhatship; (b) 無爲解脫 nirvana-deliverance. (2) (a) 性淨解脫 The pure, original freedom or innocence; (b) 障盡解脫 deliverance acquired by the ending of all hindrances (to salvation). (3) (a) 慧解脫 The arhat's deliverance from hindrances to wisdom; (b) 具解脫 his complete deliverance in regard to both wisdom and vision 慧 and 定. (4) (a) 時解脫 The dull who take time or are slow in attaining to 定 vision; (b) 不時解脫 the quick or clever who take "no time". (5) (a) 心解脫 A heart or mind delivered from desires; (b) 慧解脫 a mind delivered from ignorance by wisdom./

[quan2 ] /Two kinds of statement, or definition: 遮 latent or negative and 表 patent or positive; e. g. 不生不滅 is a negative statement, 知見覺照 is a positive statement./

二語 二语 [er4 yu3 ] /Double-tongued; also 二舌./

[di4 ] /Two forms of statement: (a) 俗諦 saṃvṛti-satya, also called 世諦, 世俗諦, 覆俗諦, 覆諦, meaning common or ordinary statement, as if phenomena were real; (b) 眞諦 paramartha-satya, also called 第一諦, 勝義諦, meaning the correct dogma or averment of the enlightened. Another definition is 王法 and 佛法, royal law and Buddha law./

[shi2 ] /Ālaya-vijñāna and mano-vijñāna; i. e. 阿梨耶 | and 分別事 |; v. 識./

[hu4 ] /The two protectors: the inner, oneself, by studying and following the Law; the outer, those who supply what is needful for one's body and mind, e. g. supporters./

[pin2 ] /The two kinds of poverty: of goods, and of the religion./

[chao1 ] /Two ways of passing over (to bliss): 豎 the lengthwise, or long way (of Hīnayāna); and 橫 the crosswise, or short way of Mahāyāna./

[zu2 ] /A man's two legs, compared to goodness and wisdom, 福 being counted as the first five of the pāramitās, 智 as the sixth; v. 六度. 二足尊 The honoured one among bipeds or men, i. e. a Buddha; cf. 兩足./

[shen1 ] /Two forms of body; there are numerous pairs, e. g. (1) (a) 分段身 The varied forms of the karmic or ordinary mortal body, or being; (b) 變易身 the transformable, or spiritual body. (2) (a) 生身 The earthly body of the Buddha; (b) 化身 hinirmāṇakāya, which may take any form at will. (3) (a) 生身 his earthly body; (b) 法身 his moral and mental nature—a Hīnayāna definition, but Mahāyāna takes his earthly nirmāṇakāya as the 生身 and his dharmakāya or that and his saṃbhogakāya as 法身. (4) 眞應二身 The dharmakāya and nirmāṇakāya. (5) (a) 實相身 The absolute truth, or light, of the Buddha, i. e. the dharmakāya; (b) 爲物身 the functioning or temporal body. (6) (a) 眞身 the dharmakāya and saṃbhogakāya; (b) 化身 the nirmāṇakāya. (7) (a) 常身 his permanent or eternal body; (b) 無常身 his temporal body. (8) (a) 實身 and 化身 idem 二色身./

[lun2 ] /The two wheels of a cart compared by the Tiantai school to 定 (or to its Tiantai form 止觀) and 慧 meditation and wisdom; see 止觀 5. Also 食 food and 法 the doctrine, i. e. food physical and spiritual./

[dao4 ] /The two Ways: (1) (a) 無礙道 or 無間道 The open or unhindered way, or the way of removing all obstacles or intervention, i. e. all delusion; (b) 解脫道 the way of release, by realization of truth. (2) (a) 難行道 The hard way of "works", i. e. by the six pāramitā and the disciplines. (b) 易行道 the easy way salvation, by the invocation of Amitābha. (3) (a) 有漏道 The way of reincarnation or mortality; (b) 無漏 the enlightened way of escape from the miseries of transmigration. (4) (a) 教道 The way of instruction; (b) 證道 the way of realization. (5) The two lower excretory organs./

[bian1 ] /The two sides, extremes, or antitheses./

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二邊 二边 [er4 bian1 ] /(a) 有邊 That things exist; (6) 無邊 that since nothing is self-existent, things cannot be said to exist. (2) (a) 增益邊 The plus side, the common belief in a soul and permanence; (b) 損減邊 the minus side, that nothing exists even of karma. (3) (a) 斷邊見 and (b) 常邊見 annihilation and immortality; v. 見./

二部五部 二部五部 [er4 bu4 wu3 bu4 ] /The two are the divisions which took place immediately after the Buddha's death into (a) the elder monks or intimate disciples, and (b) the general body of disciples, styled respectively 上座 and 大衆 q.v.; the five are the divisions, which are said to have occurred a century later, into Dharma-guptah 曇無德, Mulasarvastivadah 薩婆多, Mahisasakah 彌沙塞, Kasyapiyah迦葉遣 and Vatsiputriya 姿麤富羅./

二量 二量 [er4 liang4 ] /The two "measurings," or parts of a syllogism : (a) 現量 appearance, e.g. smoke; (b) 比量 inference, e.g. fire from smoke./

二門 二门 [er4 men2 ] /Two doors, entrances, schools, etc. There are many such pairs./

二際 二际 [er4 ji4 ] /The two borders, or states: according to Hīnayāna, nirvana and mortality; according to Mahāyāna the two are one./

二障 二障 [er4 zhang4 ] /The two hindrances:(1) (a) 煩惱障 The passions and delusion which aid rebirth and hinder entrance into nirvana; (b) 智障 or所知障, worldly wisdom e.g. accounting the seeming as real, a hindrance to true wisdom. (2) (a) 煩惱障 as above; (b) 解脱障 hindrances to deliverance. (3) (a)理障 hindrances to truth; (b) 事障 hindrances of the passions, etc./

二頓 二顿 [er4 dun4 ] /The two immediate or direct ways to perfection, as defined by Jingxi 荊溪 of the Huayan school; the gradual direct way of the Lotus; the direct way of the Huayan sutra, which is called the 頓頓頓圓, while that of the Lotus is called the 漸頓漸圓./

二類各生 二类各生 [er4 lei4 ge4 sheng1 ] /The Pure Land will not be limited to those who repeat the name of Amitābha according to his eighteenth vow; but includes those who adopt other ways (as shown in his nineteenth and twentieth vows)./

二類種子 二类种子 [er4 lei4 zhong3 zi ] /v. 二種子./

二食 二食 [er4 shi2 ] /The two kinds of food: (1) (a) The joy of the Law; (b) the bliss of meditation. (2) (a)The right kind of monk's livelihood - by mendicancy; (b) the wrong kind - by any other means./

二餘 二余 [er4 yu2 ] /see 餘./

二鳥 二鸟 [er4 niao3 ] /The drake and the hen of the mandarin duck who are always together, typifying various contrasted theories and ideas, e.g. permanence and impermanence, joy and sorrow, emptiness and non-emptiness, etc./

二鼠 二鼠 [er4 shu3 ] /The black and white rats - night and day./

[ren2 ] /manuṣya; nara; puruṣa; pudgala. Man, the sentient thinking being in the desire-realm, whose past deeds affect his present condition./

人尊 人尊 [ren2 zun1 ] /The Honoured One among or of men, the Buddha./

人分陀利華 人分陀利华 [ren2 fen1 tuo2 li4 hua2 ] /A Lotus among men, a Buddha, also applied to all who invoke Amitābha. 人師子; 人師(or 獅)子./

人雄師子 人雄师子 [ren2 xiong2 shi1 zi ] /A Lion among men, a Buddha./

人樹 人树 [ren2 shu4 ] /The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha./

人尊牛王 人尊牛王 [ren2 zun1 niu2 wang2 ] /The Lord of the herd. These and other similar terms are applied to the Buddha./

人尊三惡 人尊三恶 [ren2 zun1 san1 e4 ] /The three most wicked among men: the Icchantika; v. 一闡提: the slanderers of Mahayana, and those who break the four great commandments./

人中尊 人中尊 [ren2 zhong1 zun1 ] /The Honoured One among or of men, the Buddha./

人中分陀利華 人中分陀利华 [ren2 zhong1 fen1 tuo2 li4 hua2 ] /A Lotus among men, a Buddha, also applied to all who invoke Amitabha./

人中師子 人中师子 [ren2 zhong1 shi1 zi ] /人師(or 獅)子; 人雄師子 A Lion among men, a Buddha./

人中樹 人中树 [ren2 zhong1 shu4 ] /The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha./

人乘 人乘 [ren2 cheng2 ] /One of the five vehicles, v. 五乘, that of the five commandments, the keeping of which ensures rebirth in the world of men./

人人本具 人人本具 [ren2 ren2 ben3 ju4 ] /Every man has by origin the perfect Buddha-nature./

人仙 人仙 [ren2 xian1 ] /The ṛṣi jina, or immortal among men, i.e. the Buddha; also a name for Bimbisāra in his reincarnation./

人伽藍 人伽蓝 [ren2 qie2 lan2 ] /This is given by Eitel as "Narasaṃghārāma of Kapisa,' But this is doubtful./

人吉庶 人吉庶 [ren2 ji2 shu4 ] /mānuṣa-kṛtya; demons shaped like men; domestic slaves, introduced into Kashmir by Madhyāntika; also intp. as "work to be done by men."/

人因 人因 [ren2 yin1 ] /The causative influences for being reborn as a human being, i.e. a good life. Those in positions of honour have obtained them by former deeds of benevolence, reverence to Buddhas and monks, patience, humility, devotion to the sutras, charity, morality, zeal and exhortation, obedience, loyalty - hence they have obtained affluence, long life, and are held in high regard. Those in mean condition are thus born because of the opposite characteristics in previous incarnation./

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人執 人执 [ren2 zhi2 ] /The (false) tenet of a soul, or ego, or permanent individual, i.e. that the individual is real, the ego an independent unit and not a mere combination of the five skandhas produced by cause and in effect disintegrating; v. 我執./

人天 人天 [ren2 tian1 ] /Men and devas./

人天乘 人天乘 [ren2 tian1 cheng2 ] /Two of the 五乘 q.v./

人天教 人天教 [ren2 tian1 jiao4 ] /Two of the 五教 q.v./

人天眼目 人天眼目 [ren2 tian1 yan3 mu4 ] /A summary of the teaching of the 禪 Chan sect by Zhizhao 智照 of the Song dynasty./

人天勝妙善果 人天胜妙善果 [ren2 tian1 sheng4 miao4 shan4 guo3 ] /The highest forms of reincarnation、i.e. those of devas and men./

人定 人定 [ren2 ding4 ] /The third beat of the first watch, 9-11 p.m., when men are settled for the night./

人寳 人宝 [ren2 bao3 ] /The treasure of men, Buddha./

人尊 人尊 [ren2 zun1 ] /idem 人中尊./

人師 人师 [ren2 shi1 ] /A leader or teacher of men./

人師子 人师子 [ren2 shi1 zi ] /nṛsiṃha. The Lion of men, Buddha as leader and commander./

人獅子 人狮子 [ren2 shi1 zi ] /Same as 人師子./

人我 人我 [ren2 wo3 ] /Personality, the human soul, i.e. the false view, 人我見 that every man has a permanent lord within 常一生宰, which he calls the ātman, soul, or permanent self, a view which forms the basis of all erroneous doctrine. Also styled 人見; 我見; 人執; cf. 二我./

人有 人有 [ren2 you3 ] /Human bhāva or existence, one of the 七有./

人法 人法 [ren2 fa3 ] /Men and things; also, men and the Buddha's law, or teaching./

人無我 人无我 [ren2 wu2 wo3 ] /Man as without ego or permanent soul; cf. 人我 and 二無我. Other similar terms are 衆生無我; 生空; 人空 and我空./

人無我智 人无我智 [ren2 wu2 wo3 zhi4 ] /The knowledge, or wisdom, of anātman, cf. 人無我./

人空 人空 [ren2 kong1 ] /Man is only a temporary combination formed by the five skandhas and the twelve nidānas, being the product of previous causes, and without a real self or permanent soul. Hīnayāna is said to end these causes and consequent reincarnation by discipline in subjection of the passions and entry into nirvana by the emptying of the self. Mahāyāna fills the "void" with the Absolute, declaring that when man has emptied himself of the ego he realizes his nature to be that of the absolute, bhūtatathatā; v. 二空./

人空觀 人空观 [ren2 kong1 guan1 ] /The meditation on, or insight into the selflessness of person 人空./

人莽娑 人莽娑 [ren2 mang3 suo1 ] /Human māṃsa or flesh./

人摩娑 人摩娑 [ren2 mo2 suo1 ] /Human māṃsa or flesh./

人藥王 人药王 [ren2 yao4 wang2 ] /Human-touch healing prince, i.e. Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation, whose touch healed all diseases, as did the application of his powdered bones after his decease in that incarnation./

人趣 人趣 [ren2 qu4 ] /人道 The human stage of the six gati, or states of existence./

人身 人身 [ren2 shen1 ] /The human body, or person./

人身牛 人身牛 [ren2 shen1 niu2 ] /Cattle in human shape, stupid ignorant, heedless./

人雄師子 人雄师子 [ren2 xiong2 shi1 zi ] /idem 人中師子./

人非人 人非人 [ren2 ] /A being resembling but not a human being, i.e. a kinnara./

人頭幢 人头幢 [ren2 tou2 chuang2 ] /A human head at the top of a daṇḍa or flagpole, used as one of Yama's symbols; v. 檀茶 (or 檀拏)./

人鬼 人鬼 [ren2 gui3 ] /Men and disembodied spirits, or demons; disembodied ghosts./

[ru4 ] /To enter, entry, entrance; come, bring or take in; at home; awaken to the truth; begin to understand; to relate the mind to reality and thus evolve knowledge./

六入 六入 [liu4 ru4 ] /The "six entries" ṣaḍāyatana, which form one of the links in the chain of causaton, v. 十二因緣 the preceding link being觸contact, and the succeeding link 識 perception. The six are the qualities and effects of the six organs of sense producing sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought (or mental presentations). v. also 二入./

入不二門 入不二门 [ru4 bu4 er4 men2 ] /To enter the school of monism, i.e. that the 一實one great reality is universal and absolute without differentiation./

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入住出三心 入住出三心 [ru4 zhu4 chu1 san1 xin1 ] /Entrance, stay, exit; v. 入心./

入佛 入佛 [ru4 fu2 ] /The bringing in of an image of a Buddha./

入佛供養 入佛供养 [ru4 fu2 gong4 yang3 ] /The ceremony of bringing in a Buddha's image./

入佛平等戒 入佛平等戒 [ru4 fu2 ping2 deng3 jie4 ] /The Buddha-law by which all may attain to Buddhahood./

入信 入信 [ru4 xin4 ] /To believe, or enter into belief./

入出二門 入出二门 [ru4 chu1 er4 men2 ] /The two doors of ingress and egress, i.e. enter the gate of self-purification and adornment, then go forth 出 to benefit and save others./

入嚩羅 入嚩罗 [ru4 mo2 luo1 ] /Flaming, blazing, glowing (jvālā)./

入堂 入堂 [ru4 tang2 ] /v. 入衆./

入堂五法 入堂五法 [ru4 tang2 wu3 fa3 ] /v. 入衆./

入塔 入塔 [ru4 ta3 ] /To inter the bones or body of a monk in a dagoba; v. 入骨./

入壇 入坛 [ru4 tan2 ] /To go to the altar (for baptism, in the esoteric sect)./

入定 入定 [ru4 ding4 ] /To enter into meditation by tranquillizing the body, mouth (i.e. lips), and mind, 身口意./

入室 入室 [ru4 shi4 ] /To enter the master's study for examination or instruction; to enter the status of a disciple, but strictly of an advanced disciple. To receive consecration./

入寂 入寂 [ru4 ji4 ] /To inter into rest, or nirvana; also, to die. Also 入滅 or 入寂滅./

入唐八家 入唐八家 [ru4 tang2 ba1 jia1 ] /The eight Japanese who came to China in the Tang dynasty and studied the 密教esoteric doctrine./

入心 入心 [ru4 xin1 ] /To enter the heart, or mind; also used for 入地 entering a particular state, its three stages being 入住出 entry, stay, and exit./

入我我入 入我我入 [ru4 wo3 wo3 ru4 ] /He in me and I in him, i.e. the indwelling of the Buddha, any Buddha, or the Buddhas./

入文解釋 入文解释 [ru4 wen2 jie3 shi4 ] /The method in expounding scriptures of giving the main idea before proceeding to detailed exposition./

入流 入流 [ru4 liu2 ] /Srota-apama, v. 須陀洹./

入滅 入灭 [ru4 mie4 ] /idem 入寂./

入王宮聚落衣 入王宫聚落衣 [ru4 wang2 gong1 ju4 luo4 yi1 ] /The monk's robe, worn equally for a palace, or for begging in town or hamlet./

入重玄門 入重玄门 [ru4 zhong4 xuan2 men2 ] /To enter again through the dark gate into mortality, e.g. as a bodhisattva does, even into the hells, to save the suffering. Another interpretation is the return of a bodhisattva to common life for further enlightenment./

入聖 入圣 [ru4 sheng4 ] /To become an arhat./

入衆 入众 [ru4 zhong4 ] /To enter the assembly (of monks); also 交衆./

入衆五法 入众五法 [ru4 zhong4 wu3 fa3 ] /Five rules for the entrant - submission, kindness, respect, recognition of rank or order, and none but religious conversation./

入觀 入观 [ru4 guan1 ] /To enter into meditation; it differs from 入定 as 定 means 自心之寂靜 complete stillness of the mind, while 觀 means 自觀照理 thought and study for enlightenment in regard to truth./

入道 入道 [ru4 dao4 ] /To become a monk, 出家入道; to leave home and enter the Way./

入骨 入骨 [ru4 gu3 ] /To inter the bones (of a monk) in a stūpa, or a grave./

入龕 入龛 [ru4 kan1 ] /Entering, or putting into the casket (for cremation); i.e. encoffining a dead monk./

[ba1 ] /aṣṭa, eight./

八不 八不 [ba1 bu4 ] /The eight negations of Nagarjuna, founder of the Mādhyamika or Middle School 三論宗. The four pairs are "neither birth nor death, neither end nor permanence, neither identity nor difference, neither coming nor going." These are the eight negations; add "neither cause nor effect"and there are the 十不 ten negations; v. 八迷./

八不中觀 八不中观 [ba1 bu4 zhong1 guan1 ] /See 八不正觀./

八不正觀 八不正观 [ba1 bu4 zheng4 guan1 ] /Meditation on the eight negations 八不. These eight, birth, death, etc., are the 八迷 eight misleading ideas, or 八計 eight wrong calculations. No objection is made to the terms in the apparent, or relative, sense 俗諦, but in the real or absolute sense 眞諦 these eight ideas are incorrect, and the truth lies between them ; in the relative, mortality need not be denied, but in the absolute we cannot speak of mortality or immortality. In regard to the relative view, beings have apparent birth and apparent death from various causes, but are not really born and do not really die, i.e. there is the difference of appearance and reality. In the absolute there is no apparent birth and apparent death. The other three pairs are similarly studied./

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八不可越 八不可越 [ba1 bu4 ke3 yue4 ] /idem 八敬戒./

八不思議 八不思议 [ba1 bu4 si1 yi4 ] /The eight inexpressibles, or things surpassing thought, i.e. eight qualities of the ocean (depth, extent, etc.) in illustration of nirvāṇa; v. 大海./

八不正見 八不正见 [ba1 bu4 zheng4 jian4 ] /The teaching of the 大集經 26, on the eight incorrect views in regard to (1) 我見 the existence of a permanent ego; (2) 衆生見 the five skandhas as not the constituents of the living; (3)壽命見 fate, or determination of length of life; (4) 士夫見a creator; (5)常見 permanence; (6) 斷見 annihilation; (7) 有見 the reality of things; (8) 無見 their unreality./

八不淨 八不净 [ba1 bu4 jing4 ] /The eight things "unclean" to monks, of which there are different groups. 0ne group is - to keep gold, silver, male slaves, female slaves, cattle, stores, or to trade or farm. Another is - to own cultivated lands, to farm, keep supplies of grain and silk, servants, animals or birds, money, cushions and pans, and furniture and gilded beds./

八不顯實 八不显实 [ba1 bu4 xian3 shi2 ] /By the eight negations of the Mādhyamika doctrine, the true reality of things is shown./

八中洲 八中洲 [ba1 zhong1 zhou1 ] /Each of the "four continents" has two other continents, i.e. Jambudvīpa has Cāmara and Varacāmara; Pūrvavideha has Deha and Videha; Aparagodānīya has Śaṭhā and Uttaramantriṇaḥ; and Uttarakuru has Kuravaḥ and Kaurava; v. 四洲./

八乾 八干 [ba1 gan4 ] /The eight skandhas, or sections of the Abhidharma, v. 八犍度./

八事隨身 八事随身 [ba1 shi4 sui2 shen1 ] /The eight appurtenances of a monk - three garments, bowl, stool, filter, needle and thread, and chopper./

八五三二 八五三二 [ba1 wu3 san1 er4 ] /The four special characteristics of the 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect, i.e. 八識, 五法, 三性, and 二無我 q.v./

八交道 八交道 [ba1 jiao1 dao4 ] /The eight roads in the eight directions, bounded with golden cords, mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra as in certain Buddha-realms./

八佛 八佛 [ba1 fu2 ] /Eight Buddhas of the eastern quarter./

八位 八位 [ba1 wei4 ] /The classification or grades of disciples according to the Tiantai 圓教 perfect teaching, i.e. (1) 觀行卽 grade of the five classes, or stages, of lay disciples; (2) 相似卽 grade of the ten classes of or ordinary monks and nuns; above these are the 分眞卽bodhisattva stages of those progressing towards Buddhahood i.e. (3) 十住, (4) 十行, (5) 十廻向, (6) 十地, (7) 等覺, and (8) the perfect or Buddha stage 究竟卽, i.e. 妙覺. Cf. 六卽./

八位胎藏 八位胎藏 [ba1 wei4 tai1 cang2 ] /The eight stages of the human foetus: 羯羅藍 kalala, the appearance after the first week from conception; 額部曇 arbuda, at end of second week; 閉尸 peśī, third; 健南 ghana, fourth; 鉢羅奢法 praśākhā, limbs formed during fifth week; sixth, hair, nails, and teeth; seventh, the organs of sense, eyes, ears, nose, and tongue; and eighth, complete formation./

八倒 八倒 [ba1 dao4 ] /v. 八顚倒./

八億四千萬念 八亿四千万念 [ba1 yi4 si4 qian1 wan4 nian4 ] /The myriads of "thoughts", or moments in a single day and night, each with its consequences of good and evil; probably 8,400,000,000 is meant./

八勝處 八胜处 [ba1 sheng4 chu4 ] /The eight victorious stages, or degrees, in meditation for overcoming desire, or attachment to the world of sense; v. 八解脫./

八十 八十 [ba1 shi2 ] /aśīti, eighty./

八十一品思惑 八十一品思惑 [ba1 shi2 yi1 pin3 si1 huo4 ] /The eighty-one kinds of illusion, or misleading thoughts, arising out of desire, anger, foolishness, and pride - nine grades in each of the nine realms of desire, of form and beyond form./

八十一法 八十一法 [ba1 shi2 yi1 fa3 ] /The eighty-one divisions in the Prajñā-pāramitā sūtra 大般若經 comprising form 色; mind 心; the five skandhas 五陰; twelve means of sensation 入; eighteen realms 界; four axioms 諦; twelve nidānas因緣; eighteen śūnya 空; six pāramitā 度, and four jñāna 智. Also 八十一科./

八十種好 八十种好 [ba1 shi2 zhong3 hao3 ] /八十隨形好 The eighty notable physical characteristics of Buddha; cf. 三十二相./

八十華嚴經 八十华严经 [ba1 shi2 hua2 yan2 jing1 ] /The translation of the Hua-yen 華嚴經 in eighty chüan, made by Śikṣānanda in the T'ang dynasty./

八十誦律 八十诵律 [ba1 shi2 song4 lv4 ] /The original Vinaya recited by the Buddha's disciple Upāli eighty times during the summer retreat, while the Tripiṭaka was being composed after the Buddha's death./

八句義 八句义 [ba1 ju4 yi4 ] /The eight fundamental principles, intuitional or relating to direct mental vision, of the Ch'an (Zen) School, 禪宗 q.v.; they are 正法眼藏; 涅槃妙心; 實相無情;微妙法門; 不立文字; 教外別傳; 直指人心; 見性成佛./

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八味 八味 [ba1 wei4 ] /The eight savours (or pleasures) of the Buddha's nirvāṇa: 常住 perpetual abode, 寂滅extinction (of distress, etc.), 不老 eternal youth, 不死 immortality, 淸淨 purity, 虛通 absolute freedom (as space), 不動 imperturbility, and 快樂 joy./

八囀聲 八啭声 [ba1 zhuan4 sheng1 ] /(八囀) The eight cases of nouns in Sanskrit, termed Subanta, 蘇漫多, i.e. nirdeśa, upadeśana, kartṛkaraṇa, sampradāna, apādāna, svāmivacana, saṁnidhānārtha, āmahtraṇa./

八圓 八圆 [ba1 yuan2 ] /Eight fundamental characteristics of a 圓教 complete or perfect school of teaching, which must perfectly express 教, 理, 智, 斷, 行, 位, 因, and 果./

八塔 八塔 [ba1 ta3 ] /idem 八大靈塔./

八墮 八堕 [ba1 duo4 ] /idem 八波羅夷./

八多羅樹 八多罗树 [ba1 duo1 luo2 shu4 ] /As high as eight tāla (palmyra) trees, very high./

八大地獄 八大地狱 [ba1 da4 di4 yu4 ] /(八大) The eight great naraka, or hot hells: (1) sañjīva 等活 hell of rebirth into (2) kāla-sūtra 黑繩, i.e. the hell of black cords or chains; (3) saṅghāta 衆合, in which all are squeezed into a mass between two mountains falling together; (4) raurava 號呌; hell of crying and wailing; (5) mahāraurava 大號呌 hell of great crying; (6) tapana 炎熱 hell of burning; (7) pratāpana 大熱 hell of fierce heat; (8) avīci 無間 unintermitted rebirth into its sufferings with no respite. v. 地獄 and 八寒地獄./

八大明王 八大明王 [ba1 da4 ming2 wang2 ] /The eight diamond-kings, or bodhisattvas, in their representations as fierce guardians of Vairocana 大日; 金剛手 is represented as 降三世; 妙吉祥; as 大威德;虛空藏as大笑; 慈氏 as 大輪; 觀自在 as 馬頭; 地藏 as 無能勝明; 除蓋障 as 不動尊 and 普賢as歩擲./

八大在我 八大在我 [ba1 da4 zai4 wo3 ] /The eight great powers of personality or sovereign independence, as one of the four qualities 常樂我淨 of nirvāṇa: powers of self-manifolding, infinite expansion, levitation and transportation, manifesting countless forms permanently in one and the same place, use of one physical organ in place of another, obtaining all things as if nothing, expounding a stanza through countless kalpas, ability to traverse the solid as space. v. 涅槃經 23./

八大菩薩 八大菩萨 [ba1 da4 pu2 sa4 ] /see 八大明王. Another group is given in the 八大菩薩曼荼羅經; another in the 樂師經 translated by Yijing; another in the 八大菩薩經 translated by Faxian; and there are other groups./

八大觀音 八大观音 [ba1 da4 guan1 yin1 ] /The eight Shingon representations of Guanyin: as one of the above 八大明王, as the white-robed one, as a rākṣasī, as with four faces, as with a horse's head, as Mahāsthāmaprāpta 大勢至, and as Tārā 陀羅./

八大辛苦 八大辛苦 [ba1 da4 xin1 ku3 ] /idem 八苦./

八大童子 八大童子 [ba1 da4 tong2 zi ] /The eight messengers of 不動明王, also known as 八大金剛童子; Mañjuśrī also has eight./

八大金剛明王 八大金刚明王 [ba1 da4 jin1 gang1 ming2 wang2 ] /or 八大金剛童子The eight attendants on 不動明王 (cf. 八大明王). They are 慧光, 慧喜, 阿耨達多, 指德, 烏倶婆迦, 淸德, 矜羯羅, and制吒迦./

八大靈塔 八大灵塔 [ba1 da4 ling2 ta3 ] /The eight great "spirit", or sacred stūpas erected at (1) Kapilavastu, Buddha's birthplace; (2) Magadha, where he was first enlightened; (3) the deer-park Benares, where he first preached; (4) Jetavana, where he revealed his supernatural powers; (5) Kanyākubja (Kanauj), where he descended from Indra's heavens; (6) Rājagṛha, where Devadatta was destroyed and the Saṅgha purifed; (7) Vaiśāli, where he announced his speedy nirvana; (8) Kuśinagara, where he entered nirvāṇa. There is another slightly variant list./

八字 八字 [ba1 zi4 ] /The eight leading characters of the 聖行 chapter in the Nirvāṇa sūtra 生滅滅巳寂滅爲樂, the teaching of the sūtra is death, or nirvāṇa, as entry into joy./

八字布字 八字布字 [ba1 zi4 bu4 zi4 ] /The eight magic words to be placed on eight parts of the body./

八字文殊法 八字文殊法 [ba1 zi4 wen2 shu1 fa3 ] /The eight-word dhāraṇī, esoteric methods connected with Vairocana and Mañjuśrī./

八天 八天 [ba1 tian1 ] /The eight devalokas, i.e. four dhyāna devalokas of the region of form, and four arūpalokas; 四禪天 and 四空處./

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八定 八定 [ba1 ding4 ] /The eight degrees of fixed abstraction, i.e. the four dhyānas corresponding to the four divisions in the heavens of form, and the four degrees of absolute fixed abstraction on the 空 or immaterial, corresponding to the arūpadhātu, i.e. heavens of formlessness./

八宗 八宗 [ba1 zong1 ] /or 八家 Eight of the early Japanese sects: 倶舍 Kusha, 成實 Jōjitsu, 律 Ritsu, 法相Hossō, 三論 Sanron, 華嚴 Kegon, 天台 Tendai, 眞言 Shingon./

八宗九宗 八宗九宗 [ba1 zong1 jiu3 zong1 ] /八家九宗 The eight Japanese schools 八宗 with the Zen 禪 school added. The first four are almost or entirely extinct./

八寒八熱 八寒八热 [ba1 han2 ba1 re4 ] /The eight cold and eight hot hells./

八寒地獄 八寒地狱 [ba1 han2 di4 yu4 ] /Also written 八寒冰地獄. The eight cold narakas, or hells: (1) 頞浮陀 arbuda, tumours, blains; (2) 泥羅浮陀 nirarbuda, enlarged tumors; 疱裂bursting blains; (3) 阿叱叱 aṭaṭa, chattering (teeth); (4) 阿波波 hahava, or ababa, the only sound possible to frozen tongues; (5) 嘔侯侯ahaha, or hahava, ditto to frozen throats; (6) 優鉢羅 utpala, blue lotus flower, the flesh being covered with sores resembling it; (7) 波頭摩padma, red lotus flower, ditto; (8) 分陀利puṇḍarīka, the great lotus, ditto. v. 地獄 and大地獄./

八尊重法 八尊重法 [ba1 zun1 zhong4 fa3 ] /idem 八敬戒./

八師 八师 [ba1 shi1 ] /The eight teachers―murder, robbery, adultery, lying, drinking, age, sickness, and death; v. 八師經./

八忍 八忍 [ba1 ren3 ] /The eight kṣānti, or powers of patient endurance, in the desire-realm and the two realms above it, necessary to acquire the full realization of the truth of the Four Axioms, 四諦; these four give rise to the 四法忍, i.e. 苦, 集, 滅, 道法忍, the endurance or patient pursuit that results in their realization. In the realm of form and the formless, they are called the 四類忍. By patient meditation the 見惑 false or perplexed views will cease, and the八智 eight kinds of jñāna or gnosis be acquired; therefore 智 results from忍 and the sixteen, 八忍八智 (or 觀), are called the 十六心, i.e. the sixteen mental conditions during the stage of 見道, when 惑 illusions or perplexities of view are destroyed. Such is the teaching of the 唯識宗. The 八智 are 苦, 集, 滅,道法智 and 苦, etc. 類智./

八念法 八念法 [ba1 nian4 fa3 ] /Or 八念門. Eight lines of thought, in the智度論 21 , for resisting Māra-attacks and evil promptings during the meditation on impurity, etc.; i.e. thought of the Buddha, of the Law (or Truth), the fraternity, the commandments, alms-giving, the devas, breathing, and death. There are also the 大人八念 , i.e. that truth 道 is obtained through absence of desire, contentment, aloneness, zeal, correct thinking, a fixed mind, wisdom, and inner joy. v. 八念經./

八思巴 八思巴 [ba1 si1 ba1 ] /Also 發思巴 Bashpa, Phagspa, Baghcheba, Blo-gros-rgyal-mtshah, Chos-rgyal-ḥphags-pa. A śramaṇa of Tibet, teacher and confidential adviser of Kublai Khan, who appointed him head of the Buddhist church of Tibet A.D. 1260. He is the author of a manual of Buddhist terminology彰所知論 and translated another work into Chinese. In A.D. 1269 he constructed an alphabet for the Mongol language, "adapted from the Tibetan and written vertically," and a syllabary borrowed from Tibetan, known by the name of Hkhor-yig, for which, however, the Lama Chos-kyi-hod-zer 1307-1311 substituted another alphabet based on that of Śākya-paṇḍita./

八慢 八慢 [ba1 man4 ] /The eight kinds of pride, māna, arrogance, or self-conceit, 如慢 though inferior, to think oneself equal to others (in religion); 慢慢 to think oneself superior among manifest superiors; 不如慢 to think oneself not so much inferior among manifest superiors; 增上慢 to think one has attained more than is the fact, or when it is not the fact; 我慢 self-superiority, or self-sufficiency; 邪慢 pride in false views, or doings; 憍慢 arrogance; 大慢 extreme arrogance./

八憍 八憍 [ba1 jiao1 ] /The eight kinds of pride, or arrogance, resulting in domineering: because of strength; of clan, or name; of wealth; of independence, or position; of years, or age; of cleverness, or wisdom; of good or charitable deeds; of good looks. Of these, eight birds are named as types: 鴟梟 two kinds of owl, eagle, vulture, crow, magpie, pigeon, wagtail./

八成 八成 [ba1 cheng2 ] /idem 八相成道. 八成立因 The eight factors of a Buddhist syllogism./

八戒 八戒 [ba1 jie4 ] /(八戒齋) The first eight of the ten commandments, see 戒; not to kill; not to take things not given; no ignoble (i.e. sexual) conduct; not to speak falsely; not to drink wine; not to indulge in cosmetics, personal adornments, dancing, or music; not to sleep on fine beds, but on a mat on the ground; and not to eat out of regulation hours, i.e. after noon. Another group divides the sixth into two―against cosmetics and adornments and against dancing and music; the first eight are then called the eight prohibitory commands and the last the 齋 or fasting commandment. Also 八齋戒; 八關齋 (八支齋) ; cf. 八種勝法./

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八教 八教 [ba1 jiao4 ] /The eight Tiantai classifications of Śākyamuni's teaching, from the Avataṁsaka to the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, divided into the two sections (1) 化法四教 his four kinds of teaching of the content of the Truth accommodated to the capacity of his disciples; (2) 化儀四教 his four modes of instruction. (1) The four 化法教 are: (a) 三藏教 The Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching, for śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattva doctrine being subordinate; it also included the primitive śūnya doctrine as developed in the Satyasiddhi śāstra. (b) 教通His later "intermediate" teaching which contained Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna doctrine for śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, to which are attributed the doctrines of the Dharmalakṣaṇa or Yogācārya and Mādhyamika schools. (c) 別教 His differentiated , or separated, bodhisattva teaching, definitely Mahāyāna. (d) 圓教 His final, perfect, bodhisattva, universal teaching as preached, e.g. in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras. (2) The four methods of instruction 化儀 are: (a) 頓教 Direct teaching without reserve of the whole truth, e.g. the 華嚴 sūtra. (b) 漸教 Gradual or graded, e.g. the 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; all the four 化法 are also included under this heading. (c) 祕密教 Esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly. (d) 不定教 General or indeterminate teaching, from which each hearer would derive benefit according to his interpretation./

八敬戒 八敬戒 [ba1 jing4 jie4 ] /The eight commands given by the Buddha to his foster-mother, i.e. aunt, when she was admitted to the order, and which remain as commands to nuns: (1) even though a hundred years old a nun must pay respect to a monk, however young, and offer her seat to him; (2) must never scold a monk; (3) never accuse, or speak of his misdeeds; but a monk may speak of hers; (4) at his hands obtain reception into the order; (5) confess sin (sexual or other) before the assembly of monks and nuns; (6) ask the fraternity for a monk as preceptor; (7) never share the same summer resort with monks; (8) after the summer retreat she must report and ask for a responsible confessor. Also 八敬法; 八不可越法 (or 八不可過法) ; 八尊重法; v. 四分律 48./

八支 八支 [ba1 zhi1 ] /idem 八正道 also the eight sections of the 八支 śāstra; also a term for the first eight commandments./

八方上下 八方上下 [ba1 fang1 shang4 xia4 ] /The four quarters, the four 維 half-quarters and above and below, i.e. the universe in all directions./

八方天 八方天 [ba1 fang1 tian1 ] /The eight heavens and devas at the eight points of the compass: E., the Indra, or Śakra heaven; S., the Yama heaven; W., the Varuna, or water heaven; N., the Vaiśramana, or Pluto heaven; N.E., the Īśāna, or Śiva heaven; S.E., the Homa, or fire heaven; S.W., the Nirṛti, or Rakṣa heaven; N.W., the Vāyu, or wind heaven. All these may be considered as devalokas or heavens./

八時 八时 [ba1 shi2 ] /An Indian division of the day into eight "hours", four for day and four for night./

八智 八智 [ba1 zhi4 ] /The 四法智 and 四類智; see 八忍./

八會 八会 [ba1 hui4 ] /The 華嚴經 Hua-yen sūtra, as delivered at eight assemblies./

八棄 八弃 [ba1 qi4 ] /idem 八波羅夷./

八正道 八正道 [ba1 zheng4 dao4 ] /(八正道分) Āryamārga. The eight right or correct ways, the "eightfold noble path" for the arhat to nirvāṇa; also styled 八道船, 八正門, 八由行, 八游行, 八聖道支, 八道行, 八直行, 八直道. The eight are: (1) 正見Samyag-dṛṣṭi, correct views in regard to the Four Axioms, and freedom from the common delusion. (2) 正思 Samyak-saṁkalpa, correct thought and purpose. (3) 正語 Samyag-vāc, correct speech, avoidance of false and idle talk. (4) 正業 Samyak-karmānta, correct deed, or conduct, getting rid of all improper action so as to dwell in purity. (5) 正命 Smnyag-ājīva, correct livelihood or occupation, avoiding the five immoral occupations. (6) 正精進 Samyag-vyāyāma, correct zeal, or energy in uninterrupted progress in the way of nirvāṇa. (7) 正念 Samyak-smṛti, correct remembrance, or memory, which retains the true and excludes the false. (8) 正定 Samyak-samadhi, correct meditation, absorption, or abstraction. The 正 means of course Buddhist orthodoxy, anything contrary to this being 邪 or heterodox, and wrong./

八正道經 八正道经 [ba1 zheng4 dao4 jing1 ] /Buddha-bhāṣita-aṣṭaṅga-samyaṅ-mārga-sūtra. Tr. by An Shigao of the Eastern Han B.N.659; being an earlier translation of the Samyuktāgama 雜阿含經./

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八水 八水 [ba1 shui3 ] /Eight rivers of India—Ganges, Jumna, 薩羅? Sarasvatī, Hiraṇyavatī or Ajiravatī, 魔河? Mahī, Indus, Oxus, and Sītā./

八法 八法 [ba1 fa3 ] /The eight dharmas, things, or methods. There are three groups: (1) idem 八風 q.v. (2) 四大and 四微 q.v. (3) The eight essential things, i.e. 教 instruction, 理 doctrine, 智 knowledge or wisdom attained, 斷 cutting away of delusion, 行 practice of the religious life, 位 progressive status, 因 producing 果 the fruit of saintliness. Of these 教理行果 are known as the 四法./

八波羅夷 八波罗夷 [ba1 bo1 luo1 yi2 ] /or 八重罪 The eight pārājika, in relation to the sins of a nun; for the first four see 四波羅夷; (5) libidinous contact with a male; (6) any sort of improper association (leading to adultery); (7) concealing the misbehaviour (of an equal, or inferior); (8) improper dealings with a monk./

八海 八海 [ba1 hai3 ] /v. 九山八海./

八無暇 八无暇 [ba1 wu2 xia2 ] /The eight conditions of no leisure or time to hear a Buddha or his truth, idem 八難./

八無礙 八无碍 [ba1 wu2 ai4 ] /The eight universalized powers of the六識 six senses, 意根 the mind and the 法界 dharmadhātu./

八熱地獄 八热地狱 [ba1 re4 di4 yu4 ] /v. 八大地獄./

八犍度 八犍度 [ba1 jian1 du4 ] /The eight skandhas or sections of the Abhidharma, i.e. miscellaneous; concerning bondage to the passions, etc.; wisdom; practice; the four fundamentals, or elements; the roots, or organs; meditation; and views. The 八犍論 in thirty sections, attributed to Kātyāyana, is in the Abhidharma./

八王子 八王子 [ba1 wang2 zi ] /The eight sons of the last of the 20,000 shining Buddhas 燈明佛 born before he left home to become a monk; their names are given in the first chapter of the Lotus sūtra. In Japan there are also eight sons of a Shinto deity, reincarnated as one of the six Guanyin./

八王日 八王日 [ba1 wang2 ri4 ] /The eight royal days, i.e. the solstices, the equinoxes, and the first day of each of the four seasons./

八由行 八由行 [ba1 you2 xing2 ] /also 八直行 (or 道) idem 八正道./

八相成道 八相成道 [ba1 xiang1 cheng2 dao4 ] /(八相) also 八相示現 Eight aspects of the Buddha's life, which the 起信論 gives as: (1) descent into and abode in the Tuṣita heaven; (2) entry into his mother's womb; (3) abode there visibly preaching to the devas; (4) birth from mother's side in Lumbinī; (5) leaving home at 19 (or 25) as a hermit; (6) after six years' suffering attaining enlightenment; (7) rolling the Law-wheel, or preaching; (8) at 80 entering nirvāṇa. The 四教義 group of Tiantai is slightly different — descent from Tuṣita, entry into womb, birth, leaving home, subjection of Māra, attaining perfect wisdom, preaching, nirvana. See also the two 四相, i.e. 四本相 and 四隨相./

八神變 八神变 [ba1 shen2 bian4 ] /idem 八變化./

八祖相承 八祖相承 [ba1 zu3 xiang1 cheng2 ] /The succession of the eight founders of the esoteric sect, 眞言 or Shingon, i.e. 大日, 金剛, 龍猛, 龍智, 金剛智, 不空, 惠果 and the Japanese 弘法./

八禁 八禁 [ba1 jin4 ] /idem 八戒./

八福生處 八福生处 [ba1 fu2 sheng1 chu4 ] /The eight happy conditions in which he may be reborn who keeps the five commands and the ten good ways and bestows alms: (1) rich and honourable among men; (2) in the heavens of the four deva kings; (3) the Indra heavens; (4) Suyāma heavens; (5) Tuṣita heaven; (6) 化樂nirmāṇarati heaven, i.e. the fifth devaloka; (7) 他化 Paranirmita-vaśavartin, i.e. the sixth devaloka heaven; (8) the brahma-heavens. 八福田 The eight fields for cultivating blessedness: Buddhas; arhats (or saints); preaching monks (upādhyāya); teachers (ācārya); friars; father; mother; the sick. Buddhas, arhats, and friars (or monks in general) are termed 敬田 reverence-fields; the sick are 悲田 compassion-fields; the rest are 恩田grace- or gratitude- fields. Another group is: to make roads and wells; canals and bridges; repair dangerous roads; be dutiful to parents; support monks; tend the sick; save from disaster or distress; provide for a quinquennial assembly. Another: serving the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha; the Law; the Order; parents; the monks as teachers; the poor; the sick; animals./

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八種別解脫戒 八种别解脱戒 [ba1 zhong3 bie2 jie3 tuo1 jie4 ] /Differentiated rules of liberation for the eight orders—monks; nuns; mendicants; novices male; and female; disciples male; and female; and the laity who observe the first eight commandments./

八種勝法 八种胜法 [ba1 zhong3 sheng4 fa3 ] /The eight kinds of surpassing things, i.e. those who keep the first eight commandments receive the eight kinds of reward―they escape from falling into the hells; becoming pretas; or animals; or asuras; they will be born among men, become monks, and obtain the truth; in the heavens of desire; in the brahma-heaven, or meet a Buddha; and obtain perfect enlightenment./

八種粥 八种粥 [ba1 zhong3 zhou1 ] /The eight kinds of congee, or gruel, served by the citizens to the Buddha and his disciples when in retreat in the bamboo grove of Kāśī; they were of butter, or fats, or hempseed, milk, peas, beans, sesamum, or plain gruel./

八種 八种 [ba1 zhong3 ] /(布) 施 Eight causes of giving―convenience; fear; gratitude; reward-seeking; traditional (or customary); hoping for heaven; name and fame; personal virtue./

八種授記 八种授记 [ba1 zhong3 shou4 ji4 ] /The eight kinds of prediction―made known to self, not to others; to others not to self; to self and others; unknown to self or others; the near made known but the remote not; the remote made known but not the intermediate steps; near and remote both made known; near and remote both not made known./

八種法 八种法 [ba1 zhong4 fa3 ] /idem 八戒; also eight divisions of the 五十法 q.v. | | 清風 Pleasant breezes from the eight directions of the compass./

八穢 八秽 [ba1 hui4 ] /Eight things unclean to a monk: buying land for self, not for Buddha or the fraternity; ditto cultivating; ditto laying by or storing up; ditto keeping servants (or slaves); keeping animals (for slaughter); treasuring up gold, etc.; ivory and ornaments; utensils for private use./

八童子 八童子 [ba1 tong2 zi ] /idem 八大金剛童子./

八筏 八筏 [ba1 fa2 ] /The eight rafts, idem 八正道 The eightfold noble path./

八纏 八缠 [ba1 chan2 ] /The eight entanglements, or evils: to be without shame; without a blush; envious; mean; unregretful; sleepy (or indolent); ambitious; stupid (or depressed)./

八聖 八圣 [ba1 sheng4 ] /The 四向 and 四果 of śrāvakas./

八聖 八圣 [ba1 sheng4 ] /(道支) idem 八正道./

八背捨 八背舍 [ba1 bei4 she3 ] /idem 八解脫./

八臂天 八臂天 [ba1 bi4 tian1 ] /The eight-arm deva; an epithet of Brahma as Nārāyaṇadeva 那羅延天 creator of men./

八自在 八自在 [ba1 zi4 zai4 ] /idem 八變化 and 八大自在./

八色幡 八色幡 [ba1 se4 fan1 ] /The Amitābha eight pennons of various colours, indicating the eight directions of space./

八苦 八苦 [ba1 ku3 ] /The eight distresses―birth, age, sickness, death, parting with what we love, meeting with what we hate, unattained aims, and all the ills of the five skandhas./

八菩薩 八菩萨 [ba1 pu2 sa4 ] /idem 八大菩薩./

八萬 八万 [ba1 wan4 ] /An abbreviation for 八萬四 (八萬四千) The number of atoms in the human body is supposed to be 84,000. Hence the term is used for a number of things, often in the general sense of a great number. It is also the age apex of life in each human world. There are the 84,000 stūpas erected by Aśoka, each to accommodate one of the 84.000 relics of the Buddha's body; also the 84,000 forms of illumination shed by Amitābha; the 84,000 excellent physical signs of a Buddha; the 84,000 mortal distresses, i.e. 84,000 煩惱 or 塵勞; also the cure found in the 84,000 methods, i.e. 法藏, 法蘊, 法門, or教門./

八萬十二 八万十二 [ba1 wan4 shi2 er4 ] /An abbreviation for 八萬四千法藏 the 84,000 teachings or lessons credited to the Buddha for the cure of all sufferings, and the二部經 12 sūtras in which they are contained./

八萬威儀 八万威仪 [ba1 wan4 wei1 yi2 ] /The bodhisattva's 80,000 duties./

八葉 八叶 [ba1 ye4 ] /The eight lotus-petals, a name for Sumeru./

八葉院 八叶院 [ba1 ye4 yuan4 ] /is the central court of the 胎藏界with Vairocana as its central figure, also termed 八葉蓮臺 or 八葉座 An esoteric name for the heart is the eight-petal fleshly heart, and being the seat of meditation it gives rise to the term eight-leaf lotus meditation./

八覺 八觉 [ba1 jue2 ] /The eight (wrong) perceptions or thoughts, i.e. desire; hate; vexation (with others); 親里 home-sickness; patriotism (or thoughts of the country's welfare); dislike of death; ambition for one's clan or family; slighting or being rude to others. 華嚴經 13./

八解脫 八解脱 [ba1 jie3 tuo1 ] /aṣṭa-vimokṣa, mokṣa, vimukti, mukti. Liberation, deliverance, freedom, emancipation, escape, release―in eight forms; also 八背捨 and cf. 解脫 and 八勝處. The eight are stages of mental concentration: (1) 内有色想觀外色解脱 Liberation, when subjective desire arises, by examination of the object, or of all things and realization of their filthiness. (2) 内無色想觀外色解脫 Liberation, when no subjective desire arises, by still meditating as above. These two are deliverance by meditation on impurity, the next on purity. (3) 淨身作證具足住解脫 Liberation by concentration on the pure to the realization of a permanent state of freedom from all desire. The above three "correspond to the four Dhyānas". (Eitel.) (4) 空無邊處解脫 Liberation in realization of the infinity of space, or the immaterial. (5) 識無邊處解脫 Liberation in realization of infinite knowledge. (6) 無所有處解脫Liberation in realization of nothingness, or nowhereness. (7) 非想非非想處解脫 Liberation in the state of mind where there is neither thought nor absence of thought. These four arise out of abstract meditation in regard to desire and form, and are associated with the 四空天. (8) 滅受 想定解脫 Liberation by means of a state of mind in which there is final extinction, nirvāṇa, of both sensation, vedanā, and consciousness, saṁjñā./

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八觸 八触 [ba1 chu4 ] /Eight physical sensations which hinder meditation in its early stages: restlessness, itching, buoyancy, heaviness, coldness, heat, roughness, smoothness. 止觀 8./

八論 八论 [ba1 lun4 ] /The eight śāstras ; there are three lists of eight; one non-Buddhist; one by 無着 Asaṅga, founder of the Yoga School; a third by 陳那 Jina Dinnāga. Details are given in the 寄歸傳 4 and 解纜鈔 4./

八諦 八谛 [ba1 di4 ] /The eight truths, postulates, or judgments of the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school, i.e. four common or mundane, and four of higher meaning. The first four are (1) common postulates on reality, considering the nominal as real, e.g. a pot; (2) common doctrinal postulates, e.g. the five skandhas; (3) abstract postulates, e.g. the four noble truths 四諦; and (4) temporal postulates in regard to the spiritual in the material. The second abstract or philosophical four are (5) postulates on constitution and function, e.g. of the skandhas; (6) on cause and effect, e.g. the 四諦; (7) on the void, the immaterial, or reality; and (8) on the pure inexpressible ultimate or absolute./

八識 八识 [ba1 shi2 ] /The eight parijñāna, or kinds of cognition, perception, or consciousness. They are the five senses of cakṣur-vijñāna, śrotra-v., ghrāna-v., jihvā-v., and kāya-v., i.e. seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touch. The sixth is mano-vijñāna, the mental sense, or intellect, v. 末那. It is defined as 意 mentality, apprehension, or by some as will. The seventh is styled kliṣṭa-mano-vijñāna 末那識 discriminated from the last as 思量 pondering, calculating; it is the discriminating and constructive sense, more than the intellectually perceptive; as infected by the ālaya-vijñāna., or receiving "seeds" from it, it is considered as the cause of all egoism and individualizing, i.e. of men and things, therefore of all illusion arising from assuming the seeming as the real. The eighth is the ālaya-vijñāna, 阿頼耶識 which is the storehouse, or basis from which come all "seeds"of consciousness. The seventh is also defined as the ādāna 阿陀那識 or "laying hold of" or "holding on to" consciousness./

八識心王 八识心王 [ba1 shi2 xin1 wang2 ] /The eight fundamental powers of the 八識 and 八識心所 the eight powers functioning, or the concomitant sensations./

八識體一 八识体一 [ba1 shi2 ti3 yi1 ] /The eight perceptions are fundamentally unity, opposed by the 唯識 school with the doctrine 八識體別 that they are fundamentally discrete./

八辯 八辩 [ba1 bian4 ] /Eight characteristics of a Buddha's speaking: never hectoring; never misleading or confused; fearless; never haughty; perfect in meaning; and in flavour; free from harshness; seasonable (or, suited to the occasion)./

八變化 八变化 [ba1 bian4 hua4 ] /Eight supernatural powers of transformation, characteristics of every Buddha: (1) to shrink self or others, or the world and all things to an atom; (2) to enlarge ditto to fill all space; (3) to make the same light as a feather; (4) to make the same any size or anywhere at will; (5) everywhere and in everything to be omnipotent; (6) to be anywhere at will, either by self-transportation, or bringing the destination to himself, etc; (7) to shake all things (in the six, or eighteen ways); (8) to be one or many and at will pass through the solid or through space, or through fire or water, or transform the four elements at will, e.g. turn earth into water. Also 八神變; 八自在./

八輪 八轮 [ba1 lun2 ] /The eight (spoke) wheel, idem 八正道./

八輩 八辈 [ba1 bei4 ] /The eight grades, i.e. those who have attained the 四向 and 四果./

八迷 八迷 [ba1 mi2 ] /The eight misleading terms, which form the basis of the logic of the 中論, i.e. 生 birth, 滅 death, 去 past, 來 future, 一 identity, 異 difference, 斷 annihilation, 常 perpetuity (or eternity). The 三論宗 regards these as unreal; v. 八不中道./

八游行 八游行 [ba1 you2 xing2 ] /idem 八正道./

八道 八道 [ba1 dao4 ] /(八支 or 八船 or 八行) idem 八正道./

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八遮 八遮 [ba1 zhe1 ] /A 三論 term for 八不中道 q.v./

八邪 八邪 [ba1 xie2 ] /The eight heterodox or improper practices, the opposite of the eight correct paths八正道./

八部 八部 [ba1 bu4 ] /(八部衆) The eight classes of supernatural beings in the Lotus sūtra: 天 deva, 龍 nāga, 夜叉yakṣa, 乾闥婆 gandharva, 阿修羅 asura, 迦樓羅 garuḍa, 緊那羅 kinnara, 摩喉羅迦 mahoraga. Also called 天龍八部 and 龍神八部./

八部鬼衆 八部鬼众 [ba1 bu4 gui3 zhong4 ] /The eight groups of demon-followers of the four mahārājas, i.e. gandharvas, piśācas, kumbhāṇḍas, pretas, nāgas, pūtanas, yakṣas, and rākṣasas./

八重眞寶 八重眞宝 [ba1 zhong4 zhen1 bao3 ] /The eight weighty and truly precious things, i.e. the eight metals, which depend for evaluation on gold, the highest and greatest, used to illustrate the Buddha as supreme and the other classes in grades beneath him. Also 八重無價, i.e. the eight priceless things./

八門 八门 [ba1 men2 ] /(八門二悟 or 八門兩益) Eight kinds of syllogisms in Buddhist logic; v. 因明八正理諭. (1) 能立a valid proposition; (2) 能破 an invalid proposition; (3) 似能立 doubtful, or seemingly valid but faulty; (4) 似能破 seemingly invalid, and assailable; (5) 現量manifest, or evidential; (6) 比量 inferential; (7) 似現量 seemingly evidential; (8) 似比量 seemingly inferential./

八關齊 八关齐 [ba1 guan1 qi2 ] /idem 八戒齊./

八難 八难 [ba1 nan2 ] /The eight conditions in which it is difficult to see a Buddha or hear his dharma: in the hells: as hungry ghosts; as animals; in Uttarakuru (the northern continent where all is pleasant); in the long-life heavens (where life is long and easy); as deaf, blind, and dumb; as a worldly philosopher; in the intermediate period between a Buddha and his successor. Also 八無暇./

八音 八音 [ba1 yin1 ] /The eight tones of a Buddha's voice―beautiful, flexible, harmonious, respect-producing, not effeminate (i.e. manly), unerring, deep and resonant./

八顚倒 八顚倒 [ba1 dian1 dao4 ] /The eight upside-down views: heretics believe in 常樂我淨 permanence, pleasure, personality, and purity; the two Hīnayāna vehicles deny these both now and in nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna denies them now, but asserts them in nirvāṇa. Also 八倒./

八風 八风 [ba1 feng1 ] /The eight winds, or influences which fan the passions, i.e. gain, loss; defamation, eulogy; praise, ridicule; sorrow, joy. Also 八法./

八魔 八魔 [ba1 mo2 ] /The eight Māras, or destroyers: 煩惱魔 the māras of the passions; 陰魔 the skandha-māras, v. 五陰; 死魔 death-māra ; 他化自在天魔 the māra-king. The above four are ordinarily termed the four māras: the other four are the four Hīnayāna delusions of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, i.e. 無常 impermanence; 無樂 joylessness; 無我 impersonality; 無淨 impurity; cf. 八顚倒./

八齋 八斋 [ba1 zhai1 ] /(八齋戒) idem 八戒齋./

刀山 刀山 [dao1 shan1 ] /The hill of swords in one of the hells./

刀途 刀途 [dao1 tu2 ] /The gati or path of rebirth as an animal, so called because animals are subjects of the butcher's knife./

刀風 刀风 [dao1 feng1 ] /The wind that cuts all living beings to pieces—at the approach of a world-kalpa's end; also described as the disintegrating force at death./

[li4 ] /bala; power, strength, of which there are several categories: 二力 power of choice and of practice; 三力 the power of Buddha; of meditation (samādhi) and of practice. 五力 pañcabala, the five powers of faith, zeal, memory (or remembering), meditation, and wisdom. 六力 A child's power is in crying; a woman's in resentment; a king's in domineering; an arhat's in zeal (or progress); a Buddha's in mercy; and a bhikṣu's in endurance (of despite) . 十力 q.v. The ten powers of Buddhas and bodhisattvas./

力士 力士 [li4 shi4 ] /力者 vīra. A strong or mighty man, hero, demigod. Used for the Licchavi, also 離車; 梨車 (or 黎車); 栗呫媻. The terms 力士城 and 力士生地 are defined as Kuśinagara./

力者法師 力者法师 [li4 zhe3 fa3 shi1 ] /A monk who degrades himself by becoming a fighter (e.g. boxer), or a slave./

力波羅蜜 力波罗蜜 [li4 bo1 luo2 mi4 ] /The vīrya-pāramitā./

力波羅蜜菩薩 力波罗蜜菩萨 [li4 bo1 luo2 mi4 pu2 sa4 ] /The bodhisattva vīrya-pāramitā. One of the twenty-eight honoured ones in the Garbhadhātu group./

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力無畏 力无畏 [li4 wu2 wei4 ] /(力無所畏) The 力 is intp. as the ten powers of a Buddha, the 無所畏 are his four qualities of fearlessness./

力生 力生 [li4 sheng1 ] /Power-born; one who is born from the Truth, a monk./

[shi2 ] /Daśa, ten, the perfect number./

十一 十一 [shi2 yi1 ] /ekādaśa, eleven./

十一切處 十一切处 [shi2 yi1 qie4 chu4 ] /Ten universals, or modes of contemplating the universe from ten aspects, i.e. from the viewpoint of earth, water, fire, wind blue, yellow, red, white, space, or mind. For example, contemplated under the aspect of water, then the universe is regarded as in flux and change. Also called 十禪支, 十遍處定. It is one of the 三法./

十一面觀音 十一面观音 [shi2 yi1 mian4 guan1 yin1 ] /The eleven-faced Guanyin, especially connected with tantric performances, ekādaśamukha; there are three or more sūtras on the subject./

十三 十三 [shi2 san1 ] /Trayodasa; thirteen./

十三佛 十三佛 [shi2 san1 fu2 ] /The thirteen Shingon rulers of the dead during the forty-nine days and until the thirty-third commemoration. The thirteen are 不動明王, 釋迦文殊, 普賢, 地藏, 彌勤, 藥師, 觀音, 勢至, 阿彌陀, 阿閦/, 大日and 虛空藏; each has his place, duties, magical letter, signs, etc./

十三力 十三力 [shi2 san1 li4 ] /The thirteen powers or bodhisattva balas of the Pure land school: 因力, 緣力, 意力, 願力, 方力, 常力, 善力, 定力, 慧力, 多聞力, 持戒忍辱精進禪定力, 正念正觀諸通明力, and如法調伏諸衆生力./

十三宗 十三宗 [shi2 san1 zong1 ] /The thirteen Buddhist schools of China v. 宗派./

十不二門 十不二门 [shi2 bu4 er4 men2 ] /The school of the ten pairs of unified opposites founded by Jingxi 荊溪 on the teaching of the Lotus sūtra. There are several books bearing the name. The unifying principle is that of the identity of contraries, and the ten apparent contraries are matter and mind, internal and external, 修證 practice and proof (or realization), cause and effect, impurity and purity, objective and subjective, self and other, 三業 action, speech, and thought, 權實 relative and absolute, the fertilized and the fertilizer (i.e. receiver and giver). There are several treatises on the subject in the Canon./

十不善業 十不善业 [shi2 bu4 shan4 ye4 ] /(or 十不善道) idem 十惡 (十惡業)./

十不悔戒 十不悔戒 [shi2 bu4 hui3 jie4 ] /The ten rules which produce no regrets—not to kill, steal, fornicate, lie, tall of a fellow -Buddhist's sins, deal in wine, praise oneself and discredit others, be mean, be angry, defame the Triratna (Buddha, Law, Fraternity)./

十乘 十乘 [shi2 cheng2 ] /(十乘觀) A T'ien-t'ai mode of meditation in ten "vehicles" or stages, for the attainment of bodhi./

十乘床 十乘床 [shi2 cheng2 chuang2 ] /The comfort or ease of progress produced by the ten vehicle meditation 十乘觀 is compared to a couch or divan./

十乘風 十乘风 [shi2 cheng2 feng1 ] /The ten vehicle meditation 十乘觀 like a breeze blows away error and falsity as dust./

十事功德 十事功德 [shi2 shi4 gong1 de2 ] /The bodhisattva-merit resulting from the attainment of the ten groups of excellences in the southern version of the Nirvāṇa Sūtra 南本涅盤經 19-24. There is an unimportant 十事經 not connected with the above./

十事非法 十事非法 [shi2 shi4 fei1 fa3 ] /Ten unlawful things said to have been advocated by the Vaiśālī monks, which led to the calling of the second Council./

十二 十二 [shi2 er4 ] /dvādaśa, twelve./

十二不律儀 十二不律仪 [shi2 er4 bu4 lv4 yi2 ] /idem 十二惡律儀./

十二佛 十二佛 [shi2 er4 fu2 ] /The twelve Buddhas of the esoteric sect placed three on the east, one in each of the other seven directions, and one each for zenith and nadir./

十二光佛 十二光佛 [shi2 er4 guang1 fu2 ] /Amitābha's twelve titles of light. The無量壽經上 gives them as 無量光佛, etc., i.e. the Buddha of light that is immeasurable boundless, irresistible, incomparable, yama (or flaming), pure, joy, wisdom, unceasing, surpassing thought, ineffable, surpassing sun and moon. Another list is given in the 九品往生阿彌陀...經./

十二分經 十二分经 [shi2 er4 fen1 jing1 ] /(or 十二分教) idem 十二部經./

十二因緣 十二因缘 [shi2 er4 yin1 yuan2 ] /Dvādaśaṅga pratītyasamutpāda; the twelve nidānas; v. 尼 and 因; also 十二緣起; 因緣有支; 因緣率連; 因緣棘園; 因緣輪; 因緣重城; 因緣觀; 支佛觀. They are the twelve links in the chain of existence: (1) 無明avidyā, ignorance, or unenlightenment; (2) 行 saṃskāra, action, activity, conception, "dispositions," Keith; (3) 識 vijñāna, consciousness; (4) 名色 nāmarūpa, name and form; (5) 六入 ṣaḍāyatana, the six sense organs, i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind; (6) 觸 sparśa, contact, touch; (7) 受 vedanā, sensation, feeling; (8) 愛 tṛṣṇā, thirst, desire, craving; (9) 取 upādāna, laying hold of, grasping; (10) 有 bhava, being, existing; (11) 生 jāti, birth; (12) 老死 jarāmaraṇa, old age, death. The "classical formula" reads "By reason of ignorance dispositions; by reason of dispositions consciousness", etc. A further application of the twelve nidānas is made in regard to their causaton of rebirth: (1) ignorance, as inherited passion from the beginningless past ; (2) karma, good and evil, of past lives; (3) conception as a form of perception; (4) nāmarūpa, or body and mind evolving (in the womb); (5) the six organs on the verge of birth; (6) childhood whose intelligence is limited to sparśa, contact or touch; (7) receptivity or budding intelligence and discrimination from 6 or 7 years; (8) thirst, desire, or love, age of puberty; (9) the urge of sensuous existence; (10) forming the substance, bhava, of future karma; (11) the completed karma ready for rebirth; (12) old age and death. The two first are associated with the previous life, the other ten with the present. The theory is equally applicable to all realms of reincarnation. The twelve links are also represented in a chart, at the centre of which are the serpent (anger), boar (ignorance, or stupidity), and dove (lust) representing the fundamental sins. Each catches the other by the tail, typifying the train of sins producing the wheel of life. In another circle the twelve links are represented as follows: (1) ignorance, a blind woman; (2) action, a potter at work, or man gathering fruit; (3) consciousness, a restless monkey; (4) name and form, a boat; (5) sense organs, a house; (6) contact, a man and woman sitting together; (7) sensation, a man pierced by an arrow; (8) desire, a man drinking wine; (9) craving, a couple in union; (10) existence through childbirth; (11) birth, a man carrying a corpse; (12) disease, old age, death, an old woman leaning on a stick. v. 十二因緣論 Pratītya-samutpāda śāstra./

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十二地 十二地 [shi2 er4 de ] /To the 十地 add 等覺 and妙覺 q.v./

十二願 十二愿 [shi2 er4 yuan4 ] /(十二大願 or 十二上願) The twelve vows of the Master of Healing; v. 藥師./

十二天 十二天 [shi2 er4 tian1 ] /The twelve devas (especially of the Shingon sect): Brahmā; the deva of earth; of the moon; of the sun; Indra; of fire; Yama; of the rakṣas (or demons); of water; of wind; Vaiśramaṇa (wealth); and Maheśvara (Śiva). Also 十二大天衆./

十二宮 十二宫 [shi2 er4 gong1 ] /The twelve zodiacal mansions: east-gemini 夫婦 or 雙女; aries 羊; taurus 牛; west-libra 秤; scorpio 蝎; Sagittarius 弓 or人馬; south―aquarius 甁; pisces 魚; capri-cornus 密牛; north―cancer螃蟹; leo 獅子; virgo (or twin maidens 雙女). They are used in the vajradhātu group of the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, E.W.S.N./

十二惡律儀 十二恶律仪 [shi2 er4 e4 lv4 yi2 ] /The twelve bad occupations: sheep-butcher; poulterer (or hen-breeder); pork butcher; fowler; fisherman; hunter; thief; executioner; jailer; juggler; dog-butcher; beater (i.e. hunt servant)./

十二法人 十二法人 [shi2 er4 ] /Those who follow the twelve practices of the ascetics: (1) live in a hermitage; (2) always beg for food; (3) take turns at begging food; (4) one meal a day; (5) reduce amount of food; (6) do not take a drink made of fruit or honey after midday; (7) wear dust-heap garments; (8) wear only the three clerical garments; (9) dwell among graves; (10) stay under a tree; (11) on the dewy ground; (12) sit and never lie./

十二火天 十二火天 [shi2 er4 huo3 tian1 ] /The homa-, or fire-spirits; Whose representations, colours, magic words, signs, symbols, and mode of worship are given in the 大日經疏20. Also 十二火尊; 十二種火法. The twelve fire-spirits are: (1) Indra or Vairocana, the discoverer or source of fire, symbolizing 智 knowledge; (2) the moon 行滿 which progresses to fullness, with mercy as root and enlightenment as fruit, i,e. Buddha; (3) the wind, represented as a half-moon, fanner of fame, of zeal, and by driving away dark clouds, of enlightenment; (4) the red rays of the rising sun, rohitaka, his swords (or rays) indicating 議 wisdom; (5) 沒M004101拏 a form half stern, half smiling, sternly driving away the passions and trials; (6) 忿怒 irate, bellowing with open mouth, showing four teeth, flowing locks, one eye closed; (7) 闍吒羅 fire burning within, i.e. the inner witness, or realization; (8) 迄灑耶 the waster, or destroyer of waste and injurious products within, i.e. inner purification; (9) 意生 the producer at will, capable of all variety, resembling Viśvakarman, the Brahmanic Vulcan; (10) 羯羅微 the fire-eater; (11) untraceable; (12) 謨賀那 the completer, also the subduer of demons./

十二無爲 十二无为 [shi2 er4 wu2 wei4 ] /v. 十二眞如./

十二燈 十二灯 [shi2 er4 deng1 ] /The twelve lamps used in the cult of the Master of Healing 藥師./

十二獸 十二兽 [shi2 er4 shou4 ] /The twelve animals for the "twelve horary branches" with their names, hours, and the Chinese transliterations of their Sanskrit equivalents; v. 大集經 23 and 56. There are also the thirty-six animals, three for each hour. The twelve are: Serpent 蛇 巳, 9-11 a.m. 迦若; Horse 馬午, 11-1 noon 兜羅; Sheep 羊未, 1―3 p.m. 毘梨支迦; Monkey 猴申, 3-5 p.m. 檀尼毘; Cock 鶏酉, 5-7 p.m. 摩迦羅; Dog 大戌, 7-9 p.m. 鳩槃; Boar 豕亥, 9-11 p.m.彌那; Rat 鼠子, 11-1 midnight 彌沙; Ox 牛丑 1-3 a.m. 毘利沙; Tiger (or Lion) 虎寅, 3―5 a.m. 彌倫那; Hare 兎卯, 5-7 a.m. 羯迦吒迦; Dragon 龍辰, 7-9 a.m 絲阿./

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十二眞如 十二眞如 [shi2 er4 zhen1 ru2 ] /The twelve aspects of the bhūtatathhatā or the ultimate, which is also styled the 十二無為 "inactive" or nirvana-like: and the 十二空 "void" or immaterial: (1) The chen ju itself; (2) 法界 as the medium of all things; (3) 法性 as the nature of all things; (4) 不虛妄性 its reality contra the unreality of phenomena; (5) 不變異性 its immutability contra mortality and phenomenal variation; (6) 平等性 as universal or undifferentiated; (7) 離生性 as immortal, i.e. apart from birth and death, or creation and destruction; (8) 法定 as eternal, its nature ever sure; (9) 法住 as the abode of all things; (10) 實際 as the bounds of all reality; (11) 虛空界 as the realm of space, the void, or immateriality; (12)不思議界 as the realm beyond thought or expression./

十二神 十二神 [shi2 er4 shen2 ] /(十二神明王) The twelve spirits connected with the cult of 藥師 the Master of Healing. Also 十二神將. They are associated with the twelve hours of the day, of which they are guardian spirits. Their names are as follows: 宮 (or 金) 毘羅 Kumbhīra; 伐折羅 Vajra; 迷企羅 Mihira; 安底羅 Aṇḍīra; 頞儞羅 Anila; 珊底羅 Śaṇḍila; 因陀羅 Indra; 波夷羅Pajra; 摩虎羅 Mahoraga; 眞達羅 Kinnara; 招杜羅 Catura; and 毘羯羅 Vikarāla./

十二禽 十二禽 [shi2 er4 qin2 ] /idem 十二獸./

十二種火法 十二种火法 [shi2 er4 zhong3 huo3 fa3 ] /v. 十二火天./

十二空 十二空 [shi2 er4 kong1 ] /v. 十二眞如./

十二緣起 十二缘起 [shi2 er4 yuan2 qi3 ] /十二輪; 十二門; idem十二因緣./

十二藥叉大將 十二药叉大将 [shi2 er4 yao4 cha1 da4 jiang1 ] /idem 十二神./

十二部經 十二部经 [shi2 er4 bu4 jing1 ] /Twelve divisions of the Mahāyāna canon: (1) 修多羅 sūtra; (2) 祇夜 geya; (3) 伽陀 gāthā; (4) 尼陀那 nidāna, also 因緣; (5) 伊帝目多 itivṛttaka; (6) 闍多伽 jātaka; (7) 阿浮達摩 adbhuta-dharma, i.e. the 阿毘達摩 abhidhama; (8) 阿波陀那 avadāna; (9) 優婆提舍 upadeśa; (10) 優陀那udāna; (11) 毘佛略 vaipulya; (12) 和 伽羅 vyākaraṇa. Cf. 九部經./

十二遊經 十二游经 [shi2 er4 you2 jing1 ] /Dvādaśaviharaṇa sūtra. The life of Śākyamuni to his twelfth year, translated by Kālodaka A.D. 392./

十二門 十二门 [shi2 er4 men2 ] /idem 十二因緣./

十二門論 十二门论 [shi2 er4 men2 lun4 ] /Dvāda-śanikāya Śastra. One of the 三論, composed by Nāgārjuna, translated by Kumārajīva A.D. 408. There are several works on it./

十二願王 十二愿王 [shi2 er4 yuan4 wang2 ] /The twelve-vow king, i.e. Yao Shih 藥師, the Master of Healing./

十五 十五 [shi2 wu3 ] /Pañcadaśa, fifteen./

十五尊 十五尊 [shi2 wu3 zun1 ] /The fifteen honoured ones, with whom certain 眞言 Shingon devotees seek by yoga to become united; of the fifteen, each represents a part of the whole, e.g. the eyes, ears, mouth, hands, feet, etc. v. 瑜祇經 in its 金剛薩埵 , etc., chapter./

十五尊觀音 十五尊观音 [shi2 wu3 zun1 guan1 yin1 ] /The fifteen kinds of Guanyin's images—normal face, with thousand hands, horse's head, eleven faces, as Cundā (Marīci), with the 如意 talismanic wheel, net, white robe, leaf robe, moon, willow, fruit, as Tārā, with azure neck, and as Gandharāja./

十五智斷 十五智断 [shi2 wu3 zhi4 duan4 ] /The fifteen days of the waxing moon are likened to the fifteen kinds of increasing wisdom 智, and the fifteen waning days to the fifteen kinds of deliverance from evil 斷./

十住 十住 [shi2 zhu4 ] /The ten stages, or periods, in bodhisattva-wisdom, prajñā 般若, are the 十住; the merits or character attained are the 十地 q.v. Two interpretations may be given. In the first of these, the first four stages are likened to entry into the holy womb, the next four to the period of gestation, the ninth to birth, and the tenth to the washing or baptism with the water of wisdom, e.g. the baptism of a Kṣatriya prince. The ten stages are (1) 發心住 the purposive stage, the mind set upon Buddhahood; (2) 治地住 clear understanding and mental control; (3) 修行住 unhampered liberty in every direction; (4) 生貴住 acquiring the Tathāgata nature or seed; (5) 方便具足住 perfect adaptability and resemblance in self-development and development of others; (6) 正心住 the whole mind becoming Buddha-like; (7) 不退住 no retrogression, perfect unity and constant progress; (8) 童眞住 as a Buddha-son now complete; (9) 法王子住 as prince of the law; (10) 灌頂住 baptism as such, e.g. the consecration of kings. Another interpretation of the above is: (1) spiritual resolve, stage of śrota-āpanna; (2) submission to rule, preparation for Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (3) cultivation of virtue, attainment of Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (4) noble birth, preparation for the anāgāmin stage; (5) perfect means, attainment of anāgāmin stage; (6) right mind, preparation for arhatship; (7) no-retrogradation, the attainment of arhatship; (8) immortal youth, pratyekabuddhahood; (9) son of the law-king, the conception of bodhisattvahood; (10) baptism as the summit of attainment, the conception of Buddhahood./

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十住心 十住心 [shi2 zhu4 xin1 ] /Ten stages of mental or spiritual development in the 眞言 Shingon sect, beginning with the human animal and ending with perfect enlightenment; a category by the Japanese monk 弘法 Kōbō, founded on the 大日經,十心品./

十住毘婆沙論 十住毗婆沙论 [shi2 zhu4 pi2 po2 sha1 lun4 ] /Daśabhūmivibhāsā śāstra. A commentary by Nāgārjuna on the 十住經 and the 十地經, said to contain the earliest teaching regarding Amitābha; translated by Kumārajīva circa A.D. 405./

十佛 十佛 [shi2 fu2 ] /There are several, groups; that of the Huayan sūtra is Kāśyapa, Kanakamuni, Krakucchanda, Viśvabhū, Śikhin, Vipaśyi, Tiśya (or Puṣya), Tissa, ? Padma, and Dīpaṅkara. Another group is that of the Amitābha cult, one for each of the ten directions. There are other groups./

十來 十来 [shi2 lai2 ] /(十來偈) The ten rhymes in "lai", a verse which expresses the Buddhist doctrine of moral determinism, i.e. that the position anyone now occupies is solely the result of his character in past lives; heredity and environment having nothing to do with his present condition, for, whether in prince or beggar, it is the reward of past deeds. The upright from the forbearing come,
The poor from the mean and greedy come,
Those of high rank from worshippers come,
The low and common from the Prideful come,
Those who are dumb from slanderers come,
The blind and deaf from unbelievers come,
The long-lived from the merciful come,
The short-lived from life, takers come,
The deficient in faculties from command-breakers come,
The complete in faculties from command-keepers come.

十使 十使 [shi2 shi3 ] /十大惑; 十根本煩惱 The ten messengers, deluders, fundamental passions; they are divided into five sharp and five dull; the five 鈍使 dull ones are desire, hate, stupidity, pride, and doubt; the five sharp 利使 are 身見, 邊見, 邪見, 見取見, 戒禁見, v. 見./

十信 十信 [shi2 xin4 ] /The ten grades of bodhisattva faith, i.e. the first ten 位 in the fifty-two bodhisattva positions: (1) 信 faith (which destroys illusion and results in); (2) 念 remembrance, or unforgetfulness; (3) 精進 zealous progress; (4) 慧 wisdom; (5) 定 settled firmness in concentration; (6) 不退 non-retrogression; (7) 護法 protection of the Truth; (8) 廻向 reflexive powers, e.g. for reflecting the Truth; (9) 戒 the nirvāṇa mind in 無為 effortlessness; (10) 願 action at will in anything and everywhere./

十八 十八 [shi2 ba1 ] /aṣṭādaśa, eighteen./

十八不共法 十八不共法 [shi2 ba1 bu4 gong4 fa3 ] /āveṇikadharma, or buddhadharma, the eighteen different characteristics of a Buddha as compared with bodhisattvas, i.e. his perfection of body (or person), mouth (or speech), memory, impartiality to all, serenity, self-sacrifice, unceasing desire to save, unfagging zeal therein unfailing thought thereto, wisdom in it, powers of deliverance, the principles of it, revealing perfect wisdom in deed, in word, in thought, perfect knowledge of past, future, and present, v. 智度論 26./

十八圓淨 十八圆净 [shi2 ba1 yuan2 jing4 ] /The eighteen perfections of a buddha's sambhogakāya, v. 三身. Also 十八圓滿./

十八天 十八天 [shi2 ba1 tian1 ] /Brahmaloka, the eighteen heavens of form, rūpadhātu, three of the first dhyāna, 梵衆天; 梵輔天; 大梵天; three of the second, 少光天; 無量光天; 光音; three of the third, 少淨天; 無量淨天; 徧淨天; and nine of the fourth, 無雲天; 福生天; 廣果天; 無想天; 無煩天; 無熱天; 善見天; 善現,天; 色究竟天 ."Southern Buddhism knows only sixteen. Those two which Northern Buddhists added are Punya-prasava 福生 and Anabhraka 無雲." Eitel./

十八宗 十八宗 [shi2 ba1 zong1 ] /The eighteen Japanese Buddhist sects, i.e. 三論; 法相; 華嚴; 律; 倶舍; 成實; 天台; 眞言; 融通念佛; 淨土; 眞; 日蓮; 時; 臨濟; 曹洞; 黃檗; 普化; and 修驗宗./

十八應眞 十八应眞 [shi2 ba1 ying1 zhen1 ] /The eighteen arhats./

十八物 十八物 [shi2 ba1 wu4 ] /The eighteen things a monk should carry in the performance of his duties—willow twigs, soap, the three garments, a water-bottle, a begging-bowl, mat, staff, censer, filter, handkerchief, knife, fire-producer, pincers hammock, sutra, the vinaya, the Buddha's image, and bodhisattva image or images; cf. 梵綱經 37./

十八生處 十八生处 [shi2 ba1 sheng1 chu4 ] /The eighteen Brahmalokas, where rebirth is necessary, i.e. where mortality still exists./

十八界 十八界 [shi2 ba1 jie4 ] /The eighteen dhātu, or realms of sense, i.e. 六根, 六境, 六識 the six organs, their objects or conditions, and their perceptions./

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十八經 十八经 [shi2 ba1 jing1 ] /(十八大經); 十八明處 The eighteen Indian non-Buddhist classics, i.e. the four vedas, six śāstras, and eight śāstras./

十八賢 十八贤 [shi2 ba1 xian2 ] /(十八聖 or 十八衆); 十八境界; 十八有學 v. 有學./

十八部 十八部 [shi2 ba1 bu4 ] /The eighteen schools of Hīnayāna as formerly existing in India; v. 小乘./

十八重地獄 十八重地狱 [shi2 ba1 zhong4 di4 yu4 ] /The eighteen layers of hells, which are described by one writer as the conditions in which the six sense organs, their six objects, and the six perceptions do not harmonize. Another says the eighteen are the hell of knives, the boiling sands, the boiling excrement, the fiery carriage, the boiling cauldron, the iron bed, etc./

十八道 十八道 [shi2 ba1 dao4 ] /In the two maṇḍalas, Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu, each has nine central objects of worship. The Shingon disciple devotes himself to meditation on one of these eighteen each day./

十六 十六 [shi2 liu4 ] /ṣoḍaśa Sixteen is the esoteric (Shingon) perfect number, just as ten is the perfect number in the Huayan sūtra and generally, see 大日經疏 5./

十六心 十六心 [shi2 liu4 xin1 ] /i.e. the 八忍 and 八智./

十六天 十六天 [shi2 liu4 tian1 ] /(十六大天) The sixteen devas are E. Indra and his wife; S.E. the fire deva and his wife; S. Yama and his wife; S.W. Yakṣa-rāja (Kuvera) and wife; W. the water deva and his nāga wife (Śakti); N.W. the wind deva and wife; N. Vaiśramaṇa and wife; N.E. Īśāna and wife./

十六師 十六师 [shi2 liu4 shi1 ] /The sixteen non-Buddhist "heretical" Indian philosophers./

十六曾 十六曾 [shi2 liu4 ceng2 ] /The sixteen lessons of the Prajñā-pāramitā./

十六行 十六行 [shi2 liu4 xing2 ] /(十六心行) ; 十六諦觀 idem 十六行相. The sixteen行相 of the Four Axioms 四諦, i.e. four forms of considering each of the axioms, associated with 見道./

十六善神 十六善神 [shi2 liu4 shan4 shen2 ] /Two lists are given, one of sixteen 大將 mahārājas; another of sixteen 善神 good spirits or gods; all of them are guardians of the good and enemies of evil./

十六國王 十六国王 [shi2 liu4 guo2 wang2 ] /十六大國 The sixteen ancient kingdoms of India whose kings are addressed in the 仁王經 2; i.e. Vaiśālī, Kośala, Śrāvastī, Magadha, Bārāṇasi, Kapilavastu, Kuśinagara, Kauśāmbī, Pañcāla, Pāṭaliputra, Mathurā, Uṣa (Uśīra), Puṇyavardhana, Devāvatāra, Kāśī, and Campā./

十六大力 十六大力 [shi2 liu4 da4 li4 ] /The sixteen great powers obtainable by a bodhisattva, i.e. of will, mind, action, shame (to do evil), energy, firmness, wisdom, virtue, reasoning, personal appearance, physical powers, wealth, spirit, magic, spreading the truth, subduing demons./

十六想觀 十六想观 [shi2 liu4 xiang3 guan1 ] /idem 十六觀./

十六王子 十六王子 [shi2 liu4 wang2 zi ] /(十六王子佛); 十六沙彌 The sixteen princes in the Lotus Sūtra who became Buddhas after hearing their father preach it./

十六知見 十六知见 [shi2 liu4 zhi1 jian4 ] /十六神我 The sixteen heretical views on me and mine, i.e. the ego in self and others, determinism or fate, immortality, etc.; v. 智度論 25./

十六菩薩 十六菩萨 [shi2 liu4 pu2 sa4 ] /十六大士 (or 十六正士) The sixteen bodhisattvas; there are two groups, one of the 顯教 exoteric, one of the 密教 esoteric cults; the exoteric list is indefinite; the esoteric has two lists, one is of four bodhisattvas to each of the Buddhas of the four quarters of the Diamond Realm; the other is of the sixteen who represent the body of bodhisattvas in a 賢 kalpa, such as the present: E. 彌勒, 不空, 除憂, 除惡; S. 香象, 大精進, 虛 空藏智幢; W. 無量光, 賢護, 網明, 月光; N. 無量意 (文殊), 辨積, 金剛藏普賢./

十六觀 十六观 [shi2 liu4 guan1 ] /The sixteen meditations of Amitābha on the setting sun, water (as ice, crystal, etc. ), the earth, and so on./

十六資具 十六资具 [shi2 liu4 zi1 ju4 ] /Sixteen necessaries of a strict observer of ascetic rules, ranging from garments made of rags collected from the dust heap to sleeping among graves./

十利 十利 [shi2 li4 ] /There are many groups of ten profitable things or advantages, e.g. ten in regard to edibles, ten to congee, to learning, to study of the scriptures, to wisdom, to zeal, etc./

十力 十力 [shi2 li4 ] /Daśabala. The ten powers of Buddha, giving complete knowledge of: (1) what is right or wrong in every condition; (2) what is the karma of every being, past, present, and future; (3) all stages of dhyāna liberation, and samādhi; (4) the powers and faculties of all beings; (5) the desires, or moral direction of every being; (6) the actual condition of every individual; (7) the direction and consequence of all laws; (8) all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality; (9) the end of all beings and nirvāṇa; (10) the destruction of all illusion of every kind. See the 智度論 25 and the 倶舍論 29./

十力教 十力教 [shi2 li4 jiao4 ] /The religion of Him who has the ten powers, i.e. Buddhism./

十力尊 十力尊 [shi2 li4 zun1 ] /(十力無等) The honoured (unequalled) possessor of the ten powers, Buddha./

十力迦葉 十力迦叶 [shi2 li4 jia1 ye4 ] /Daśabala-Kāśyupa, one of the first five disciples./

十力明 十力明 [shi2 li4 ming2 ] /The ten powers and ten understandings of a Buddha./

十功德 十功德 [shi2 gong1 de2 ] /(十功德論) Ten merits (or powers) commended by the Buddha to his bhikṣus—zealous progress, contentment with few desires, courage, learning (so as to teach), fearlessness, perfect observance of the commands and the fraternity, regulations, perfect meditation, perfect wisdom, perfect liberation, and perfect understanding of it./

十劫 十劫 [shi2 jie2 ] /The ten kalpas that have expired since Amitābha made his forty-eight vows, or 十劫正覺attained complete bodhi, hence he is styled 十劫彌陀. These ten kalpas as seen by Puxian are十劫須臾 but as a moment./

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十勝行 十胜行 [shi2 sheng4 xing2 ] /The ten pāramitās observed by bodhisattvas, see 十地 and 十住. Hīnayāna has another group, adding to the four 梵福 q. v. the six of sacrificing one's life to save mother; or father; or a Buddha; to become a monk: to induce another to become a monk; to obtain authority to preach./

十名 十名 [shi2 ming2 ] /idem 十號./

十問 十问 [shi2 wen4 ] /The ten questions to the Buddha, put into the mouth of Vajrapāṇi, which, with the answers given, form the basis of the 大日經. What is (or are) (1) the nature of the bodhi-mind? (2) its form or forms? (3) the mental stages requisite to attainment? (4) the difference between them? (5) the time required? (6) the character of the merits attained? (7) the activities or practices necessary? (8) the way of such practices? (9) the condition of the uncultivated and cultivated mind? (10) the difference between it and that of the follower of Yoga?/

十善正法 十善正法 [shi2 shan4 zheng4 fa3 ] /(十善) The ten good characteristics, or virtues, defined as the non-committal of the 十惡 ten evils, q. v. Tiantai has two groups, one of ceasing 止 to do evil, the other of learning to do well 行./

十善位 十善位 [shi2 shan4 wei4 ] /十善戒力; 十善王 The position, or power, attained in the next life by observing the ten commandments here, to be born in the heavens, or as rulers of men./

十善巧 十善巧 [shi2 shan4 qiao3 ] /The ten good crafts, or meditations of pratyeka-buddhas, i. e. on the five skandhas, twelve 處, eighteen 界, twelve 因緣, etc./

十善戒 十善戒 [shi2 shan4 jie4 ] /The ten commandments (as observed by the laity)./

十善業 十善业 [shi2 shan4 ye4 ] /(十善業道) The excellent karma resulting from practice of the ten commandments./

十善菩薩 十善菩萨 [shi2 shan4 pu2 sa4 ] /The bodhisattvas of the 十信位 q. v./

十四 十四 [shi2 si4 ] /caturdaśa, fourteen./

十四佛國往生 十四佛国往生 [shi2 si4 fu2 guo2 wang3 sheng1 ] /The fourteen other-world realms of fourteen Buddhas, i. e. this realm of Śākyamuni and thirteen others./

十四神九王 十四神九王 [shi2 si4 shen2 jiu3 wang2 ] /The fourteen devas and nine dragon and other kings, who went in the train of Mañjuśrī to thank the Buddha at the last of his Huayan addresses; for list see 唐華嚴經 61./

十四變化 十四变化 [shi2 si4 bian4 hua4 ] /The fourteen transformations that are connected with the four dhyāna heavens./

十四難 十四难 [shi2 si4 nan2 ] /The fourteen difficult questions of the "heretics" to which the Buddha made no reply, for, as it is said, the questions were no more properly put than if one asked " How much milk can you get from cow's horn?" They are forms of: All is permanent, impermanent, both or neither; all changes, changes not, both, neither; at death a spirit departs, does not, both, neither; after death we have the same body (or personality) and spirit, or body and spirit are different./

十地 十地 [shi2 de ] /daśabhūmi; v. 十住. The "ten stages" in the fifty-two sections of the development of a bodhisattva into a Buddha. After completing the十四向 he proceeds to the 十地. There are several groups. I. The ten stages common to the Three Vehicles 三乘 are: (1) 乾慧地 dry wisdom stage, i. e. unfertilized by Buddha-truth, worldly wisdom; (2) 性地 the embryo-stage of the nature of Buddha-truth, the 四善根; (3) 八人地 (八忍地), the stage of the eight patient endurances; (4) 見地 of freedom from wrong views; (5) 薄地 of freedom from the first six of the nine delusions in practice; (6) 離欲地 of freedom from the remaining three; (7) 巳辨地 complete discrimination in regard to wrong views and thoughts, the stage of an arhat; (8) 辟支佛地 pratyeka-buddhahood, only the dead ashes of the past left to sift; (9) 菩薩地 bodhisattvahood; (10) 佛地 Buddhahood. v. 智度論 78. II. 大乘菩薩十地 The ten stages of Mahāyāna bodhisattva development are: (1) 歡喜地 Pramuditā, joy at having overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood; (2) 離垢地 Vimalā, freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity; (3) 發光地 Prabhākarī, stage of further enlightenment; (4) 焰慧地 Arciṣmatī, of glowing wisdom; (5) 極難勝地 Sudurjayā, mastery of utmost or final difficulties; (6) 現前地 Abhimukhī, the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity; (7) 遠行地 Dūraṁgamā, proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in order to save others; (8) 不動地 Acalā, attainment of calm unperturbedness; (9) 善慧地 Sādhumatī, of the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the 十力 ten powers; (10) 法雲地 Dharmamegha, attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the ten pāramitās, v. 波. Each of the 四乘 or four vehicles has a division of ten. III. The 聲聞乘十地 ten Śrāvaka stages are: (1) 受三歸地 initiation as a disciple by receiving the three refuges, in the Buddha, Dharma, and Saṅgha; (2) 信地 belief, or the faith-root; (3) 信法地 belief in the four truths; (4) 内凡夫地 ordinary disciples who observe the 五停心觀, etc.; (5) 學信戒 those who pursue the 三學 three studies; (6) 八人忍地 the stage of 見道 seeing the true Way; (7) 須陀洹地 śrota-āpanna, now definitely in the stream and assured of nirvāṇa; (8) 斯陀含地 sakrdāgāmin, only one more rebirth; (9) 阿那含地 anāgāmin, no rebirth; and (10) 阿羅漢地 arhatship. IV. The ten stages of the pratyekabuddha 緣覺乘十地 are (1) perfect asceticism; (2) mastery of the twelve links of causation; (3) of the four noble truths; (4) of the deeper knowledge; (5) of the eightfold noble path; (6) of the three realms 三法界; (7) of the nirvāṇa state; (8) of the six supernatural powers; (9) arrival at the intuitive stage; (10) mastery of the remaining influence of former habits. V. 佛乘十地 The ten stages, or characteristics of a Buddha, are those of the sovereign or perfect attainment of wisdom, exposition, discrimination, māra-subjugation, suppression of evil, the six transcendent faculties, manifestation of all bodhisattva enlightenment, powers of prediction, of adaptability, of powers to reveal the bodhisattva Truth. VI. The Shingon has its own elaborate ten stages, and also a group 十地十心, see 十心; and there are other groups./

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十地品 十地品 [shi2 de pin3 ] /The twenty-second chapter of the sixty-chapter version of the 華嚴經, the twenty-sixth of the eighty-chapter version./

十地願行 十地愿行 [shi2 de yuan4 xing2 ] /The vow of bodhisattvas to attain the十地 by fulfilling the ten pāramitās, v. 十波./

十地心 十地心 [shi2 di4 xin1 ] /Ten stages of mind, or mental development, i.e. (1) 四無量心 the four kinds of boundless mind; (2) 十善心 the mind of the ten good qualities; (3) 明光心 the illuminated mind; (4) 焰慧心 the mind of glowing wisdom; (5) 大勝心 the mind of mastery; (6) 現前心 the mind of the open way (above normal definitions); (7) 無生心 the mind of no rebirth; (8) 不思議心 the mind of the inexpressible; (9) 慧光心 the mind of wisdom-radiance; (10) 受位心 the mind of perfect receptivity. v. also 十心./

十境 十境 [shi2 jing4 ] /Ten objects of or stages in meditation觀 in the Tiantai school, i.e. 陰境 the five skandhas; 煩惱境 life's distresses and delusion; 病患境 sickness, or duḥkha, its cause and cure; 業相境 age-long karmaic influences; 魔事境 Māra affairs, how to overthrow their rule; 禪定境 the conditions of dhyāna and samādhi; 諸見境 various views and doubts that arise; 慢境 pride in progress and the delusion that one has attained nirvāṇa; 二乘境 temptation to be content with the lower nirvāṇa, instead of going on to the greater reward; 菩薩境 bodhisattvahood; see the 止觀 5./

十夜念佛 十夜念佛 [shi2 ye4 nian4 fu2 ] /(十夜) The ten nights (and days) from the sixth to the fifteenth of the tenth moon, when the Pure-land sect intones sūtras./

十大弟子 十大弟子 [shi2 da4 di4 zi ] /The ten chief discip1es of Śākyamuni, each of whom was master of one power or gift. Śāriputra of wisdom; Maudgalyāyana of supernatural powers; Mahākāśyapa of discipline; Aniruddha of 天眼 deva vision; Subhūti of explaining the void or immaterial; Pūrṇa of expounding the law; Kātyāyana of its fundamental principles; Upāli of maintaining the rules; Rāhula of the esoteric; and Ānanda of hearing and remembering./

十大惑 十大惑 [shi2 da4 huo4 ] /idem 十使./

十大願 十大愿 [shi2 da4 yuan4 ] /The ten vows of Puxian 普賢, or Samantabhadra./

十如是 十如是 [shi2 ru2 shi4 ] /The ten essential qualities, or characteristics, of thing, according to the 方便chapter of the Lotus sūtra: 相如是 form; 性如是 nature; 體如是 corpus or embodiment; 力如是 powers; 作如是 function; 因如是 primary cause; 果如是 environmental cause; 果如是 effect; 報如是 karmic reward; 本末究竟等 the inseparability, or inevitability of them all./

十如來地 十如来地 [shi2 ru2 lai2 de ] /v. 十地./

十妙 十妙 [shi2 miao4 ] /The ten wonders, or incomprehensibles; there are two groups, the 迹v traceable or manifested and 本門妙 the fundamental. The 迹門十妙 are the wonder of: (1) 境妙 the universe, sphere, or whole, embracing mind, Buddha, and all things as a unity; (2) 智妙 a Buddha's all-embracing knowledge arising from such universe; (3) 行妙 his deeds, expressive of his wisdom; (4) 位妙 his attainment of all the various Buddha stages, i.e. 十住 and十地; (5) 三法妙 his three laws of 理, 慧, and truth, wisdom, and vision; (6) 感應妙 his response to appeal, i.e. his (spiritual) response or relation to humanity, for "all beings are my children"; (7) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (8) 說法妙 his preaching; (9) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (10) 利益妙 the blessings derived through universal elevation into Buddhahood. The 本門十妙 are the wonder of (1) 本因妙 the initial impulse or causative stage of Buddhahood; (2) 本果妙 its fruit or result in eternity, joy, and purity; (3) 國土妙 his (Buddha) realm; (4) 感應妙 his response (to human needs); (5) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (6) 說法妙 his preaching; (7) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (8) 涅槃妙 his nirvāṇa; (9) 壽命妙 his (eternal) life; (10) his blessings as above. Both groups are further defined as progressive stages in a Buddha's career. These "wonders" are derived from the Lotus sūtra./

十宗 十宗 [shi2 zong1 ] /The ten schools of Chinese Buddhism: I. The (1) 律宗 Vinaya-discipline, or 南山|; (2) 倶舍 Kośa, Abhidharma, or Reality (Sarvāstivādin) 有宗; (3) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect founded on this śāstra by Harivarman; (4) 三論宗 Mādhyamika or 性空宗; (5) 法華宗 Lotus, "Law-flower" or Tiantai 天台宗; (6) 華嚴Huayan or法性 or賢首宗; ( 7) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana or 慈恩宗 founded on the唯識論 (8) 心宗 Ch'an or Zen, mind-only or intuitive, v. 禪宗 ; (9) 眞言宗 (Jap. Shingon) or esoteric 密宗 ; (10) 蓮宗 Amitābha-lotus or Pure Land (Jap. Jōdo) 淨士宗. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 9th are found in Japan rather than in China, where they have ceased to be of importance. II. The Hua-yen has also ten divisions into ten schools of thought: (1) 我法倶有 the reality of self (or soul) and things, e.g. mind and matter; (2) 法有我無 the reality of things but not of soul; (3) 法無去來 things have neither creation nor destruction; (4) 現通假實 present things are both apparent and real; (5) 俗妄眞實 common or phenomenal ideas are wrong, fundamental reality is the only truth; (6) things are merely names; (7) all things are unreal 空; (8) the bhūtatathatā is not unreal; (9) phenomena and their perception are to be got rid of; (10) the perfect, all-inclusive, and complete teaching of the One Vehicle. III. There are two old Japanese divisions: 大乘律宗, 倶舎宗 , 成實 宗 , 法和宗 , 三論宗 , 天台宗 , 華嚴宗 , 眞言宗 , 小乘律宗 , and 淨土宗 ; the second list adds 禪宗 and omits 大乘律宗. They are the Ritsu, Kusha, Jōjitsu, Hossō, Sanron, Tendai, Kegon, Shingon, (Hīnayāna) Ritsu, and Jōdo; the addition being Zen./

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十寶 十宝 [shi2 bao3 ] /The ten precious things; 十寶山 the ten precious mountains, or mountain of ten precious things; v. 十善 and 十善王./

十山王 十山王 [shi2 shan1 wang2 ] /The spirit king of each of the ten mountains―Himālaya, Gandhamādana, Vaidharī, 神仙山, Yugaṅdhara, Aśvakarṇa, Nemindhara, Cakravāḍa, Ketumatī, and Sumeru./

十師 十师 [shi2 shi1 ] /The ten monks necessary for a full ordination of a monk, i.e. 三師七證 three leaders and seven witnesses./

十度 十度 [shi2 du4 ] /The ten pāramitās or virtues transporting to nirvāṇa; idem 十波羅蜜 q.v./

十度三行 十度三行 [shi2 du4 san1 xing2 ] /each of the pāramitās has three forms of observance, e.g. the first, 施 dāna or giving has 財施 almsgiving, 法施 truth-giving, and 無畏施 courage-giving. The three forms differ with each pāramitā./

十弟子 十弟子 [shi2 di4 zi ] /The ten acolytes or attendants on an ācārya, or superior religious teacher, in his ceremonial offices, following the pattern of the ten principal disciples of Śākyamuni./

十德 十德 [shi2 de2 ] /The ten virtues, powers, or qualities, of which there are several groups, e.g. in the 華嚴經,十地品 there are 法師十德 the ten virtues of a teacher of the Law, i.e. he should be well versed in its meaning; able widely to publish it; not be nervous before an audience; be untiring in argument; adaptable; orderly so that his teaching can be easily followed; serious and dignified; bold and zealous; unwearied; and enduring (able to bear insult, etc.). The 弟子十德 ten virtues or qualities of a disciple according to the 大日經疏 4, are faith; sincerity; devotion to the trikāya; (seeking the) adornment of true wisdom; perseverance; moral purity; patience (or bearing shame); generosity in giving; courage; resoluteness./

十心 十心 [shi2 xin1 ] /The ten kinds of heart or mind; there are three groups. One is from the 止觀 4, minds ignorant and dark; affected by evil companions; not following the good; doing evil in thought, word, deed; spreading evil abroad; unceasingly wicked; secret sin; open crime; utterly shameless; denying cause and effect (retribution)―all such must remain in the flow 流 of reincarnation. The second group (from the same book) is the 逆流 the mind striving against the stream of perpetual reincarnation; it shows itself in devout faith, shame (for sin), fear (of wrong-doing), repentance and confession, reform, bodhi (i.e. the bodhisattva mind), doing good, maintaining the right law, thinking on all the Buddhas, meditation on the void (or, the unreality of sin). The third is the 眞言 group from the 大日經疏 3; the "seed" heart (i.e. the original good desire), the sprout (under Buddhist religious influence), the bud, leaf, flower, fruit, its serviceableness; the child-heart, the discriminating heart, the heart of settled judgment (or resolve)./

十快 十快 [shi2 kuai4 ] /The ten inexpressible joys of the Pure-land; also 十樂./

十念 十念 [shi2 nian4 ] /The ten repetitions of an invocation, e.g. namo Amitābha./

十念往生 十念往生 [wang3 sheng1 ] /These ten invocations will carry a dying man with an evil karma into the Pure-land./

十念成就 十念成就 [cheng2 jiu4 ] /See 十念往生, but cf. 十聲./

十念處 十念处 [chu4 ] /A bodhisattva's ten objects of thought or meditation, i.e. body, the senses, mind, things, environment, monastery, city (or district), good name, Buddha-learning, riddance of all passion and delusion./

十念血脉 十念血脉 [xue4 mai4 ] /The arteries of the "ten invocations", i.e. the teacher's giving and the disciple's receiving of the law./

十忿怒明王 十忿怒明王 [shi2 fen4 nu4 ming2 wang2 ] /The ten irate rājas, or protectors, whose huge images with many heads and limbs are seen in temples; perhaps the ten krodha gods of the Tibetans (Khro-bo); their names are 焰鬘得迦 Yamāntaka; 無能勝 Ajita; 鉢納 鬘得迦 ? Padmāhtaka; 尾覲那得迦 Vighnāntaka; 不動尊 Acala; 吒枳 ? Dākinī; 儞羅難拏 ? Nīladaṇḍa; 大力, 送婆 Sambara; and縛日羅播多羅 Vīrabhadra./

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十恩 十恩 [shi2 en1 ] /Ten kinds of the Buddha's grace: his (1) initial resolve to universalize (his salvation); (2) self-sacrifice (in previous lives); (3) complete altruism; (4) his descent into all the six states of existence for their salvation; (5) relief of the living from distress and mortality; (6) profound pity; (7) revelation of himself in human and glorified form; (8) teaching in accordance with the capacity of his hearers, first hīnayāna, then māhayāna doctrine; (9) revealing his nirvāṇa to stimulate his disciples; (10) pitying thought for all creatures, in that dying at 80 instead of at 100 he left twenty years of his own happiness to his disciples; and also the tripiṭaka for universal salvation./

十惑 十惑 [shi2 huo4 ] /idem 十使./

十惡 十恶 [shi2 e4 ] /Daśākuśala. The ten "not right" or evil things are killing, stealing, adultery, lying, double-tongue, coarse language, filthy language, covetousness, anger, perverted views; these produce the ten resultant evils 十惡業 (道) Cf. 十善; 十戒./

十惱亂 十恼乱 [shi2 nao3 luan4 ] /The ten disturbers of the religious life: a domineering (spirit); heretical ways; dangerous amusements; a butcher's or other low occupation; asceticism (or selfish hīnayāna salvation); (the condition of a) eunuch; lust; endangering (the character by improper intimacy); contempt; breeding animals, etc. (for slaughter)./

十成 十成 [shi2 cheng2 ] /Entirely completed, perfect./

十戒 十戒 [shi2 jie4 ] /Śikṣāpada. The ten prohibitions (in Pāli form) consist of five commandments for the layman: (1) not to destroy life 不殺生 pāṇātipātāveramaṇi; (2) not to steal 不倫盜 adinnādānāver; (3) not to commit adultery 不婬慾 abrahmacaryaver.; (4) not to lie 不妄語musāvādāver.; (5) not to take intoxicating liquor 不飮酒 suramereyya-majjapamādaṭṭhānāver. Eight special commandments for laymen consist of the preceding five plus: (6) not to eat food out of regulated hours 不非時食 vikāla-bhojanāver.; (7) not to use garlands or perfumes 不著華鬘好香塗身 mālā- gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana-vibhūṣanaṭṭhānā; (8) not to sleep on high or broad beds (chastity) 不坐高廣大牀 uccāsayanā-mahāsayanā. The ten commandments for the monk are the preceding eight plus: (9) not to take part in singing, dancing, musical or theatrical performances, not to see or listen to such 不歌舞倡伎不往觀聽 nacca-gīta-vādita-visūkadassanāver.; (10) to refrain from acquiring uncoined or coined gold, or silver, or jewels 不得捉錢金銀寶物 jātarūpa-rajata-paṭīggahaṇāver. Under the Māhayāna these ten commands for the monk were changed, to accord with the new environment of the monk, to the following: not to kill, not to steal, to avoid all unchastity, not to lie, not to slander, not to insult, not to chatter, not to covet, not to give way to anger, to harbour no scepticism./

十支論 十支论 [shi2 zhi1 lun4 ] /The ten Yoga books, the foundation work being the 瑜伽論, the other ten are 百法論, 五蘊論, 顯揚論, 攝大乘論, 雜集論, 辨中邊論, 二十唯識論, 三十唯識論, 大莊嚴論, and 分別瑜伽論 ./

十教 十教 [shi2 jiao4 ] /v. 十宗./

十方 十方 [shi2 fang1 ] /The ten directions of space, i.e. the eight points of the compass and the nadir and zenith. There is a Buddha for each direction 十方十佛./

十方世界 十方世界 [shi2 fang1 shi4 jie4 ] /The worlds in all directions./

十方佛土 十方佛土 [shi2 fang1 fu2 tu3 ] /A Buddha-realm, idem 大千世界./

十方常住僧物 十方常住僧物 [shi2 fang1 chang2 zhu4 seng1 wu4 ] /十方現前僧物 see 四種僧物./

十普門 十普门 [shi2 pu3 men2 ] /The ten universals of a bodhisattva: 慈悲普 universal pity; 弘誓門 vow of universal salvation; 修行門 accordant action; 斷惑門 universal cutting off of delusions; 入法門門 freedom of entry into all forms of truth; 神通門 universal superhuman powers; 方便門 universal accordance with conditions of the receptivity of others; 說法門 powers of universal explication of the truth; 供養諸佛門 power of universal service of all Buddhas; 成就衆生門 the perfecting of all beings universally./

十智 十智 [shi2 zhi4 ] /The ten forms of understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto, applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智; (8) 他心智 understanding of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10) 無生智 nirvāṇa wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26. II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界無礙智 unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6) 普照一切世間智 understanding of universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) 知一切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) 知一切法智 understanding of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) 知無邊諸佛智 understanding of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings, karma, passions, and Buddhas./

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十根本煩惱 十根本烦恼 [shi2 gen1 ben3 ] /idem 十使./

十樂 十乐 [shi2 le4 ] /v. 十快./

十殊勝語 十殊胜语 [shi2 shu1 sheng4 yu3 ] /The ten rare or surpassing terms connected with the ten surpassing laws; they are given in Xuanzang's translation of Vasubandhu's 攝論釋./

十殿閻王 十殿阎王 [shi2 dian4 yan2 wang2 ] /The ten Yama courts, cf. 十王./

十法 十法 [shi2 fa3 ] /The ten 成就 perfect or perfecting Mahāyāna rules; i.e. in (1) right belief; (2) conduct; (3) spirit; (4) the joy of the bodhi mind; (5) joy in the dharma; (6) joy in meditation in it; (7) pursuing the correct dharma; (8) obedience to, or accordance with it; (9) departing from pride, etc.; (10) comprehending the inner teaching of Buddha and taking no pleasure in that of the śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha order./

十法界 十法界 [shi2 fa3 jie4 ] /The ten dharma-worlds, or states of existence, i.e. the hells (or purgatories), pretas, animals, asmas, men, devas, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, Buddhas. In the esoteric teaching there is a series of hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, devas, śrāvakas, bodhisattvas, 權佛 relative Buddhas, 實佛 absolute Buddhas./

十法行 十法行 [shi2 fa3 xing2 ] /Ten ways of devotion to the Buddhist sutras: to copy them; serve the places where they are kept, as if serving the Buddha's shrine; preach or give them to others; listen attentively to their exposition; read; maintain; discourse on them to others; intone them; ponder over them; observe their lessons./

十波羅夷 十波罗夷 [shi2 bo1 luo1 yi2 ] /The ten pārājikas, or sins unpardonable in a monk involving his exclusion from the community; v. 十重禁戒./

十波羅蜜 十波罗蜜 [shi2 bo1 luo2 mi4 ] /(or 密多) The ten are the six pārāmitas with four added. The six are charity (or almsgiving), purity (or morality), patience, zealous progress, meditation, wisdom; i.e. 施, 戒, 忍, 辱, 精進, 禪, 慧. The four additions are 方便; 願; 力 and 智 upāya, adaptability (or, teaching as suited to the occasion and hearer): praṇidhāna, vows; bala, force of purpose; and jñāna, knowledge. Also 十度./

十無二 十无二 [shi2 wu2 er4 ] /Ten powers only possessed by Buddhas: (1) prediction; (2) knowing and fulfilling the desires of the living; (3)-(10) are various forms of omniscience, i.e. (3) of all Buddha-realms and their inhabitants; (4) their natures; (5) good roots; (6) laws; (7) wisdom; (8) every moment; (9) evolving domains, or conditions; (10) language, words, and discussions. v. 宗鏡錄 99./

十無盡戒 十无尽戒 [shi2 wu2 jin3 jie4 ] /idem 十重禁戒./

十無盡藏 十无尽藏 [shi2 wu2 jin3 cang2 ] /The ten boundless treasuries of a bodhisattva: (1) 信 belief and faith; (2) 戒 the commandments; (3) 慚 shame of past misdeeds; (4) 愧blushing over the misdeeds of others; (5) hearing and knowledge of the truth; (6) giving; (7) wisdom; (8) memory; (9) keeping and guarding the sūtras; (10) powers of expounding them. 華 嚴經 20./

十無礙 十无碍 [shi2 wu2 ai4 ] /The ten unhindered transformations and ubiquitous powers of a Buddha./

十牛圖 十牛图 [shi2 niu2 tu2 ] /(十牛圖序) The ten ox-pictures, the first, a man looking for an ox, then seeing its tracks, then seeing the ox, catching it, feeding it, riding it home, ox dies man lives, both dead, return whence they came and enter the dust./

十玄 十玄 [shi2 xuan2 ] /十玄門 (十玄緣起) The ten philosophic ideas expressed in two metrical versions, each line ending with 門. v. 玄門./

十王 十王 [shi2 wang2 ] /The ten kings presiding over the ten departments of purgatory./

十甘露王 十甘露王 [shi2 gan1 lu4 wang2 ] /The king of the ten sweet dews, i.e. Amitābha./

十界 十界 [shi2 jie4 ] /idem 十法界./

十界皆成佛 十界皆成佛 [shi2 jie4 jie1 cheng2 fu2 ] /The teaching of the Lotus sūtra of universalism, that all become Buddha./

十界能化菩薩 十界能化菩萨 [shi2 jie4 neng2 hua4 pu2 sa4 ] /Bodhisattvas, above the 初地, who have reached the stage of transforming beings in all the ten kinds of realms./

十發趣心 十发趣心 [shi2 fa1 qu4 xin1 ] /The ten directional decisions: (1) renouncement of the world; (2) observance of the commandments; (3) patience or endurance; (4) zealous progress; (5) meditation; (6) wisdom or understanding; (7) 願心 the will for good for oneself and others; (8) 護心 protection (of Buddha, Dharma, Sangha); (9) 喜心 joy; (10) 頂心 highest wisdom. v. 梵綱經, 心地品./

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十眞如 十眞如 [shi2 zhen1 ru2 ] /The ten aspects of the bhūtatathatā or reality attained by a bodhisattva during his fifty-two stages of development, cf. 十地 and 十障, each of which is associated with one of these zhenru: (1) 遍行眞如 the universality of the zhenru; (2) 最勝眞如 its superiority over all else; (3) 流眞如 its ubiquity; (4) 無攝受眞如 its independence or self-containedness; (5) 無別眞如 subjective indifferentiation; (6) 無染淨眞如 above differences of impurity and purity; (7) 法無別眞如 objective indifferentiation; (8) 不增減眞如 invariable, i.e. can be neither added to nor taken from; (9) 智自在所依 the basis of all wisdom; (10) 業自在等所依眞如 and all power. The above are the 別教 group from the 唯識論 10. Another group, of the 圓教, is the same as the 十如是 q.v./

十眼 十眼 [shi2 yan3 ] /The ten kinds of eyes: (1) 肉眼 eyes of flesh; (2) 天眼 deva eyes; (3) 慧眼 wisdom eyes; (4) 法眼 dharma eyes; (5) 佛眼 Buddha eyes; (6) 智眼 eyes of judgment; (7) 光明眼 eyes shining with Buddha-light; (8) 出生死眼 immortal eyes; (9) 無碍眼 unhindered eyes; (10) 一切智眼 omniscient eyes./

十禪支 十禅支 [shi2 chan2 zhi1 ] /v. 十一切處./

十科 十科 [shi2 ke1 ] /十條 The ten rules for translation. v. 翻譯名義集 3./

十種不淨 十种不净 [shi2 zhong3 bu4 jing4 ] /The deluded, e.g. the hīnayānists, because of their refusal to follow the higher truth, remain in the condition of reincarnation and are impure in ten ways: in body, mouth, mind, deed, state, sitting, sleeping, practice, converting others, their expectations./

十種所觀法 十种所观法 [shi2 zhong3 suo3 guan1 fa3 ] /Ten meditations on each of the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地 and 等覺./

十種方便 十种方便 [shi2 zhong3 fang1 bian4 ] /Ten kinds of suitable aids to religious success: almsgiving (or self-sacrifice); keeping the commandments; forbearance; zealous progress; meditation; wisdom; great kindness; great pity; awaking and stimulating others; preaching (or revolving) the never receding wheel of the Law./

十種智力 十种智力 [shi2 zhong3 zhi4 li4 ] /The ten kinds of wisdom and power, v. 十智 and 十力./

十種智明 十种智明 [shi2 zhong3 zhi4 ming2 ] /Ten kinds of bodhisattva wisdom, or omniscience, for the understanding of all things relating to all beings, in order, to save them from the sufferings of mortality and bring them to true bodhi. The ten are detailed in the Hua-yen 華嚴 sūtra in two groups, one in the 十明品 and one in the 離世間品./

十種行願 十种行愿 [shi2 zhong3 xing2 yuan4 ] /The ten vows of Puxian 普賢./

十種觀法 十种观法 [shi2 zhong3 guan1 fa3 ] /idem 十乘觀法./

十種魔軍 十种魔军 [shi2 zhong3 mo2 jun1 ] /idem 十軍./

十緣生句 十缘生句 [shi2 yuan2 sheng1 ju4 ] /Ten illusions arising from environmental conditions: sleight of hand; mirage; dreams; reflections or shadows; gandharva cities (or cities of the sirens, seen in the sea-mist); echoes; the moon reflected in water; floating bubbles; motes (muscae volitantes); fire-wheel (made by revolving a flare)./

十緣觀 十缘观 [shi2 yuan2 guan1 ] /十喩觀 A meditation or reflection on the ten illusions 十緣生句./

十纒 十纒 [shi2 chan2 ] /The ten bonds that bind men to mortality — to be shameless, unblushing, envious, mean, regretful, torpid, busy, absorbed, angry, secretive (of sin)./

十羅刹女 十罗刹女 [shi2 luo1 sha1 nv3 ] /The ten rākṣasī, or demonesses mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra 陀羅尼品. They are now represented in the temples, each as an attendant on a Buddha or bodhisattva, and are chiefly connected with sorcery. They are said to be previous incarnations of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas with whom they are associated. In their evil state they were enemies of the living, converted they are enemies of evil. There are other definitions. Their names are: (1) 藍婆 Lambā, who is associated with Śākyamuni; (2) 毘藍婆 Vilambā, who is associated with Amitābha; (3) 曲齒 Kūṭadantī, who is associated with 藥師 Bhaiṣajya; (4) 華齒 Puṣpadanti, who is associated with 多賓 Prabhūtaratna; (5) 黑齒 Makuṭadantī, who is associated with 大日 Vairocana; (6) 多髮 Keśinī, who is associated with 普賢 Samantabhadra; (7) 無厭足 ? Acalā, who is associated with 文殊 Mañjuśrī; (8) 持瓔珞 Mālādharī, who is associated with 彌勒Maitreya; (9) 皐帝 Kuntī, who is associated with 觀音 Avalokiteśvara; (10) 奪一切衆生精氣 Sarvasattvaujohārī, who is associated with 地 藏 Kṣitigarbha./

十萬 十万 [shi2 wan4 ] /A lakh, i.e. an 億 or 洛叉./

十萬億佛土 十万亿佛土 [shi2 wan4 yi4 fu2 tu3 ] /The Happy Land, i.e. Amitābha's Paradise in the West, beyond ten thousand million Buddha-realms./

十號 十号 [shi2 hao4 ] /Ten titles of a Buddha: 如來 Tathāgata; 應供 Arhat; 正徧知 Samyak‐sambuddha; 明行足 Vidyācaraṇa-saṁpanna; 善逝 Sugata; 世間解 Lokavid.; 無上士 Anuttara; 調御丈夫 Puruṣa-damya-sārathi; 天人師 Śāstā deva-manuṣyāṇām; 佛世尊 Buddha-lokanātha, or Bhagavān./

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十行 十行 [shi2 xing2 ] /The ten necessary activities in the fifty-two stages of a bodhisattva, following on the 十信and 十住; the two latter indicate personal development 自利. These ten lines of action are for the universal welfare of others 利他. They are: joyful service; beneficial service; never resenting; without limit; never out of order; appearing in any form at will; unimpeded; exalting the pāramitās amongst all beings; perfecting the Buddha-law by complete virtue; manifesting in all things the pure, final, true reality./

十見 十见 [shi2 jian4 ] /The ten (wrong) views; see 五見and add 貪, 恚 , 慢 , 無明 and 疑見 desire, hate, pride, ignorance, and doubt./

十誡 十诫 [shi2 jie4 ] /idem 十戒./

十護 十护 [shi2 hu4 ] /The ten guardians of the law, assistants to the 十大明王./

十身 十身 [shi2 shen1 ] /Ten aspects of the Buddhakaya 佛身 q.v./

十軍 十军 [shi2 jun1 ] /The ten armies of Māra, which the Buddha attacks and destroys; the armies are desire, anxiety, hunger and thirst, longing, torpidity, fear, doubt, poison, gain, haughtiness (i.e. disdaining monks)./

十輪 十轮 [shi2 lun2 ] /idem 十種智力; v. 十力./

十通 十通 [shi2 tong1 ] /Ten supernatural powers, e.g. of seeing, hearing, appearance, etc.; cf. 五神通./

十進九退 十进九退 [shi2 jin4 jiu3 tui4 ] /The Buddha's teaching is so difficult that of ten who enter it nine fall away./

十道 十道 [shi2 dao4 ] /The ten (good) ways for deliverance from mortality- not to kill, steal, act wrongly, lie, be double-tongued, be of evil speech, slander, covet, be angry, look wrongly (or wrong views)./

十過 十过 [shi2 guo4 ] /Ten faults in eating flesh, and ten in drinking intoxicants./

十處定 十处定 [shi2 chu4 ding4 ] /v. 十一切處./

十重禁戒 十重禁戒 [shi2 zhong4 jin4 jie4 ] /The ten pārājika, or a monk's most serious sins; also 十波羅夷; 波羅闍巳迦. They are killing, stealing, adultery, lying, selling wine, talking of a monk's misdeeds, self-praise for degrading others, meanness, anger at rebuke, vilifying the Triratna. The esoteric sect has a group in regard to giving up the mind of enlightenment, renouncing the Triratna and going to heretical sects, slandering the Triratna, etc. Another group of ten is in the 大日經 9 and 17; cf. 十波羅夷./

十重罪 十重罪 [shi2 zhong4 zui4 ] /idem 十惡, 十不善./

十重障 十重障 [shi2 zhong4 zhang4 ] /The ten weighty bodhisattva hindrances, according to the 別教, which are respectively overcome by entry into the 十地; v. 成唯識論 9; the first is 異生性 the natural heart hindering the 聖性 holy heart, etc.; v. 十障./

十金剛心 十金刚心 [shi2 jin1 gang1 xin1 ] /Ten characteristics of the "diamond heart" as developed by bodhisattva: (1) complete insight into all truth; (2) saving of all creatures; (3) the glorifying of all Buddha-worlds; (4) supererogation of his good deeds; (5) service of all Buddhas; (6) realization of the truth of all Buddha-laws; (7) manifestation of all patience and endurance; (8) unflagging devotion to his vocation; (9) perfection of his work; (10) aiding all to fulfill their vows and accomplish their spiritual ends. 華嚴經 55./

十金剛心向果 十金刚心向果 [shi2 jin1 gang1 xin1 xiang4 guo3 ] /Ten "fruits" that accrue to the resolute "diamond-heart" of a bodhisattva: faith; meditation; refection on the doctrine; thoroughness in contemplation; straight-forward progress to Buddhahood; no retrogression; the Mahāyāna spirit (of universal salvation); freedom from externals (or impressions); wisdom; firm establishment; v. 梵網經, 心地品./

十長養心 十长养心 [shi2 zhang3 yang3 xin1 ] /The ten kinds of well-nourished heart, essential to entry into the cult of the higher patience and endurance: a heart of kindness; of pity; of joy (in progress toward salvation of others); renunciation; almsgiving; delight in telling the doctrine; benefiting or aiding others to salvation; unity, or amity; concentration in meditation; wisdom; v. 梵綱經,心地品./

十門 十门 [shi2 men2 ] /The ten "doors" or connections between事 and 理; 事 is defined as 現象 form and 理 as 本體 substance; the common illustration of wave and water indicates the idea thus expressed. The 理事無礎十門 means that in ten ways form and substance are not separate, unconnected entities. (1) li the substance is always present with shih the phenomena; (2) shih is always present with li; (3) shih depends on li for its existence; (4) the shih can reveal the li; (5) the shih (mere form, which is unreal) can disappear in the li;(6) the shih can conceal the li; (7) the true li is the shih; (8) the shih is li; (9) the true li (or reality) is not the shih; (10) the shih is not the (whole) li; v. 華嚴大疏 2. 周遍含容觀十門 The fifth of the five 觀 meditations of the 華嚴宗, i.e. on li and shih, e.g. (1) the li is as the shih; (2) the shih is as the li; 理如事, 事如理 and so on. The 止觀十門 in the 宗鏡録35, also deals with li and shih chiefly for purposes of meditation. Another group, the 華嚴釋經十門, treats of the Canon and the schools./

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十障 十障 [shi2 zhang4 ] /Ten hindrances; bodhisattvas in the stage of 十地 overcome these ten hindrances and realize the十眞如 q.v. The hindrances are: (1) 異生性障 the hindrance of the common illusions of the unenlightened, taking the seeming for real; (2) 邪行障 the hindrance of common unenlightened conduct; (3) 暗鈍障 the hindrance of ignorant and dull ideas; (4) 細惑現行障 the hindrance of the illusion that things are real and have independent existence; (5)下乘涅槃障 the hindrance of the lower ideals in Hīnayāna of nirvāṇa; (6) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the ordinary ideas of the pure and impure; (7) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the idea of reincarnation; (8) 無相加行障 the hindrance of the continuance of activity even in the formless world; (9) 不欲行障 the hindrance of no desire to act for the salvation of others; (10) 法未自在障 the hindrance of non- attainment of complete mastery of all things. v. 唯識論 10./

十願王 十愿王 [shi2 yuan4 wang2 ] /The king of the ten vows, Puxian普賢, or Samantabhadra./

十齋日 十斋日 [shi2 zhai1 ri4 ] /(十齋) The ten "fast' days of a month are 1, 8, 14, 15, 18, 23, 24, 28, 29, and 30. In certain periods flesh was forbidden on these days, also all killing, hunting, fishing, executions, etc./

十齋佛 十斋佛 [shi2 zhai1 fu2 ] /(十齋日佛) The ten Buddhas or bodhisattvas connected with the ten days of fasting days who in turn are 定光, 藥師, 普賢, 阿彌陀, 觀音, 勢至, 地藏毘慮遮那, 藥王, 釋迦./

[bo ] /To divine, foretell./

卜羯姿 卜羯姿 [bo jie2 zi1 ] /pukkaśa; also 補羯姿 A degraded caste of sweepers, or scavengers, and bearers of corpses./


[zhang4 ] /Ten feet; an elder; a wife's parents; a husband./

丈六 丈六 [zhang4 liu4 ] /Sixteen "feet", the normal height of a Buddha in his "transformation body" 化 身 nirmāṇa-kāya; said to be the height of the Buddha when he was on earth./

丈六金身 丈六金身 [zhang4 liu4 jin1 shen1 ] /sixteen-foot diamond-body; also a metal or golden image of the Buddha 16 feet high mentioned in the 北史 Northern History./

丈夫 丈夫 [zhang4 fu1 ] /A virile, zealous disciple, a man who presses forward unceasingly./

丈夫志幹 丈夫志干 [zhang4 fu1 zhi4 gan4 ] /A firm-willed man, especially used of a bodhisattva who dauntlessly presses forward./

丈夫國 丈夫国 [zhang4 fu1 guo2 ] /The country of virile men, Puruṣapura 富婁沙富羅, ancient capital of Gandhāra, the modern Peshawar; birthplace of 天親 Vasubandhu./

[xia4 ] /hīna, adhara. Below, lower, inferior, low; to descend, let down, put down./

下三途 下三途 [xia4 san1 tu2 ] /The three lower paths of the six destinations (gati) 六道, i.e. beings in hell, pretas, and animals./

下乘 下乘 [xia4 cheng2 ] /The lower yāna, i.e. Hīnayāna; likened to an old worn-out horse. To alight from (a vehicle, horse, etc.)./

下八地 下八地 [xia4 ba1 de ] /The regions in the nine divisions of the trailokya below the 無所有處地 of the arūpadhātu, v. 九地./

下劣乘 下劣乘 [xia4 lie4 cheng2 ] /The inferior, mean yāna, a scornful term for Hīnayāna./

下化 下化 [xia4 hua4 ] /(下化衆生) Below, to transform all beings, one of the great vows of a bodhisattva. 上求菩提 above, to seek bodhi. Also 下濟衆生./

下口食 下口食 [xia4 kou3 shi2 ] /one of the 四邪命食 four heterodox means of living, i.e. for a monk to earn his livelihood by bending down to cultivate the land, collect herbs, etc.; opposite of 仰口食, i.e. making a heterodox living by looking up, as in astrology, fortune-telling, etc. 智度論 3./

下品 下品 [xia4 pin3 ] /The three lowest of the nine classes born in the Amitābha Pure Land, v. 無量壽經. These three lowest grades are (1) 下品上生 The highest of the three lowest classes who enter the Pure Land of Amitābha, i.e. those who have committed all sins except dishonouring the sūtras. If at the end of life the sinner clasps hands and says "Namo Amitābha", such a one will be born in His precious lake. (2) 下品中生 The middle class consists of those who have broken all the commandments, even stolen from monks and abused the law. If at death such a one hears of the great power of Amitābha, and assents with but a thought, he will be received into paradise. (3) 下品下生 The lowest class, because of their sins, should have fallen into the lowest gati, but by invoking the name of Amitābha, they can escape countless ages of reincarnation and suffering and on dying will behold a lotus flower like the sun, and, by the response of a single thought, will enter the Pure Land of Amitābha./

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下地 下地 [xia4 de ] /The lower regions of the 九地 q. v.; also the lower half of the 十地 in the fifty-two grades of bodhisattva development./

下地麤苦障 下地粗苦障 [xia4 de cu1 ku3 zhang4 ] /To see the lower grade out of which one has migrated, as rough, wretched, and a hindrance; a Brahman form of meditation./

下堂 下堂 [xia4 tang2 ] /To descend from the hall, especially after the morning congee./

下塵 下尘 [xia4 chen2 ] /The lower gati, the hells, hungry ghosts, animals./

下根 下根 [xia4 gen1 ] /Those (born) with base character, or of low capacity./

下棒 下棒 [xia4 bang4 ] /To lay on the cudgel, beat; syn. for the 德山 Te Shan monastery, whose Chan sect abbot instilled intelligence with his staff./

下火 下火 [xia4 huo3 ] /下炬 To apply the torch; syn. for setting alight the funeral pyre of a monk./

下生經 下生经 [xia4 sheng1 jing1 ] /idem 彌勤下生經./

下界 下界 [xia4 jie4 ] /The lower, or human world 人界./

下種 下种 [xia4 zhong3 ] /To sow the seed; to preach, or teach. Tiantai defines three periods: (1) 種 when the seed of Buddha's teaching is sown in the heart; (2) 熟 when it ripens; (3) 脫 when it is stripped or harvested, i. e when one abandons all things./

下蠟 下蜡 [xia4 la4 ] /Inferior candles. The 上蠟 and 下蠟 superior and inferior candles are senior and junior monks; those of longer and shorter service; but see 上臈./

下衆 下众 [xia4 zhong4 ] /The seven lower orders of disciples, who with the monks and nuns in full orders make the 九衆./

下衣 下衣 [xia4 yi1 ] /The lowest order of a monk's robes, that of five patches; lower garments./

下語 下语 [xia4 yu3 ] /To give instruction; to state a case (as at law)./

下輩觀 下辈观 [xia4 bei4 guan1 ] /A meditation of the Amitābha sect on the 下品 q. v.; it is the last of sixteen contemplations, and deals with those who have committed the five rebellious acts 五逆 and the ten evils 十惡, but who still can obtain salvation; v. 無量壽經. 下輩下生觀 idem./

下轉 下转 [xia4 zhuan3 ] /The downward turn, in transmigration. Primal ignorance or unenlightenment 無明acting against the primal, true, or Buddha-nature causes transmigration. The opposite is上轉 when the good prevails over the evil. 下轉is sometimes used for 下化 to save those below./

下間 下间 [xia4 jian1 ] /The inferior rooms of a monastery, on the left as one enters./

[shang4 ] /uttarā 嗢呾羅; above upper, superior; on; former. To ascend, offer to a superior./

上中下法 上中下法 [shang4 zhong4 xia4 fa3 ] /The three dharmas, systems, or vehicles, 菩薩, 緣覺, and 聲聞 bodhisattva, pratyeka-buddha, and śrāvaka./

上乘 上乘 [shang4 cheng2 ] /Mahāyāna; also 上衍, 大乘 q. v./

上乘密宗 上乘密宗 [shang4 cheng2 mi4 zong1 ] /The Mahāyāna esoteric school, especially the 眞言 Shingon./

上乘瑜伽 上乘瑜伽 [shang4 cheng2 yu2 jia1 ] /Mahāyāna-yoga, chiefy associated with 上乘密宗./

上乘禪 上乘禅 [shang4 cheng2 chan2 ] /The Mahāyāna Ch'an (Zen) School, which considers that it alone attains the highest realization of Mahāyāna truth. Hīnayāna philosophy is said only to realize the unreality of the ego and not the unreality of all things. The Mahāyāna realizes the unreality of the ego and of all things. But the Ch'an school is pure idealism, all being mind. This mind is Buddha, and is the universal fundamental mind./

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上元燒燈 上元烧灯 [shang4 yuan2 shao1 deng1 ] /The lantern festival at the first full moon of the year./

上人 上人 [shang4 ren2 ] /A man of superior wisdom, virtue, and conduct, a term applied to monks during the Tang dynasty./

上上人 上上人 [shang4 shang4 ren2 ] /A term used in the Pure Land sect for a worshipper of Amitābha./

上供 上供 [shang4 gong1 ] /To offer up an offering to Buddha, or to ancestors./

上品 上品 [shang4 pin3 ] /Superior order, grade, or class./

上品上生 上品上生 [shang4 pin3 shang4 sheng1 ] /上品中生; 上品下生 The three highest of the nine stages of birth in the Pure Land, v. 九品淨土./

上品蓮臺 上品莲台 [shang4 pin3 lian2 tai2 ] /The highest stages in the Pure Land where the best appear as lotus flowers on the pool of the seven precious things; when the lotuses open they are transformed into beings of the Pure Land./

上堂 上堂 [shang4 tang2 ] /To go into the hall to expound the doctrine; to go to a temple for the purpose of worship, or bearing presents to the monks; to go to the refectory for meals./

上堂牌 上堂牌 [shang4 tang2 pai2 ] /The tablet announcing the time of worship at a temple or monastery./

上士 上士 [shang4 shi4 ] /The superior disciple, who becomes perfect in (spiritually) profiting himself and others. The 中士 profits self but not others; the 下士 neither./

上座 上座 [shang4 zuo4 ] /Sthavira; or Mahāsthavira. Old man, or elder; head monk, president, or abbot; the first Buddhist fathers; a title of Mahākāśyapa; also of monks of twenty to forty-nine years standing, as 中座 are from ten to nineteen and 下座 under ten. The 釋氏要覽 divides presiding elders into four classes, those presiding over monasteries, over assemblies of monks, over sects, and laymen presiding over feasts to monks./

上座部 上座部 [shang4 zuo4 bu4 ] /他毘梨典部; 他鞞羅部 Sthavirāḥ; Sthaviranikāya; or Āryasthāvirāḥ. The school of the presiding elder, or elders. The two earliest sections of Buddhism were this (which developed into the Mahāsthavirāḥ) and the Mahāsānghikāḥ or 大衆部. At first they were not considered to be different schools, the 上座部 merely representing the intimate and older disciples of Śākyamuni and the 大衆 being the rest. It is said that a century later under Mahādeva 大天 a difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions are named as resulting, viz. Mahāvihāravāsinaḥ, Jetavanīyāḥ, and Abhayagiri-vāsinaḥ. These were in Ceylon. In course of time the eighteen Hīnayāna sects were developed. From the time of Aśoka four principal schools are counted as prevailing: Mahāsāṅghika, Sthavira, Mūlasarvāstivda, and Saṁmitīya. The following is a list of the eleven sects reckoned as of the 上座部: 說一切有部; 雪山; 犢子; 法上; 賢冑; 正量; 密林山; 化地; 法藏; 飮光; and 經量部. The Sthaviravādin is reputed as nearest to early Buddhism in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from an agnostic system to a realistic philosophy./

上方 上方 [shang4 fang1 ] /上手 An abbot 上方 originally meant a mountain monastery./

上根 上根 [shang4 gen1 ] /A man of superior character or capacity, e.g. with superior organs of sight, hearing, etc./

上求本來 上求本来 [shang4 qiu2 ben3 lai2 ] /Similar to the first half of 上求菩提下化衆生 Above to seek bodhi, below to save all. 本來 means the original or Buddha-nature, which is the real nature of all beings./

上流 上流 [shang4 liu2 ] /(上流般) ūrdhvasrotas. The flow upwards, or to go upwards against the stream of transmigration to parinirvāṇa. Also 上流般涅槃./

上煩惱 上烦恼 [shang4 ] /The severe fundamental trials arising out of the ten great delusions; also the trials or distresses of present delusions./

上界天 上界天 [shang4 jie4 tian1 ] /The devas of the regions of form and formlessness. v. 色./

上祭 上祭 [shang4 ji4 ] /To place offerings on an altar; also 下祭./

上綱 上纲 [shang4 gang1 ] /The "higher bond' or superior, the 上座 or Sthavira, among the three directors of a monastery. v. 三綱./

上著衣 上着衣 [shang4 zhuo2 yi1 ] /A monk's outer robe, uttarā-samghāṭī, worn over the shirt or antara-vāsaka./

上肩 上肩 [shang4 jian1 ] /Upper shoulder, i.e. the left or superior; one worthy of respect./

上肩順轉 上肩顺转 [shang4 jian1 shun4 zhuan3 ] /Circumambulation with the superior shoulder to the image; the left was formerly considered the superior side; but this is uncertain./

上臈 上臈 [shang4 la4 ] /The "la" is the end of a summer's retreat, which ends the monastic year, hence 上臈 are senior, 下臈 junior monks./

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上茅城 上茅城 [shang4 mao2 cheng2 ] /(上茅宮城) Kuśāgrapura, 矩奢揭羅補羅 city of Kuśa-grass palaces, or山城 the mountain city. v. 吉祥茅國./

上行菩薩 上行菩萨 [shang4 xing2 pu2 sa4 ] /Viśiṣṭa-cāritra Bodhisattva, who suddenly rose out of the earth as Buddha was concluding one of his Lotus sermons; v. Lotus sūtra 15 and 21. He is supposed to have been a convert of the Buddha in long past ages and to come to the world in its days of evil. Nichiren in Japan believed himself to be this Bodhisattva's reincarnation, and the Nichiren trinity is the Buddha, i.e. the eternal Śākyamuni Buddha; the Law, i.e. the Lotus Truth; and the Saṅgha, i.e. this Bodhisattva, in other words Nichiren himself as the head of all living beings, or eldest son of the Buddha./

上衍 上衍 [shang4 yan3 ] /Mahāyāna, 上乘; v. 大乘./

上衣 上衣 [shang4 yi1 ] /The superior or outer robe described as of twenty-five patches, and styled the uttarā saṁghātī./

上趣 上趣 [shang4 qu4 ] /The higher gati, directions, or transmigrations./

上足 上足 [shang4 zu2 ] /A superior disciple or follower./

上輩 上辈 [shang4 bei4 ] /Superior, or highest class, idem 上品./

上輩觀 上辈观 [shang4 bei4 guan1 ] /The fourteenth of the sixteen contemplations of the Amitābha school, with reference to those who seek the Pure Land with sincere, profound, and altruistic hearts./

上轉 上转 [shang4 zhuan3 ] /The upward turn: (1) progress upward, especially in transmigration; (2) increase in enlightenment for self, while下轉 q.v. is for others./

上間 上间 [shang4 jian1 ] /The superior rooms, i.e. on the right as one enters a monastery, the 下間 are on the left./

上首 上首 [shang4 shou3 ] /President, or presiding elders./

[san1 ] /Tri, trayas; three./

三一 三一 [san1 yi1 ] /Trinity; also 31./

三七日思惟 三七日思惟 [san1 qi1 ri4 si1 wei2 ] /The twenty-one days spent by the Buddha, after his enlightenment, in walking round the bo-tree and considering how to carry his Mahāyāna way of salvation to the world; v. 法華經,方便品./

三三昧 三三昧 [san1 san1 mei4 ] /(三三昧地) The three samādhis, or the samādhi on three subjects; 三三摩 (三三摩地); 三定, 三等持; 三空; 三治; 三解脫門; 三重三昧; 三重等持. There are two forms of such meditation, that of 有漏 reincarnational, or temporal, called 三三昧; and that of 無 漏 liberation, or nirvāṇa, called 三解脫. The three subjects and objects of the meditation are (1) 空 to empty the mind of the ideas of me and mine and suffering, which are unreal; (2) 無相to get rid of the idea of form, or externals, i.e. the 十相 which are the five senses, and male and female, and the three 有; (3) 無願 to get rid of all wish or desire, also termed無作 and 無起. A more advanced meditation is called the Double Three Samādhi 重三三昧 in which each term is doubled 空空, 無相無相, 無願無願. The esoteric sect has also a group of its own./

三不三信 三不三信 [san1 bu4 san1 xin4 ] /This refers to the state of faith in the worshipper; the three 不 are impure, not single, not constant; the three 信 are the opposite./

三不善根 三不善根 [san1 bu4 ] /Three bad roots, or qualities — desire, anger, and stupidity 貪, 瞋, 痴, v. 三毒./

三不堅法 三不坚法 [san1 bu4 jian1 fa3 ] /Three unstable things — the body, length of life, wealth./

三不失 三不失 [san1 bu4 shi1 ] /The three never lost, idem 三不護./

三不淨肉 三不净肉 [san1 bu4 jing4 rou4 ] /The three kinds of flesh unclean to a monk killed, or has doubt about it; v. 三淨肉./

三不能 三不能 [san1 ] /v. 三能./

三不護 三不护 [san1 bu4 hu4 ] /The three that need no guarding i.e. the 三業 of a Buddha, his body, mouth (or lips), and mind, which he does not need to guard as they are above error./

三不退 三不退 [san1 bu4 tui4 ] /The three non-backslidings, i.e. from position attained, from line of action pursued, and in dhyāna./

三世 三世 [san1 shi4 ] /The three periods, 過去, 現在, 未來or 過, 現, 未, past, present, and future. The universe is described as eternally in motion, like flowing stream. Also 未生, 巳生,後滅, or 未, 現, 過 unborn, born, dead The 華嚴經 Hua-yen sūtra has a division of ten kinds of past, present, and future i.e. the past spoken of as past, present, and future, the present spoken of in like manner, the future also, with the addition of the present as the three periods in one instant. Also 三際./

三世三千佛 三世三千佛 [san1 shi4 san1 qian1 fu2 ] /The thousand Buddhas of each of the three kalpas — of the past, called 莊嚴 kalpa, the present 賢, and the future 星宿. Their names are variously given in several sutra, with a complete list in the 三手佛名經./

三世不可得 三世不可得 [san1 shi4 bu4 ke3 de2 ] /Everything past, present, future, whether mental or material, is intangible, fleeting, and cannot be held; v. 三世心./

三世了達 三世了达 [san1 shi4 le da2 ] /A Buddha's perfect knowledge of past, present, and future./

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三世佛 三世佛 [san1 shi4 fu2 ] /The Buddhas of the past, present, and future, i.e. Kāsyapa, Śākyamuni, and Maitreya./

三世假實 三世假实 [san1 shi4 jia3 shi2 ] /The reality or otherwise of things or events past, present, and future. Some Hīnayāna schools admit the reality of the present but dispute the reality of the past 已有and the future 當有. Others take different views, all of which have been exhaustively discussed. See Vibhāśā śāstra 婆沙論 77 or 俱舍論 20./

三世實有法體恒有 三世实有法体恒有 [san1 shi4 shi2 you3 fa3 ti3 heng2 you3 ] /The Sarvāstivadah school maintains that as the three states (past, present, future) are real, so the substance of all things is permanent; i.e. time is real, matter is eternal./

三世心 三世心 [san1 shi4 xin1 ] /Mind, or thought, past, present or future, is momentary, always moving, unreal and cannot be laid hold of./

三世成佛 三世成佛 [san1 shi4 cheng2 fu2 ] /idem 三生./

三世智 三世智 [san1 shi4 zhi4 ] /One of a Tathāgata's ten kinds of wisdom, i.e. knowledge of past, present, and future./

三世無障礙智戒 三世无障碍智戒 [san1 shi4 wu2 zhang4 ai4 zhi4 jie4 ] /The wisdom-law or moral law that frees from all impediments, past, present, and future. Also styled 三昧耶戒; 自性本源戒; 三平等戒; 菩提心戒; 無爲戒 and 眞法戒./

三世覺母 三世觉母 [san1 shi4 jue2 mu3 ] /A name for Mañjuśrī 文殊; as guardian of the wisdom of Vairocana he is the bodhi-mother of all Buddhas past, present, and future./

三世間 三世间 [san1 shi4 jian1 ] /There are two definitions: (1) The realms of 器 matter, of 衆生 life, and 智正覺 mind, especially the Buddha's mind. (2) The 五陰 psychological realm (mind), 衆生 realm of life, and 國土 or 器material realm./

三乘 三乘 [san1 cheng2 ] /Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle./

三乘家 三乘家 [san1 cheng2 jia1 ] /The Dharmalakṣaṇa School of the Three Vehicles, led by the 法相宗./

三乘眞實一乘方便 三乘眞实一乘方便 [san1 cheng2 zhen1 shi2 yi1 cheng2 fang1 bian4 ] /The 三乘家 consider the Triyāna as real, and the "one vehicle" of the Lotus School as merely tactical, or an expedient form of expression./

事戒 事戒 [shi4 jie4 ] /The commands relating to body, speech, and mind 身, 口, 意./

三事練磨 三事练磨 [san1 shi4 lian4 mo2 ] /v. 三退屈./

三事衲 三事衲 [san1 shi4 na4 ] /(or 三事衣) A term for a monk's robe of five, seven, or nine patches./

三仙二天 三仙二天 [san1 xian1 er4 tian1 ] /The three ṛṣis or wise men and the two devas, i.e. 迦毘羅 Kapila, founder of the Sāṁkhya philosophy; 鵂鶹 or 優樓佉 Ulūka or Kaṇāda, founder of the 勝論宗 or Vaiśeṣika philosophy; and 勒沙婆 Ṛṣabha, founder of the Nirgranthas; with Śiva and Viṣṇu as the two deities./

三伐持 三伐持 [san1 fa2 chi2 ] /Saṃvaji; the heretical people of Vṛji, an ancient kingdom north of the Ganges, south-east of Nepal. (Eitel.)./

三佛 三佛 [san1 fu2 ] /Trikāya, v. 三身. Also the三岐 or founders of the 楊岐 branch of the Chan (Zen) School, i.e. Huiqin 慧勤, Qingyuan 淸遠, and Keqin 克勤./

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三佛土 三佛土 [san1 fu2 tu3 ] /The three Buddha-lands, realms, or environment, corresponding to the Trikāya; v. 三身 and 佛土./

三佛子 三佛子 [san1 fu2 zi ] /All the living are Buddha-sons, but they are of three kinds—the commonalty are 外子 external sons; the followers of the two inferior Buddhist vehicles, 小and 中 乘, are 庶子 secondary sons (i.e. of concubines); the bodhisattvas, i.e. mahāyānists) are 子 true sons, or sons in the truth./

三佛性 三佛性 [san1 fu2 xing4 ] /The three kinds of Buddha-nature: (1) 自性住佛性 the Buddha-nature which is in all living beings, even those in the three evil paths (gati). (2) 引出佛性 the Buddha-nature developed by the right discipline. (3) 至得果佛性 the final or perfected Buddha-nature resulting from the development of the original potentiality./

三佛栗底 三佛栗底 [san1 fu2 li4 di3 ] /saṃvṛti, which means concealed, not apparent, is intp. as common ideas世俗諦 or phenomenal truth; it is also intp. as that which hides reality, or seems to be real, the seeming./

三佛菩提 三佛菩提 [san1 fu2 pu2 ti2 ] /The bodhi, or wisdom, of each of the Trikāya, 三身, i.e. that under the bodhi tree, that of parinirvāṇa, that of tathāgatagarbha in its eternal nirvāṇa aspect./

三佛語 三佛语 [san1 fu2 yu3 ] /The Buddha's three modes of discourse—unqualifed, i.e. out of the fullness of his nature; qualified to suit the intelligence of his hearers; and both./

三佛身 三佛身 [san1 fu2 shen1 ] /idem 三身./

三佛陀 三佛陀 [san1 fo2 tuo2 ] /saṃbuddha; the truly enlightened one, or correct enlightenment./

三使 三使 [san1 shi3 ] /The three (divine) messengers—birth, sickness, death; v. 使. Also 三天使 ./

三修 三修 [san1 xiu1 ] /The three ways of discipline, i.e. three śrāvaka and three bodhisattva ways. The three śrāvaka ways are 無常修 no realization of the eternal, seeing everything as transient; 非樂修 joyless, through only contemplating misery and not realizing the ultimate nirvāṇa-joy; 無我修 non-ego discipline, seeing only the perishing self and not realizing the immortal self. The bodhisattva three are the opposite of these./

三倒 三倒 [san1 dao4 ] /idem 三顚倒./

三條椽下 三条椽下 [san1 tiao2 chuan2 xia4 ] /Under three rafters—the regulation space for a monk's bed or seat; in meditation./

三假 三假 [san1 jia3 ] /prajñāpti. The word 假 q.v. in Buddhist terminology means that everything is merely phenomenal, and consists of derived elements; nothing therefore has real existeme, but all is empty and unreal, 虛妄不實. The three 假 are 法 things, 受 sensations, and 名 names./

三假施設 三假施设 [san1 jia3 shi1 she4 ] /三攝提The three fallacious postulates in regard to 法, 受, and 名./

三假觀 三假观 [san1 jia3 guan1 ] /The meditations on the three false assumptions 三假./

三僧祇 三僧祇 [san1 seng1 qi2 ] /idem 三阿僧祇劫./

三愆 三愆 [san1 qian1 ] /The three misleading things: 貪 desire, 瞋 ire, and 邪 perverted views./

三僞一眞 三伪一眞 [san1 wei3 yi1 zhen1 ] /The three half-true, or partial revelations of the 小乘, 中乘 and 大乘, and the true one of the Lotus Sūtra./

三憶家 三忆家 [san1 yi4 jia1 ] /The 300,000 families of Śrāvastī city who had never heard of the Buddha's epiphany— though he was often among them./

三光 三光 [guang1 ] /(三光天) Sun, moon, and stars. Also, in the second dhyāna of the form-world there are the two deva regions 少光天, 無量光天, and 光音天q.v. Also 觀音 Avalokiteśvara is styled 日天子sun-prince, or divine son of the sun, 大勢至 Mahāsthāmaprapta is styled 月天子 divine son of the moon, and 虛空藏菩薩 the bodhisattva of the empyrean, is styled 明星天子 divine son of the bright stars./

三八日 三八日 [san1 ba1 ri4 ] /The eighth, eighteenth, and twenty-eighth days of a moon./

三六 三六 [san1 liu4 ] /Eighteen, especially referring to the eighteen sects of Hīnayāna./

三六九 三六九 [san1 liu4 jiu3 ] /An esoteric objection to three, six, or nine persons worshipping together./

三具足 三具足 [san1 ju4 zu2 ] /The three essential articles for worship: flower-vase, candlestick, and censer./

三力 三力 [san1 li4 ] /The three powers, of which there are various groups: (1) (a) personal power; (6) tathāgata-power; (c) power of the Buddha-nature within. (2) (a) power of a wise eye to see the Buddha-medicine (for evil); (b) of diagnosis of the ailment; (c) of suiting and applying the medicine to the disease. (3) (a) the power of Buddha; (b) of samādhi; (c) of personal achievement or merit./

三力偈 三力偈 [san1 li4 ji4 ] /The triple-power verse: 以我功德力 In the power of my virtue, 如來加持力. And the aiding power of the Tathāgata, 及與法界力 And the power of the spiritual realm, 周遍衆生界 I can go anywhere in the land of the living./

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三分科經 三分科经 [san1 fen1 ke1 jing1 ] /The three divisions of a treatise on a sūtra, i. e. 序分introduction, 正宗分discussion of the subject, 流通分application./

[jie2 ] /The three asaṃkhyeya kalpas, the three countless aeons, the period of a bodhisattva's development; also the past 莊嚴劫, the present 賢劫, and the future 星宿劫 kalpas. There are other groups. 三劫三千佛 The thousand Buddhas in each of the three kalpas./

[shi2 ] /tridaśa. Thirty; abbreviation for the thirty-three deities, heavens, etc./

十二 十二 [shi2 er4 ] /dvātriṃśa. Thirty-two. 三十二應 (or 三十二身) The thirty-two forms of Guanyin, and of Puxian, ranging from that of a Buddha to that of a man, a maid, a rakṣas; similar to the thirty-three forms named in the Lotus Sūtra. 三十二相三十二大人相 dvātriṃśadvaralakṣaṇa. The thirty-two lakṣaṇas, or physical marks of a cakravartī, or 'wheel-king', especially of the Buddha, i. e. level feet, thousand-spoke wheel-sign on feet, long slender fingers, pliant hands and feet, toes and fingers finely webbed, full-sized heels, arched insteps, thighs like a royal stag, hands reaching below the knees well-retracted male organ, height and stretch of arms equal, every hair-root dark coloured, body hair graceful and curly, golden-hued body, a 10 ft. halo around him, soft smooth skin, the 七處, i. e. two soles, two palms, two shoulders, and crown well rounded, below the armpits well-filled, lion-shaped body, erect, full shoulders, forty teeth, teeth white even and close, the four canine teeth pure white, lion-jawed, saliva improving the taste of all food, tongue long and broad, voice deep and resonant, eyes deep blue, eyelashes like a royal bull, a white ūrnā or curl between the eyebrows emitting light, an uṣṇīṣa or fleshy protuberance on the crown. These are from the 三藏法數 48, with which the 智度論 4, 涅盤經 28, 中阿含經, 三十ニ相經 generally agree. The 無量義經 has a different list. 三十二相經 The eleventh chapter of the 阿含經. 三十二相經願 The twenty-first of Amitābha's vows, v. 無量壽經. 三十三 trayastriṃśat. Thirty-three. 三十三天忉利天; 憺梨天, 多羅夜登陵舍; 憺利夜登陵奢; 憺利耶憺利奢 Trayastriṃśas. The Indra heaven, the second of the six heavens of form. Its capital is situated on the summit of Mt. Sumeru, where Indra rules over his thirty-two devas, who reside on thirty-two peaks of Sumeru, eight in each of the four directons. Indra's capital is called 殊勝 Sudarśana, 喜見城 Joy-view city. Its people are a yojana in height, each one's clothing weighs 六鐵 (1/4 oz. ), and they live 1, 000 years, a day and night being equal to 100 earthly years. Eitel says Indra's heaven 'tallies in all its details with the Svarga of Brahminic mythology' and suggests that 'the whole myth may have an astronomical meaning', or be connected, with 'the atmosphere with its phenomena, which strengthens Koeppen's hypothesis explaining the number thirty-three as referring to the eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Ādityas, and two Aśvins of Vedic mythology'. In his palace called Vaijayanta 'Indra is enthroned with 1, 000 eyes with four arms grasping the vajra. There he revels in numberless sensual pleasures together with his wife Śacī... and with 119, 000 concubines with whom he associates by means of transformation'./

十三觀音 十三观音 [shi2 san1 guan1 yin1 ] /(三十三尊觀音) The thirty-three forms in which Guanyin is represented: with willow, dragon, sutra, halo, as strolling, with white robe, as lotus-sleeping, with fishing-creel, as medicine-bestowing, with folded hands, holding a lotus, pouring water, etc. 三十三過 The thirty-three possible fallacies in the statement of a syllogism, nine in the proposition 宗 pratijñā, fourteen in the reason 因 hetu, and ten in the example 喩 udāharaṇa./

十三身 十三身 [shi2 san1 shen1 ] /The thirty-three forms in which Avalokiteśvara (Guanyin) is said to have presented himself, from that of a Buddha to that of a woman or a rakṣas. Cf. Lotus Sūtra 普門 chapter./

十五佛 十五佛 [shi2 wu3 fu2 ] /The thirty-five Buddhas before whom those who have committed sins involving interminable suffering should heartily repent. There are different lists./

十六物 十六物 [shi2 liu4 wu4 ] /The thirty-six physical parts and excretions of the human body, all being unclean, i. e. the vile body./

三十六神 三十六神 [san1 shi2 liu4 shen2 ] /(三十六部神) The thirty-six departmental guardian divinities given in the 灌頂三歸五戒帶佩護身咒經. Each is styled 彌栗頭 mṛdu, benign, kindly, for which 善 is used. Their Sanskrit and Chinese names are given in Chinese as follows: (1) 不羅婆 or 善光 kindly light, has to do with attacks of disease; (2) 婆呵婆 or 善明 headaches; (3) 婆邏婆 or 善力 fevers; (4) 抗陀羅 or 善月 disorders of the stomach; (5) 陀利奢 or 善見 tumours; (6) 阿婁呵 or 善供 madness; (7) 伽婆帝 or 善捨 stupidity; (8) 悉抵哆 or 善寂 irascibility; (9) 菩堤薩 or善覺 lust; (10) 提婆羅 or 善天 devils; (11) 阿婆帝 or 善住 deadly injuries; (12) 不若羅 of 善福 graves; (13) 苾闍伽 or 善術 the four quarters; (14) 迦隸婆 or 善帝 enemies; (15) 羅闍遮 or 善主 robbers; (16) 須乾陀 or 善香 creditors; (17) 檀那波 or 善施 thieves; (18) 支多那 or 善意 pestilence; (19) 羅婆那 or 善吉 the five plagues (? typhoid); (20) 鉢婆馱 or 善山 corpse worms; (21) 三摩提 or 善調 continuous concentration; (22) 戾禘馱 or 善備 restlessness; (23) 波利陀 or 善敬 attraction; (24) 波利那 or 善淨 evil cabals; (25) 度伽地 or 善品 deadly poison; (26) 毘梨馱 or 善結 fear; (27) 支陀那 or 善壽 calamities; (28) 伽林摩 or 善逝 childbirth and nursing; (29) 阿留伽 or 善願 the district magistracy; (30) 闍利馱 or 善固 altercations; (31) 阿伽駄 or 善照 anxieties and distresses; (32) 阿訶婆 or 善生 uneasiness; (33) 婆和邏 or 善思 supernatural manifestations; (34) 波利那 or 善藏 jealousy; (35) 固陀那 or 善音 curses; (36) 韋陀羅 or 善妙 exorcism. They have innumerable assistants. He who writes their names and carries them with him can be free from all fear./

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三十七道品 三十七道品 [san1 shi2 qi1 dao4 pin3 ] /三十七分法, 三十七菩提分法, 三十七品 The thirty-seven conditions leading to bodhi, or Buddhahood, i. e. 四念處 smṛtyupasthāna, four states of memory, or subjects of reflection; 四正勤 samyakprahāṇa, four proper lines of exertion; 四如意足 ṛddhipāda, four steps towards supernatural power; 五根 pañca indriyāṇi, five spiritual faculties; 五力pañca balāni, their five powers; 七覺支 sapta bodhyaṅga, seven degrees of enlightenment, or intelligence; and 八正道 aṣṭa-mārga, the eightfold noble path./

三十七尊 三十七尊 [san1 shi2 qi1 zun1 ] /The thirty-seven heads in the Vajradhātu or Diamond-realm maṇḍala./

三十七尊四大輪 三十七尊四大轮 [san1 shi2 qi1 zun1 si4 da4 lun2 ] /The four large circles in each of which the thirty-seven are represented, in one all hold the diamond-realm symbol, the vajra; in another, the symbol relating to the triple realm of time, past, present, future; in another, the Guanyin symbol; and in another, the symbol of infinite space./

三十捨墮 三十舍堕 [san1 shi2 she3 duo4 ] /idem 尼薩耆波逸提./

三十生 三十生 [san1 shi2 sheng1 ] /In each of the 十地 ten states there are three conditions, 入, 住, 出, entry, stay, exit, hence the 'thirty lives'./

三千 三千 [san1 qian1 ] /trisahasra, three thousand; a term used by the Tiantai School for 一切諸法, i. e. all things, everything in a chiliocosm, or Buddhaworld; v. 三千大千世界./

三千佛 三千佛 [san1 qian1 fu2 ] /idem 三世./

三千塵點劫 三千尘点劫 [san1 qian1 chen2 dian3 jie2 ] /The kalpa of the ancient Buddha Mahābhijñābhibhū (大通智; 勝佛), mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra, i. e. a kalpa of incalculable antiquity, e. g. surpassing the number of the particles of a chiliocosm which has been ground to powder, turned into ink, and dropped, drop by drop, at vast distances throughout boundless space./

三千大千世界 三千大千世界 [san1 qian1 da4 qian1 shi4 jie4 ] /tri-sahasra-mahā-sahasra-loka-dhātu, a great chiliocosm; 三千; 三千界, 三千世界. Mt. Sumeru and its seven surrounding continents, eight seas and ring of iron mountains form one small world; 1, 000 of these form a small chiliocosm 小千世界; 1, 000 of these small chiliocosms form a medium chiliocosm 中千世界; a thousand of these form a great chiliocosm 大千世界, which thus consists of 1, 000, 000, 000 small worlds. The 三千 indicates the above three kinds of thousands, therefore 三千大千世界 is the same as 大千世界, which is one Buddha-world./

三千實相 三千实相 [san1 qian1 shi2 xiang1 ] /The reality at the basis of all things, a Tiantai doctrine, i. e. the 眞如 or 法性 idem 諸法實相./

三千年一現 三千年一现 [san1 yi1 xian4 ] /The udumbara flower which flowers but once in 3, 000 years; v. 優./

三千威儀 三千威仪 [san1 qian1 wei1 yi2 ] /A bhikṣu's regulations amount to about 250; these are multiplied by four for the conditions of walking, standing, sitting, and sleeping and thus make 1, 000; again multiplied by three for past, present, and future, they become 3, 000 regulations./

三千威儀經 三千威仪经 [san1 qian1 wei1 yi2 jing1 ] /The sūtra of the three thousand regulations./

三印 三印 [san1 yin4 ] /The three signs or proofs of a Hīnayāna sutra— non-permanence, non-personality, nirvāṇa; without these the sūtra is spurious and the doctrine is of Māra; the proof of a Mahāyāna sūtra is the doctrine of 一實 ultimate reality, q. v. Also 三法印./

三卽一 三卽一 [san1 ji2 yi1 ] /The three vehicles (Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna) are one, i. e. the three lead to bodhisattvaship and Buddhahood for all./

三受 三受 [san1 shou4 ] /The three states of Vedanā, i. e. sensation, are divided into painful, pleasurable, and freedom from both 苦, 樂, 捨. When things are opposed to desire, pain arises; when accordant, there is pleasure and a desire for their continuance; when neither, one is detached or free. 倶舍論 1./

三受業 三受业 [san1 shou4 ye4 ] /The karma or results arising from the pursuit of courses that produce pain, pleasure, or freedom from both./

三句 三句 [san1 ju4 ] /Three cryptic questions of 雲門 Yunmen, founder of the Yunmen Chan School. They are: (1) 截斷衆流 What is it that stops all flow (of reincarnation) ? The reply from the 起信論 is 一心, i. e. the realization of the oneness of mind, or that all is mind. (2) 函蓋乾坤 What contains and includes the universe? The 眞如. (3) 隨波逐浪 One wave following another— what is this? Birth and death 生死, or transmigration, phenomenal existence./

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三味 三味 [san1 wei4 ] /The three flavours, or pleasant savours: the monastic life, reading the scriptures, meditation./

三和 三和 [san1 he2 ] /The union of the three, i.e. 根 indriya, 境 ālambana, and 識 vijñāna, i.e. organ, object, and cognition./

三品 三品 [san1 pin3 ] /The general meaning is 上, 中, 下 superior, medium, inferior./

三品悉地 三品悉地 [san1 pin3 xi1 de ] /The three esoteric kinds of siddhi, i.e. complete attainment, supreme felicity. They are 上 superior, to be born in the 密嚴國 Vairocana Pure-land; 中 in one of the other Pure-lands among which is the Western Paradise; and 下 in the 修羅宮 Sun Palaces among the devas. Also styled 三品成就./

三品沙彌 三品沙弥 [san1 pin3 sha1 mi2 ] /The three grades of śrāmaṇera, i.e. 7-13 years old styled 駈鳥沙彌; 14-19 應法沙彌; and 20 and upwards 名字沙彌./

三品聽法 三品听法 [san1 pin3 ting1 fa3 ] /The three grades of hearers, i.e. 上 with the 神 spirit; 中 with the 心 mind; 下 with the 耳 ear./

三善 三善 [san1 shan4 ] /idem 三時敎 and 三善根./

三善根 三善根 [san1 ] /The three good "roots", the foundation of all moral development, i.e. 無貪, 無瞋, 無痴 no lust (or selfish desire), no ire, no stupidity (or unwillingness to learn). Also, 施, 慈, 慧 giving, kindness, moral wisdom; v. 三毒 the three poisons for which these are a cure./

三善知識 三善知识 [san1 shan4 zhi1 shi2 ] /The three types of friends with whom to be intimate, i.e. a teacher (of the Way), a fellow-endeavourer and encourager, and a patron who supports by gifts (dānapati)./

三善道 三善道 [san1 shan4 dao4 ] /(or 三善趣) The three good or upward directions or states of existence: 天 the highest class of goodness rewarded with the deva life, or heaven; 人 the middle class of goodness with a return to human life; 阿修羅 the inferior class of goodness with the asura state. Cf. 三惡道; v. 智度論 30./

三因 三因 [san1 yin1 ] /The six "causes" of the Abhidharma Kośa 倶舍論 as reduced to three in the Satyasiddhi śāstra 成實論, i.e. 生因 producing cause, as good or evil deeds cause good or evil karma; 習因 habit cause, e.g. lust breeding lust; 依因 dependent or hypostatic cause, e.g. the six organs 六根 and their objects 六境 causing the cognitions 六識./

三因三果 三因三果 [san1 yin1 san1 guo3 ] /The three causes produce their three effects: (1) 異熟因異熟果 differently ripening causes produce differently ripening effects, i.e. every developed cause produces its developed effect, especially the effect of the present causes in the next transmigration; (2) 福因福報 blessed deeds produce blessed rewards, now and hereafter; (3) 智因智果 wisdom (now) produces wisdom-fruit (hereafter)./

三國土 三国土 [san1 guo2 tu3 ] /idem 四土 omitting 寂光土./

三土 三土 [san1 tu3 ] /idem 三佛土./

三垢 三垢 [san1 gou4 ] /The three defilers—desire, hate, stupidity (or ignorance), idem 三毒./

三堅 三坚 [san1 jian1 ] /The three sure or certain things are 身, 命 and 財, i.e. the reward of the true disciple is an infinite body or personality, an endless life, and boundless (spiritual) possessions, 無極之身, 無窮之命, 無盡之財, v. 能摩經:菩薩品./

三報 三报 [san1 bao4 ] /The three recompenses, i.e. 現報 in the present life for deeds now done; 生報 in the next rebirth for deeds now done; and 後報 in subsequent lives./

三境 三境 [san1 jing4 ] /v. 三類境./

三塗 三涂 [san1 tu2 ] /The 塗 mire is interpreted by 途 a road, i.e. the three unhappy gati or ways; (a) 火塗 to the fires of hell; (b) 血塗 to the hell of blood, where as animals they devour each other; (c) 刀塗 the asipattra hell of swords, where the leaves and grasses are sharp-edged swords. Cf. 三惡趣./

三多 三多 [san1 duo1 ] /Much intercourse with good friends, much hearing of the Law, much meditation on the impure. Also, much worship, much service of good friends, much inquiry on important doctrines. There are other groups./

三大 三大 [san1 da4 ] /The three great characteristics of the 眞如 in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (1) 體大 The greatness of the bhūtatathatā in its essence or substance; it is 衆生心之體性 the embodied nature of the mind of all the living, universal, immortal, immutable, eternal; (2) 相大 the greatness of its attributes or manifestations, perfect in wisdom and mercy, and every achievement; (3) 用大 the greatness of its functions and operations within and without, perfectly transforming all the living to good works and good karma now and hereafter. There are other groups, e.g. 體, 宗, and 用./

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三大部 三大部 [san1 da4 bu4 ] /Three authoritative works of the Tiantai School, i.e. the 玄義, 文句, and 止觀, each of ten juan./

三天 三天 [san1 tian1 ] /The trimūrti— Śiva, Viṣṇu, and Brahmā./

三天使 三天使 [san1 tian1 shi3 ] /v. 三使./

三天四仙 三天四仙 [san1 tian1 si4 xian1 ] /v. 二天三仙 and add 鳩摩羅 Kuveradeva and 若提子 Nirgrahtha, son of Jñātṛ, i.e. of the Jñātṛ clan./

三契 三契 [san1 qi4 ] /Three repetitions (of a verse)./

三妙行 三妙行 [san1 miao4 xing2 ] /A muni, recluse, or monk, who controls his body, mouth, and mind 身, 口, 意. Also 三牟尼./

三子 三子 [san1 zi ] /The three sons, one filial, wise, and competent; one unfilial but clever and competent; one unfilial stupid, and incompetent; types respectively of bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, and icchahtikas, 涅槃經 33./

三季 三季 [san1 ji4 ] /The "three seasons" of an Indian year— spring, summer, and winter; a year./

三學 三学 [san1 xue2 ] /The "three studies" or vehicles of learning— discipline, meditation, wisdom: (a) 戒學 learning by the commandments, or prohibitions, so as to guard against the evil consequences of error by mouth, body, or mind, i.e. word, deed, or thought; (b) 定學 learning by dhyāna, or quietist meditation; (c) 慧學 learning by philosophy, i.e. study of principles and solving of doubts. Also the Tripiṭaka; the 戒 being referred to the 律 vinaya, the 定 to the 經 sūtras, and the to the 論 śāstras./

三安居 三安居 [san1 an1 ju1 ] /The three months of summer retreat, varṣāḥ; v. 跋./

三字 三字 [san1 zi4 ] /The "three characters", a term for 阿彌陀 Amitābha./

三宗 三宗 [san1 zong1 ] /The three Schools of 法相宗, 破相宗 , and 法性宗 q.v., representing the ideas of 空, 假, and 不空假, i.e. unreality, temporary reality, and neither; or absolute, relative, and neither./

三定聚 三定聚 [san1 ding4 ju4 ] /idem 三聚./

三密 三密 [san1 mi4 ] /The three mystic things: the body, mouth (i.e. voice), and mind of the Tathāgata, which are universal, all things being this mystic body, all sound this mystic voice, and all thought this mystic mind. All creatures in body, voice, and mind are only individualized parts of the Tathāgata, but illusion hides their Tathāgata nature from them. The esoterics seek to realize their Tathāgata nature by physical signs and postures, by voicing of 眞言 dhāraṇī and by meditations, so that 入我我入 He may enter me and I Him, which is the perfection of siddhi 悉地; v. 大日經疏 1. 菩提心論./

三密六大 三密六大 [san1 mi4 liu4 da4 ] /The three mystic things associated with the six elements, i.e. the mystic body is associated with earth, water, and fire; the mystic words with wind and space; the mystic mind with 識 cognition./

三密栗底尼迦耶 三密栗底尼迦耶 [san1 mi4 li4 di3 ni2 jia1 ye2 ] /v. 三彌底 sammitīyanikāya./

三密相應 三密相应 [san1 mi4 xiang1 ying1 ] /The three mystic things, body, mouth, and mind, of the Tathāgata are identical with those of all the living, so that even the fleshly body born of parents is the dharmakāya, or body of Buddha: 父母所生之肉身卽爲佛身也./

三寳 三宝 [san1 bao3 ] /Triratna, or Ratnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones: 佛 Buddha, 法 Dharma, 儈 Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel suggests this trinity may be adapted from the Trimūrti, i.e, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Sīva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikāya 三身 q.v. There is also the Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Buddha as a Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Dhyāni-Buddha, and Mānuṣi-Buddha; also the Tantric trinity of Vairocana as Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel "existing in reflex in the world of forms", and the human Buddha, Śākyamuni. There are other elaborated details known as the four and the six kinds of triratna 四 and 六種三寳, e.g. that the Triratna exists in each member of the trinity. The term has also been applied to the 三仙 q.v. Popularly the 三寳 are referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre one is Śākyamuni, on his left Bhaiṣajya 藥師 and on his right Amitābha. There are other explanations, e.g. in some temples Amitābha is in the centre, Avalokiteśvara on his left, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta or Mañjuśrī on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikāya, and Trailokya: — DHARMASAṄGHABUDDHAEssential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical BodhiDhyāni BuddhaDhyāni BodhisattvaMānuṣī BuddhaDharmakāyaSambhogakāyaNirmāṇakāyaPurityCompletenessTransformations4th Buddha-kṣetra3rd Buddha-kṣetra1st and 2nd Buddha kṣetraArūpadhātuRūpadhātuKāmadhātu./

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三寶物 三宝物 [san1 bao3 wu4 ] /The things appertaining to the triratna, i.e. to the Buddha— temples and images, etc.; to the dharma— the scriptures; to the saṅgha— cassock, bowl, etc./

三寶藏 三宝藏 [san1 bao3 cang2 ] /The tritratna as the treasury of all virtue and merit; also the tripiṭaka, sūtras 經 vinaya 律, abhidharma 論; also śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas./

三寶衣 三宝衣 [san1 bao3 yi1 ] /idem 三衣./

三寶身 三宝身 [san1 bao3 shen1 ] /v. 三身./

三尊 三尊 [san1 zun1 ] /The three honoured ones: Buddha, the Law, the Ecclesia or Order. Others are: Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta, who, according to the Pure-land sect, come to welcome the dying invoker. Another group is Bhaiṣajya, Vairocana, and Candraprabha; and another, Śākyamunī, Mañjuśrī, and Samantabhadra./

三尊佛 三尊佛 [san1 zun1 fu2 ] /The three honoured Buddhas of the West: Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta. Though bodhisattvas, the two latter are called Buddhas when thus associated with Amitābha./

三尊來迎 三尊来迎 [san1 zun1 lai2 ying2 ] /Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta, receive into the western paradise the believer who calls on Amitābha./

三帀 三帀 [san1 za1 ] /The thrice repeated procession around an image; there is dispute as to which shoulder should be next to the image, v. 右繞./

三師七證 三师七证 [san1 shi1 qi1 zheng4 ] /The three superior monks and a minimum of seven witnesses required for an ordination to full orders; except in outlandish places, when two witnesses are valid./

三平等 三平等 [san1 ping2 deng3 ] /The esoteric doctrine that the three— body, mouth, and mind— are one and universal. Thus in samādhi the Buddha "body" is found everywhere and in everything (pan-Buddha), every sound becomes a "true word", dhāraṇī or potent phrase, and these are summed up in mind, which being universal is my mind and my mind it, 入我我入 it in me and I in it. Other definitions of the three are 佛, 法, 儈 the triratna; and 心, 佛, 衆生 mind, Buddha, and the living. Also 三三昧. Cf. 三密. v. 大日經 1./

三平等地 三平等地 [san1 ping2 deng3 de ] /The three universal positions or stages, i.e. the three states expressed by 空, 無相, and 無願; v. 三三昧地./

三平等戒 三平等戒 [san1 ping2 deng3 jie4 ] /idem 三昧耶戒 and 世無障礙智戒./

三平等觀 三平等观 [san1 ping2 deng3 guan1 ] /idem 三三昧觀./

三平等護摩壇 三平等护摩坛 [san1 ping2 deng3 hu4 mo2 tan2 ] /The three equal essentials of the fire sacrifice, i.e. the individual as offerer, the object of worship, and the altar./

三彌叉 三弥叉 [san1 mi2 cha1 ] /Samīkṣā, 觀察 investigation, i.e. the Sāṃkhya, a system of philosophy, wrongly ascribed by Buddhists to 闍提首那 Jātisena, or 闍耶犀那 Jayasena, who debated the twenty-five Sāṃkhya principles (tattvas) with Śākyamuni but succumbed, shaved his head and became a disciple, according to the 涅槃經 39./

三彌底 三弥底 [san1 mi2 di3 ] /彌底; 彌離底; 三密 (or 蜜) 栗底尼迦耶; 三眉底與量弟子 Saṃmatīyanikāya, Saṃmata, or Saṃmitīyas. A Hīnayāna sect the 正量部 correctly commensurate or logical school, very numerous and widely spread during the early centuries of our era. The 三彌底部論 is in the Tripiṭaka. It taught "that a soul exists in the highest and truest sense", "that an arhat can fall from arhatship, that a god can enter the paths of the Order, and that even an unconverted man can get rid of all lust and ill-will" (Eliot, i, 260). It split into the three branches of Kaurukullakāḥ Āvantikāh, and Vātsīputrīyāḥ./

三彌提 三弥提 [san1 mi2 ti2 ] /Saṃmiti is a saint mentioned in the 阿含經./

三形 三形 [san1 xing2 ] /idem 三昧耶形./

三從 三从 [san1 cong2 ] /A woman's three subordinations, to father, husband, and son; stated in several sūtras, e.g. 四十華嚴經28./

三德 三德 [san1 de2 ] /The three virtues or powers, of which three groups are given below. (1) (a) 法身德 The virtue or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, the dharmakāya; (b) 般若德 of his prājñā, or wisdom, knowing all things in their reality; (c) 解脫德 of his freedom from all bonds and his sovereign Iiberty. Each of these has the four qualities of 常, 樂我, 淨eternity, joy, personality, and purity; v. 漫涅槃經 (2) (a) 智德 The potency of his perfect knowledge; (b) 斷德 of his cutting off all illusion and perfecting of supreme nirvāṇa; the above two are 自利 for his own advantage; (c) 恩德 of his universal grace and salvation, which 利他 bestows the benefits he has acquired on others. (3) (a) 因圓德 The perfection of his causative or karmic works during his three great kalpas of preparation; (b) 果圓德 the perfection of the fruit, or results in his own character and wisdom; (c) 恩圓德 the perfection of his grace in the salvation of others./

三心 三心 [san1 xin1 ] /The three minds, or hearts; various groups are given: (1) Three assured ways of reaching the Pure Land, by (a) 至誠心 perfect sincerity; (b) 深 profound resolve for it; (c) 廻向接發願心 resolve on demitting one's merits to others. (2) (a) 根本心 The 8th or ālaya-vijñāna mind, the storehouse, or source of all seeds of good or evil; (b) 依本 the 7th or mano-vijñāna mind, the mediating cause of all taint; (c) 起事心 the ṣaḍāyatana-vijñāna mind, the immediate influence of the six senses. (3) (a) 入心 (b) 住心 (c) 出心 The mind entering into a condition, staying there, departing. (4) A pure, a single, and an undistracted mind. There are other groups./

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三忍 三忍 [san1 ren3 ] /The tree forms of kṣānti, i.e. patience (or endurance, tolerance). One of the groups is patience under hatred, under physical hardship, and in pursuit of the faith. Another is patience of the blessed in the Pure Land in understanding the truth they hear, patience in obeying the truth, patience in attaining absolute reality; v. 無量壽經. Another is patience in the joy of remembering Amitābha, patience in meditation on his truth, and patience in constant faith in him. Another is the patience of submission, of faith, and of obedience./

三念住 三念住 [san1 nian4 zhu4 ] /(or 三念處). Whether all creatures believe, do not believe, or part believe and part do not believe, the Buddha neither rejoices, nor grieves, but rests in his proper mind and wisdom, i.e. though full of pity, his far-seeing wisdom 正念正智 keeps him above the disturbances of joy and sorrow. 倶舍論 27./

三性 三性 [san1 xing4 ] /The three types of character 善, 惡, 無記 good, bad and undefinable, or neutral; v. 唯識論 5. Also, 徧依圓三性 the three aspects of the nature of a thing— partial, as when a rope is mistaken for a snake; only partly reliable, i.e. incomplete inference, as when it is considered as mere hemp; all around, or perfect, when content, form, etc., are all considered./

三性分別 三性分别 [san1 xing4 fen1 bie2 ] /The differentiation of the three conditions of good, evil, and neutral./

三思 三思 [san1 si1 ] /All action and speech have three mental conditions— reflection, judgment, decision./

三惑 三惑 [san1 huo4 ] /A Tiantai classification of the three delusions, also styled 三煩惱; 三漏; 三垢; 三結; trials or temptations, leakages, uncleannesses, and bonds. The first of the following three is common to all disciples, the two last to bodhisattvas. They arise from (a) 見, 思, 惑 things seen and thought, i.e. illusions from imperfect perception, with temptation to love, hate, etc.; to be rid of these false views and temptations is the discipline and nirvāṇa of ascetic or Hīnayāna Buddhists. Mahāyāna proceeds further in and by its bodhisattva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. (b) 塵沙惑 illusion and temptation through the immense variety of duties in saving men; and (c) 無明惑 illusions and temptations that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in their reality./

三惡 三恶 [san1 e4 ] /The three evil gati, or paths of transmigration; also 三惡道, 三惡趣 the hells, hungry ghosts, animals./

三惡覺 三恶觉 [san1 e4 jue2 ] /The three evil mental states: 欲 desire, 瞋 hate (or anger), 害 malevolence./

三想 三想 [san1 xiang3 ] /The three evil thoughts are the last, desire, hate, malevolence; the three good thoughts are 怨想 thoughts of (love to) enemies, 親想 the same to family and friends, 中人想 the same to those who are neither enemies nor friends, i.e. to all; v. 智度論 72./

三慕達羅 三慕达罗 [san1 mu4 da2 luo1 ] /Samudra, the sea, an ocean; also 三母捺羅娑誐羅 samudra-sāgara. Samudra and sāgara are synonyms./

三慧 三慧 [san1 hui4 ] /The three modes of attaining moral wisdom: 聞慧 from reading, hearing, instruction; 思慧 from reflection, etc.; 修慧 from practice (of abstract meditation)./

三應供養 三应供养 [san1 ying1 gong4 yang3 ] /The three who should be served, or worshipped— a Buddha, an arhat, and a cakravartī king./

三懺 三忏 [san1 chan4 ] /idem 三種悔法./

三戒 三戒 [san1 jie4 ] /The three sets of commandments, i.e. the ten for the ordained who have left home, the eight for the devout at home, and the five for the ordinary laity./

三拔諦 三拔谛 [san1 ba2 di4 ] /idem 三跋致./

三摩 三摩 [san1 mo2 ] /Sama, level, equal, same, etc.; cf. 三昧 (三昧耶) and 平等./

三摩半那 三摩半那 [san1 mo2 ban4 na4 ] /samāpanna, in the state of samādhi./

三摩呬多 三摩呬多 [san1 mo2 xi4 duo1 ] /samāhita; steadfast, tranquil. A degree of meditation./

三摩呾叱 三摩呾叱 [san1 mo2 da2 chi4 ] /Samataṭa, an ancient kingdom on the left bank of the Ganges, near its mouths, extending to the Hooghly, over 3,000 li in circuit, low and damp, with a hardy people, short and dark. Eitel says "close to the sea at the mouth of the Brahmaputra." Eliot says: "In the east of Bengal and not far from the modern Burmese frontier."/

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三摩地 三摩地 [san1 mo2 de ] /(or 三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底) Samādhi; idem 三昧./

三摩地念誦 三摩地念诵 [san1 mo2 de nian4 song4 ] /Silent or meditative repetition of the name of Buddha./

三摩娑 三摩娑 [san1 mo2 suo1 ] /Samāsa. 煞三摩婆 Ṣaṭ-samāsa, v. 六離合釋./

三摩婆夜 三摩婆夜 [san1 mo2 po2 ye4 ] /Samavāya, coming together, combination; 利合 advantageous union./

三摩皮陀 三摩皮陀 [san1 mo2 pi2 tuo2 ] /縒摩吠陀; 沙磨; 平論; 歌詠 Sāma-veda-saṃhitā. A collection of verses sung at sacrifices, etc. The third of the three Vedas, or four if Atharva Veda is counted, as it was later; the verses are taken almost wholly from the Ṛgveda./

三摩竭 三摩竭 [san1 mo2 jie2 ] /Sumāgadhā, said to be a daughter of Anāthapiṇḍada of Śrāvastī, who married the ruler of 難國 and converted the ruler and people./

三摩耶 三摩耶 [san1 mo2 ye2 ] /(or 三摩曳) idem 三昧耶; but 三摩耶 is also explained as a short period, a season of the year./

三摩耶道 三摩耶道 [san1 mo2 ye2 dao4 ] /A term among the esoterics for the 三平等 q.v./

三摩若 三摩若 [san1 mo2 ruo4 ] /sāmānya, generality; in common; inclusive; v. 共./

三摩越 三摩越 [san1 mo2 yue4 ] /idem 三摩鉢底./

三摩近離 三摩近离 [san1 mo2 jin4 li2 ] /The public gathering for a festival, lay and cleric, before parting at the end of the summer retreat./

三摩鉢底 三摩钵底 [san1 mo2 bo1 di3 ] /(or 三摩鉢提); 三摩拔提 (or 三摩跋提); 三摩越 samāpatti, attainment, arrival; defined by 等至 and 等持 which is intp. as complete dhyāna; similar to 三摩半那 samāpanna, attainment. Eitel says: "a degree of abstract ecstatic meditation preparatory to the final attainment of samādhi." Clough speaks of eight samāpattis, i.e. attainments— "eight successive states induced by the ecstatic meditation." v. also 三摩越./

三摩難呾囉 三摩难呾啰 [san1 mo2 nan2 da2 luo1 ] /samanantaram, immediately following or contiguous; 等無間緣緣 i.e. one of the four 緣q.v.; it means without interval, i.e. an immediate cause./

三攝提 三摄提 [san1 she4 ti2 ] /The three prajñapti, v. 三假施設; they are the 受 and 法 and 名假施設./

三支 三支 [san1 zhi1 ] /(三支比量) Three members of a syllogism: pratijñā宗 the proposition, hetu 因 the reason, udāharaṇa 喩the example; cf. 因明./

三教 三教 [san1 jiao4 ] /The three teachings, i.e. 儒, 佛 (or 釋), and 道Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism; or, 孔, 老, 釋 Confucianism, Taoism (aIso known as 神敎), and Buddhism. In Japan they are Shinto, Confucianism, and Buddhism. In Buddhism the term is applied to the three periods of Śākyamuni's own teaching, of which there are several definitions: (1) The Jiangnan 南中 School describe his teaching as (a) 漸progressive or gradual; (b) 頓 immediate, i.e. as one whole, especially in the 華嚴經; and (c) 不定 or indeterminate. (2) 光統 Guangtong, a writer of the Iater Wei dynasty, describes the three as (a) 漸 progressive for beginners, i.e. from impermanence to permanence, from the void to reality, etc.; (b) 頓 immediate for the more advanced; and (c) 圓complete, to the most advanced, i.e. the Huayan as above. (3) The 三時敎q.v. (4) The 南山 Southern school deals with (a) the 性空of Hīnayāna; (b) 相空of Mahāyāna; and (c) 唯識圓 the perfect idealism. v. 行事鈔中 4. Tiantai accepts the division of 漸, 頓, and 不定 for pre-Lotus teaching, but adopts 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 perfect, with the Lotus as the perfect teaching; it also has the division of 三藏敎 , 通敎 , and 別敎 q.v./

三教法師 三教法师 [san1 jiao4 fa3 shi1 ] /Master of the Tripiṭaka; a title of Xuanzang 玄奘./

三斷 三断 [san1 duan4 ] /The three cuttings off or excisions (of 惑 beguiling delusions, or perplexities). (1) (a) 見所斷 to cut off delusions of view, of which Hīnayāna has eighty-eight kinds; (b) 修所斷in practice, eighty-one kinds; (c) 非所斷nothing left to cut off, perfect. v. 倶舍論 2. (2) (a) 自性斷 to cut off the nature or root (of delusion); (b) 緣縛斷 to cut off the external bonds, or objective causes (of delusions); (c) 不生斷 (delusion) no longer arising, therefore nothing produced to cut off. The third stage in both groups is that of an arhat./

三方便 三方便 [san1 fang1 bian4 ] /A term of the esoterics for body, mouth (speech), and mind, their control, and the entry into the 三密 q.v. 大日經疏 1./

三施 三施 [san1 shi1 ] /The three forms of giving: (1) (a) one's goods; (b) the Law or Truth; (c) courage, or confidence: 智度論 11. (2) (a) goods; (b) worship; (c) preaching. (3) (a) food; (b) valuables; (c) life./

三日齋 三日斋 [san1 ri4 zhai1 ] /The third day's ceremonies after a death to gain Yama's favour as the deceased appears before him./

三明 三明 [san1 ming2 ] /The three insights; also 三達. Applied to Buddhas they are called 三達, to arhats 三明. (a) 宿命明 Insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives; (b) 天眼明 supernatural insight into future mortal conditions; (c) 漏盡明 nirvāṇa insight, i.e. into present mortal sufferings so as to overcome aIl passions or temptations. In the 倶舍論 27 the three are termed 住智識證明; 死生識證明 and 漏盡識證明. For 三明經 v. 長阿含16./

三明智 三明智 [san1 ming2 zhi4 ] /trividyā. The three clear conceptions that (1) all is impermanent 無常 anitya; (2) all is sorrowful 苦 duḥkha; (3) all is devoid of a self 無我 anātman./

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三昧 三昧 [san1 mei4 ] /(三昧地) Samādhi, "putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect absorption, union of the meditator with the object of meditation." (M. W.) Also 三摩地 (三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底). Interpreted by 定 or 正定, the mind fixed and undisturbed; by 正受 correct sensation of the object contemplated; by 調直定 ordering and fixing the mind; by 正心行處 the condition when the motions of the mind are steadied and harmonized with the object; by 息慮凝心 the cessation of distraction and the fixation of the mind; by 等持 the mind held in equilibrium; by 奢摩他, i.e. 止息 to stay the breathing. It is described as concentration of the mind (upon an object). The aim is 解脫, mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions and reincarnations. It may pass from abstraction to ecstasy, or rapture, or trance. Dhyāna 定 represents a simpler form of contemplation; samāpatti 三摩鉢底 a stage further advanced; and samādhi the highest stage of the Buddhist equivalent for Yoga, though Yoga is considered by some as a Buddhist development differing from samādhi. The 翻譯名義 says: 思專 when the mind has been concentrated, then 志一不分 the will is undivided; when 想寂 active thought has been put to rest, then 氣虛神朗 the material becomes etherealized and the spirit liberated, on which 智 knowledge, or the power to know, has free course, and there is no mystery into which it cannot probe. Cf. 智度論 5, 20, 23, 28; 止觀 2; 大乘義章 2, 9, 1 3, 20, etc. There are numerous kinds and degrees of samādhi./

三昧佛 三昧佛 [san1 mei4 fu2 ] /Samādhi Buddha, one of the ten Buddhas mentioned in the 華嚴經./

三昧月輪相 三昧月轮相 [san1 mei4 yue4 lun2 xiang1 ] /月輪三昧 The candra-maṇḍala, i.e. moon-wheel or disc samādhi; Nāgārjuna is said to have entered it and taken his departure as a cicada after delivering the Law (or patriarchate) to Kāṇadeva./

三昧火 三昧火 [san1 mei4 huo3 ] /Fire of samādhi, the fire that consumed the body of Buddha when he entered nirvāṇa./

三昧相應 三昧相应 [san1 mei4 xiang1 ying1 ] /The symbols or offerings should tally with the object worshipped, e.g. a white flower with a merciful or a white image./

三昧門 三昧门 [san1 mei4 men2 ] /The different stages of a bodhisattva's samādhi; cf. 智度論 28./

三昧魔 三昧魔 [san1 mei4 mo2 ] /samādhi-māra, one of the ten māras, who lurks in the heart and hinders progress in meditation, obstructs the truth and destroys wisdom./

三昧耶 三昧耶 [san1 mei4 ye2 ] /samaya is variously defined as 會 coming together, meeting, convention; 時 timely; 宗 in agreement, of the same class; 平等 equal, equalized; 驚覺 aroused, warned; 除垢障 riddance of unclean hindrances. Especially it is used as indicating the vows made by Buddhas and bodhisattvas, hence as a tally, symbol, or emblem of the spiritual quality of a Buddha or bodhisattva./

三昧耶形 三昧耶形 [san1 mei4 ye2 xing2 ] /The distinguishing symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva, e.g. the Lotus of Guanyin; also used for 三昧耶身 q. v./

三昧耶戒 三昧耶戒 [san1 mei4 ye2 jie4 ] /samaya commandments: the rules to be strictly observed before full ordination in the esoteric sects./

三昧耶曼荼羅 三昧耶曼荼罗 [san1 mei4 ye2 man4 tu2 luo1 ] /samaya-maṇḍala. One of the four kinds of magic circles in which the saints are represented by the symbols of their power, e.g. pagoda, jewel, lotus, sword./

三昧耶智 三昧耶智 [san1 mei4 ye2 zhi4 ] /samaya wisdom. In esoteric teaching, the characteristic of a Buddha's or bodhisattva's wisdom, as shown in the maṇḍala./

三昧耶會 三昧耶会 [san1 mei4 ye2 hui4 ] /The samaya assembly, i.e. the second of the nine maṇḍalas, consisting of seventy-three saints represented by the symbols of their power./

三昧耶界 三昧耶界 [san1 mei4 ye2 jie4 ] /Samaya world, a general name for the esoteric sect./

三昧耶身 三昧耶身 [san1 mei4 ye2 shen1 ] /(or 三昧耶形) The embodiment of samaya, a term of the esoteric sect; i.e. the symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva which expresses his inner nature, e.g. the stūpa as one of the symbols of Vairocana 大日; the lotus of Guanyin, etc. 身 is used for Buddha, 形 for a bodhisattva. The exoteric sects associate the term with the 報身 saṃbhogakāya./

三時 三时 [san1 shi2 ] /The three divisions of the day, i.e. dawn, daylight, and sunset; or morning, noon, and evening; also the three periods, after his nirvāṇa, of every Buddha's teaching, viz., 正 correct, or the period of orthodoxy and vigour, 像 semblance, or the period of scholasticism, and 末 end, the period of decline and termination./

三時坐禪 三时坐禅 [san1 shi2 zuo4 chan2 ] /The thrice a day meditation— about 10 a.m. and 4 and 8 p.m./

三時年限 三时年限 [san1 shi2 nian2 xian4 ] /The three periods of Buddhism— 1,000 years of 正法 pure or orthodox doctrine, 1,000 years of 像法 resemblance to purity, and 10,000 years of 末法 decay. Other definitions are 正 and 像 500 years each, or 正 1,000 and 像 500, or 正 500 and 像 1,000./

三時性 三时性 [san1 shi2 xing4 ] /i.e. 徧依圓三性 v. 三性./

三時教 三时教 [san1 shi2 jiao4 ] /(三時教判) The three periods and characteristics of Buddha's teaching, as defined by the Dharmalakṣana school 法相宗. They are: (1) 有, when he taught the 實有 reality of the skandhas and elements, but denied the common belief in 實我 real personality or a permanent soul; this period is represented by the four 阿含經 āgamas and other Hīnayāna sūtras. (2) 空 Śūnya, when he negatived the idea of 實法 the reality of things and advocated that all was 空 unreal; the period of the 般若經 prajñā sūtras. (3) 中 Madhyama, the mean, that mind or spirit is real, while things are unreal; the period of this school's specific sūtra the 解深密經, also the 法華 and later sūtras. In the two earlier periods he is said to have 方便 adapted his teaching to the development of his hearers; in the third to have delivered his complete and perfect doctrine. Another division by the 空宗 is (1) as above; (2) the early period of the Mahāyāna represented, by the 深密經; (3) the higher Mahāyāna as in the 般若經. v. also 三敎./

三時業 三时业 [san1 shi2 ye4 ] /The three stages of karma— in the present life because of present deeds; in the next life because of present actions; and in future lives because of present actions./

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三智 三智 [san1 zhi4 ] /The three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) 一切智 śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that all the dharma or laws are 空 void and unreal; (b) 道種智 bodhisattva-knowledge. of all things in their proper discrimination; (c) 一切種智 Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Tiantai associates the above with 室, 候, 中. (2) (a) 世間智 earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) 出世間智 supra-mundane, or spiritual (śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) 出世間上上智 supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas. v. 智度論 27, 止觀 3, and 概伽經 3. Cf. — 心三智./

三暮多 三暮多 [san1 mu4 duo1 ] /God of the wind, which is Vata in Sanskrit./

三曼多 三曼多 [san1 man4 duo1 ] /samanta; tr. by 等, 普, 遍 universal, everywhere; also 三曼陀, 三滿多./

三曼陀犍陀 三曼陀犍陀 [san1 man4 tuo2 jian1 tuo2 ] /(or 三萬陀犍陀, or 三曼陀犍提) Samantagandha, 普熏 universally fragrant. A tree in Paradise; a title of a Buddha./

三曼陀颰陀羅 三曼陀颰陀罗 [san1 man4 tuo2 ba2 tuo2 luo1 ] /三曼颰陀, 三曼跋陀 Samantabhadra, 普賢 Puxian; v. 三滿./

三有 三有 [san1 you3 ] /The three kinds of bhava, or existence; idem 三界 q. v. The three states of mortal existence in the trailokya, i. e. in the realms of desire, of form, and beyond form. Another definition is 現有 present existence, or the present body and mind; 當有 in a future state; 中有 antara-bhava, in the intermediate state. 三有對 The three sets of limitation on freedom: (a) direct resistance or opposition; (b) environment or condition; (c) attachment. 三有爲法 The three active) functioning dharmas: (1) pratigha, matter or form, i. e. that which has ' substantial resistance'; (2) mind; and (3) 非色非心 entities neither of matter nor mind; cf. 七十五法. 三有爲相 The three forms of all phenomena, birth, stay (i. e. 1ife), death; utpāda, sthiti, and nirvana./

三末多 三末多 [san1 mo4 duo1 ] /sammata, intp. as 共許 'unanimously accorded'; i. e. name of the first king (elected) at the beginning of each world-kalpa./

三果 三果 [san1 guo3 ] /The third of the Hīnayāna 四果 four fruits or results, i. e. non-return to mortality./

三株 三株 [san1 zhu1 ] /The three tree-trunks, or main stems—desire, hate, stupidity; v. 三毒./

三根 三根 [gen1 ] /The three (evil) 'roots'— desire, hate, stupidity, idem 三毒. Another group is the three grades of good roots, or abilities 上, 中, 下 superior, medium, and inferior. Another is the three grades of faultlessness 三無漏根./

三梵 三梵 [san1 fan4 ] /The three Brahma heavens of the first dhyāna: that of 梵衆 Brahma-pāriṣadya, the assembly of Brahma; 梵輔 Brahma-purohitas, his attendants; 大梵 Mahābrahmā, Great Brahma./

三極少 三极少 [san1 ji2 shao3 ] /The three smallest things, i. e. an atom as the smallest particle of matter; a letter as the shortest possible name; a kṣaṇa, as the shortest period of time./

三業 三业 [san1 ye4 ] /trividha-dvāra. The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, 身, 口, 意. (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) 漏業 Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma of neither, independent of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are other groups of three./

三業供養 三业供养 [san1 ye4 gong4 yang3 ] /三業相應 To serve or worship with perfect sincerity of body, mouth and mind; the second form means that in worship an three correspond./

三樂 三乐 [san1 le4 ] /The three joys— the joy of being born a deva, the joy of meditation, the joy of nirvana./

三機 三机 [san1 ji1 ] /see 三聚./

三檀 三檀 [san1 tan2 ] /The three kinds of dāna, i. e. charity; giving of goods, of the dharma, of abhaya, or fearlessness. Idem 三施./

三權一實 三权一实 [san1 quan2 yi1 shi2 ] /The Tiantai division of the schools of Buddhism into four, three termed 權temporary, i. e. 藏, 通 and 別 q.v. v. e fourth is the 實 or圓real or perfect School of SaIvation by faith to Buddhahood, especially as revealed in the Lotus Sutra, see 一實./

三欲 三欲 [san1 yu4 ] /three lusts, i. e. for 形貌 form, 姿態 carriage or beauty, and 細觸refinement, or softness to the touch./

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三武 三武 [san1 wu3 ] /The three emperors Wu who persecuted Buddhism: 太武 of the Wei dynasty A.D. 424-452; 武帝 of the Zhou A.D. 561-578; 武宗 of the Tang A.D. 841-7./

三歸 三归 [san1 gui1 ] /Triśaraṇa, or Śaraṇa-gamana. The three surrenders to, or "formulas of refuge" in, the Three Precious Ones 三賓, i.e. to the Buddha 佛, the Dharma 法, the Saṅgha 僧. The three formulas are 歸依佛 Buddham śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依法 Dharmaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依僧 Saṅghaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi. It is "the most primitive formula fidei of the early Buddhists". The surrender is to the Buddha as teacher 師, the Law as medicine 藥, the Ecclesia as friends 友. These are known as the 三歸依./

三歸受法 三归受法 [san1 gui1 shou4 fa3 ] /The receiving of the Law, or admission of a lay disciple, after recantation of his previous wrong belief and sincere repetition to the abbot or monk of the three refuges 三歸./

三歸五戒 三归五戒 [san1 gui1 wu3 jie4 ] /(三歸戒) The ceremony which makes the recipient a 優婆塞 or 優婆夷 upasaka or upāsikā male or female disciple, accepting the five commandments. There are 五種三歸 five stages of sangui; the first two are as above, at the third the eight commandments are accepted, at the fourth the ten, at the fifth an the commandments. 三歸 is also a general term for a Buddhist./

三毒 三毒 [san1 du2 ] /The three poisons, also styled 三根; 三株; they are 貪 concupiscence, or wrong desire, 瞋 anger, hate, or resentment, and 痴 stupidity, ignorance, unintelligence, or unwillingness to accept Buddha-truth; these three are the source of all the passions and delusions. They represent in part the ideas of love, hate, and moral inertia. v. 智度論 19, 31./

三毒尸利 三毒尸利 [san1 du2 shi1 li4 ] /The Śrī (i.e. goddess of Fortune) of the three poisons, a title of Mañjuśrī./

三治 三治 [san1 zhi4 ] /idem 三三昧門 v. 三解脫./

三法 三法 [san1 fa3 ] /The three dharma, i.e. 教法 the Buddha's teaching; 行法 the practice of it; 證法 realization or experiential proof of it in bodhi and nirvāṇa./

三法印 三法印 [san1 fa3 yin4 ] /idem 三印./

三法忍 三法忍 [san1 fa3 ren3 ] /idem 三忍./

三法妙 三法妙 [san1 fa3 miao4 ] /v. 三軌./

三法無差 三法无差 [san1 fa3 wu2 cha4 ] /idem 三無差別 q.v./

三法輪 三法轮 [san1 fa3 lun2 ] /The three law-wheels, or periods of the Buddha's preaching, according to Paramārtha, to 嘉祥 Jiaxiang of the 三論 school, and to 玄奘 Xuanzang of the 法相 school./

三波多 三波多 [san1 bo1 duo1 ] /samāpta; finished, ended, perfect; a term used at the conclusion of Homa or Fire-worship./

三波羅聶提 三波罗聂提 [san1 bo1 luo1 nie4 ti2 ] /The three prajñāpti, 三假 q.v./

三波訶 三波诃 [san1 bo1 he1 ] /Sampaha, according to Eitel, Malasa, a valley in the upper Punjab; but perhaps Śāmbī, a state north of Citral in the Hindukush./

三涅槃門 三涅槃门 [san1 nie4 pan2 men2 ] /The three gates to the city of nirvāṇa, i.e. 空, 無相, and 無作 the void (or the immaterial), formlessness, and inactivity; idem 三解脫門./

三淨肉 三净肉 [san1 jing4 rou4 ] /The three kinds of "clean" flesh—when a monk has not seen the creature killed, has not heard of its being killed for him, and has no doubt thereon./

三滿多跋捺囉 三满多跋捺啰 [san1 man3 duo1 ba2 na4 luo1 ] /Samantabhadra, interpreted 普賢 Puxian, pervading goodness, or "all gracious", Eliot; also 徧吉 universal fortune; also styled Viśvabhadra. The principal Bodhisattva of Emei shan. He is the special patron of followers of the Lotus Sūtra. He is usually seated on a white elephant, and his abode is said to be in the East. He is one of the four Bodhisattvas of the Yoga school. v. 三曼./

三漸 三渐 [san1 jian4 ] /The three progressive developments of the Buddha's teaching according to the Prajñā school: (a) the 鹿苑 initial stage in the Lumbinī deer park; (b) the 方等 period of the eight succeeding years; (c) the 般若 Prajñā or wisdom period which succeeded./

三漏 三漏 [san1 lou4 ] /The three affluents that feed the stream of mortality, or transmigration: 欲 desire; 有 (material, or phenomenal) existence; 無明 ignorance (of the way of escape). 涅槃經 22./

三火 三火 [san1 huo3 ] /The three fires—desire, hate, and stupidity; v. 三毒./

三災 三灾 [san1 zai1 ] /The three calamities; they are of two kinds, minor and major. The minor, appearing during a decadent world-period, are sword, pestilence, and famine; the major, for world-destruction, are fire, water, and wind. 倶舍諭 12./

三煩惱 三烦恼 [san1 ] /v. 三惑./

三熱 三热 [san1 re4 ] /The three distresses of which dragons and dragon-kings are afraid— fiery heat, fierce wind, and the garuḍa bird which preys on them for food./

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三無差 三无差 [san1 wu2 cha4 ] /三無差別)The three that are without (essential) difference, i.e. are of the same nature: (a) 心 The nature of mind is the same in Buddhas, and men, and all the living; (b) 佛 the nature and enlightenment of all Buddhas is the same; (c) 衆生 the nature and enlightenment of all the living is the same. The 華嚴經 says 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別./

三無性 三无性 [san1 wu2 xing4 ] /The three things without a nature or separate existence of their own: (a) 相無性 form, appearance or seeming, is unreal, e.g. a rope appearing like a snake; (b) 生無性 life ditto, for it is like the rope, which is derived from constituent materials; (c) 勝義無性 the 勝義, concept of the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā, is unreal, e.g. the hemp of which the rope is made; the bhūtatathatā is perfect and eternal. Every representation of it is abstract and unreal. The three are also known as 相無性, 無自然性, 法無性; v. 唯識論 9./

三無漏學 三无漏学 [san1 wu2 lou4 xue2 ] /The three studies, or endeavours, after the passionless life and escape from transmigration: (a) 戒 Moral discipline; (b) 定 meditation, or trance; (c) 慧 the resulting wisdom./

三無漏根 三无漏根 [san1 wu2 lou4 gen1 ] /The three roots for the passionless life and final escape from transmigration, i.e. the last three of the 二十二根 q.v. An older group was 未知欲知根; 知根; 如巳根 v. 倶舍論 3. 智度論 23./

三無盡莊嚴藏 三无尽庄严藏 [san1 wu2 jin3 zhuang1 yan2 cang2 ] /The treasury of the three inexhaustible adornments or glories, i.e. the 身, 口, 意, deeds, words, and thoughts of a Buddha./

三照 三照 [san1 zhao4 ] /The three shinings; the sun first shining on the hill-tops, then the valleys and plains. So, according to Tiantai teaching of the Huayan sūtra, the Buddha's doctrine had three periods of such shining: (a) first, he taught the Huayan sūtra, transforming his chief disciples into bodhisattvas; (b) second, the Hīnayāna sūtras in general to śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas in the Lumbinī garden; (c) third, the 方等 sūtras down to the 涅槃經 for all the living. See the 六十華嚴經 35, where the order is five, i.e. bodhisattvas, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, lay disciples, and all creatures./

三牟提耶 三牟提耶 [san1 mou2 ti2 ye2 ] /samudaya, gather together, accumulate, the 聚 or 集諦, i.e. the second of the Four Truths, the aggregation of suffering./

三猿 三猿 [san1 yuan2 ] /The three monkeys, one guarding its eyes, another its ears, a third its mouth./

三獸 三兽 [san1 shou4 ] /The three animals— hare, horse, elephant— crossing a stream. The śrāvaka is like the hare who crosses by swimming on the surface; the pratyeka-buddha is like the horse who crosses deeper than the hare; the bodhisattva is like the elephant who walks across on the bottom. Also likened to the triyāna. 涅槃經 23, 27./

三甜 三甜 [san1 tian2 ] /The three sweet things— cream, honey, curd./

三生 三生 [san1 sheng1 ] /The three births, or reincarnations, past, present, future. Tiantai has (a) 種 planting the seed; (b) 熟 ripening; (c) 脫 liberating, stripping, or harvesting, i.e. beginning, development, and reward of bodhi, a process either gradual or instantaneous. Huayan has (a) 見聞生 a past life of seeing and hearing Buddha-truth; (b) 解行生 liberation in the present life; (c) 證入生 realization of life in Buddhahood. This is also called 三生成佛, Buddhahood in the course of three lives. There is also a definition of three rebirths as the shortest term for arhatship, sixty kalpas being the longest. There are other definitions./

三田 三田 [san1 tian2 ] /The three "fields" of varying qualities of fertility, i.e. bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, and icchantis, respectively producing a hundred-fold, fifty-fold, onefold. 涅槃經 33./

三界 三界 [san1 jie4 ] /Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are 欲, 色, and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of sensuous desire, of 婬 and 食 sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful一a semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天, or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界 Arūpadhātu, or ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. v. 倶舍論世間品./

三界九地 三界九地 [san1 jie4 jiu3 de ] /v. 九地./

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三界唯一心 三界唯一心 [san1 jie4 wei2 yi1 xin1 ] /The triple world is but one mind; from a verse of the 華嚴 sūtra; it proceeds 心外無別法, 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別 "outside mind there is no other thing; mind, Buddha, and all the living, these three are not different"; in other words, there is no differentiating between these three, for all is mind./

三界尊 三界尊 [san1 jie4 zun1 ] /The honoured one of the three worlds, i.e. Buddha./

三界慈父 三界慈父 [san1 jie4 ci2 fu4 ] /The kindly father of the triple world— Buddha./

三界火宅 三界火宅 [san1 jie4 huo3 zhai2 ] /The burning house of the triple world, as in the Lotus Sūtra parable./

三界牀 三界床 [san1 jie4 chuang2 ] /The sick-bed of the trailokya, especially this world of suffering./

三界眼 三界眼 [san1 jie4 yan3 ] /The trailokya eye, i.e. Buddha, who sees all the realms and the way of universal escape./

三界萬靈牌 三界万灵牌 [san1 jie4 wan4 ling2 pai2 ] /The tablet used at the annual ceremonial offerings to "all souls", v. 孟蘭./

三界藏 三界藏 [san1 jie4 cang2 ] /The trailokya-garbha, the womb or storehouse of all the transmigrational./

三界雄 三界雄 [san1 jie4 xiong2 ] /The hero of the trailokya—Buddha./

三疑 三疑 [san1 yi2 ] /The three doubts— of self, of teacher, of the dharma-truth./

三病 三病 [san1 bing4 ] /The three ailments: (1) (a) 貪 lust, for which the 不淨觀 meditation on uncleanness is the remedy; (b) 瞋 anger, or hate, remedy 慈悲觀 meditation on kindness and pity; (c) 癡 stupidity, or ignorance, remedy 因緣觀 meditation on causality. (2) (a) 謗 Slander of Mahāyāna; (b) 五逆罪 the five gross sins; (c) to be a "heathen" or outsider; the forms recorded seem to be icchantika, ecchantika, and aicchantika. Cf. 三毒./

三發心 三发心 [san1 fa1 xin1 ] /The three resolves of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (a) 信成就發心 to perfect the bodhi of faith, i.e. in the stage of faith; (b) 解行發心 to understand and carry into practice this wisdom; (c) 證發心 the realization, or proof of or union with bodhi./

三白食 三白食 [san1 bai2 shi2 ] /The three white foods— milk, cream (or curd), and rice (especially upland rice)./

三白法 三白法 [san1 bai2 fa3 ] /is the rule of the three white foods 三白食./

三百四十八戒 三百四十八戒 [san1 bai3 si4 shi2 ba1 jie4 ] /(or 三百四十一戒) The 348 (or 341) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 250 and 500 such rules./

三百四十一戒 三百四十一戒 [san1 bai3 si4 shi2 yi1 jie4 ] /(or 三百四十八戒) The 341 (or 348) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 250 and 500 such rules./

三百六十會 三百六十会 [san1 bai3 liu4 shi2 hui4 ] /The reputed and disputed number (360) of Śākyamuni's assemblies for preaching./

三百由旬 三百由旬 [san1 bai3 you2 xun2 ] /The 300 yojanas parable of the Magic City, erected by a leader who feared that his people would become weary and return; i.e. Hīnayāna nirvāṇa, a temporary rest on the way to the real land of precious things, or true nirvāṇa; v. 法華化城品./

三皈 三皈 [san1 gui1 ] /idem 三歸./

三監 三监 [san1 jian1 ] /idem 三從./

三目 三目 [san1 mu4 ] /The three-eyed, a term for Śiva, i.e Maheśvara; simile for the dharmakāya, or spiritual body, prajñā, or wisdom, and nirvāṇa emancipation./

三相 三相 [san1 xiang1 ] /The three forms or positions: 解脫相 nirvāṇa; 離相 no nirvāṇa; 滅和 or 非有非無之中道 absence of both, or the "middle way" of neither./

三相續 三相续 [san1 xiang1 xu4 ] /The three links, or consequences: (a) the worlds with their kingdoms, which arise from the karma of existence; (b) all beings, who arise out of the five skandhas; (c) rewards and punishments, which arise out of moral karma causes./

三眞如 三眞如 [san1 zhen1 ru2 ] /Three aspects of the bhūtatathatā, implying that it is above the limitations of form, creation, or a soul. (1) (a) 無相眞如 without form; (b) 無生眞如 without creation; (c) 無性眞如 without anything that can be called a nature for comparison; e.g. chaos, or primal matter. (2) (a) 善法眞如 The bhūtatathatā as good; (b) 不善法眞如 as evil; (c) 無記法眞如 as neutral, or neither good nor evil./

三眉底與部 三眉底与部 [san1 mei2 di3 yu3 bu4 ] /Saṃmatiīya, v. 三彌底./

三祗百劫 三祗百劫 [san1 zhi1 bai3 jie2 ] /(三祗百大劫) The period necessary for a bodhisattva to become a Buddha, i.e. three asaṃkhyeyas 阿僧祗 to attain the 六度, and 100 kalpas to acquire the thirty-two 相 or characteristic marks of a Buddha; cf. 三阿./

三福 三福 [san1 fu2 ] /The three (sources of) felicity: (1) The 無量壽經 has the felicity of (a) 世福 filial piety, regard for elders, keeping the ten commandments; (b) 戒福 of keeping the other commandments; (c) 行福 of resolve on complete bodhi and the pursuit of the Buddha-way. (2) The 倶舍論 18, has the blessedness of (a) 施類福 almsgiving, in evoking resultant wealth; (b) 戒類福 observance of the 性戒 (against killing, stealing, adultery, lying) and the 遮戒 (against alcohol, etc.), in obtaining a happy lot in the heavens; (c) 修類福 observance of meditation in obtaining final escape from the mortal round. Cf. 三種淨業./

三福業 三福业 [san1 fu2 ye4 ] /The three things that bring a happy lot— almsgiving, impartial kindness and Iove, pondering over the demands of the life beyond./

三禪 三禅 [san1 chan2 ] /The third dhyāna heaven of form, the highest paradise of form./

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三禮 三礼 [san1 li3 ] /Worship with 身, 口, 意, body, mouth, and mind./

三科 三科 [san1 ke1 ] /The three categories of 五蘊, 十二處 or 入, and eighteen 界./

三祕密 三秘密 [san1 mi4 mi4 ] /The three mysteries, a term of the esoteric school for 身, 口, and 意; i.e. the symbol; the mystic word or sound; the meditation of the mind./

三祕密身 三秘密身 [san1 mi4 mi4 shen1 ] /A term for the mystic letter, the mystic symbol, and the image./

三種 三种 [san1 zhong3 ] /Three kinds, sorts, classes, categories, etc./

三種三世 三种三世 [san1 zhong3 san1 shi4 ] /Three kinds of past, present, and future as intp. according to 道理, 神通, and 唯識./

三種三觀 三种三观 [san1 zhong3 san1 guan1 ] /The three types of meditation on the principles of the 三諦 q.v., i.e. the dogmas of 空, 假, 中./

三種世間 三种世间 [san1 zhong3 shi4 jian1 ] /v. 三世間./

三種供養 三种供养 [san1 zhong3 gong4 yang3 ] /Three modes of serving (the Buddha, etc.): (a) offerings of incense, flowers, food, etc.; (b) of praise and reverence; (c) of right conduct./

三種光明 三种光明 [san1 zhong3 guang1 ming2 ] /The three kinds of light: (a) extemal— sun, moon, stars, lamps, etc.; (b) dharma, or the light of right teaching and conduct; (c) the effulgence or bodily halo emitted by Buddhas, bodhisattvas, devas./

三種善根 三种善根 [san1 zhong3 ] /The three kinds of good roots— almsgiving, mercy, and wisdom./

三種圓融 三种圆融 [san1 zhong3 yuan2 rong2 ] /Three kinds of unity or identity of (a) 事理 phenomena with "substance", e.g. waves and the water; (b) 事事 phenomena with phenomena, e.g. wave with wave; (c) 理理 substance with substance, e.g. water with water./

三種地獄 三种地狱 [san1 zhong3 di4 yu4 ] /The three kinds of hells— hot, cold and solitary./

三種大智 三种大智 [san1 zhong3 da4 zhi4 ] /The three major kinds of wisdom: (a) self-acquired, no master needed; (b) unacquired and natural; (c) universal./

三種天 三种天 [san1 zhong3 tian1 ] /Three definitions of heaven: (a) as a name or title, e.g. divine king, son of Heaven, etc.; (b) as a place for rebirth, the heavens of the gods; (c) the pure Buddha-land./

三種常 三种常 [san1 zhong3 chang2 ] /A Buddha in his three eternal qualities: (a) 本性常 in his nature or dharmakāya; (b) 不斷常 in his unbroken eternity, saṃbhogakāya; (c) 相續常 in his continuous and eternally varied forms, nirmāṇakāya./

三種心苦 三种心苦 [san1 zhong3 xin1 ku3 ] /The three kinds of mental distress: desire, anger, stupidity, idem 三毒./

三種忍行 三种忍行 [san1 zhong3 ren3 xing2 ] /Patience or forbearance of body, mouth, and mind./

三種悔法 三种悔法 [san1 zhong3 hui3 fa3 ] /(or 三種懺法) Three modes of repentance: (a) 無生悔 to meditate on the way to prevent wrong thoughts and delusions; (b) 取相悔 to seek the presence of the Buddha to rid one of sinful thoughts and passions; (c) 作法懺 in proper form to confess one's breach of the rules before the Buddha and seek remission./

三種慈悲 三种慈悲 [san1 zhong3 ci2 bei1 ] /(or 三種緣慈) The three reasons of bodhisattva's pity — because all beings are like helpless infants; because of his knowledge of all laws and their consequences; without external cause, i.e. because of his own nature./

三種教相 三种教相 [san1 zhong3 jiao4 xiang1 ] /The three modes of the Buddha's teaching of the Southern Sects: 頓 immediate, 漸 gradual or progressive, and 不定 indeterminate./

三種斷 三种断 [san1 zhong3 duan4 ] /The three kinds of uccheda— cutting-off, excision, or bringing to an end: (1) (a) 自性斷 with the incoming of wisdom, passion or illusion ceases of itself; (b) 不生斷 with realization of the doctrine that all is 空 unreal, evil karma ceases to arise; (c) 緣縛斷 illusion being ended, the causal nexus of the passions disappears and the attraction of the external ceases. (2) The three śrāvaka or ascetic stages are (a) 見所斷 ending the condition of false views; (b) 修行斷 getting rid of desire and illusion in practice; (c) 非所斷 no more illusion or desire to be cut off./

三種智 三种智 [san1 zhong3 zhi4 ] /The wisdom of common men, of the heterodox, and of Buddhism; i.e. (a) 世間智 normal, worldly knowledge or ideas; (b) 出世間智 other worldly wisdom, e.g. of Hīnayāna; (c) 出世間上上智 the highest other-worldly wisdom, of Mahāyāna; cf. 三種波羅蜜./

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三種有 三种有 [san1 zhong3 you3 ] /Three kinds of existence: (a) 相待有 that of qualities, as of opposites, e.g. length and shortness; (b) 假名有 that of phenomenal things so-called, e.g. a jar, a man; (c) 法有 that of the noumenal, or imaginary, understood as facts and not as illusions, such as a "hare's horns" or a "turtle's fur"./

三種欲 三种欲 [san1 zhong3 yu4 ] /Three kinds of desire— food, sleep, sex./

三種止觀 三种止观 [san1 zhong3 zhi3 guan1 ] /Three Tiantai modes of entering dhyāna: (a) 漸次 gradual, from the shallow to the deep, the simple to the complex; (b) 不定 irregular, simple, and complex mixed; (c) 圓頓 immediate and whole./

三種法輪 三种法轮 [san1 zhong4 fa3 lun2 ] /v. 三輪教./

三種波羅蜜 三种波罗蜜 [san1 zhong3 bo1 luo2 mi4 ] /The three kinds of pāramitā ideals, or methods of perfection: (a) 世間波羅蜜 that of people in general relating to this world; (b) 出世間波羅蜜 that of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas relating to the future life for themselves; (c) 出世間上上波羅蜜 the supreme one of bodhisattvas, relating to the future life for all; cf. 三種智./

三種淨業 三种净业 [san1 zhong3 jing4 ye4 ] /The threefold way of obtaining pure karma, idem 三福./

三種淸淨 三种淸净 [san1 zhong3 qing1 jing4 ] /The three purities of a bodhisattva— a mind free from all impurity, a body pure because never to be reborn save by transformation, an appearance 相 perfectly pure and adorned./

三種灌頂 三种灌顶 [san1 zhong3 guan4 ding3 ] /Three kinds of baptism: (1) (a) 摩頂灌頂 Every Buddha baptizes a disciple by laying a hand on his head; (b) 授記灌頂 by predicting Buddhahood to him; (c) 放光灌頂 by revealing his glory to him to his profit. (2) Shingon has (a) baptism on acquiring the mystic word; (b) on remission of sin and prayer for blessing and protection; (c) on seeking for reward in the next life./

三種生 三种生 [san1 zhong3 sheng1 ] /The three sources, or causes of the rise of the passions and illusions: (a) 想生 the mind, or active thought; (b) 相生 the objective world; (c) 流注生 their constant interaction, or the continuous stream of latent predispositions./

三種相 三种相 [san1 zhong3 xiang1 ] /The three kinds of appearance: (1) In logic, the three kinds of percepts: (a) 標相 inferential, as fire is inferred from smoke; (b) 形相 formal or spatial, as length, breadth, etc.; (c) 體相 qualitative, as heat is in fire, etc. (2) (a) 假名相 names, which are merely indications of the temporal; (b) 法相 dharmas, or "things"; (c) 無相相 the formless— all three are incorrect positions./

三種示導 三种示导 [san1 zhong3 shi4 dao3 ] /Three ways in which bodhisattvas manifest themselves for saving those suffering the pains of hell, i.e. 身 physically, by supernatural powers, change of form, etc.; 意 mentally, through powers of memory and enlightenment; 口 orally, by moral exhortation./

三種色 三种色 [san1 zhong3 se4 ] /Three kinds of rūpa, i.e. appearance or object: (1) (a) visible objects; (b) invisible objects, e.g. sound; (c) invisible, immaterial, or abstract objects. (2) (a) colour, (b) shape, (c) quality./

三種見惑 三种见惑 [san1 zhong3 jian4 huo4 ] /Three classes of delusive views, or illusions — those common to humanity; those of the inquiring mind; and those of the learned and settled mind./

三種身 三种身 [san1 zhong3 shen1 ] /The Tiantai School has a definition of 色身 the physical body of the Buddha; 法門身 his psychological body with its vast variety; 實相身 his real body, or dharmakāya. The esoteric sect ascribes a trikāya to each of its honoured ones. v. 三身./

三種身苦 三种身苦 [san1 zhong3 shen1 ku3 ] /The three duḥkha or afflictions of the body — old age, sickness, death./

三種闡提 三种阐提 [san1 zhong3 chan3 ti2 ] /The three kinds of icchantika: (a) 一闡提迦 the wicked; (b) 阿闡提迦 called 大悲闡提 bodhisattvas who become icchantika to save all beings; (c) 阿顚底迦 otherwise 無性闡提 those without a nature for final nirvāṇa. Cf. 三病./

三種香 三种香 [san1 zhong3 xiang1 ] /Three kinds of scent, or incense, i.e. from root, branch, or flower./

三空 三空 [san1 kong1 ] /The three voids or immaterialities. The first set of three is (a) 空, (b) 無相, (c) 無願, v. 三三昧. The second, (a) 我空 , (b) 法空 , (c) 倶空 the self, things, all phenomena as "empty" or immaterial. The third relates to charity: (a) giver, (b) receiver, (c) gift, all are "empty"./

三空門 三空门 [san1 kong1 men2 ] /(三空觀門) idem 三解脫門./

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三等 三等 [san1 deng3 ] /The three equal and universal characteristics of the one Tathāgata, an esoteric definition: (1) (a) his 身 body, (b) 語 discourse, (c) 意 mind. (2) (a) his life or works 修行; (b) spiritual body 法身; (c) salvation 度生; in their equal values and universality./

三等流 三等流 [san1 deng3 liu2 ] /Three equal or universal currents or consequences, i.e. 眞等流 the certain consequences that follow on a good, evil, or neutral kind of nature, respectively; 假等流 the temporal or particular fate derived from a previous life's ill deeds, e.g. shortened life from taking life; 分位等流 each organ as reincarnated according to its previous deeds, hence the blind./

三篋 三箧 [san1 qie4 ] /idem 三藏 tripiṭaka./

三節 三节 [san1 jie2 ] /The three divisions of the 十二因緣 twelve nidānas, q.v.: (a) past, i.e. the first two; (b) present— the next eight; (c) future— the last two./

三精氣 三精气 [san1 jing1 qi4 ] /The three auras of earth, of the animate, and of the inanimate invoked against demon influences./

三細 三细 [san1 xi4 ] /The three refined, or subtle conceptions, in contrast with the 六麤 cruder or common concepts, in the Awakening of Faith 起信論. The three are 無明業相 "ignorance", or the unenlightened condition, considered as in primal action, the stirring of the perceptive faculty; 能見相 ability to perceive phenomena; perceptive faculties; 境界相 the object perceived, or the empirical world. The first is associated with the 體corpus or substance, the second and third with function, but both must have co-existence, e.g. water and waves. v. 六麤./

三結 三结 [san1 jie2 ] /The three ties: (a) 見結 , the tie of false views, e.g. of a permanent ego; (b) 戒取結 of discipline; (c) 疑結 of doubt. The three are also parts of見惑 used for it./

三經一論 三经一论 [san1 jing1 yi1 lun4 ] /The three sūtras and one śāstra on which the Pure Land sect bases its teaching: 佛說無量壽經; 佛說觀無量壽經; 佛說阿彌陀經; 天親淨土論./

三綱 三纲 [san1 gang1 ] /The three bonds, i.e. directors of a monastery: (a) 上座 sthavira, elder, president; (b) 寺主vihārasvāmin, v. 毘 the abbot who directs the temporal affairs; (c) 維那 karmadāna, v. 羯 who directs the monks. Another meaning: (a) 上座; (b) 維那; (c) 典座 vihārapāla, v. 毘director of worship. The three vary in different countries./

三練磨 三练磨 [san1 lian4 mo2 ] /v. 三退屈./

三縛 三缚 [san1 fu4 ] /The three bonds— desire, anger, stupidity; idem 三毒./

三緣 三缘 [san1 yuan2 ] /The three nidānas or links with the Buddha resulting from calling upon him, a term of the Pure Land sect: (a) 親緣 that he hears those who call his name, sees their worship, knows their hearts and is one with them; (b) 近緣 that he shows himself to those who desire to see him; (c) 增上緣 that at every invocation aeons of sin are blotted out, and he and his sacred host receive such a disciple at death./

三罰業 三罚业 [san1 fa2 ye4 ] /The three things that work for punishment — body, mouth, and mind./

三耶三佛 三耶三佛 [san1 ye2 san1 fu2 ] /(檀) v. 三藐三佛陀./

三耶三菩 三耶三菩 [san1 ye2 san1 pu2 ] /v. 三藐三菩提./

三聖 三圣 [san1 sheng4 ] /The three sages, or holy ones, of whom there are several groups. The 華嚴Huayan have Vairocana in the center with Mañjuśrī on his left and Samantabhadra on his right. The 彌陀 Mituo or Pure-land sect, have Amitābha in the center, with Avalokiteśvara on his left and Mahāsthāmaprāpta on his right. The Tiantai use the term for the 藏, 別, and 圓教v. 三教./

三聚 三聚 [san1 ju4 ] /The three groups, i.e. 正定聚 Those decided for the truth; 邪定聚 those who are decided for heresy; 不定聚 the undecided. Definitions vary in different schools./

三聚戒 三聚戒 [san1 ju4 jie4 ] /(三聚淨戒) The three cumulative commandments: (a) the formal 5, 8, or 10, and the rest; (b) whatever works for goodness; (c) whatever works for the welfare or salvation of living, sentient beings. 三聚圓戒interprets the above three as implicit in each of the ten commandments e.g. (a) not to kill implies (b) mercy and (c) protection or salvation./

三能三不能 三能三不能 [san1 neng2 san1 ] /The three things possible and impossible to a Buddha. He can (a) have perfect knowledge of all things; (b) know all the natures of all beings, and fathom the affairs of countless ages; (c) save countless beings. But he cannot (a) annihilate causality, i.e. karma; (b) save unconditionally; (c) end the realm of the living./

三脫門 三脱门 [san1 tuo1 men2 ] /V. 三解脫 (三解脫門), but the former is only associated with無漏, or nirvāṇa./

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三自 三自 [san1 zi4 ] /Three divisions of the eight-fold noble path, the first to the third 自調 self-control, the fourth and fifth 自淨 self-purification, the last three 自度 self-development in the religious life and in wisdom. Also 自體, 自相, 自用 substance, form, and function./

三舉 三举 [san1 ju3 ] /The three exposures, i,e. the three sins of a monk each entailing his unfrocking— willful non-confession of sin, unwillingness to repent, claiming that lust is not contrary to the doctrine./

三舟觀月 三舟观月 [san1 zhou1 guan1 yue4 ] /v. 一月三舟./

三般若 三般若 [san1 ban1 ruo4 ] /The three prajñās, or perfect enlightenments: (a) 實相般若 wisdom in its essence or reality; (b) 觀照般若 the wisdom of perceiving the real meaning of the last; (c) 方便般若 or 文字般若 the wisdom of knowing things in their temporary and changing condition./

三色 三色 [san1 se4 ] /The three kinds of rūpa or form-realms: the five organs (of sense), their objects, and invisible perceptions, or ideas. Cf. 三種色./

三苦 三苦 [san1 ku3 ] /The three kinds of duḥkha, pain, or suffering: 苦苦 that produced by direct causes; 壞苦 by loss or deprivation; 行苦 by the passing or impermanency of all things./

三草二木 三草二木 [san1 cao3 er4 mu4 ] /A parable in the Lotus Sutra; the small plants representing ordinary men and devas, medium sized plants śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas, and 大草, 小樹 and 大樹 tall plants and small and large trees three grades of bodhisattvas. Another definition applies the term to the 五乘 five "vehicles". There are also others./

三莊嚴 三庄严 [san1 zhuang1 yan2 ] /The three adornments, or glories, of a country: material attractions; religion and learning; men, i.e. religious men and bodhisattvas./

三菩伽 三菩伽 [san1 pu2 jia1 ] /Saṃbhoga or Saṃbhūta. An ancient ṛṣi of Mathurā./

三菩伽迦耶 三菩伽迦耶 [san1 pu2 jia1 jia1 ye2 ] /saṃbhogakāya. (1) The "body of enjoyment " or recompense-body of a Buddha; his 報身 or reward-body, one of the Trikāya, 三身. (2) The third of the buddhakṣetra 佛土, the domain in which all respond perfectly to their Buddha./

三菩提 三菩提 [san1 pu2 ti2 ] /saṃbodhi, 糝帽地 intp. 正等覺. Perfect universal awareness, perfectly enlightened; v. 菩提./

三落叉 三落叉 [san1 luo4 cha1 ] /The three lakṣa; a lakṣa is a mark, sign, token, aim, object; it is also 100,000, i.e. an 億. The three lakṣa of the esoteric sects are the 字 or magic word, the 印 symbol and the 本尊 object worshipped. Other such threes are body, mouth, and mind; morning, noon, and evening; cold, heat, and rain, etc./

三藏 三藏 [san1 cang2 ] /v. 藏./

三藏教 三藏教 [san1 cang2 jiao4 ] /A Tiantai name for Hīnayāna, whose tripiṭaka is ascribed to Mahākāśyapa./

三藏學者 三藏学者 [san1 zang4 xue2 zhe3 ] /A student of Hīnayāna./

三藏法師 三藏法师 [san1 cang2 fa3 shi1 ] /A teacher of the Law; especially 玄奘 Xuanzang of the Tang dynasty; and cf. 般若./

三藐三佛陀 三藐三佛陀 [san1 miao3 san1 fo2 tuo2 ] /saṃyaksaṃbuddha 三耶三佛 (檀). The third of the ten titles of a Buddha, defined as 正徧知 (or 覺), or 正等覺 etc., one who has perfect universal knowledge or understanding; omniscient./

三藐三菩提 三藐三菩提 [san1 miao3 san1 pu2 ti2 ] /三貌糝帽地; 三耶三菩 saṃyak-saṃbodhi. Correct universal intelligence, 正徧知 (道). Correct equal or universal enlightenment (正等覺). Correct universal perfect enlightenment (正等正覺). An epithet of every Buddha. The full term is anuttarā-saṃyak-saṃbodhi, perfect universal enlightenment, knowledge, or understanding; omniscience./

三蘊 三蕴 [san1 yun4 ] /The three kinds of skandhas, aggregations, or combinations, into which all life may be expressed according to the 化地 or Mahīśāsakāh school: 一念蘊 combination for a moment, momentary existence; 一期蘊 combination for a period, e.g. a single human lifetime; 窮生死蘊 the total existence of all beings./

三處傳心 三处传心 [san1 chu4 chuan2 xin1 ] /The three places where Śākyamuni is said to have transmitted his mind or thought direct and without speech to Kāśyapa: at the 靈山 by a smile when plucking a flower; at the 多子塔 when he shared his seat with him; finally by putting his foot out of his coffin./

三處木叉 三处木叉 [san1 chu4 mu4 cha1 ] /The mokṣa of the three places, i.e. moral control over body, mouth, and mind./

三處阿蘭若 三处阿兰若 [san1 chu4 a1 lan2 ruo4 ] /Three classes of āraṇyakāḥ or ascetics distinguished by their three kinds of abode— those who dwell in retired places, as in forests; among tombs; in deserts; v. 阿蘭若./

三行 三行 [san1 xing2 ] /Three lines of action that affect karma, i.e. the ten good deeds that cause happy karma; the ten evil deeds that cause unhappy karma; 不動業 or 無動行 karma arising without activity, e.g. meditation on error and its remedy./

三衍 三衍 [san1 yan3 ] /The three yāna, or vehicles to nirvāṇa, i.e. śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, v. 三乘./

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三術 三术 [san1 shu4 ] /Three devices in meditation for getting rid of Māra-hindrances: within, to get rid of passion and delusion; without, to refuse or to withdraw from external temptation./

三衣 三衣 [san1 yi1 ] /The three regulation garments of a monk, 袈裟 kaāṣāya, i.e. 僧伽梨 saṅghāṭī, assembly robe; 鬱多羅僧 uttarāsaṅga, upper garment worn over the 安陀會 antarvāsaka, vest or shirt./

單三衣 单三衣 [dan1 san1 yi1 ] /The only proper garments of a monk./

三衰 三衰 [san1 shuai1 ] /The three deteriorators, idem 三毒./

三補吒 三补吒 [san1 bu3 zha1 ] /saṃpuṭa. One of the twelve ways of putting the hands together in worship, i.e. bringing the hands together without the palms touching./

三覆八校 三覆八校 [san1 fu4 ba1 xiao4 ] /The three reports 三覆 and eight investigations 八校. Two angels, 同生 and 同名, observe each individual, the first a female at his right shoulder noting the evil deeds; the second, a male, at his left shoulder noting the good deeds; both report on high and in hades six times a month. Thus in each month there are 六齋 and in each year 三覆 and 八校./

三覆 三覆 [san1 fu4 ] /denote a day in each of the first, fifth, and ninth months when the recording angels of the four Lokapālas report on the conduct of each individual. See also 三覆八校./

八校 八校 [ba1 xiao4 ] /are the opening days of the four seasons and the two solstices and two equinoxes during which similar investigations are made. See also 三覆八校./

三覺 三觉 [san1 jue2 ] /The three kinds of enlightenment: (1) (a) 自覺 Enlightenment for self; (b) 覺他 for others; (c) 覺行圓 (or 窮) 滿 perfect enlightenment and accomplishment; the first is an arhat's, the first and second a bodhisattva's, all three a Buddha's. (2) From the Awakening of Faith 起信論 (a) 本覺 inherent, potential enlightenment or intelligence of every being; (b) 始覺 , initial, or early stages of such enlightenment, brought about through the external perfuming or influence of teaching, working on the internal perfuming of subconscious intelligence; (c) 究竟覺 completion of enlightenment, the subjective mind in perfect accord with the subconscious (or superconscious) mind, or the inherent intelligence./

三觀 三观 [san1 guan1 ] /The three studies, meditations, or insights. The most general group is that of Tiantai: (a) 空觀 study of all as void, or immaterial; (b) 假觀 of all as unreal, transient, or temporal; (c) 中觀 as the via media inclusive of both. The Huayan group is 眞空觀, 理事無礙觀 and 周遍含容觀, see 華嚴經:法界觀. The 南山 group is 性空觀, 相空觀, and 唯識觀. The 慈恩 group is 有觀, 空觀 and 中觀./

三角壇 三角坛 [san1 jiao3 tan2 ] /A three-cornered altar in the fire worship of Shingon, connected with exorcism./

三解脫 三解脱 [san1 jie3 tuo1 ] /(三解脫門) The three emancipations, idem 三空 and 三三昧 q.v. They are 空解脫, 無相解脫 and 無作解脫. Cf. 三涅槃門./

三語 三语 [san1 yu3 ] /Buddha's three modes of discourse, i.e. without reserve, or the whole truth; tactical or partial, adapting truth to the capacity of his hearers; and a combination of both./

三論 三论 [san1 lun4 ] /The three śāstras translated by Kumārajīva, on which the 三論宗 Three śāstra School (Mādhyamika) bases its doctrines, i.e. 中論 Madhyamaka-śāstra, on "the Mean", A.D. 409; 十二門論 Dvādaśanikāya-śāstra, on the twelve points, A.D. 408; 百論 Sata-śāstra, the hundred verses, A.D. 404./

三論宗 三论宗 [san1 lun4 zong1 ] /The Sanlun, Mādhyamika, or Middle School, founded in India by Nāgārjuna, in China by 嘉祥 Jiaxiang during the reign of 安帝 An Di, Eastern Jin, A.D. 397-419. It flourished up to the latter part of the Tang dynasty. In 625 it was carried to Japan as Sanron. After the death of Jiaxiang, who wrote the 三論玄義, a northern and southern division took place. While the Mādhyamika denied the reality of all phenomenal existence, and defined the noumenal world in negative terms, its aim seems not to have been nihilistic, but the advocacy of a reality beyond human conception and expression, which in our terminology may be termed a spiritual realm./

三請 三请 [san1 qing3 ] /A request thrice repeated— implying earnest desire./

三諦 三谛 [san1 di4 ] /The three dogmas. The "middle" school of Tiantai says 卽空, 卽假. 卽中 i.e. 就是空, 假, 中; (a) by 空śūnya is meant that things causally produced are intheir essential nature unreal (or immaterial) 實空無; (b) 假, though thingsare unreal in their essential nature their derived forms are real; (c) 中;but both are one, being of the one 如 reality. These three dogmas arefounded on a verse of Nāgārjuna's— 因緣所生法, 我說卽是空 亦爲是假名, 亦是中道義 "All causally produced phenomena, I say, areunreal, Are but a passing name, and indicate the 'mean'." There are otherexplanations— the 圓教 interprets the 空 and 假 as 中; the 別教 makes 中 independent. 空 is the all, i.e. the totality of all things, and is spokenof as the 眞 or 實 true, or real; 假 is the differentiation of all thingsand is spoken of as 俗 common, i.e. things as commonly named; 中 is theconnecting idea which makes a unity of both, e.g. "all are but parts of onestupendous whole." The 中 makes all and the all into one whole, unifying thewhole and its parts. 空 may be taken as the immaterial, the undifferentiatedall, the sum of existences, by some as the tathāgatagarbha 如來藏; 假as theunreal, or impermanent, the material or transient form, the temporal thatcan be named, the relative or discrete; 中 as the unifier, which places eachin the other and all in all. The "shallower" 山外 school associated 空 and 中 with the noumenal universe as opposed to the phenomenal and illusoryexistence represented by 假. The "profounder" 山内 school teaches that allthree are aspects of the same./

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三諦相卽 三谛相卽 [san1 di4 xiang1 ji2 ] /The unity of 空, 假, 中, three aspects of the same reality, taught by the 圓教as distinguished from the 別教which separates them./

三識 三识 [san1 shi2 ] /The three states of mind or consciousness: 眞識 the original unsullied consciousness or Mind, the tathāgatagarbha, the eighth or ālaya 阿賴耶識 ; 現識 mind or consciousness diversified in contact with or producing phenomena, good and evil; 分別識 consciousness discriminating and evolving the objects of the five senses. Also 意識 manas, 心識 ālaya, and 無垢識 amala, v. 識./

三變 三变 [san1 bian4 ] /(土田) The three transformations of his Buddha-realm made by Śākyamuni on the Vulture peak—- first, his revelation of this world, then its vast extension, and again its still vaster extension. See Lotus Sutra./

三賢十聖 三贤十圣 [san1 xian2 shi2 sheng4 ] /(or三賢十地). The three virtuous positions, or states, of a bodhisattva are 十住, 十行 and 十廻向. The ten excellent characteristics of a 聖 saint or holy one are the whole of the 十地./

三跋致 三跋致 [san1 ba2 zhi4 ] /(or 諦) saṃpatti. To turn out well, prosper, be on the path of success./

三跋羅 三跋罗 [san1 ba2 luo1 ] /saṃvara. 三婆 (or 三嚩) To hinder, ward off, protect from falling into the three inferior transmigrations; a divine being that fills this office worshipped by the Tantra School. The sixth vijñāna, v. 八識./

三身 三身 [san1 shen1 ] /trikāya. 三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men./

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三身三德 三身三德 [san1 shen1 san1 de2 ] /The 三身 are the 法, 報, and 應; the 三德 are 法, 般, and 解, i.e. the virtue, or merit, of the (a) 法身 being absolute independence, reality; of (b) 報身, being 般若 prajñā or wisdom; and of (c) 應身, being 解脫德 liberation, or Nirvāṇa./

三身佛性 三身佛性 [san1 shen1 fu2 xing4 ] /v. 三身./

三身如來 三身如来 [san1 shen1 ru2 lai2 ] /v. 三身./

三身業 三身业 [san1 shen1 ye4 ] /The three physical wrong deeds— killing, robbing, adultery./

三車 三车 [san1 che1 ] /triyāna. 三乘 or 三乘法門 (1) The three vehicles across saṃsāra into nirvāṇa, i.e. the carts offered by the father in the Lotus Sutra to lure his children out of the burning house: (a) goat carts, representing śrāvakas; (b) deer carts, pratyekabuddhas; (c) bullock carts, bodhisattvas. (2) The three principal schools of Buddhism— Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna./

三車家 三车家 [san1 che1 jia1 ] /idem 三乘家./

三軌 三轨 [san1 gui3 ] /The three rules 三法 (三法妙) of the Tiantai Lotus School: (a) 眞性軌 The absolute and real, the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā; (b) 觀照軌meditation upon and understanding of it; (c) 資成軌 the extension of this understanding to all its workings. In the 三軌弘經 the three are traced to the 法師品 of the Lotus Sutra and are developed as: (a) 慈悲室 the abode of mercy, or to dwell in mercy; (b) 忍辱衣 the garment of endurance, or patience under opposition; (c) 法空座 the throne of immateriality (or spirituality), a state of nirvāṇa tranquility. Mercy to all is an extension of 資成軌 , patience of 觀照軌 and nirvāṇa tranquility of 眞性軌 ./

三輩 三辈 [san1 bei4 ] /The three ranks of those who reach the Pure Land of Amitābha: superior i.e. monks and nuns who become enlightened and devote themselves to invocation of the Buddha of boundless age; medium, i.e. laymen of similar character who do pious deeds; inferior, i.e. laymen less perfect than the last./

三輪 三轮 [san1 lun2 ] /The three wheels: (1) The Buddha's (a) 身 body or deeds; (b) 口 mouth, or discourse; (c) 意 mind or ideas. (2) (a) 神通 (or 變) His supernatural powers, or powers of (bodily) self-transformation, associated with 身 body; (b) 記心輪 his discriminating understanding of others, associated with 意 mind; (c) 敎誡輪 or 正敎輪 his (oral) powers of teaching, associated with 口. (3) Similarly (a) 神足輪 ; (b) 說法輪 ; (c) 憶念輪 . (4) 惑, 業, and 苦. The wheel of illusion produces karma, that of karma sets rolling that of suffering, which in turn sets rolling the wheel of illusion. (5) (a) Impermanence; (b) uncleanness; (c) suffering. Cf. 三道./

三輪世界 三轮世界 [san1 lun2 shi4 jie4 ] /The three-wheel world, i.e. 風, 水, and 金輪. Every world is founded on a wheel of whirling wind; above this is one of water; above this is one of metal, on which its nine mountains and eight seas are formed./

三輪化導 三轮化导 [san1 lun2 hua4 dao3 ] /idem 三種示導./

三輪教 三轮教 [san1 lun2 jiao4 ] /The three periods of the Buddha's teaching as defined by Paramārtha: (a) 轉法輪 the first rolling onwards of the Law-wheel, the first seven years' teaching of Hīnayāna, i.e. the 四諦 four axioms and 空 unreality; (b) 照法輪 illuminating or explaining the law-wheel, the thirty years' teaching of the 般若 prajñā or wisdom sūtras, illuminating 空 and by 空 illuminating 有 reality; (c) 持法輪 maintaining the law-wheel, i.e. the remaining years of teaching of the deeper truths of 空有 both unreality and reality. Also the three-fold group of the Lotus School: (a) 根本法輪 radical, or fundamental, as found in the 華嚴經 sūtra; (b) 枝末法輪 branch and leaf, i.e. all other teaching; until (c) 攝末歸本法輪 branches and leaves are reunited with the root in the Lotus Sutra, 法華經./

三輪相 三轮相 [san1 lun2 xiang1 ] /The three-wheel condition— giver, receiver, gift./

三轉 三转 [san1 zhuan3 ] /(三轉法輪) The three turns of the law-wheel when the Buddha preached in the Deer Park: (a) 示轉 indicative, i.e. postulation and definition of the 四諦; (b) 勸轉 hortative, e.g. 苦當知 suffering should be diagnosed; (c) 證轉 evidential, e.g. I have overcome suffering, etc./

三轉法輪十二行 三转法轮十二行 [san1 zhuan3 fa3 lun2 shi2 er4 xing2 ] /(三轉法輪十二行相) The twelve 行 processes are the application of the above 示, 勸, and 證 within the three turns of the wheel of the law (三轉法輪) to each of the four postulates. The three "turns" are also applied to the four kinds of knowledge, i.e. 眼, 智, 明, and 覺./

三迦葉 三迦叶 [san1 jia1 ye4 ] /Three brothers Kāsyapa, all three said to be disciples of the Buddha./

三逆 三逆 [san1 ni4 ] /The three unpardonable sins of Devadatta, which sent him to the Avici hell— schism, stoning the Buddha to the shedding of his blood, killing a nun./

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三迷 三迷 [san1 mi2 ] /Sama, 等, equal, like, same as./

三退屈 三退屈 [san1 tui4 qu1 ] /The three feelings of oppression that make for a bodhisattva's recreancy— the vastness of bodhi; the unlimited call to sacrifice; the uncertainty of final perseverance. There are 三事練磨 three modes of training against them./

三通力 三通力 [san1 tong1 li4 ] /idem 三達 and 三明./

三道 三道 [san1 dao4 ] /(1) The three paths all have to tread; 輪廻三道, 三輪, i.e. (a) 煩惱道 ; 惑道 ; the path of misery, illusion, mortality; (b) 業道 the path of works, action, or doing, productive of karma; (c) 苦道 the resultant path of suffering. As ever recurring they are called the three wheels. (2) 聾, 緣, 菩 śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, cf. 三乘./

三道眞言 三道眞言 [san1 dao4 zhen1 yan2 ] /Three magical "true words" or terms of Shingon for self-purification, i.e. 吽M004603 M067153 which is the "true word" for 身 the body; 訶囉鶴 for 語 the mouth or speech; and M004603 M067153 for 意 the mind./

三達 三达 [san1 da2 ] /Three aspects of the omniscience of Buddha: knowledge of future karma, of past karma, of present illusion and liberation; v. 三明./

三那三佛 三那三佛 [san1 na4 san1 fu2 ] /idem 三藐三佛陀./

三部 三部 [san1 bu4 ] /Three divisions. Included under this category are such terms as 三部大法, 三部主色, 三部經, etc./

三部大法 三部大法 [san1 bu4 da4 fa3 ] /(l) The Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, or pantheon, has the three divisions of 佛, 蓮, 金, i.e. Vairocana, Lotus, and Diamond or Vajra. (2) The teaching of the 胎藏界, 金剛界 and 蘇悉地法 is said to cover the whole of esoteric Buddhism./

三部主色 三部主色 [san1 bu4 zhu3 se4 ] /the colors of the three divisions of the great pantheon (三部大法): Vairocana, white; 觀世音 (as representing) Amitābha, yellow; and the Diamond Ruler Śākyamuni, a ruddy yellow./

三部經 三部经 [san1 bu4 jing1 ] /There are several groups: (1) The Amitābha group, also styled 淨土三部, is 無量壽經, 觀無量壽經 and 阿彌陀經. (2) The Vairocana group is 大日經, 金剛頂經 and 蘇悉地經; also called 三部祕經. (3) The Lotus group is the 無量義經, 妙法蓮經 and 觀普賢菩薩行法經. (4) The Maitreya group is 觀彌勤菩薩上生兜率天經, 彌勒下生經 and 彌勒大成佛經./

三醫 三医 [san1 yi1 ] /The three modes of diagnosis: the superior, 聽聲 listening to the voice; the medium, 相色 observing the external appearance; the inferior 診脈 testing the pulse./

三重三昧 三重三昧 [san1 zhong4 san1 mei4 ] /(or 三重等持) idem 三三昧./

三重法界 三重法界 [san1 zhong4 fa3 jie4 ] /The three meditations, on the relationship of the noumenal and phenomenal, of the 華嚴宗 Huayan School: (a) 理法界 the universe as law or mind, that all things are 眞如, i.e. all things or phenomena are of the same Buddha-nature, or the Absolute; (b) 理事無礙法界 that the Buddha-nature and the thing, or the Absolute and phenomena are not mutually exclusive; (c) 事事無礙法界 that phenomena are not mutually exclusive, but in a common harmony as parts of the whole./

三金 三金 [san1 jin1 ] /The three metals, gold, silver, copper. The esoterics have (a) earth, water, fire, representing the 身密 mystic body; (b) space and wind, the 語密 mystic mouth or speech; (c) 識 cognition, the 意密 mystic mind./

三鉢羅佉哆 三钵罗佉哆 [san1 bo1 luo1 qu1 duo1 ] /saṃprāpta, intp. by 善至, 正至, or 時至 well, properly, or timely arrived. Also written 僧跋 intp. 等施 bestowed equally or universally. It is a word spoken authoritatively some say before, some say after a common meal; a "blessing" to ward off evil from the food./

三鈷 三钴 [san1 gu3 ] /A trident; emblem of the Garbhadhātu 三部; and of the 三智, 三觀等, and三軌. Also written 三古 ; 三胡; 三股./

三銖 三铢 [san1 zhu1 ] /Three twenty-fourths of a tael, the weight of a deva's garments, e.g. featherweight./

三長齋月 三长斋月 [san1 chang2 zhai1 yue4 ] /(三長月) The three whole months of abstinence, the first, fifth, and ninth months, when no food should be taken after noon. The four deva-kings are on tours of inspection during these months./

三門 三门 [san1 men2 ] /trividha-dvāra, the three gates; a monastery; purity of body, speech, and thought; idem 三解脫門 also 三業./

三門三大侍者 三门三大侍者 [san1 men2 san1 da4 shi4 zhe3 ] /The three officiators in a monastery— for incense, for writing, and for acting as host./

三阿僧祇劫 三阿僧祇劫 [san1 a1 seng1 qi2 jie2 ] /The three great asaṃkhyeya (i.e. beyond number) kalpas— the three timeless periods of a bodhisattva's progress to Buddhahood./

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三陀羅尼 三陀罗尼 [san1 tuo2 luo1 ni2 ] /The three dhāraṇī, which word from dhāra, " maintaining," "preserving," is defined as the power maintaining wisdom or knowledge. Dhāraṇī are "spells chiefly for personal use" (Eliot), as compared with mantra, which are associated with religious services. The Tiantai School interprets the "three dhāraṇī" of the Lotus Sutra on the lines of the三諦, i.e. 空, 假and中. Another group is聞持陀羅尼 the power to retain all the teaching one hears; 分別陀羅尼 unerring powers of discrimination; 入音聲陀羅尼 power to rise superior to external praise or blame./

三階法 三阶法 [san1 jie1 fa3 ] /(三階佛法) The Three Stages School founded by the monk信行Xinxing in the Sui dynasty; it was proscribed in A.D. 600 and again finally in A.D. 725; also styled 三階院; 三階敎./

三際 三际 [san1 ji4 ] /Past, present, future, idem 三世./

三際時 三际时 [san1 ji4 shi2 ] /The three Indian seasons, spring, summer, and winter, also styled熱, 雨, 寒時, the hot, rainy, and cold seasons./

三障 三障 [san1 zhang4 ] /The three vighna, i.e. hinderers or barriers, of which three groups are given: (1) (a) 煩惱障 the passions, i.e. 三毒 desire, hate, stupidity; (b) 業障 the deeds done; (c) 報障 the retributions. (2) (a) 皮煩惱障 ; (b) 肉煩惱障 ; (c) 心煩惱障 skin, flesh, and heart (or mind) troublers, i.e. delusions from external objects: internal views, and mental ignorance. (3) 三重障 the three weighty obstructions: (a) self-importance, 我慢; (b) envy, 嫉妬; (c) desire, 貧欲./

雜染 杂染 [za2 ran3 ] /The three kaṣāya, i.e. "mixed dyes" or infections: the passions; their karma; reincarnation; or illusion, karma, and suffering./

三難 三难 [san1 nan2 ] /The three hardships, or sufferings in the three lower paths of transmigration, v. 三惡道./

三面大黑 三面大黑 [san1 mian4 da4 hei1 ] /The three-faced great black deva, Mahākāla v. 摩, with angry mien, a form of Maheśvara, or Śiva, as destroyer. Another interpretation says he is a union of Mahākāla, Vaiśravaṇa, and a Gandharva./

三顚倒 三顚倒 [san1 dian1 dao4 ] /The three subversions or subverters: (evil) thoughts, (false) views, and (a deluded) mind./

三餘 三余 [san1 yu2 ] /The three after death remainders, or continued mortal experiences, of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, who mistakenly think they are going to 無餘涅槃final nirvāṇa, but will still find 煩惱餘 further passion and illusion, 業餘 further karma, and 果餘 continued rebirth, in realms beyond the 三界trailokya./

三馬 三马 [san1 ma3 ] /The three horses, one young, strong, and tractable; another similar but not tractable; a third old and intractable, i.e. bodhisattvas (or bodhisattva-monks), śrāvakas and icchantis./

三魔 三魔 [san1 mo2 ] /The three kinds of evil spirits, of which three groups are given: (1) 煩惱魔 , 陰魔 and他化自在天子魔 ; (2) 煩惱魔 , 天魔 and 死魔 ; (3) 善知識魔 , 三昧魔 , and善提心魔 ./

三默堂 三默堂 [san1 mo4 tang2 ] /Thee three halls of silence where talk and laughter are prohibited: the bathroom, the sleeping apartment, the privy./

三點 三点 [san1 dian3 ] /See伊字三點./

三齋月 三斋月 [san1 zhai1 yue4 ] /See 三長齋月./

丸香 丸香 [wan2 xiang1 ] /Incense balls made of various kinds of ingredients; typifying the aggregation of mortal suffering, and its destruction by the, fires of wisdom./

[jiu3 ] /Long, for long, long ago; also 久遠./

久住者 久住者 [jiu3 zhu4 zhe3 ] /One who has spent many years in monastic life, or in a particular monastery./

久成正覺 久成正觉 [jiu3 cheng2 zheng4 jue2 ] /Perfect enlightenment long acquired; Śākya-Tathāgata in ancient kalpas having achieved complete bodhi, transmitted it to Mañjuśrī Avalokiteśvara, and others, i.e., their enlightenment is the fruit of his enlightenment. 法華經:壽量品./

久遠實成 久远实成 [jiu3 yuan3 shi2 cheng2 ] /The perfect enlightenment achieved by the Buddha in remote kalpas./

[qi3 ] /To beg./

乞丐 乞丐 [qi3 gai4 ] /a beggar./

乞士 乞士 [qi3 shi4 ] /A bhikṣu, mendicant monk, or almsman./

乞㗚雙提贊 乞㗚双提赞 [qi3 li4 shuang1 ti2 zan4 ] /hri-srong-lde-btsan king of Tibet (A.D. 743-798). In 747 he brought to Tibet "the real founder of Lamaism" (Eliot), Padmasaṃbhava蓮華生上師, a Buddhist of Swat (Urgyan), who introduced a system of magic and mysticism (saturated with Śivaism) which found its way into Mongolia and China. The king was converted to Buddhism by his mother, a Chinese princess, and became a powerful supporter of it. He encouraged the translation of the Buddhist canon which was completed by his successors. He is worshipped as an incarnation of Mañjuśrī./

乞灑 乞洒 [qi3 sa3 ] /乞察; 乞叉; 吃灑; 葛叉; 差; 叉; 刹; kṣaya, used in the sense of omega, implying finality, or nirvāṇa./

乞眼婆羅門 乞眼婆罗门 [qi3 yan3 po2 luo2 men2 ] /The Brahman who begged one of Śāriputra's eyes in a former incarnation, then trampled on it, causing Śāriputra to give up his efforts to become a bodhisattva and turn back to the Hīnayāna./

乞食 乞食 [qi3 shi2 ] /To beg for food, one of the twelve dhūtas prescribing outward conduct of the monk; mendicancy is the 正命 right livelihood of a monk, to work for a living is 邪命 an improper life: mendicancy keeps a monk humble, frees him from the cares of life, and offers the donors a field of blessedness; but he may not ask for food./

乞食四分 乞食四分 [qi3 shi2 si4 fen1 ] /The four divisions of the mendicant's dole; to provide for (1) fellow religionists, (2) the poor, (3) the spirits, (4) self./

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[yu2 ] /Yu, a preposition, in, at, etc. , similar to 於./

于遮那摩羅 于遮那摩罗 [yu2 zhe1 na4 mo2 luo1 ] /Used in error for 干遮那摩羅./

干遮那摩羅 干遮那摩罗 [gan4 zhe1 na4 mo2 luo1 ] /Kāñcana-mālā, a hair circlet or ornament of pure gold; name of the wife of Kuṇālā, noted for fidelity to her husband when he had been disgraced./

于闍那 于闍那 [yu2 du1 na4 ] /Kuñjara. Name of a tree./

于闍羅 于闍罗 [yu2 du1 luo1 ] /Kuñjara. Name of a tree./

于闐 于阗 [yu2 tian2 ] /于遁; 于殿; 于塡; 谿丹; 屈丹; 和闐; 澳那; 瞿薩憺那 Kustana, or Khotan, in Turkestan, the principal centre of Central Asian Buddhism until the Moslem invasion. Buddhism was introduced there about 200 B.C. or earlier. It was the centre from which is credited the spread of Mahayanism, v. 西城記 12./

[wang2 ] /Gone, lost, dead, ruined; not./

亡五衆物 亡五众物 [wang2 wu3 zhong4 wu4 ] /The things left behind at death by any one of the five orders of monks or nuns; clothing, etc., being divided among the other monks or nuns; valuables and land, etc., going to the establishment./

亡者 亡者 [wang2 zhe3 ] /Dead; the dead./

亡魂 亡魂 [wang2 hun2 ] /The soul of the dead./

[fan2 ] /All, everybody, common, ordinary./

凡僧 凡僧 [fan2 seng1 ] /The ordinary practising monk as contrasted with the 聖僧 the holy monk who has achieved higher merit./

凡夫 凡夫 [fan2 fu1 ] /波羅; 婆羅必栗託仡那; 婆羅必利他伽闍那 bālapṛthagjana. Everyman, the worldly man, the sinner. Explained by 異生 or 愚異生 one who is born different, or outside the Law of the Buddha, because of his karma./

凡夫十重妄 凡夫十重妄 [fan2 fu1 shi2 zhong4 wang4 ] /The serious misfortunes of the sinful man in whom the Ālaya-vijñāna, the fundamental intelligence, or life force, of everyman, is still unenlightened; they are compared to ten progressive stages of a dream in which a rich man sees himself become poor and in prison./

凡夫性 凡夫性 [fan2 fu1 xing4 ] /凡性The common underlying nature of all men; also called 異生性./

凡小 凡小 [fan2 xiao3 ] /Common men, or sinners, also believers in Hīnayāna; also the unenlightened in general./

凡小八倒 凡小八倒 [fan2 xiao3 ba1 dao4 ] /The eight subverted views of common men and Hinayanists―counting the impermanent as permanent, the non-joy as joy, the non-ego as ego, the impure as pure; the really permanent as impermanent, the real joy, the true ego, the real purity as non-joy, non-ego, impurity; cf. 四德./

凡師 凡师 [fan2 shi1 ] /Ordinary, or worldly teachers unenlightened by Buddhist truth./

凡情 凡情 [fan2 qing2 ] /Desires or passions of the unconverted./

凡愚 凡愚 [fan2 yu2 ] /Common, ignorant, or unconverted men./

凡慮 凡虑 [fan2 lv4 ] /The anxieties of common or unconverted men./

凡福 凡福 [fan2 fu2 ] /The ordinary blessedness of devas and men as compared with that of the converted./

凡種 凡种 [fan2 zhong3 ] /Common seed, ordinary people./

凡習 凡习 [fan2 xi2 ] /The practices, good and evil, of commom ,or unconverted men./

凡聖 凡圣 [fan2 sheng4 ] /Sinners and saints./

凡聖一如 凡圣一如 [fan2 sheng4 yi1 ru2 ] /Sinners and saints are of the same fundamental nature./

凡聖不二 凡圣不二 [fan2 sheng4 bu4 er4 ] /Sinners and saints are of the same fundamental nature./

凡聖同居土 凡圣同居土 [fan2 sheng4 tong2 ju1 tu3 ] /This world, where saints and sinners dwell together; one of the Tiantai 四土./

凡識 凡识 [fan2 shi2 ] /Ordinary knowledge, worldly knowledge, that of the unenlightened by Buddha./

凡身 凡身 [fan2 shen1 ] /The common mortal body, the ordinary individual./

[ren4 ] /A blade, a sword; to kill./

刃葉林 刃叶林 [ren4 ye4 lin2 ] /Asipattravana; the forest of swords, where every leaf is a sharp sword, v. 地獄./

[qian1 ] /sahasra. A thousand./

千二百五十人 千二百五十人 [qian1 er4 bai3 wu3 shi2 ren2 ] /The 1,250, i.e. the immediate disciples of Buddha's disciples, all former heretics converted to Buddha's truth./

千二百舌功德 千二百舌功德 [qian1 er4 bai3 she2 gong1 de2 ] /The 1,200 merits of tongue in the Lotus Sutra./

二百耳功德 二百耳功德 [er4 bai3 er3 gong1 de2 ] /The 1,200 merits of ear in the Lotus Sutra./

千二百意功德 千二百意功德 [qian1 er4 bai3 yi4 gong1 de2 ] /The 1,200 merits of mind in the Lotus Sutra./

千佛 千佛 [qian1 fu2 ] /The thousand Buddhas. Each of the past, present, and future kalpas has a thousand Buddhas; Śākyamuni is the "fourth" Buddha in the present kalpa./

千佛名經 千佛名经 [qian1 fu2 ming2 jing1 ] /professes to give their names. A scripture which lists the names of the thousand buddhas./

千化 千化 [qian1 hua4 ] /The thousand-petalled lotus on which sits Locana Buddha, each petal a transformation of Śākyamuni; Locana represents also the Saṃgha, as Vairocana represents the Dharma./

千如是 千如是 [qian1 ru2 shi4 ] /The thousand "suchnesses" or characteristics, a term of the Tiantai sect. In each of the ten realms 十界, from Buddha to purgatory, the ten are present, totaling one hundred. These multiplied by the ten categories of existence make a thousand, and multiplied by the three categories of group existence make 3,000./

千手 千手 [qian1 shou3 ] /(千手千眼); 千手千眼大慈大悲觀音菩薩 The thousand-hand Guanyin, see below. There are various sutras associated with this title, e.g. 千手經 an abbreviation of 手千眼觀世音菩薩大廣大圓滿無礙大悲心陀羅尼經; also 千手軌 or 軌經 an abbreviation of 金剛頂瑜伽千手千眼觀自在菩薩修行儀軌經; it is also called 千手陀羅尼 and 千手千眼儀軌經; there are many others, e.g. 千手千眼觀世音菩藤姥陀羅尼身經 and 千手千眼廣大圓滿無礙大悲心陀羅尼經 both idem 千手千臂陀羅尼神咒 which is the Avalokiteśvara-padma-jāla-mūla-tantra‐nāma-dhāraṇī./

千手觀音 千手观音 [qian1 shou3 guan1 yin1 ] /Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes./

千手千眼觀音 千手千眼观音 [qian1 shou3 qian1 yan3 guan1 yin1 ] /Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes./

千眼千臂觀世音 千眼千臂观世音 [qian1 yan3 qian1 bi4 guan1 shi4 yin1 ] /Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes. The image usually has forty arms, one eye in each hand; and forty multiplied by twenty-five is the number of regions in this universe. For the 二十八部 or retinue, the maṇḍala and signs v. 千手經./

千法明門 千法明门 [qian1 fa3 ming2 men2 ] /The gate of understanding of the thousand laws―the second stage of a bodhisattva's study and attainment./

千泉 千泉 [qian1 quan2 ] /Bingheul 屛律 Mingbulak. A lake country 30 li E. of Talas./

千百億身 千百亿身 [qian1 bai3 yi4 shen1 ] /The Buddha Locana seated on a lotus of a thousand petals, each containing myriads of worlds in each world is, Śākyamuni seated under a bodhi tree, all such worlds attaining bodhi at the same instant./

千眼天 千眼天 [qian1 yan3 tian1 ] /The Deva with 1,000 of a thousand petals, i.e. that of Locana Buddha./

千輻輪相 千辐轮相 [qian1 fu2 lun2 xiang1 ] /Sahasrara; the thousand-spoked wheel sign, i.e. the wrinkles on the soles of a cakravarti, or Buddha./

千部論師 千部论师 [qian1 bu4 lun4 shi1 ] /(or 千部論主) Master of a thousand śāstras―a title of Nāgārjuna and of Vasubandhu./

千里駒 千里驹 [qian1 li3 ju1 ] /The thousand-li colt, a name for Xuanzang./

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[cha1 ] /A fork, forked; to fold, folded./

叉手 叉手 [cha1 shou3 ] /The palms of the hands together with the fingers crossed forming ten. Also, the palms together with the middle fingers crossing each other, an old Indian form of greeting. In China anciently the left hand was folded over the right, but with women the right hand was over the left. In mourning salutations the order was reversed./

叉拏 叉拿 [cha1 na2 ] /kṣaṇa, an instant, a moment; also 刹拏./

叉磨 叉磨 [cha1 mo2 ] /kṣamā, v. 懺悔./

叉耶 叉耶 [cha1 ye2 ] /kṣaya, diminish, decay, end; v. 乞./

[kou3 ] /mukha, the mouth, especially as the organ of speech. 身, 口, 意 are the three media of corruption, body or deed , mouth or word, and mind or thought./

口傳 口传 [kou3 chuan2 ] /Oral transmission./

口授 口授 [kou3 shou4 ] /Oral transmission./

口力外道 口力外道 [kou3 li4 wai4 dao4 ] /One of the eleven heretical sects of India. which is said to have compared the mouth to the great void out of which all things were produced. The great void produced the four elements, these produced herbs, and these in turn all the living; or more in detail the void produced wind, wind fire, fire warmth, warmth water, water congealed and formed earth which produced herbs, herbs cereals and life, hence life is food; ultimately all returns to the void, which is nirvana./

因力論師 因力论师 [yin1 li4 lun4 shi1 ] /Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which all things are produced; see 口力外道./

口力論師 口力论师 [kou3 li4 lun4 shi1 ] /Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which all things are produced; see 口力外道./

口印 口印 [kou3 yin4 ] /The mouth sign, one of the fourteen symbols of 不重尊 q.v./

口和 口和 [kou3 he2 ] /Harmony of mouths or voices, unanimous approval./

口四 口四 [kou3 si4 ] /The four evils of the mouth, lying, double tongue, ill words, and exaggeration; cf. 十惡./

口密 口密 [kou3 mi4 ] /語密 One of the 三密. Secret or magical words, either definite formulas of the Buddha or secret words from his dharma, kaya, or spirit./

口忍 口忍 [kou3 ren3 ] /Patience of the mouth, uttering no rebuke under insult or persecution; there are similarly 身忍 and 意忍./

口業 口业 [kou3 ye4 ] /語業 One of the 三業. (1) The work of the mouth, i.e. talk, speech. (2) The evil karma produced by the mouth, especially from lying, double-tongue, ill words, and exaggeration./

口業供養 口业供养 [kou3 ye4 gong4 yang3 ] /The offering of the praise or worship of the lips; also 身業供養 and 意業供養./

口疏 口疏 [kou3 shu1 ] /奥疏 Esoteric commentary or explanation of two kinds, one general, the other only imparted to the initiated./

奥疏 奥疏 [ao4 shu1 ] /Esoteric commentary or explanation of two kinds, one general, the other only imparted to the initiated./

口稱 口称 [kou3 cheng1 ] /Invocation./

口稱三昧 口称三昧 [kou3 cheng1 san1 mei4 ] /The samādhi in which with a quiet heart the individual repeats the name of Buddha, or the samādhi attained by such repetition./

口訣 口诀 [kou3 jue2 ] /Orally transmitted decisions or instructions./

口輪 口轮 [kou3 lun2 ] /正教輪 One of the 三輪. The wheel of the mouth. or the wheel of the true teaching; Buddha's teaching rolling on everywhere, like a chariot-wheel, destroying misery./

口頭禪 口头禅 [kou3 tou2 chan2 ] /Mouth meditation, i.e. dependence on the leading of others, inability to enter into personal meditation./

[tu3 ] /Bhū; bhūmi; pṛthivī. Earth, locality, local, vulgar./

土地神 土地神 [tu3 de shen2 ] /The local guardian deity of the soil or locality, deus loci; in the classics and government sacrifices known as 社; as guardian deity of the grave 后土. The 土地堂 is the shrine of this deity as ruler of the site of a monastery, and is usually east of the main hall. On the 2nd and 16th of each month a 土地諷經 or reading of a sutra should be done at the shrine./

土星 土星 [tu3 xing1 ] /賒乃以室折羅 Śanaiścara. Saturn. Śani, the Hindu ruler of the planet, was "identified with the planet itself ".[Eitel.]/

土波 土波 [tu3 bo1 ] /Tibet./

土砂供養 土砂供养 [tu3 sha1 gong4 yang3 ] /土砂加持 The putting of earth on the grave 108 times by the Shingon sect; they also put it on the deceased's body, and even on the sick, as a kind of baptism for sin, to save the deceased from the hells and base reincarnations, and bring them to the Pure Land./

土羅遮 土罗遮 [tu3 luo1 zhe1 ] /偸蘭遮 sthūlātyaya. Serious sin./

土饅頭 土馒头 [tu3 man2 tou2 ] /An earthen loaf, i.e. a grave; but v. 士饅頭./

土麨 土麨 [tu3 chao3 ] /Aśoka is said to have become king as a reward for offering, when a child in a previous incarnation, a double-handful of sand as wheat or food to the Buddha./

[shi4 ] /A gentleman, scholar, officer./

士夫 士夫 [shi4 fu1 ] /v. 補盧沙 puruṣa./

士夫見 士夫见 [shi4 fu1 jian4 ] /One of the eight heterodox views, i.e. the pride arising from belief in a puruṣa, 補慮沙 q.v./

士饅頭 士馒头 [shi4 man2 tou2 ] /śmaśāna. A crematory; a burial place for remains from cremation. A grave; v. 土饅頭. The form is doubtful./

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[xi1 ] /Evening./

夕座 夕座 [xi1 zuo4 ] /The evening service./

朝座 朝座 [chao2 zuo4 ] /The morning service./

[da4 ] /Maha. 摩訶; 麼賀. Great, large, big; all pervading, all-embracing; numerous 多; surpassing ; mysterious 妙; beyond comprehension 不可思議; omnipresent 體無不在. The elements, or essential things, i.e. (a) 三大 The three all-pervasive qualities of the 眞如 q.v. : its 體, 相 , 用 substance, form, and functions, v. 起信論 . (b) 四大 The four tanmātra or elements, earth, water, fire, air (or wind) of the 倶舍論. (c)五大 The five, i.e. the last four and space 空, v. 大日經. (d) 六大 The six elements, earth, water, fire, wind, space (or ether), mind 識. Hīnayāna, emphasizing impersonality 人空, considers these six as the elements of all sentient beings; Mahāyāna, emphasizing the unreality of all things 法空, counts them as elements, but fluid in a flowing stream of life, with mind 識 dominant; the esoteric sect emphasizing nonproduction, or non-creation, regards them as universal and as the Absolute in differentiation. (e) 七大 The 楞嚴經 adds 見 perception, to the six above named to cover the perceptions of the six organs 根./

大三末多 大三末多 [da4 san1 mo4 duo1 ] /Mahāsaṃmata. The first of the five kings of the Vivarta kalpa (成劫五王 ), one of the ancestors of the Śākya clan./

大不可棄子部 大不可弃子部 [da4 bu4 ke3 qi4 zi3 bu4 ] /Āvantikās. The great school of the son who "could not be abandoned" (a subdivision of the Saṃmatiyas 三彌底), whose founder when a newborn babe was abandoned by his parents./

大不善地法 大不善地法 [da4 bu4 shan4 di4 fa3 ] /The two great characteristics of the evil state, 無慚無愧 no sense of shame or disgrace, shameless./

大乘 大乘 [da4 cheng2 ] /Mahāyāna; also called 上乘; 妙乘; 勝乘; 無上乘; 無上上乘; 不惡乘; 無等乘, 無等等乘; 摩訶衍 The great yāna, wain, or conveyance, or the greater vehicle in comparison with the 小乘 Hīnayāna. It indicates universalism, or Salvation for all, for all are Buddha and will attain bodhi. It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea, Japan, and in other places in the Far East. It is also called Northern Buddhism. It is interpreted as 大教 the greater teaching as compared with 小教 the smaller, or inferior. Hīnayāna, which is undoubtedly nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha, is unfairly described as an endeavour to seek nirvana through an ash-covered body, an extinguished intellect, and solitariness; its followers are sravakas and pratyekabuddhas (i.e. those who are striving for their own deliverance through ascetic works). Mahāyāna, on the other hand, is described as seeking to find and extend all knowledge, and, in certain schools, to lead all to Buddhahood. It has a conception of an Eternal Buddha, or Buddhahood as Eternal (Adi-Buddha), but its especial doctrines are, inter alia, (a) the bodhisattvas 菩薩 , i.e. beings who deny themselves final Nirvana until, according to their vows, they have first saved all the living; (b) salvation by faith in, or invocation of the Buddhas or bodhisattvas; (c) Paradise as a nirvana of bliss in the company of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, saints, and believers. Hīnayāna is sometimes described as 自利 self-benefiting, and Mahāyāna as 自利利他 self-benefit for the benefit of others, unlimited altruism and pity being the theory of Mahāyāna. There is a further division into one-yana and three-yanas: the trīyāna may be śrāvaka, pratyeka-buddha, and bodhisattva, represented by a goat, deer, or bullock cart; the one-yāna is that represented by the Lotus School as the one doctrine of the Buddha, which had been variously taught by him according to the capacity of his hearers, v. 方便. Though Mahāyāna tendencies are seen in later forms of the older Buddhism, the foundation of Mahāyāna has been attributed to Nāgārjuna 龍樹. "The characteristics of this system are an excess of transcendental speculation tending to abstract nihilism, and the substitution of fanciful degrees of meditation and contemplation (v. Samādhi and Dhyāna) in place of the practical asceticism of the Hīnayāna school."[Eitel 68-9.] Two of its foundation books are the 起信論and the 妙法蓮華經 but a larnge numberof Mahāyāna sutras are ascribed to the Buddha。./

大乘二種成佛 大乘二种成佛 [da4 cheng2 er4 zhong3 cheng2 fu2 ] /The two Mahāyāna kinds of Buddhahood: (1) that of natural purity, for every one has the inherent nature; (2) that attained by practice./

大乘善根界 大乘善根界 [da4 cheng2 jie4 ] /The Mahāyāna good roots realm, a name for the Amitābha Pure-land of the West./

大乘四果 大乘四果 [da4 cheng2 si4 guo3 ] /The four fruits, or bodhisattva stages in Mahāyāna, the fourth being that of a Buddha: 須陀洹 srota-āpanna, 斯陀含 sakṛdāgāmin, 。阿理那含 anāgāmin, and 阿羅漢 arhan. This is a 通教 category./

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大乘因 大乘因 [da4 cheng2 yin1 ] /Mahāyāna "cause" is variously described as the mind of enlightenment 菩提心; or the reality behind all things 諸法實相./

大乘基 大乘基 [da4 cheng2 ji1 ] /"Mahāyāna‐fundament", title of 窺基 Kuiji, a noted disciple of Xuanzang 玄奘; known also as 大乘法師./

大乘妙經 大乘妙经 [da4 cheng2 miao4 jing1 ] /idem 法華經 the Lotus Sutra./

大乘天 大乘天 [da4 cheng2 tian1 ] /"Mahāyāna-deva", a title given to 玄奘 Xuanzang, who was also styled 木叉提婆 Moksa-deva./

木叉提婆 木叉提婆 [mu4 cha1 ti2 po2 ] /"Mokṣa-deva", a title given to 玄奘 Xuanzang./

大乘宗 大乘宗 [da4 cheng2 zong1 ] /The school of Mahāyāna, attributed to the rise in India of the Mādhyamika, i.e. the 中觀 or 三論 school ascribed to Nāgārjuna, and the Yoga 瑜伽 or Dharmalakṣaṇa 法相 school, the other schools being Hīnayāna. In China and Japan the 倶舍 and 成實 are classed as Hīnayāna, the rest being Mahāyāna , of which the principal schools are 律, 法相 , 三論, 華嚴, 天台, 眞言 , 淨土 , 禪 q.v./

大乘心 大乘心 [da4 cheng2 xin1 ] /The mind or heart of the Mahāyāna; seeking the mind of Buddha by means of Mahāyāna./

大乘戒 大乘戒 [da4 cheng2 jie4 ] /The commands or prohibitions for bodhisattvas and monks, also styled 菩薩; 三聚淨戒; 圓頓戒 and other titles according to the school. The 梵網經 gives ten weighty prohibitions and forty-eight lighter ones; v. also 大乘戒經./

大乘教 大乘教 [da4 cheng2 jiao4 ] /v. 大乘; for 大乘教九部 v. 九部./

大乘方等經典 大乘方等经典 [da4 cheng2 fang1 deng3 jing1 dian3 ] /The sutra and scriptures of the Mahāyāna, their doctrines being 方正 square and correct and 平等 for all equally, or universal./

大乘楞伽經唯識論 大乘楞伽经唯识论 [da4 cheng2 leng2 jia1 jing1 wei2 shi2 lun4 ] /Viṃśatikā-vijñaptimātratā-siddhi-śāstra. A title of one of three treatises by Vasubandhu, tr. A.D. 508-535, 大乘唯識論 tr. 557-569, and 唯識二十論 tr. by Xuanzang in 661 being the other two./

大乘法師 大乘法师 [da4 cheng2 fa3 shi1 ] /a title for 窺基 v. 大乘基./

大乘法相教 大乘法相教 [da4 cheng2 fa3 xiang1 jiao4 ] /and 大乘破相敎 v. 法相敎./

大乘無上法 大乘无上法 [da4 cheng2 wu2 shang4 fa3 ] /The supreme Mahāyāna truth, according to the 楞伽經, is that of ultimate reality in contrast with the temporary and apparent; also reliance on the power of the vow of the bodhisattva./

大乘無作大戒 大乘无作大戒 [da4 cheng2 wu2 zuo4 da4 jie4 ] /The Mahāyāna great moral law involving no external action; a Tiantai expression for the inner change which occurs in the recipient of ordination; it is the activity within; also 大乘無作圓頓戒; 無表大戒./

大乘純界 大乘纯界 [da4 cheng2 chun2 jie4 ] /The lands wholly devoted to Mahāyāna, i.e. China and Japan, where in practice there is no Hīnayāna./

大乘經 大乘经 [da4 cheng2 jing1 ] /Mahāyāna sutras, the sūtra-piṭaka. Discourses ascribed to the Buddha, presumed to be written in India and translated into Chinese. These are divided into five classes corresponding to the Mahāyāna theory of the Buddha's life: (1) Avataṃsaka, 華嚴 the sermons first preached by Śākyamuni after enlightenment; (2) Vaipulya, 方等; (3) Prajñā Pāramitā, 般若; (4) Saddharma Puṇḍarīka, 法華; and last (5) Mahāparinirvāṇa, 涅槃. Another list of Mahāyāna sutras is 般若; 寳積; 大集; 華嚴 and 涅槃. The sutras of Hīnayāna are given as the Agamas 阿含, etc./

大乘莊嚴經論 大乘庄严经论 [da4 cheng2 zhuang1 yan2 jing1 lun4 ] /Mahāyānasūtra-laṃkāra-ṭīkā. An exposition of the teachings of the Vijñāna-vāda School, by Asaṅga, tr. A.D. 630-3 by Prabhākaramitra. 13 chuan./

大乘起信論 大乘起信论 [da4 cheng2 qi3 xin4 lun4 ] /Mahāyāna- śraddhotpāda-śāstra, attributed to Aśvaghoṣa 馬鳴 (without sufficient evidence), tr. by Paramārtha A.D. 553 and Śikṣānanda between 695-700; there are nineteen commentaries on it. It is described as the foundation work of the Mahāyāna. Tr. into English by Timothy Richard and more correctly by T. Suzuki as The Awakening of Faith./

大乘論 大乘论 [da4 cheng2 lun4 ] /Abhidharma of the Mahāyāna, the collection of discourses on metaphysics and doctrines./

大乘頂王經 大乘顶王经 [da4 cheng2 ding3 wang2 jing1 ] /Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra, (維摩經) is the Sanskrit title of a work of which there exist six translations, one made by Upaśūnya A.D. 502-557./

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大事 大事 [da4 shi4 ] /(因緣) For the sake of a great cause, or because of a great matter―the Buddha appeared, i.e. for changing illusion into enlightenment. The Lotus interprets it as enlightenment; the Nirvana as the Buddha-nature; the 無量壽經 as the joy of Paradise./

人相印 人相印 [ren2 xiang1 yin4 ] /Sealed with the sign of manhood, i.e. of the religious life. 大仙 Maharsi. Great sages, applied to Buddhist saints as superior to ordinary "immortals"; also to sravakas, and especially to Buddha; | | 戒 are the Buddha's laws or commands. Vasistha 婆私瑟侘 was one of the seven rsis 大仙 of Brahmanic mythology./

佛頂 佛顶 [fu2 ding3 ] /A title of the esoteric sect for their form of Buddha, or Buddhas, especially of Vairocana of the Vajradhātu and Śākyamuni of the Garbhadhātu groups. Also, an abbreviation of a dhāraṇī as is | | | 經 of a sutra, and there are other | | | scriptures./

休歇底 休歇底 [xiu1 xie1 di3 ] /Ended, finished; dead to the world; also | 死底./

信心 信心 [xin4 xin1 ] /Great or firm faith in, or surrender to Buddha, especially to Amitabha./

信心海 信心海 [xin4 xin1 hai3 ] /A heart of faith great as the ocean./

[seng1 ] /A fully ordained monk, i.e. a bhikṣu as contrasted with the śramaņa./

僧正 僧正 [seng1 zheng4 ] /The Director or Pope of monks; an office under Wudi, A.D. 502‐550, of the Liang dynasty, for the control of the monks. Wendi, 560-7, of the Ch'en dynasty appointed a 大僧統 or Director over the monks in his capital./

大元帥明王 大元帅明王 [da4 yuan2 shuai4 ming2 wang2 ] /The great commander, one of the sixteen 明王 q.v., named Atavika 阿吒薄迦 (or 倶 or 皆). There are four sutras, chiefly spells connected with his cult./

大光明王 大光明王 [da4 guang1 ming2 wang2 ] /The Great-Light Ming-wang, Śākyamuni in a previous existence, when king of Jambudvīpa, at Benares. There his white elephant, stirred by the sight of a female elephant, ran away with him into the forest, where he rebuked his mahout, who replied, "I can only control the body not the mind, only a Buddha can control the mind." Thereupon the royal rider made his resolve to attain bodhi and become a Buddha. Later, he gave to all that asked, finally even his own head to a Brahman who demanded it, at the instigation of an enemy king./

大光音天 大光音天 [da4 guang1 yin1 tian1 ] /ābhāsvara. The third of the celestial regions in the second dhyāna heaven of the form realm; v. 四禪天./

大光普照 大光普照 [da4 guang1 pu3 zhao4 ] /The great light shining everywhere, especially the ray of light that streamed from between the Buddha's eyebrows, referred to in the Lotus Sutra./

大光普照觀音 大光普照观音 [da4 guang1 pu3 zhao4 guan1 yin1 ] /One of the six forms of Guanyin./

大准提 大准提 [da4 zhun3 ti2 ] /Mahā-cundī, a form of Guanyin. There are dhāraṇīs beginning with the name Cundī./

大刧 大劫 [da4 jie2 ] /mahākalpa. The great kalpa, from the beginning of a universe till it is destroyed and another begins in its place. It has four kalpas or periods known as vivarta 成刧 the creation period; vivarta‐siddha 住刧 the appearance of sun and moon, i.e. light, and the period of life, human and general; saṃvarta 壤刧 or 滅刧 destruction first by fire, then water, then fire, then deluge, then a great wind, i.e. water during seven small kalpas, fire during 56 and wind one, in all 64; saṃvartatthāhi 増滅刧 total destruction gradually reaching the void. A great kalpa is calculated as eighty small kalpas and to last 1,347,000,000 years./

大刧賓寧 大劫宾宁 [da4 jie2 bin1 ning2 ] /Kapphiṇa or Mahakapphiṇa v. 劫賓那./

大力王 大力王 [da4 li4 wang2 ] /King Powerful, noted for his unstinted generosity. Indra to test him appeared as a Brahman and asked for his flesh; the king ungrudgingly cut of and gave him his arm. Indra was then Devadatta, King Powerful was Śākyamuni; v. 菩薩藏經 (下)./

大力金剛 大力金刚 [da4 li4 jin1 gang1 ] /The mighty "diamond" or Vajra-mahārāja in the Garbhadhātu group, a fierce guardian and servant of Buddhism, see below./

大勇 大勇 [da4 yong3 ] /Āryaśūra. Also 聖勇 The great brave, or ārya the brave. An Indian Buddhist author of several works./

大勇猛菩薩 大勇猛菩萨 [da4 yong3 meng3 pu2 sa4 ] /A guardian ruler in the Garbhadhātu group called Mahānīla, the Great Blue Pearl, or perhaps sapphire, which in some way is associated with him./

大勝金剛 大胜金刚 [da4 sheng4 jin1 gang1 ] /Another name for 金輪佛頂, one of the incarnations of Vairocana represented with twelve arms, each hand holding one of his symbols. Also 大轉輪王; 金剛手 ./

大勢 大势 [da4 shi4 ] /See 大勢至菩薩./

勢至 势至 [shi4 zhi4 ] /See 大勢至菩薩./

大勢至菩薩 大势至菩萨 [da4 shi4 zhi4 pu2 sa4 ] /Mahāsthāma or Mahāsthāmaprāpta 摩訶那鉢. A Bodhisattva representing the Buddha-wisdom of Amitābha; he is on Amitābha's right, with Avalokiteśvara on the left. They are called the three holy ones of the western region. He has been doubtfully identified with Maudgalyāyana. Also 勢至./

大勢佛 大势佛 [da4 shi4 fu2 ] /The Buddha of mighty power (to heal and save), a Buddha's title./

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大勤勇 大勤勇 [da4 qin2 yong3 ] /Greatly zealous and bold― a title of Vairocana./

大化 大化 [da4 hua4 ] /The transforming teaching and work of a Buddha in one lifetime./

大千 大千 [da4 qian1 ] /(世界) A major chiliocosm, or universe, of 3,000 great chiliocosms, v. 三千大千./

大千世界 大千世界 [da4 qian1 shi4 jie4 ] /A major chiliocosm, or universe, of 3,000 great chiliocosms, v. 三千大千./

大召 大召 [da4 zhao4 ] /A temple and its great bell in Lhasa Tibet, styled 老木郞, built when the T'ang princess became the wife of the Tibetan king Ts'ah-po and converted Tibet to Buddhism./

大吉祥天 大吉祥天 [da4 ji2 xiang2 tian1 ] /The good-fortune devīs, and also devas, also called 功德天, concerning whom there are several sutras./

大吉祥金剛 大吉祥金刚 [da4 ji2 xiang2 jin1 gang1 ] /idem 金剛手./

大吉祥明菩薩 大吉祥明菩萨 [da4 ji2 xiang2 ming2 pu2 sa4 ] /The sixth bodhisattva in the second row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group./

大吉大明菩薩 大吉大明菩萨 [da4 ji2 da4 ming2 pu2 sa4 ] /The fifth bodhisattva in the second row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group../

大吉變菩薩 大吉变菩萨 [da4 ji2 bian4 pu2 sa4 ] /The sixth bodhisattva in the third row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group./

大叫喚地獄 大叫唤地狱 [da4 jiao4 huan4 di4 yu4 ] /mahāraurava. The hell of great wailing, the fifth of the eight hot hells. Also 大呌 ; 大號呌 ; 大呼./

大和尚 大和尚 [da4 he2 shang4 ] /Great monk, senior monk, abbot ; a monk of great virtue and old age. Buddhoṣingha, (Fotu cheng 佛圖澄), who came to China A.D. 310, was so styled by his Chinese disciple 石子龍 Shizi long./

大和竭羅 大和竭罗 [da4 he2 jie2 luo1 ] /Dīpaṃkara. The Buddha of burning light, the twenty-fourth predecessor of Śākyamuni, a disciple of Varaprabha ; v. 燃 and 提. In the Lotus Sutra he appears from his nirvana on the Vulture Peak with Śākyamuni, manifesting that the nirvana state is one of continued existence./

大命 大命 [da4 ming4 ] /The great order, command, destiny, or fate, i.e. life-and-death, mortality, reincarnation./

大周刋定衆經目錄 大周刋定众经目录 [da4 zhou1 qian4 ding4 zhong4 jing1 mu4 lu4 ] /The catalogue in 14 juan of the Buddhist scripture made under the Empress Wu of the Tang dynasty, the name of which she changed to Zhou./

大品 大品 [da4 pin3 ] /The larger, or fuller edition of a canonical work, work, especially of the next. | | 般若經 ; 摩訶般若波羅蜜經 The Mahaprajnaparamita sutra as tr. by Kumarajiva in 27 chuan, in contrast with the 10 chuan edition./

大品經 大品经 [da4 pin3 jing1 ] /The larger, or fuller edition of a canonical work, work, especially of the 大品般若經./

大品般若經 大品般若经 [da4 pin3 ban1 ruo4 jing1 ] /摩訶般若波羅蜜經 The Mahāprajñāpāramitā-sūtra as tr. by Kumārajīva in 27 chuan, in contrast with the 10 chuan edition./

大哉解脱服 大哉解脱服 [da4 zai1 jie3 tuo1 fu2 ] /Great! the robe of deliverance―verses in praise of the cassock, from the 善見論, sung on initiation into the order./

大唐内典錄 大唐内典录 [da4 tang2 nei4 dian3 lu4 ] /A catalogue of the Buddhist library in the Tang dynasty A.D. 664./

大唐西域記 大唐西域记 [da4 tang2 xi1 yu4 ji4 ] /The Record of Western Countries by Xuanzang of the Tang dynasty ; v. 西域記./

大善利 大善利 [da4 shan4 li4 ] /The great benefit that results from goodness, also expressed as 大善大利 implying the better one is the greater the resulting benefit./

大善地法 大善地法 [da4 shan4 di4 fa3 ] /The ten mental conditions for cultivation of goodness, being a part of the forty-six methods mentioned in the 倶舍論 4 ; faith, zeal, renunciation, shame (for one's own sin), shame (for another's sin), no desire, no dislike, no harm, calmness, self-control. v. 大地法./

大善知識 大善知识 [da4 shan4 zhi1 shi2 ] /Well acquainted with the good ; great friends./

大嚫 大嚫 [da4 chen4 ] /dakṣiṇā, v. 達嚫./

大因陀羅座 大因陀罗座 [da4 yin1 tuo2 luo1 zuo4 ] /The throne of Indra, whose throne is four-square to the universe ; also 金剛輪座./

大因陀羅壇 大因陀罗坛 [da4 yin1 tuo2 luo1 tan2 ] /Indra-altar of square shape. He is worshipped as the mind-king of the universe, all things depending on him./

大圓覺 大圆觉 [da4 yuan2 jue2 ] /Great and perfect enlightenment, Buddha-wisdom./

大圓鏡智 大圆镜智 [da4 yuan2 jing4 zhi4 ] /Great perfect mirror wisdom, i.e. perfect all-reflecting Buddha-wisdom./

大圓鏡智觀 大圆镜智观 [da4 yuan2 jing4 zhi4 guan1 ] /A meditation on the reflection of the perfect Buddha-wisdom in every being, that as an image may enter into any number of reflectors, so the Buddha can enter into me and I into him 入我我入./

大地 大地 [da4 de ] /Great earth, the whole earth, everywhere, all the land, etc./

大地法 大地法 [da4 di4 fa3 ] /Ten bodhisattva bhūmi, or stages above that of 見道 in the 倶舍論 4, and the mental conditions connected with them. 大地 is also defined as good and evil, the association of mind with them being by the ten methods of 受, 想, 思, 觸, 欲, 慧, 念, 作意, 勝解, 三摩地./

大域龍 大域龙 [da4 yu4 long2 ] /Dignāga, or Mahā-Dignāga, also known as 陳那 Jina, founder of the medieval school of Buddhist logic about the fifth century A.D. His works are known only in Tibetan translations. [Winternitz.]/

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大壇 大坛 [da4 tan2 ] /A great altar, the chief altar./

大士 大士 [da4 shi4 ] /Mahasattva. 開士 A great being, noble, a leader of men, a bodhisattva; also a śrāvaka, a Buddha; especially one who 自利利他 benefits himself to help others./

大士籤 大士签 [da4 shi4 qian1 ] /Bamboo slips used before Kuan-yin when the latter is consulted as an oracle. '/

大夜 大夜 [da4 ye4 ] /The great night, i.e. that before the funeral pyre of a monk is lighted; also 迨夜; 宿夜./

大夢 大梦 [da4 meng4 ] /The great dream, "the dream of life," this life, the world./

大天 大天 [da4 tian1 ] /Mahādeva. 摩訶提婆. (1) A former incarnation of Śākyamuni as a Cakravartī. (2) A title of Maheśvara. (3) An able supporter of the Mahāsāṃghikaḥ, whose date is given as about a hundred years after the Buddha's death, but he is also described as a favorite of Aśoka, with whom he is associated as persecutor of the Sthavirāḥ, the head of which escaped into Kashmir. If from the latter school sprang the Mahāyāna, it may account for the detestation in which Mahādeva is held by the Mahāyānists. An account of his wickedness and heresies is given in 西域記 3 and in 婆沙論 99./

大秦寺 大秦寺 [da4 qin2 si4 ] /(1) A monastery of the Manichaean sect, erected in Changan during the Tang dynasty by order of the emperor Taizong C.E. 627-650; also 波斯寺 (2) A Nestorian monastery mentioned in the Christian monument at Sianfu./

大姊 大姊 [da4 zi3 ] /Elder sister, a courtesy title for a lay female devotee, or a nun./

大威德 大威德 [da4 wei1 de2 ] /Mahātejas. Of awe-inspiring power, or virtue, able to suppress evildoers and protect the good. A king of garuḍas, v. 迦. Title of a 明王 protector of Buddhism styled 大威德者; 大威德尊; 大威德明王; 百光扁照王; there are symbols, spells, esoteric words, sutras, etc., connected with this title./

大婆羅門 大婆罗门 [da4 po2 luo2 men2 ] /The great brāhmaṇa, applied to the Buddha, who though not of Brahman caste was the embodiment of Brahman virtues./

大婆羅門經 大婆罗门经 [da4 po2 luo2 men2 jing1 ] /A sutra dealing with 大婆羅門./

大堅固婆羅門 大坚固婆罗门 [da4 po2 luo2 men2 ] /The great reliable Brāhmaṇa, i.e., Śākyamuni in a previous life when minister of a country; there is sutra of this name./

大孔雀王 大孔雀王 [da4 kong3 que4 wang2 ] /The mayūra, or "peacock" 明王 ,v. 孔雀王There are seven sets of spells connected with him./

大安達羅 大安达罗 [da4 an1 da2 luo1 ] /Mahendra, or Mahendrī, or Rāja mahendrī. A city near the mouth of the Godavery, the present Rājamundry./

大安慰 大安慰 [da4 an1 wei4 ] /The great comforter, or pacifier―a Buddha's title./

大定智悲 大定智悲 [da4 ding4 zhi4 bei1 ] /Great insight, great wisdom, great pity, the three virtues 三德for Buddha by which he achieves enlightenment and wisdom and saves all beings./

大寂定 大寂定 [da4 ji4 ding4 ] /The samādhi which the Tathāgata enters, of perfect tranquility and concentration with total absence of any perturbing element; also parinirvāṇa. Also 大寂三昧; 大寂靜摩地./

大寂王 大寂王 [da4 ji4 wang2 ] /The great tranquil or nirvana dharma‐king, i.e. Vairocana./

大寂滅 大寂灭 [da4 ji4 mie4 ] /Parinirvāṇa; the great nirvana./

大寒林 大寒林 [da4 han2 lin2 ] /The grove of great cold, sitavana, i.e., burial stūpas, the graveyard./

大寶 大宝 [da4 bao3 ] /Great Jewel, most precious thing, i.e. the Dharma or Buddha-law; the bodhisattva; the fire-altar of the esoteric cult./

大寶坊 大宝坊 [da4 bao3 fang1 ] /The "great precious region" described in the 大集 sutra as situated between the world of desire and the world of form./

大寶摩尼 大宝摩尼 [da4 bao3 mo2 ni2 ] /The great precious maṇi, or pure pearl, the Buddha-truth./

大寶法王 大宝法王 [da4 bao3 fa3 wang2 ] /Mahāratna-dharma-rāja. Title of the reformer of the Tibetan church, founder of the Yellow sect, b. A.D. 1417 ,worshipped as an incarnation of Amitābha, now incarnate in every Bogdo gegen Hutuktu reigning in Mongolia. He received this title in A. D. 1426. See 宗客巴 Tsong-kha-Pa./

大寶海 大宝海 [da4 bao3 hai3 ] /The "great precious ocean," (of the merit of Amitabha)./

大寶積經 大宝积经 [da4 bao3 ji1 jing1 ] /Mahāratnakūṭa-sūtra. Collection of forty-nine sutras, of which thirty-six were translated by Bodhiruci and collated by him with various previous translations./

大寶華 大宝华 [da4 bao3 hua2 ] /The great precious flower, a lotus made of pearls./

大寶華王 大宝华王 [da4 bao3 hua2 wang2 ] /King of jewel-lotuses, i.e., the finest of the gem-flowers 大寶華./

大寶華王座 大宝华王座 [da4 bao3 hua2 wang2 zuo4 ] /A throne for the 大寶華王./

大寶藏 大宝藏 [da4 bao3 cang2 ] /The great precious treasury, containing the gems of the Buddha-truth./

大寺 大寺 [da4 si4 ] /Mahāvihāra. The Great Monastery, especially that in Ceylon visited by Faxian about A.D. 400 when it had 3,000 inmates; v. 毘訶羅./

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大導師 大导师 [da4 dao3 shi1 ] /The great guide, i.e. Buddha, or a Bodhisattva./

大小二乘 大小二乘 [da4 xiao3 er4 cheng2 ] /The two vehicles, Mahāyāna and Hinayana; v. 大乘 and 小乘./

大師 大师 [da4 shi1 ] /Great teacher, or leader, one of the ten titles of a Buddha./

大幻師 大幻师 [da4 huan4 shi1 ] /Great magician, a title given to a Buddha./

大度師 大度师 [da4 du4 shi1 ] /Great leader across mortality to nirvana, i.e. Buddha, or Bodhisattva./

大廣智三藏 大广智三藏 [da4 guang3 zhi4 san1 cang2 ] /He of great, wide wisdom in the Tripiṭaka, a title of Amogha 阿目佉./

大德 大德 [da4 de2 ] /bhadanta. 婆檀陀 Most virtuous, a title of honor of a Buddha; in the Vinaya applied to monks./

大心力 大心力 [da4 xin1 li4 ] /The great mind and power, or wisdom and activity of Buddha./

大心海 大心海 [da4 xin1 hai3 ] /Great mind ocean, i.e. omniscience./

大念 大念 [da4 nian4 ] /(大念佛) Invoking Buddha with a loud voice; meditating on Buddha with continuous concentration./

大念佛 大念佛 [da4 nian4 fu2 ] /Invoking Buddha with a loud voice; meditating on Buddha with continuous concentration./

大志焚身 大志焚身 [da4 zhi4 fen2 shen1 ] /The monk Ta-chin who sacrificed himself on the pyre, and thus caused Yang Ti of the Sui dynasty to withdraw his order for dispersing the monks./

大忍法界 大忍法界 [da4 ren3 fa3 jie4 ] /The great realm for learning patience, i.e. the present world./

大恩教主 大恩教主 [da4 en1 jiao4 zhu3 ] /The Lord of great grace and teacher of men, Buddha./

大惡象 大恶象 [da4 e4 xiang4 ] /The great wild elephant, i.e. the untamed heart./

大悲 大悲 [da4 bei1 ] /mahākaruṇā, "great pity"; i.e. greatly pitiful, a heart that seeks to save the suffering; applied to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas; especially to Guanyin./

大悲三昧 大悲三昧 [da4 bei1 san1 mei4 ] /The samādhi of great pity, in which Buddhas and bodhisattvas develop their great pity./

大悲代受苦 大悲代受苦 [da4 bei1 dai4 shou4 ku3 ] /Vicarious suffering (in purgatory) for all beings, the work of bodhisattvas. The same idea in regard to Guanyin is conveyed in大悲千手獄./

大悲咒 大悲咒 [da4 bei1 zhou4 ] /Another name of the 千手經 or 千手陀羅尼 containing a spell against lust./

大悲壇 大悲坛 [da4 bei1 tan2 ] /The altar of pity, a term for the garbhadhātu maṇḍala , or for the Sakyamumi group./

大悲弓 大悲弓 [da4 bei1 gong1 ] /The bow of great pity. Pity, a bow in the left hand; wisdom 智, an arrow in the right hand./

大悲四八之應 大悲四八之应 [da4 bei1 si4 ba1 zhi1 ying1 ] /The thirty-two or thirty-three manifestations of the All-pitiful Guanyin responding to every need./

大悲普現 大悲普现 [da4 bei1 pu3 xian4 ] /Great pity universally manifested, i.e. Guanyin, who in thirty-three manifestations meets every need./

大悲生心三昧耶 大悲生心三昧耶 [da4 bei1 sheng1 xin1 san1 mei4 ye2 ] /The samadhi of Maitreya./

大悲經 大悲经 [da4 bei1 jing1 ] /Mahākaruṇā-puṇḍarīka-sūtra, tr. by Narendrayaśas and Dharmaprajñā A.D. 552, five books./

大悲者 大悲者 [da4 bei1 zhe3 ] /The great pitiful one, Kuan-yin./

大悲胎藏 大悲胎藏 [da4 bei1 tai1 cang2 ] /The womb―store of great pity, the fundamental heart of bodhi in all: this womb is likened to a heart opening as an eight-leaved lotus, in the center being Vairocana, the source of pity./

大悲胎藏曼荼羅 大悲胎藏曼荼罗 [da4 bei1 tai1 cang2 man4 tu2 luo1 ] /The maṇḍala of the 大悲胎藏./

大悲胎藏三昧 大悲胎藏三昧 [da4 bei1 tai1 cang2 san1 mei4 ] /The samādhi in which Vairocana evolves the group, and it is described as the "mother of all Buddha-sons"./

大悲菩薩 大悲菩萨 [da4 bei1 pu2 sa4 ] /Guanyin, the Bodhisattva of great pity./

大悲觀世 大悲观世 [da4 bei1 guan1 shi4 ] /Guanyin, the greatly pitiful regarder of (earth's) cries./

大悲鎧冑門 大悲铠胄门 [da4 bei1 kai3 zhou4 men2 ] /A degree of samādhi in which Vairocana produced the Bodhisattva Vajrapāla 金剛護菩薩 who protects men like a helmet and surrounds them like mail by his great pity./

大悲闡提 大悲阐提 [da4 bei1 chan3 ti2 ] /The greatly pitiful icchantikah, who cannot become a Buddha till his saving work is done, i.e. Guanyin, Dizang./

大慈 大慈 [da4 ci2 ] /Great mercy,or compassion./

大慈大悲 大慈大悲 [da4 ci2 da4 bei1 ] /Great mercy and great pity, characteristics of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, i.e. kindness in giving joy and compassion in saving from suffering. It is especially applied to Guanyin./

大慈尊 大慈尊 [da4 ci2 zun1 ] /The honored one of great kindness, Maitreya./

大慈恩寺 大慈恩寺 [da4 ci2 en1 si4 ] /The monastery of "Great Kindness and Grace", built in Changan by the crown prince of Taizong C.E. 648, where Xuanzang lived and worked and to which in 652 he added its pagoda, said to be 200 feet high, for storing the scriptures and relics he had brought from India./

大慈恩三藏 大慈恩三藏 [da4 ci2 en1 san1 cang2 ] /"Tripitaka of the Ta Cien T'zu En Si" is one of Xuanzang's 玄奘 titles./

慈生菩薩 慈生菩萨 [ci2 sheng1 pu2 sa4 ] /The director or fosterer of pity among all the living, i.e. the fifth in the 除蓋障 court of the Garbhadhātu group. Also 大慈起; 慈發生; 慈愍慧; 慈念金剛. His Sanskrit name is translit. 昧憺利也毘廋拏糵多./

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大意 大意 [da4 yi4 ] /The general meaning or summary of a sutra or śāstra. Also, the name of a youth, a former incarnation of the Buddha : to save his nation from their poverty, he plunged into the sea to obtain a valuable pearl from the sea-god who, alarmed by the aid rendered by Indra, gave up the pearl ; v. 大意經./

大意經 大意经 [da4 yi4 jing1 ] /tr. by Gunabhadra of the Liu Sung dynasty, 1 chuan. /

大愛道 大爱道 [da4 ai4 dao4 ] /Mahā prajāpatī, 摩訶波闍波提 Gautama's aunt and foster-mother, also styled Gotami or Gautami, the first woman received into the order. There are sutras known by her name. 大愛 is also a name for the sea-god./

大應供 大应供 [da4 ying1 gong1 ] /The great worshipful―one of the ten titles of a Buddha./

大會 大会 [da4 hui4 ] /A general assembly./

大會衆 大会众 [da4 hui4 zhong4 ] /The general assembly (of the saints)./

大愚 大愚 [da4 yu2 ] /The "greatly ignorant", name of a monastery and title of its patriarch, of the Ch'an (Zen) or intuitive school./

大慧 大慧 [da4 hui4 ] /Mahāmati 摩訶摩底 (1) Great wisdom, the leading bodhisattva of the Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra. (2) Name of a Hangchow master of the Chan school, Zonggao 宗杲 of the Song dynasty, whose works are the 大慧書. (3) Posthumous title of 一行Yixing, a master of the Chan school in the Tang dynasty./

大慧刀印 大慧刀印 [da4 hui4 dao1 yin4 ] /The sign of the great wisdom sword, the same esoteric sign as the 寳甁印 and 塔印 There are two books, the abbreviated titles of which are 大慧語錄 and its supplement the 大慧武庫./

大成 大成 [da4 cheng2 ] /Mahāsaṃmbhava. Great completion. The imaginary realm in which (in turn) appeared 20,000 koṭīs of Buddhas all of the same title, Bhīṣmagarjita-ghoṣasvararāja./

大戒 大戒 [da4 jie4 ] /The complete commandments of Hīnayāna and Mahayana, especially of the latter./

大我 大我 [da4 wo3 ] /The greater self, or the true personality 眞我. Hīnayāna is accused of only knowing and denying the common idea of a self, or soul, whereas there is a greater self, which is a nirvana self. It especially refers to the Great Ego, the Buddha, but also to any Buddha ;v.大目經1, etc., and 涅槃經 23./

大拘絺那 大拘絺那 [da4 ju1 chi1 na4 ] /Mahākauṣṭhila, 摩訶倶絺羅, 摩訶倶祉羅 an eminent disciple of Śākyamuni, maternal uncle of Śāriputra, reputed author of the Saṃgītiparyāya-śāstra./

大拏 大拿 [da4 na2 ] /sudana, 須達拏, 須大拏, 蘇達拏 ; i.e. Sakyamuni as a prince in a former life, when he forfeited the throne by his generosity./

大攝受 大摄受 [da4 she4 shou4 ] /The great all-embracing receiver―a title of a Buddha, especially Amitābha./

大教 大教 [da4 jiao4 ] /The great teaching. (1) That of the Buddha. (2) Tantrayāna. The mahātantra, yoga, yogacarya, or tantra school which claims Samantabhadra as its founder. It aims at ecstatic union of the individual soul with the world soul, Iśvara. From this result the eight great powers of Siddhi (aṣṭa-mahāsiddhi), namely, ability to (1) make one's body lighter (laghiman); (2) heavier (gaiman); (3) smaller (aṇiman); (4) larger (mahiman) than anything in the world ; (5) reach any place (prāpti) ; (6) assume any shape (prākāmya) ; (7) control all natural laws (īśitva) ; (8) make everything depend upon oneself; all at will (v.如意身 and 神足). By means of mystic formulas (Tantras or dhāraṇīs), or spells (mantras), accompanied by music and manipulation of the hands (mūdra), a state of mental fixity characterized neither by thought nor the annihilation of thought, can be reached. This consists of six-fold bodily and mental happiness (yoga), and from this results power to work miracles. Asaṅga compiled his mystic doctrines circa A.D. 500. The system was introduced into China A.D. 647 by Xuanzang's translation of the Yogācārya-bhūmi-śāstra 瑜伽師地論 ; v. 瑜. On the basis of this, Amoghavajra established the Chinese branch of the school A.D. 720 ; v. 阿目. This was popularized by the labours of Vajrabodhi A.D. 732 ; v. 金剛智./

大教經 大教经 [da4 jiao4 jing1 ] /idem 大金剛頂經./

大教網 大教网 [da4 jiao4 wang3 ] /The net of the great teaching, which saves men from the sea of mortal life./

大方便 大方便 [da4 fang1 bian4 ] /mahopāya; the great appropriate means, or expedient method of teaching by buddhas and bodhisattvas ; v. 方便 ./

大方廣 大方广 [da4 fang1 guang3 ] /mahāvaipulya ; cf. 大方等 The great Vaipulyas, or sutras of Mahāyāna. 方廣 and 方等 are similar in meaning. Vaipulya is extension, spaciousness, widespread, and this is the idea expressed both in 廣 broad, widespread, as opposed to narrow, restricted, and in 等 levelled up, equal everywhere, universal. These terms suggest the broadening of the basis of Buddhism, as is found in Mahāyāna. The Vaipulya works are styled sutras, for the broad doctrine of universalism, very different from the traditional account of his discourses, is put into the mouth of the Buddha in wider, or universal aspect. These sutras are those of universalism, of which the Lotus 法華 is an outstanding example. The form Vaitulya instead of Vaipulya is found in some Kashgar MSS. of the Lotus, suggesting that in the Vetulla sect lies the origin of the Vaipulyas, and with them of Mahāyāna, but the evidence is inadequate./

大方廣佛 大方广佛 [da4 fang1 guang3 fu2 ] /The 本尊 fundamental honoured one of the 華嚴經, described as the Buddha who has realized the universal law./

大方廣佛華嚴經 大方广佛华严经 [da4 fang1 guang3 fu2 hua2 yan2 jing1 ] /Buddhāvataṃsaka-mahāvaipulya-sūtra ; the Avataṃsaka, Hua-yen, or Kegon sutra ; tr. by Buddhabhadra and others A.D. 418-420. The various translations are in 60, 80, and 40 chuan, v. 華嚴經./

大方廣如來祕密藏經 大方广如来秘密藏经 [da4 fang1 guang3 ru2 lai2 mi4 mi4 cang2 jing1 ] /Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra, tr. A.D.350-431, idem 大方等如來藏經, tr. by Buddhabhadra A.D. 417-420, 1 chuan./

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大方等 大方等 [da4 fang1 deng3 ] /Mahāvaipulya or vaipulya 大方廣; 毗佛畧. They are called 無量義經 sutras of infinite meaning, or of the infinite; first introduced into China by Dharmarakṣa (A.D.266―317). The name is common to Hīnayāna and Mahayana, but chiefly claimed by the latter for its special sutras as extending and universalizing the Buddha's earlier preliminary teaching. v. 大方廣 and 方等./

大方等大集經 大方等大集经 [da4 fang1 deng3 da4 ji2 jing1 ] /Mahāvaipulya-mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, tr. A.D. 397―439, said to have been preached by the Buddha "from the age of 45 to 49 ...to Buddhas and bodhisattvas assembled from every region, by a great staircase made between the world of desire and that of form". B.N. Another version was made by Jñānagupta and others in A.D. 594 called 大方等大集賢護經./

大方等頂王説經 大方等顶王说经 [da4 fang1 deng3 ding3 wang2 shuo1 jing1 ] /Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra, tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D.265―316./

大族王 大族王 [da4 zu2 wang2 ] /Mihirakula 摩醯羅矩羅, an ancient Huna king in the Punjab circa A.D. 520 who persecuted Buddhism; v. 西域記 4./

大施太子 大施太子 [da4 shi1 tai4 zi ] /(or 善薩). The great princely almsgiver, i.e. Śākyamuni in a previous life; also 能施太子 (or 太子)./

大施會 大施会 [da4 shi1 hui4 ] /無遮大會 mokṣa-mahā-pariṣad; a great gathering for almsgiving to all, rich and poor, nominally quinquennial./

大日 大日 [da4 ri4 ] /Vairocana, or Mahāvairocana 大日如來; 遍照如來; 摩訶毘盧遮那; 毘盧遮那; 大日覺王 The sun, "shining everywhere" The chief object of worship of the Shingon sect in Japan, "represented by the gigantic image in the temple at Nara." (Eliot.) There he is known as Dai-nichi-nyorai. He is counted as the first, and according to some, the origin of the five celestial Buddhas (dhyāni-buddhas, or jinas). He dwells quiescent in Arūpa-dhātu, the Heaven beyond form, and is the essence of wisdom (bodhi) and of absolute purity. Samantabhadra 普賢 is his dhyāni-bodhisattva. The 大日經 "teaches that Vairocana is the whole world, which is divided into Garbhadhātu (material) and Vajradhātu (indestructible), the two together forming Dharmadhātu. The manifestations of Vairocana's body to himself―that is, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas ―are represented symbolically by diagrams of several circles ". Eliot. In the 金剛界 or vajradhātu maṇḍala he is the center of the five groups. In the 胎藏界 or Garbhadhātu he is the center of the eight-leaf (lotus) court. His appearance, symbols, esoteric word, differ according to the two above distinctions. Generally he is considered as an embodiment of the Truth 法, both in the sense of dharmakāya 法身 and dharmaratna 法寳. Some hold Vairocana to be the dharmakāya of Śākyamuni 大日與釋迦同一佛 but the esoteric school denies this identity. Also known as 最高顯廣眼藏如來, the Tathagata who, in the highest, reveals the far-reaching treasure of his eye, i.e. the sun. 大日大聖不動明王 is described as one of his transformations. Also, a śramaņa of Kashmir (contemporary of Padma-saṃbhava); he is credited with introducing Buddhism into Khotan and being an incarnation of Mañjuśrī; the king Vijaya Saṃbhava built a monastery for him./

大日供 大日供 [da4 ri4 gong1 ] /A meeting for the worship of Vairocana./

大日宗 大日宗 [da4 ri4 zong1 ] /The cult of Vairocana especially associated with the 胎藏界 Garbhakośadhātu, or phenomenal world. The cult has its chief vogue in Japan./

大日經 大日经 [da4 ri4 jing1 ] /The Vairocana sutra, styled in full 毘盧遮那成佛神變加持經, tr. in the Tang dynasty by Śubhākarasiṃha 善無畏 in 7 chuan, of which the first six are the text and the seventh instructions for worship. It is one of the three sutras of the esoteric school. Its teaching pairs with that of the 金剛頂經. There are two versions of notes and comments on the text, the 大日經疏 20 chuan, and 大日經義疏 14 chuan; and other works, e.g. 大日經義釋; 大日經不思議疏; 大日經義軌 in four versions with different titles./

大日覺王 大日觉王 [da4 ri4 jue2 wang2 ] /Vairocana, the king of bodhi./

大明王 大明王 [da4 ming2 wang2 ] /The angels or messengers of Vairocana, v. 明王./

大明三藏聖敎目錄 大明三藏圣敎目录 [da4 ming2 san1 cang2 sheng4 jiao4 mu4 lu4 ] /The "Great Ming" dynasty catalogue of the Tripitaka, made during the reign of the emperor Yung Lo; it is the catalogue of the northern collection./

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大明白身菩薩 大明白身菩萨 [da4 ming2 bai2 shen1 pu2 sa4 ] /The great bright white-bodied bodhisattva, sixth in the first row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group./

大明續入藏諸集 大明续入藏诸集 [da4 ming2 xu4 ru4 cang2 zhu1 ji2 ] /Supplementary miscellaneous collection of Buddhist books, made under the Ming dynasty A.D. 1368-1644./

大智 大智 [da4 zhi4 ] /Mahāmati; cf. 大慧; Great Wisdom, Buddha-wisdom, omniscience; a title of Mañjuśrī, as the apotheosis of transcendental wisdom./

大智度論 大智度论 [da4 zhi4 du4 lun4 ] /A śāstra ascribed to Nāgārjuna on the greater Prajna-paramita sutra; the sastra was tr. by Kumārajīva, A.D. 397―415, in 100 chuan./

大智慧門 大智慧门 [da4 zhi4 hui4 men2 ] /The Buddha-door of great wisdom, as contrasted with that of his 大悲 great compassion./

大智灌頂地 大智灌顶地 [da4 zhi4 guan4 ding3 de ] /The stage of the Great Wisdom chrism, or anointing of a Buddha, as having attained to the Great Wisdom, or omniscience; it is the eleventh stage./

大智藏 大智藏 [da4 zhi4 cang2 ] /The Buddha-wisdom store./

大曼荼羅 大曼荼罗 [da4 man4 tu2 luo1 ] /(大曼) The great maṇḍala; one of four groups of Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the esoteric school. The esoteric word 阿 "a " is styled the great maṇḍala-king./

大本 大本 [da4 ben3 ] /The great, chief, or fundamental book or text. Tiantai takes the 無量壽經 as the major of the three Pure Land sutras, and the 阿彌陀經 as the 小本 minor./

大林寺 大林寺 [da4 lin2 si4 ] /Mānavana-saṃghārāma 摩訶伐那伽藍摩 "The monastery of the great forest", S. of Mongali./

大林精舍 大林精舍 [da4 lin2 jing1 she3 ] /The Veṇuvana monastery, called 竹林精舍 or 寺 , and 竹苑, Venuvana vihāra, in the Karanda veṇuvana, near Rājagṛha, a favourite resort of Sakyamuni./

大相 大相 [da4 xiang1 ] /mahārūpa; great form. The kalpa of Mahābhijñā-jñānabhibhu, who is to appear as Buddha in a realm called Saṃbhava./

大染法 大染法 [da4 ran3 fa3 ] /The great taint, or dharma of defilement, sex-attraction, associated with 愛染明王 Eros, the god of love./

大梵 大梵 [da4 fan4 ] /Mahābrāhmaṇas; the third Brahmaloka, the third region of the first dhyāna. Mahābrahman; the great Brahma, 大梵天; it is also a title of one of the six Guanyin of the Tiantai sect./

大梵天 大梵天 [da4 fan4 tian1 ] /Mahābrahman; Brahma; 跋羅吸摩; 波羅賀磨; 梵覽摩; 梵天王; 梵王; 梵. Eitel says: "The first person of the Brahminical Trimūrti, adopted by Buddhism, but placed in an inferior position, being looked upon not as Creator, but as a transitory devatā whom every Buddhistic saint surpasses on obtaining bodhi. Notwithstanding this, the Saddharma-puṇḍarīka calls Brahma 'the father of all living beings'" 一切衆生之父. Mahābrahman is the unborn or uncreated ruler over all, especially according to Buddhism over all the heavens of form, i.e. of mortality. He rules over these heavens, which are of threefold form: (a) Brahma (lord), (b) Brahma-purohitas (ministers), and (c) Brahma-pāriṣadyāh (people). His heavens are also known as the middle dhyāna heavens, i.e. between the first and second dhyānas. He is often represented on the right of the Buddha. According to Chinese accounts the Hindus speak of him (1) as born of Nārāyaṇa, from Brahma's mouth sprang the brahmans, from his arms the kṣatriyas, from his thighs the vaiśyas, and from his feet the śūdras; (2) as born from Viṣṇu; (3) as a trimūrti, evidently that of Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, but Buddhists define Mahābrahma's dharmakāya as Maheśvara (Śiva), his saṃbhogakāya as Nārāyaṇa, and his nirmāṇakāya as Brahmā. He is depicted as riding on a swan, or drawn by swans./

大梵如意天 大梵如意天 [da4 fan4 ru2 yi4 tian1 ] /idem 大梵天 The term is incorrectly said by Chinese interpreters to mean freedom from sexual desire. He is associated with Vairocana, and with fire. v. also 尸棄./

大梵天王 大梵天王 [da4 fan4 tian1 wang2 ] /Mahābrahma deva rāja, king of the eighteen Brahmalokas./

大樂説 大乐说 [da4 le4 shuo1 ] /Mahāpratibhāna. A bodhisattva in the Lotus Sutra, noted for pleasant discourse./

大樂不空 大乐不空 [da4 le4 bu4 kong1 ] /大樂金剛 (薩埵) "Unceasing great joy ", a Shingon name for the second of its eight patriarchs, Puxian, v. 金剛薩埵. There are works under this title./

大樓炭經 大楼炭经 [da4 lou2 tan4 jing1 ] /A sutra, also called 起世 by 法立 Fali and others; 樓炭 is a Sanskrit term meaning 成敗 creation and destruction./

大機 大机 [da4 ji1 ] /The great opportunity, or Mahāyāna method of becoming a bodhisattva./

大樹 大树 [da4 shu4 ] /Great trees, i.e. bodhisattvas, cf. 三草./

大樹仙人 大树仙人 [da4 shu4 ] /Mahāvṛkṣa ṛṣi, the ascetic Vāyu, who meditated so long that a big tree grew out of his shoulders. Seeing a hundred beautiful princesses he desired them; being spurned, he was filled with hatred, and with a spell turned them into hunchbacks; hence Kanyākubja, v. 羯 or 罽 the city of hump-backed maidens; its king was ? Brahmadatta. v. 西域記 5./

大樹緊那羅 大树紧那罗 [da4 shu4 jin3 na4 luo1 ] /The King of the mahādruma Kinnaras, Indra's musicians, who lives on Gandha-mādana. His sutra is 大樹緊那羅王所門經, 4 chuan, tr. by Kumārajīva./

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大權 大权 [da4 quan2 ] /The great potentiality; or the great power of Buddhas and bodhisattvas to transform themselves into others, by which e.g. Māyā becomes the mother of 1,000 Buddhas, Rāhula the son of 1,000 Buddhas, and all beings are within the potency of the dharmakāya./

大權善經 大权善经 [da4 quan2 shan4 jing1 ] /An abbreviation of 慧上菩薩問大權善經./

大權修利菩薩 大权修利菩萨 [da4 quan2 xiu1 li4 pu2 sa4 ] /A bodhisattva―protector of monasteries, depicted as shading his eyes with his hand and looking afar, said to have been a Warden of the Coast under the emperor Aśoka./

大死底人 大死底人 [da4 si3 di3 ren2 ] /One who has swept away completely all illusions, or all consciousness; also 大休歇底./

大比丘 大比丘 [da4 bi3 qiu1 ] /Great bhikṣu, i.e. one of virtue and old age; similar to 大和尚./

大毘盧遮那 大毗卢遮那 [da4 pi2 lu2 zhe1 na4 ] /Mahāvairocana, v. 大日./

大水火 大水火 [da4 shui3 huo3 ] /(大水災) mahāpralaya; the final and utter destruction of a universe by (wind), flood, and fire./

大紅蓮 大红莲 [da4 hong2 lian2 ] /Great red lotuses―name of a cold hell where the skin is covered with chaps like lotuses./

大沙門 大沙门 [da4 sha1 men2 ] /mahāśramaņa. The great shaman, i.e. Buddha; also any bhikṣu in full orders./

大沙門統 大沙门统 [da4 sha1 men2 tong3 ] /A director of the order appointed by Wendi of the Sui dynasty, A.D. 581-618./

大法 大法 [da4 fa3 ] /The great Dharma, or Law (of Mahāyāna salvation)./

大法慢 大法慢 [da4 fa3 man4 ] /Intellectual pride, arrogance through possession of the Truth./

大法王 大法王 [da4 fa3 wang2 ] /Sudharmarāja, King of the Sudharma Kinnaras, the horse-headed human-bodied musicians of Kuvera./

大法螺 大法螺 [da4 fa3 luo2 ] /The Great Law conch, or Mahāyāna bugle./

大法鼓 大法鼓 [da4 fa3 gu3 ] /The Great Law drum; v. 大法鼓經 Mahābherīhāraka-parivarta; tr. by Gunabhadra A.D. 420‐479./

大法雨 大法雨 [da4 fa3 yu3 ] /The raining, i.e. preaching, of the Mahāyāna./

大波羅密 大波罗密 [da4 bo1 luo1 mi4 ] /The great pāramitās, or perfections, of bodhisattvas, i.e. the ten pāramitās above the 八地./

大洲 大洲 [da4 zhou1 ] /A great continent; one of the four great continents of a world; v. 四洲./

大海 大海 [da4 hai3 ] /mahāsamudra-sāgara 摩訶三母捺羅婆誐羅 The Ocean./

大海八不思議 大海八不思议 [da4 hai3 ba1 bu4 si1 yi4 ] /The eight marvellous characteristics of the ocean―its gradually increasing depth, its unfathomableness, its universal saltness, its punctual tides, its stores of precious things, its enormous creatures, its objection to corpses, its unvarying level despite all that pours into it./

大海十相 大海十相 [da4 hai3 shi2 xiang1 ] /The ten aspects of the ocean, the Huayan sutra adds two more to the eight 大海八不思議, i.e. all other waters lose their names in it; its vastness of expanse./

大海印 大海印 [da4 hai3 yin4 ] /The ocean symbol, i.e. as the face of the sea reflects all forms, so the samādhi of a bodhisattva reflects to him all truths; it is also termed 海印三昧./

大海衆 大海众 [da4 hai3 zhong4 ] /The great ocean congregation; as all waters flowing into the sea become salty, so all ranks flowing into the sangha become of one flavour and lose old differentiations./

大滅諦金剛智 大灭谛金刚智 [da4 mie4 di4 jin1 gang1 zhi4 ] /The first two of the 三德 three Buddha-powers; they are (a) his principle of nirvana, i.e. the extinotion of suffering, and (b) his supreme or vajra wisdom./

大滿 大满 [da4 man3 ] /Great, full, or complete; tr. of mahā-pūrṇa, king of monster birds or garuḍas who are enemies of the nāgas or serpents; he is the vehicle of Viṣṇu in Brahmanism./

大滿願義 大满愿义 [da4 man3 yuan4 yi4 ] /One of the sixteen bodhisattvas of the southern quarter, born by the will of Vairocana./

大灌頂 大灌顶 [da4 guan4 ding3 ] /The greater baptism, used on special occasions by the Shingon sect, for washing way sin and evil and entering into virtue; v. 灌頂經./

大炎熱 大炎热 [da4 ] /Pratāpana or Mahātāpana; the hell of great heat, the seventh of the eight hot hells./

大無量壽經 大无量寿经 [da4 wu2 liang4 shou4 jing1 ] /idem 大經 q.v./

大煩惱地法 大烦恼地法 [da4 di4 fa3 ] /The six things or mental conditions producing passion and delusion: stupidity, excess, laziness, unbelief, confusion, discontent (or ambition); v. 倶舍論 4./

大燒炙獄 大烧炙狱 [da4 shao1 zhi4 yu4 ] /v. 大炎熱 Pratāpana./

大熾盛光 大炽盛光 [da4 chi4 sheng4 guang1 ] /The great blazing perfect light, a title of 金輪佛頂尊./

大牛車 大牛车 [da4 niu2 che1 ] /The great ox cart in the Lotus Sutra 法華經 parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahāyāna./

大牛音 大牛音 [da4 niu2 yin1 ] /krośa; the distance of the lowing of a great ox, the "eighth" (more correctly fourth.) part of a yojana; v. 拘盧./

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大王 大王 [da4 wang2 ] /mahārāja 摩賀羅惹. Applied to the four guardians of the universe, 四大天王./

大生主 大生主 [da4 sheng1 zhu3 ] /Mahāprajāpatī 摩訶波闍婆提, great "lady of the living", the older translation being 大愛道 the great way (or exemplar) of love; also 衆主 head of the community (of nuns), i.e. Gautami the aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni, the first nun. She is to be reborn as a Buddha named Sarvasattvapriyadarśanā./

大界 大界 [da4 jie4 ] /The area of a vihāra or monastic establishment./

大界外相 大界外相 [da4 jie4 wai4 xiang1 ] /Four characters often placed on the boundary stones of monasterial grounds./

大白傘蓋佛母 大白伞盖佛母 [da4 bai2 san3 gai4 fu2 mu3 ] /The "mother of Buddhas" with her great snow-white (radiant) umbrella, emblem of her protection of all beings; there are two dhāraṇī-sūtras that bear this name and give her description, the 佛頂傘蓋佛母 and 佛說傘蓋佛母總持陀羅尼經./

大白光神 大白光神 [da4 bai2 guang1 shen2 ] /鬱多羅迦神 ? Uttaraka. The deva of the Himālayas, one of the retinue of the 十二神./

大白牛車 大白牛车 [da4 bai2 niu2 che1 ] /The great white-bullock cart of the Lotus Sutra, the Mahāyāna, as contrasted with the deer-cart and goat-cart of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, i.e. of Hīnayāna./

大白華 大白华 [da4 bai2 hua2 ] /The great mandāra 曼陀羅 flower, also called 大白團華 ./

大白衣 大白衣 [da4 bai2 yi1 ] /Pāṇḍaravāsinī, the great white-robed one, a form of Guanyin all in white, with white lotus, throne, etc., also called 白衣 or 白處觀音./

大目乾連 大目干连 [da4 mu4 gan1 lian2 ] /Mahāmaudgalyāyana; v. 摩訶目犍連./

大相國寺 大相国寺 [da4 xiang1 guo2 si4 ] /The great aid-the-dynasty monastery at Kaifeng, Henan, founded in A.D. 555, first named 建國, changed circa 700 to the above; rebuilt 996, repaired by the Jin, the Yuan, and Ming emperors, swept away in a Yellow River flood, rebuilt under Shun Zhi, restored under Qian Long./

大相看 大相看 [da4 xiang1 kan4 ] /The reception by an abbot of all his monks on the first day of the tenth moon./

大神力 大神力 [da4 shen2 li4 ] /Supernatural or magical powers./

大神咒 大神咒 [da4 shen2 zhou4 ] /dhāraṇī spells or magical formulae connected with supernatural powers 大神力./

大神王 大神王 [da4 shen2 wang2 ] /The great deva king, Mahākāla, the great black one, (1) title of Maheśvara, i.e. Śiva; (2) a guardian of monasteries, with black face, in the dining hall; he is said to have been a disciple of Mahādeva, a former incarnation of Śākyamuni./

大祥忌 大祥忌 [da4 xiang2 ji4 ] /The great propitious anniversary, i.e. a sacrifice every third year./

大種 大种 [da4 zhong3 ] /The four great seeds, or elements (四大) which enter into all things, i.e. earth, water, fire, and wind, from which, as from seed, all things spring./

大空 大空 [da4 kong1 ] /The great void, or the Mahāyāna parinirvāṇa, as being more complete and final than the nirvāṇa of Hīnayāna. It is used in the Shingon sect for the great immaterial or spiritual wisdom, with its esoteric symbols; its weapons, such as the vajra; its samādhis; its sacred circles, or maṇḍalas, etc. It is used also for space, in which there is neither east, west, north, nor south./

大笑明王 大笑明王 [da4 xiao4 ming2 wang2 ] /? Vajrahāsa 跋折羅吒訶婆 The great laughing Mingwang, v. 明王./

大弟子 大弟子 [da4 di4 zi ] /sthavira, a chief disciple, the Fathers of the Buddhist church; an elder; an abbot; a priest licensed to preach and become an abbot; also 上坐./

大精進菩薩 大精进菩萨 [da4 jing1 jin4 pu2 sa4 ] /Śūra, a hero bodhisattva, one of the sixteen in the southern external part of the 金剛界 group./

大統 大统 [da4 tong3 ] /The head of the order, an office instituted by Wen Di of the Sui dynasty; cf. 大僧正./

大經 大经 [da4 jing1 ] /The great sūtra, i.e. the 2 juan 佛說無量壽經, so-called by the Pure-land sect and by Tiantai, the Amida sūtra being the小本 smaller sūtra; cf. 大本 and大日經 ./

大經卷 大经卷 [da4 jing1 juan3 ] /A term for the heart./

大綱 大纲 [da4 gang1 ] /The main principles of Buddhism, likened to the great ropes of a net./

大總法門 大总法门 [da4 zong3 fa3 men2 ] /The bhūtatathatā as the totality of things, and Mind 心眞如 as the Absolute, 起信論./

大義王 大义王 [da4 yi4 wang2 ] /(or 大義城) The king, or city, of all ideas, or aims, i.e. the heart as mind./

大聖 大圣 [da4 sheng4 ] /The great sage or saint, a title of a Buddha or a bodhisattva of high rank; as also are 大聖世尊 and 大聖主 the great holy honored one, or lord./

大聖天 大圣天 [da4 sheng4 tian1 ] /idem 大聖歡喜天 v. 歡喜天, on whom there are three works./

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大聖金剛夜叉 大圣金刚夜叉 [da4 sheng4 jin1 gang1 ye4 cha1 ] /one of the five 大明王./

大聖妙吉祥 大圣妙吉祥 [da4 sheng4 miao4 ji2 xiang2 ] /see Mañjuśrī 文殊; there are two works under the first of these titles, one under the second, and one under 大聖文殊./

大聖曼殊室利 大圣曼殊室利 [da4 sheng4 man4 shu1 shi4 li4 ] /see Mañjuśrī 文殊; there are two works under the first of these titles, one under the second, and one under 大聖文殊./

大自在 大自在 [da4 zi4 zai4 ] /Īśvara, self-existent, sovereign, independent, absolute, used of Buddhas and bodhisattvas./

大自在天 大自在天 [da4 zi4 zai4 tian1 ] /Maheśvara, 摩醯首濕伐羅 or Śiva, lord of the present chiliocosm, or universe; he is described under two forms, one as the prince of demons, the other as divine, i.e. 毘舍闍 Piśācamaheśvara and 淨居 Śuddhāvāsa- or Śuddhodanamaheśvara. As Piśāca, head of the demons, he is represented with three eyes and eight arms, and riding on a white bull; a bull or a linga being his symbol. The esoteric school takes him for the transformation body of Vairocana, and as appearing in many forms, e.g. Viṣṇu, Nārāyana (i.e. Brahmā), etc. His wife (śakti) is Bhīmā, or 大自在天婦. As Śuddhāvāsa, or Pure dwelling, he is described as a bodhisattva of the tenth or highest degree, on the point of entering Buddhahood. There is dispute as to whether both are the same being, or entirely different. The term also means the sixth or highest of the six desire heavens./

大自在宮 大自在宫 [da4 zi4 zai4 gong1 ] /The abode of Maheśvara at the apex of the form realm. Also, the condition or place from which the highest type of bodhisattva proceeds to Buddhahood, whence it is also styled 淨居天 the pure abode heaven./

大興善寺 大兴善寺 [da4 xing4 shan4 si4 ] /The great goodness-promoting monastery, one of the ten great Tang monasteries at Changan, commenced in the Sui dynasty./

大船 大船 [da4 chuan2 ] /The great ship of salvation — Mahāyāna./

大船師 大船师 [da4 chuan2 shi1 ] /The captain of the great ship of salvation, Buddha./

大般涅槃 大般涅槃 [da4 ban1 nie4 pan2 ] /mahāparinirvāṇa, explained by 大入滅息 the great, or final entrance into extinction and cessation; or 大圓寂入 great entrance into perfect rest; 大滅度 great extinction and passing over (from mortality). It is interpreted in Mahāyāna as meaning the cessation or extinction of passion and delusion, of mortality, and of all activities, and deliverance into a state beyond these concepts. In Mahāyāna it is not understood as the annihilation, or cessation of existence; the reappearance of Dīpaṃkara 然燈 (who had long entered nirvāṇa) along with Śākyamuni on the Vulture Peak supports this view. It is a state above all terms of human expression. See the Lotus Sutra and the Nirvāṇa sūtra./

大般涅槃經 大般涅槃经 [da4 ban1 nie4 pan2 jing1 ] /The Mahā-parinirvāṇa sūtras, commonly called the 涅槃經 Nirvāṇa sūtras, said to have been delivered by Śākyamuni just before his death. The two Hīnayāna versions are found in the 長阿含遊行經. The Mahāyāna has two Chinese versions, the northern in 40 juan, and the southern, a revision of the northern version in 36 juan. Faxian's version is styled 大般泥洹經 6 juan. Treatises on the sūtra are 大般涅槃經後分 2 juan tr. by Jñānabhadra; 大般涅槃經疏 33 juan; 大般涅槃經論 1 juan by Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhidharma./

大般若經 大般若经 [da4 ban1 ruo4 jing1 ] /The Mahā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra./

大般若供養 大般若供养 [da4 ban1 ruo4 gong4 yang3 ] /The worship of a new copy of the sūtra when finished, an act first attributed to Xuanzang./

大般若波羅蜜多經 大般若波罗蜜多经 [da4 ban1 ruo4 bo1 luo2 mi4 duo1 jing1 ] /Mahā-prajñāpāramitā sūtra, said to have been delivered by Śākyamuni in four places at sixteen assemblies, i.e. Gṛidhrakūṭa near Rājagṛha (Vulture Peak); Śrāvastī; Paranirmitavaśavartin, and Veluvana near Rājagṛha (Bamboo Garden). It consists of 600 juan as translated by Xuanzang. Parts of it were translated by others under various titles and considerable differences are found in them. It is the fundamental philosophical work of the Mahāyāna school, the formulation of wisdom, which is the sixth pāramitā./

大苦海 大苦海 [da4 ku3 hai3 ] /The great bitter sea, or great sea of suffering i.e. of mortality in the six gati, or ways of incarnate existence./

大莊嚴 大庄严 [da4 zhuang1 yan2 ] /Mahāvyūha; great fabric; greatly adorned, the kalpa or Buddha-aeon of Mahākāśyapa./

大莊嚴世界 大庄严世界 [da4 zhuang1 yan2 shi4 jie4 ] /The great ornate world; i.e. the universe of Akāśagarbha Bodhisattva 虛空藏菩薩; it is placed in the west by the sūtra of that name, in the east by the 大隻經 12./

大莊嚴經 大庄严经 [da4 zhuang1 yan2 jing1 ] /Vaipulya-mahāvyūha-sūtra, tr. by Divākara, Tang dynasty, 12 juan; in which the Buddha describes his life in the Tuṣita heaven and his descent to save the world./

大莊嚴經論 大庄严经论 [da4 zhuang1 yan2 jing1 lun4 ] /or 大莊嚴論經 Sūtrālaṃkāra-śāstra. A work by Aśvaghoṣa, tr. by Kumārajīva A.D. 405, 15 juan./

大菩提心 大菩提心 [da4 pu2 ti2 xin1 ] /The great bodhi, i.e. Mahāyāna or Buddha-enlightenment, as contrasted with the inferior bodhi of the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha./

大菩提幢 大菩提幢 [da4 pu2 ti2 chuang2 ] /The banner of great bodhi, an esoteric symbol of Buddha-enlightenment./

大菩薩 大菩萨 [da4 pu2 sa4 ] /bodhisattva-mahāsattva, a great Bodhisattva./

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大蓮華 大莲华 [da4 lian2 hua2 ] /puṇḍarīka, 分陀利; 芬利; 奔茶 the great white lotus; the last of the eight cold hells is so called./

大蓮華法藏界 大莲华法藏界 [da4 lian2 hua2 fa3 cang2 jie4 ] /The great Lotus heaven in the Paradise of the West./

大蓮華智慧三摩地智 大莲华智慧三摩地智 [da4 lian2 hua2 zhi4 hui4 san1 mo2 de zhi4 ] /The wisdom of the great lotus, samādhi-wisdom, the penetrating wisdom of Amitābha./

大薩遮尼犍子 大萨遮尼犍子 [da4 sa4 zhe1 ni2 jian1 zi ] /Mahāsatya-nirgrantha. An ascetic who is said to have become a disciple of the Buddha./

大藏經 大藏经 [da4 cang2 jing1 ] /The Tripiṭaka; the Buddhist canon./

大藏一覽 大藏一览 [da4 cang2 yi1 lan3 ] /"The Tripitaka at a Glance" in 10 juan by 陳實 Chen Shi of the Ming dynasty./

大藏目錄 大藏目录 [da4 cang2 mu4 lu4 ] /A catalogue of the Korean canon in 3 juan./

大號呌 大号呌 [da4 hao4 jiao4 ] /Mahāraurava 大呌; 大呼 The hell of great wailing, the fifth of the eight hot hells./

大衆 大众 [da4 zhong4 ] /mahāsaṅgha. The great assembly, any assembly, all present, everybody./

大衆印 大众印 [da4 zhong4 yin4 ] /The seal of a monastery./

大衆威德畏 大众威德畏 [da4 zhong4 wei1 de2 wei4 ] /Stage-struck, awed by an assembly, one of the five 怖畏./

大衆部 大众部 [da4 zhong4 bu4 ] /摩調僧祇部 Mahāsāṅghikāḥ, the school of the community, or majority; one of the chief early divisions, cf. 上坐部 Mahāsthavirāḥ or Sthavirāḥ, i.e. the elders. There are two usages of the term, first, when the sthavira, or older disciples assembled in the cave after the Buddha's death, and the others, the 大衆, assembled outside. As sects, the principal division was that which took place later. The Chinese attribute this division to the influence of 大天 Mahādeva, a century after the Nirvāṇa, and its subsequent five subdivisions are also associated with his name: they are Pūrvasailāḥ, Avaraśailāḥ, Haimavatāḥ, Lokottara-vādinaḥ, and Prajñapti-vādinaḥ; v. 小乘./

大衣 大衣 [da4 yi1 ] /The monk's patch-robe, made in varying grades from nine to twenty-five patches./

大覺 大觉 [da4 jue2 ] /The supreme bodhi, or enlightenment, and the enlightening power of a Buddha./

大覺世尊 大觉世尊 [da4 jue2 shi4 zun1 ] /The World-honored One of the great enlightenment, an appellation of the Buddha./

大覺母 大觉母 [da4 jue2 mu3 ] /The mother of the great enlightenment, an appellation of Mañjuśrī./

大覺金仙 大觉金仙 [da4 jue2 jin1 xian1 ] /The great enlightened golden ṛṣi, a name given to Buddha in the Song dynasty./

大論 大论 [da4 lun4 ] /idem 大智度論./

大論師 大论师 [da4 lun4 shi1 ] /Mahāvādin, Doctor of the Śāstras, a title given to eminent teachers, especially of the Sāṅkhya and Vaiseṣika schools./

大辯天 大辩天 [da4 bian4 tian1 ] /Sarasvatī 大辯才天 (大辯才女); 大辯功德天 (大辯才功德天); 薩羅婆縛底; 薩羅酸底 A river, 'the modern Sursooty'; the goddess of it, who 'was persuaded to descend from heaven and confer her invention of language and letters on the human race by the sage Bhārata, whence one of her names is Bharatī'; sometimes assumes the form of a swan; eloquence, or literary elegance is associated with her. Cf. M. W. Known as the mother of speech, eloquence, letters, and music. Chinese texts describe this deity sometimes as male, but generally as female, and under several forms. As 'goddess of music and poetry' she is styled 妙 (or 美 ) 音天; 妙音樂天; 妙音佛母. She is represented in two forms, one with two arms and a lute, another with eight arms. Sister of Yama. 'A consort of both Brahmā and Mañjuśrī,' Getty. In Japan, when with a lute, Benten is a form of Saravastī, colour white, and riding a peacock. Tib. sbyaṅs-can-ma, or ṅag-gi-lha-mo; M. kele-yin iikin tegri; J. ben-zai-ten, or benten./

大護印 大护印 [da4 hu4 yin4 ] /The great protective sign, a manual sign, accompanied with a transliterated repetition of 'Namaḥ sarva-tathāgatebhyaḥ; Sarvathā Haṃ Khaṃ Rākṣasī mahābali; Sarva-Tathāgata-puṇyo nirjāti; Hūṃ Hūṃ Trāta Trāta apratihati svāhā'./

大象藏 大象藏 [da4 xiang4 cang2 ] /Great elephant (or nāga) treasure, an incense supposed to be produced by nāgas or dragons fighting./

大賢 大贤 [da4 xian2 ] /Daxian (Jap. Daiken), a Korean monk who lived in China during the Tang dynasty, of the 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, noted for his annotations on the sūtras and styled 古迹記 the archaeologist./

大寶積經 大宝积经 [da4 bao3 ji1 jing1 ] /大寳積經 The sūtra of this name (Mahāratnakūṭa) tr. by Bodhiruci (in abridged form) and others./

大赤華 大赤华 [da4 chi4 hua2 ] /mahāmañjūṣaka 摩訶曼珠沙 or rubia cordifolia, from which madder is made./

大路邊生 大路边生 [da4 lu4 bian1 sheng1 ] /Born by the highway side, v. 周那 Cunda; also 純陀./

大身 大身 [da4 shen1 ] /The great body, i.e. the nirmāṇakāya, or transformable body 化身 of a Buddha. Also, Mahākāya, a king of garuḍas./

大車 大车 [da4 che1 ] /The great bullock-cart in the parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahāyāna, v. Lotus Sutra./

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大輪金剛 大轮金刚 [da4 lun2 jin1 gang1 ] /One of the thirty-three bodhisattvas in the 金剛手 court of the Garbhadhātu group, destroyer of delusion. Also 大輪明王./

大轉輪王 大转轮王 [da4 zhuan3 lun2 wang2 ] /v. 大勝金剛./

大轉輪佛頂 大转轮佛顶 [da4 zhuan3 lun2 fu2 ding3 ] /idem 佛頂尊./

大迦多衍那 大迦多衍那 [da4 jia1 duo1 yan3 na4 ] /Mahākātyāyana or Kātyāyana 摩訶迦旃延; 迦延, v. 摩 and 迦. (1) A disciple of Śākyamuni. (2) Name of many persons./

大迦葉 大迦叶 [da4 jia1 ye4 ] /Mahākāśyapa, v. 摩訶迦葉./

大通 大通 [da4 tong1 ] /大通智勝 Mahābhijñā Jñānābhibhu. The great Buddha of supreme penetraton and wisdom. "A fabulous Buddha whose realm was Sambhava, his kalpa Mahārūpa. Having spent ten middling kalpas in ecstatic meditation he became a Buddha, and retired again in meditation for 84,000 kalpas, during which his sixteen sons continued (as Buddhas) his preaching. Incarnations of his sons are," Akṣobhya, Merukūṭa, Siṃhaghoṣa, Siṃhadhvaja, Ākāśapratiṣṭhita, Nityapaṛvrtta, Indradhvaja, Brahmadhvaja, Amitābha, Sarvalokadhātū- padravodvegapratyuttīrna, Tamāla-patra-candanagandha, Merukalpa, Meghasvara, Meghasvararāja, Sarvaloka-bhayastambhitatva- vidhvaṃsanakāra, and Śākyamuni; v. Eitel. He is said to have lived in a kalpa earlier than the present by kalpas as numerous as the atoms of a chiliocosm. Amitābha is his ninth son. Śākyamuni his sixteenth, and the present 大衆 or assembly of believers are said to be the reincarnation of those who were his disciples in that former aeon; v. Lotus Sutra, chapter 7./

大通和尚 大通和尚 [da4 tong1 he2 shang4 ] /Title of 神秀 Shenxiu, a disciple of the fifth patriarch./

大道心 大道心 [da4 dao4 xin1 ] /One who has the mind of or for supreme enlightenment, e.g. a bodhisattva-mahāsattva./

大醫王 大医王 [da4 yi1 wang2 ] /Great Lord of healing, an epithet of Buddhas and bodhisattvas./

大鐘 大钟 [da4 zhong1 ] /The great bell in the bell tower of a large monastery./

大鐵圍山 大铁围山 [da4 tie3 wei2 shan1 ] /(大鐵圍) Mahācakravāla. The great circular 'iron' enclosure; the higher of the double circle of mountains forming the outer periphery of every world, concentric to the seven circles around Sumeru./

大鑑禪師 大鉴禅师 [da4 jian4 chan2 shi1 ] /The great mirror, posthumous title of the sixth 禪 Chan (Zen) patriarch, 慧能 Huineng, imperially bestowed in A.D. 815./

大陰界入 大阴界入 [da4 yin1 jie4 ru4 ] /Four fundamentals, i.e. the 四大, 五陰, 十八界, and 十二入 q. v./

大雄 大雄 [da4 xiong2 ] /The great hero— a Buddha's title, indicating his power over demons./

大雄峯 大雄峰 [da4 xiong2 feng1 ] /Great cock peak, any outstanding peak./

大集經 大集经 [da4 ji2 jing1 ] /Mahāsaṃghata-sūtra 大方等大集經 The sūtra of the great assembly of Bodhisattvas from 十方 every direction, and of the apocalpytic sermons delivered to them by the Buddha; 60 juan, tr. in parts at various times by various translators. There are several works connected with it and others independent, e.g. 大集須彌藏經, 大集日藏經 (and 大集月藏經) , 大集經賢 護, 大集會正法經, 大集譬喩王經, etc./

大集部 大集部 [da4 ji2 bu4 ] /Mahāsaṃnipāta. A division of the sūtrapiṭaka containing avadānas, i.e. comparisons, metaphors, parables, and stories illustrating the doctrines./

大雲光明寺 大云光明寺 [da4 yun2 guang1 ming2 si4 ] /A monastery for Uigur Manichaeans, ordered to be built by 代宗 A.D. 765./

大靑珠 大靑珠 [da4 qing1 zhu1 ] /mahānīla. 摩訶尼羅 A precious stone, large and blue, perhaps identical with Indra-nīla-muktā, i.e. the Indra of precious stones, a 'sapphire' (M. W.)./

大願 大愿 [da4 yuan4 ] /The great vow, of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, to save all the living and bring them to Buddhahood./

大願業力 大愿业力 [da4 yuan4 ye4 li4 ] /The forty-eight vows and the great meritorious power of Amitābha, or the efficacy of his vows./

大願淸淨報土 大愿淸净报土 [da4 yuan4 qing1 jing4 bao4 tu3 ] /The Pure Reward-Land of Amitābha, the reward resulting from his vows./

大願船 大愿船 [da4 yuan4 chuan2 ] /The great vow boat, i.e. that of Amitābha, which ferries the believer over the sea of mortality to the Pure Land./

大顚 大顚 [da4 dian1 ] /Da Dian, the appellation of a famous monk and writer, named 寶通 Baotong, whom tigers followed; he died at 93 years of age in A. D. 824; author of 般若波羅蜜多心經 and 金剛經釋義./

大風災 大风灾 [da4 feng1 zai1 ] /Great Storms, the third of the three destructive calamities to end the world./

大飮光 大飮光 [da4 yin3 guang1 ] /Mahākāśyapa q. v., he who "drank in light" (with his mother's milk), she having become radiant with golden-colored pearl, a relic of Vipaśyin, the first of the seven former Buddhas; it is a false etymology./

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大高王 大高王 [da4 gao1 wang2 ] /Abhyudgata-rāja. Great august monarch, name of the kalpa in which Śubha-vyūha 妙莊嚴王, who is not known in the older literature, is to be reborn as a Buddha./

大魚 大鱼 [da4 yu2 ] /makara 摩竭羅 a monster fish./

大黑天 大黑天 [da4 hei1 tian1 ] /Mahākāla 摩訶迦 (or 謌) 羅 the great black deva 大黑神. Two interpretations are given. The esoteric cult describes the deva as the masculine form of Kālī, i.e. Durgā, the wife of Śiva; with one face and eight arms, or three faces and six arms, a necklace of skulls, etc. He is worshipped as giving warlike power, and fierceness; said also to be an incarnation of Vairocana for the purpose of destroying the demons; and is described as 大時 the "great time" (-keeper) which seems to indicate Vairocana, the sun. The exoteric cult interprets him as a beneficent deva, a Pluto, or god of wealth. Consequently he is represented in two forms, by the one school as a fierce deva, by the other as a kindly happy deva. He is shown as one of the eight fierce guardians with trident, generally blue-black but sometimes white; he may have two elephants underfoot. Six arms and hands hold jewel, skull cup, chopper, drum, trident, elephant-goad. He is the tutelary god of Mongolian Buddhism. Six forms of Mahākāla are noted: (1) 比丘大黑 A black-faced disciple of the Buddha, said to be the Buddha as Mahādeva in a previous incarnation, now guardian of the refectory. (2) 摩訶迦羅大黑女 Kālī, the wife of Śiva. (3) 王子迦羅大黑 The son of Śiva. (4) 眞陀大黑 Cintāmaṇi, with the talismanic pearl, symbol of bestowing fortune. (5) 夜叉大黑 Subduer of demons. (6) 摩迦羅大黑 Mahākāla, who carries a bag on his back and holds a hammer in his right hand. J., Daikoku; M., Yeke-gara; T., Nag-po c'en-po./

大黑飛礫法 大黑飞砾法 [da4 hei1 fei1 li4 fa3 ] /The black deva's flying shard magic: take the twig of a 榎 jia tree (Catalpa Bungei), the twig pointing north-west; twist it to the shape of a buckwheat grain, write the Sanskrit letter भ on each of its three faces, place it before the deva, recite his spell a thousand times then cast the charm into the house of a prosperous person, saying may his wealth come to me./

大齋 大斋 [da4 zhai1 ] /(大齋會) A feast given to monks./

大龍權現 大龙权现 [da4 long2 quan2 xian4 ] /The Bodhisattva who, having attained the 大地 stage, by the power of his vow transformed himself into a dragon-king, 西域記 1./

[nv3 ] /Women, female; u. f. 汝 thou, you./

女人 女人 [ren2 ] /Woman, described in the Nirvāṇa sūtra 浬槃經 9 as the "abode of all evil", 一切女人皆是衆惡之所住處 The 智度論 14 says: 大火燒人是猶可近, 淸風無形是亦可捉, 蚖蛇含毒猶亦可觸, 女人之心不可得實 "Fierce fire that would burn men may yet be approached, clear breezes without form may yet be grasped, cobras that harbour poison may yet be touched, but a woman's heart is never to be relied upon." The Buddha ordered Ānanda: "Do not Look at a woman; if you must, then do not talk with her; if you must, then call on the Buddha with all your mind"— an evidently apocryphal statement of 文句 8./

女人六欲 女人六欲 [liu4 yu4 ] /The six feminine attractions; eight are given, but the sixth and eighth are considered to be included in the others: color, looks, style, carriage, talk, voice, refinement, and appearance./

女人定 女人定 [ding4 ] /v. 女子出定./

女人往生願 女人往生愿 [wang3 sheng1 yuan4 ] /The thirty-fifth vow of Amitābha that he will refuse to enter into his final joy until every woman who calls on his name rejoices in enlightenment and who, hating her woman's body, has ceased to be reborn as a woman; also 女人成佛願./

女人拜 女人拜 [bai4 ] /A woman's salutation, greeting, or obeisance, performed by standing and bending the knees, or putting hands together before the breast and bending the body./

女人禁制 女人禁制 [jin4 zhi4 ] /"Women forbidden to approach," a sign placed on certain altars./

女人眷屬論師 女人眷属论师 [juan4 shu3 lun4 shi1 ] /One of the twenty heretical sects, who held that Maheśvara created the first woman, who begot all creatures./

女僧 女僧 [nv3 seng1 ] /A nun, or 此丘尼 bhikṣuṇī, which is abbreviated to 尼. The first nunnery in China is said to have been established in the Han dynasty./

女國 女国 [nv3 guo2 ] /The woman-kingdom, where matriarchal government is said to have prevailed, e.g. Brahmapura, v. 婆, and Suvarṇagotra, v. 蘇./

女天 女天 [nv3 tian1 ] /Female devas in the desire-realm. In and above the Brahmalokas 色界 they do not exist./

女子出定 女子出定 [nv3 zi3 chu1 ding4 ] /The story of a woman named Liyi 離意 who was so deeply in samādhi before the Buddha that Mañjuśrī 文殊 could not arouse her; she could only be aroused by a bodhisattva who has sloughed off the skandhas and attained enlightenment./

女居士 女居士 [nv3 ju1 shi4 ] /A lay woman who devotes herself to Buddhism./

女德 女德 [nv3 de2 ] /A woman of virtue, i.e. a nun, or bhikṣuṇī. The emperor Hui Zong of the Song dynasty (A.D. 1101-1126) changed the term 尼 to 女德./

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女情 女情 [nv3 qing2 ] /Sexual desire./

女根 女根 [nv3 gen1 ] /Yoni. The female sex-organ./

女犯 女犯 [nv3 fan4 ] /The woman offence, i.e. sexual immorality on the part of a monk./

女病 女病 [nv3 bing4 ] /Woman as a disease; feminine disease./

女色 女色 [nv3 se4 ] /Female beauty— is a chain, a serious delusion, a grievous calamity. The 智度論 14 says it is better to burn out the eyes with a red-hot iron than behold woman with unsteady heart./

女賊 女贼 [nv3 zei2 ] /Woman the robber, as the cause of sexual passion, stealing away the riches of religion, v. 智度論 14./

女鏁 女鏁 [nv3 suo3 ] /Woman as chain, or lock, the binding power of sex. 智度論 14./

[zi ] /kumāra; son; seed; sir; 11-1 midnight./

子合國 子合国 [zi he2 guo2 ] /Kukyar, Kokyar, or Kukejar, a country west of Khotan, 1,000 li from Kashgar, perhaps Yarkand./

子斷 子断 [zi duan4 ] /The seed 種子 cut off, i.e. the seed which produces the miseries of transmigration./

子果 子果 [zi guo3 ] /Seed and fruit; seed-produced fruit is 子果, fruit-produced seed is 果子. The fruit produced by illusion in former incarnation is 子果, which the Hīnayāna arhat has not yet finally cut off. It is necessary to enter Nirvāṇa without remnant of mortality to be free from its "fruit", or karma./

子滿果 子满果 [zi man3 guo3 ] /The fruit full of seeds, the pomegranate./

子璿 子璿 [zi xuan2 ] /A famous learned monk Zixuan, of the Song dynasty whose style was 長水 Changshui, the name of his district; he had a large following; at first he specialized on the Śūraṃgama 楞嚴經; later he adopted the teaching of 賢首 Xianshou of the 華嚴宗 Huayan school./

子縛 子缚 [zi fu4 ] /The seed bond, or delusion of the mind, which keeps men in bondage./

子院 子院 [zi yuan4 ] /Small courts and buildings attached to central monastery./

[cun4 ] /An inch./

寸絲不掛 寸丝不挂 [cun4 si1 bu4 gua4 ] /Questioned as to what he did with his day, 陸亙日 Lu Xuanri replied "one does not hang things on an inch of thread"./

[xiao3 ] /Small, little; mean, petty; inferior./

小乘 小乘 [xiao3 cheng2 ] /Hīnayāna 希那衍. The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed after Śākyamuni's death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahāyāna doctrines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahāyānism which developed on lines fundamentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith). Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hīnayāna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahāyāna. Hīnayāna remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahāyāna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the general literary language of the surviving form of Hīnayāna, Sanskrit of Mahāyāna. The term Hīnayāna is of Mahāyānist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of Mahāyāna over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahāyāna teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it declares that Hīnayāna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood, seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvāṇa. For arhatship the 四諦Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyekabuddhahood the 十二因緣 twelve-nidānas, and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles 二乘. Tiantai sometimes calls them the (Hīnayāna) Tripiṭaka school. Three of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools were transported to China: 倶舍 (Abhidharma) Kośa; 成實 Satya-siddhi; and the school of Harivarman, the律 Vinaya school. These are described by Mahāyānists as the Buddha's adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahāyāna all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahāyāna view of Hīnayāna, and if the Vaipulya sūtras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiated by Hīnayāna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahāyāna in condemning Hīnayāna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sūtras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authenticity; while those of Hīnayāna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hīnayāna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately after the death of Śākyamuni, when the sthāvira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rājagṛha, to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside; these two are the first 上坐部 and 大衆部 q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk 大天 Mahādeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha's nirvāṇa and during the reign of Aśoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahādeva's sect became the Mahāsāṅghikā, the other the Sthāvira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals are the so-called "twenty sects" of Hīnayāna. Another division of four sects, referred to by Yijing, is that of the 大衆部 (Arya) Mahāsaṅghanikāya, 上座部 Āryasthavirāḥ, 根本說一切有部 Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, and 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ. There is still another division of five sects, 五部律. For the eighteen Hīnayāna sects see 小乘十八部./

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小乘三印 小乘三印 [xiao3 cheng2 san1 yin4 ] /The three characteristic marks of all Hīnayāna sūtras: the impermanence of phenomena, the unreality of the ego, and nirvāṇa./

小乘九部 小乘九部 [xiao3 cheng2 jiu3 bu4 ] /The nine classes of works belonging to the Hīnayāna, i.e. the whole of the twelve discourses; the Vaipulya, or broader teaching; and the Vyākaraṇa, or prophesies./

小乘二部 小乘二部 [xiao3 cheng2 er4 bu4 ] /The 上座部 Sthaviravādin, School of Presbyters, and 大衆部 Sarvāstivādin, q.v./

小乘偏漸戒 小乘偏渐戒 [xiao3 cheng2 pian1 jian4 jie4 ] /The Hīnayāna partial and gradual method of obeying laws and commandments, as compared with the full and immediate salvation of Mahāyāna./

小乘十八部 小乘十八部 [xiao3 cheng2 shi2 ba1 bu4 ] /A Chinese list of the "eighteen" sects of the Hīnayāna, omitting Mahāsāṅghikāḥ, Sthavira, and Sarvāstivādah as generic schools: I. 大衆部 The Mahāsāṅghikāḥ is divided into eight schools as follows: (1) 一說部 Ekavyavahārikāḥ; (2) 說出世部 Lokottaravādinaḥ; (3) 雞胤部 Kaukkuṭikāḥ (Gokulikā); (4) 多聞部 Bahuśrutīyāḥ; (5) 說假部 Prajñāptivadinaḥ; (6) 制多山部 Jetavaniyāḥ, or Caityaśailāḥ; (7) 西山住部 Aparaśailāḥ; (8) 北山住部 Uttaraśailāḥ. II. 上坐部 Āryasthavirāḥ, or Sthāviravādin, divided into eight schools: (1) 雪山部 Haimavatāḥ. The 說一切有部 Sarvāstivādaḥ gave rise to (2) 犢子部 Vātsīputrīyāḥ, which gave rise to (3) 法上部 Dharmottarīyāḥ; (4) 賢冑部 Bhadrayānīyāḥ; (5) 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ; and (6) 密林山 Saṇṇagarikāḥ; (7) 化地部 Mahīśāsakāḥ produced (8) 法藏部 Dharmaguptāḥ. From the Sarvāstivādins arose also (9) 飮光部 Kāśyaḥpīyā and (10) 經量部 Sautrāntikāḥ. v. 宗輪論. Cf Keith, 149-150. The division of the two schools is ascribed to Mahādeva a century after the Nirvāṇa. Under I the first five are stated as arising two centuries after the Nirvāṇa, and the remaining three a century later, dates which are unreliable. Under II, the Haimavatāḥ and the Sarvāstivādaḥ are dated some 200 years after the Nirvāṇa; from the Sarvāstivādins soon arose the Vātsīputrīyas, from whom soon sprang the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth; then from the Sarvāstivādins there arose the seventh which gave rise to the eighth, and again, nearing the 400th year, the Sarvāstivādins gave rise to the ninth and soon after the tenth. In the list of eighteen the Sarvāstivādah is not counted, as it split into all the rest./

小乘四門 小乘四门 [xiao3 cheng2 si4 men2 ] /Tiantai's division of Hīnayāna into four schools or doctrines: (1) 有門 Of reality, the existence of all phenomena, the doctrine of being (cf. 發智六足論, etc.); (2) 空門 of unreality, or non-existence (cf. 成實論); (3) 亦有亦空門 of both, or relativity of existence and non-existence (cf. 毘勒論); (4) 非有非空 of neither, or transcending existence and non-existence (cf. 迦旃延經)./

小乘外道 小乘外道 [xiao3 cheng2 wai4 dao4 ] /Hīnayāna and the heretical sects; also, Hīnayāna is a heretical sect./

小乘戒 小乘戒 [xiao3 cheng2 jie4 ] /The commandments of the Hīnayāna, also recognized by the Mahāyāna: the five, eight, and ten commandments, the 250 for the monks, and the 348 for the nuns./

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小乘經 小乘经 [xiao3 cheng2 jing1 ] /The Hīnayāna sūtras, the four sections of the Āgamas 阿含經 v. 小乘九部./

小乘論 小乘论 [xiao3 cheng2 lun4 ] /The Hīnayāna śāstras or Abhidharma./

小乘阿毗達磨 小乘阿毗达磨 [xiao3 cheng2 a1 pi2 da2 mo2 ] /The philosophical canon of the Hīnayāna, now supposed to consist of some thirty-seven works, the earliest of which is said to be the Guṇanirdeśa śāstra, tr. as 分別功德論 before A.D. 220. "The date of the Abhidharma" is "unknown to us" (Keith)./

小五條 小五条 [xiao3 wu3 tiao2 ] /The robe of five patches worn by some monks in China and by the 淨土宗 Jōdo sect of Japan; v. 掛./

小使 小使 [xiao3 shi3 ] /To urinate; also 小行. Buddhist monks are enjoined to urinate only in one fixed spot./

小劫 小劫 [xiao3 jie2 ] /antarā-kalpa, or intermediate kalpa; according to the 倶舍論 it is the period in which human life increases by one year a century till it reaches 84,000 with men 8,400 feet high; then it is reduced at the same rate till the life-period reaches ten years with men a foot high; these two are each a small kalpa; the 智度論 reckons the two together as one kalpa; and there are other definitions./

小千世界 小千世界 [xiao3 qian1 shi4 jie4 ] /(小千) A small chiliocosm, consisting of a thousand worlds each with its Mt. Sumeru, continents, seas, and ring of iron mountains; v. 三千大千世界./

小參 小参 [xiao3 can1 ] /Small group, a class for instruction outside the regular morning or evening services; also a class in a household./

小參頭 小参头 [xiao3 can1 tou2 ] /The leader of a small group./

小品 小品 [xiao3 pin3 ] /A summarized version./

小品般若波羅蜜經 小品般若波罗蜜经 [xiao3 pin3 ban1 ruo4 bo1 luo2 mi4 jing1 ] /(小品經) Kumārajīva's abbreviated version, in ten juan, of the Mahā-prajñā-pāramitā-sūtra./

小宗 小宗 [xiao3 zong1 ] /The sects of Hīnayāna./

小師 小师 [xiao3 shi1 ] /A junior monk of less than ten years full ordination, also a courtesy title for a disciple; and a self-depreciatory title of any monk; v. 鐸 dahara./

小律儀 小律仪 [xiao3 lv4 yi2 ] /The rules and regulations for monks and nuns in Hīnayāna./

小念 小念 [xiao3 nian4 ] /To repeat Buddha's name in a quiet voice, opposite of 大 |./

小本 小本 [xiao3 ben3 ] /A small volume; Tiantai's term for the (小) 阿彌陀經; the large sūtra being the 無量壽經./

小根 小根 [xiao3 gen1 ] /小機 Having a mind fit only for Hīnayāna doctrine./

小機 小机 [xiao3 ji1 ] /小根; Having a mind fit only for Hīnayāna doctrine./

小樹 小树 [xiao3 shu4 ] /Small trees, bodhisattvas in the lower stages, v. 三草二木./

小水穿石 小水穿石 [xiao3 shui3 chuan1 shi2 ] /A little water or "dripping water penetrates stone"; the reward of the religious life, though difficult to attain, yields to persistent effort./

小法 小法 [xiao3 fa3 ] /The laws or methods of Hīnayāna./

小煩惱地法 小烦恼地法 [xiao3 di4 fa3 ] /upakleśabhūmikāh. The ten lesser evils or illusions, or temptations, one of the five groups of mental conditions of the seventy-five Hīnayāna elements. They are the minor moral defects arising from 無明 unenlightenment; i.e. 忿 anger, 覆 hidden sin, 慳 stinginess, 嫉 envy, 惱 vexation, 害 ill-will, 恨 hate, 謟 adulation, 誑 deceit, 憍 pride./

小王 小王 [xiao3 wang2 ] /The small rājās, called 粟散王 millet scattering kings./

小界 小界 [xiao3 jie4 ] /A small assembly of monks for ceremonial purposes./

小白華 小白华 [xiao3 bai2 hua2 ] /One of the four divine flowers, the mandāra-flower, v. 曼./

小目連 小目连 [xiao3 mu4 lian2 ] /The small Maudgalyāyana, one of six of that name, v. 目./

小祥忌 小祥忌 [xiao3 xiang2 ji4 ] /An anniversary (sacrifice)./

小空 小空 [xiao3 kong1 ] /The Hīnayāna doctrine of the void, as contrasted with that of Mahāyāna./

小經 小经 [xiao3 jing1 ] /v. 小本; also styled 小彌經./

小聖 小圣 [xiao3 sheng4 ] /The Hīnayāna saint, or arhat. The inferior saint, or bodhisattva, as compared with the Buddha./

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小草 小草 [xiao3 cao3 ] /Smaller herbs, those who keep the five commandments and do the ten good deeds, thereby attaining to rebirth as men or devas, v. 三草二木./

小行 小行 [xiao3 xing2 ] /The practice, or discipline of Hīnayāna; also, urination./

小赤華 小赤华 [xiao3 chi4 hua2 ] /Mañjūṣaka. 量殊沙華; 量殊顏 Explained by 柔軟 pliable. Rubia cordifolia, yielding the madder (munjeeth) of Bengal./

小遠 小远 [xiao3 yuan3 ] /The monk 慧遠 Huiyuan of the Sui dynasty. There was a 晉 Chin dynasty monk of the same name./

小阿師 小阿师 [xiao3 a1 shi1 ] /A junior monk ordained less than ten years./

小院 小院 [xiao3 yuan4 ] /A junior teacher./

小食 小食 [xiao3 shi2 ] /The small meal, breakfast, also called 點心./

[shi1 ] /A corpse: to manage: u. f. 尸羅./

尸利 尸利 [shi1 li4 ] /Sri. 師利; 室利; 室離; 室哩; 修利; 昔哩; 悉利 (1) Fortune, prosperity; high rank, success, good fortune, virtues, these four are named as its connotation. (2) The wife of Viṣṇu. (3) An honorifc prefix or affix to names of gods, great men, and books. (4) An exclamation at the head of liturgies. (5) An abbreviation for Mañjuśrī./

尸利佛逝 尸利佛逝 [shi1 li4 fu2 shi4 ] /Śrībhuja, i. e. Mālaya./

尸利夜 尸利夜 [shi1 li4 ye4 ] /Śrīyaśas , a god who bestows good luck./

尸利沙 尸利沙 [shi1 li4 sha1 ] /尸利灑; 舍利沙; 夜合樹 śirīṣa. acacia sirissa. The marriage tree 合婚樹. The 尸利沙 is described as with large leaves and fruit; another kind the 尸利駛 with small leaves and fruit. Also called 沙羅樹./

尸利沙迦 尸利沙迦 [shi1 li4 sha1 jia1 ] /Śirīṣaka. Name of a monk./

尸利毱多 尸利毱多 [shi1 li4 ju2 duo1 ] /尸利崛多; 室利毱多 Śrīgupta, an elder in Rājagṛha, who tried to kill the Buddha with fire and poison; v. 尸利毱多長者經./

尸利蜜多羅 尸利蜜多罗 [shi1 li4 mi4 duo1 luo1 ] /屍黎密 Śrīmitra, an Indian prince who resigned his throne to his younger brother, became a monk, came to China, translated the 灌頂 and other books./

尸半尸 尸半尸 [shi1 ban4 shi1 ] /To kill a person by the 毘陀羅 vetala method of obtaining magic power by incantations on a dead body; when a headless corpse, or some part of the body, is used it is 半尸; when the whole corpse it is 尸./

尸城 尸城 [shi1 cheng2 ] /Kuśinagara or Kuśigramaka. 拘尸那城; 拘尸那揭羅; 拘夷那竭; 拘尸城 Explained by 九土生地 the birthplace of nine scholars. An ancient kingdom and city, near Kasiah, 180 miles north of Patna; the place where Śākyamuni died./

尸多婆那 尸多婆那 [shi1 duo1 po2 na4 ] /Śītavana, see 尸陀林./

尸摩舍那 尸摩舍那 [shi1 mo2 she3 na4 ] /(or 尸摩賖那) śmaśāna, aśmaśāyma, a cemetery, idem 尸陀林./

尸梨伽那 尸梨伽那 [shi1 li2 jia1 na4 ] /Śrīguṇa, 厚德 abundantly virtuous, a title of a Buddha./

尸棄 尸弃 [shi1 qi4 ] /Śikhin, 式棄; 式詰; 尸棄那 (or 尸棄佛); 罽那尸棄; crested, or a fame; explained by 火 fire; 刺那尸棄 Ratnaśikhin occurs in the Abhidharma. In the 本行經 it is 螺髻 a shell like tuft of hair. (1) The 999th Buddha of the last kalpa, whom Śākyamuni is said to have met. (2) The second of the seven Buddhas of antiquity, born in Prabhadvaja 光相城 as a Kṣatriya. (3) A Maha-brahma, whose name Śikhin is defined as 頂髻 or 火災頂 having a flaming tuft on his head; connected with the world-destruction by fire. The Fanyimingyi 翻譯名義 describes Śikhin as 火 or 火首 fame, or a flaming head and as the god of fire, styled also 樹提 Suddha, pure; he observed the 火定 Fire Dhyāna, broke the lures of the realm of desire, and followed virtue./

尸棄毘 尸弃毗 [shi1 qi4 pi2 ] /A deva of music located in the East./

尸毘迦 尸毗迦 [shi1 pi2 jia1 ] /Śivi, 尸毘伽; 尸毘略; also wrongly 濕鞞; one of Śākyamuni's former incarnations, when to save the life of a dove he cut off and gave his own flesh to an eagle which pursued it, which eagle was Śiva transformed in order to test him. 智度論 35./

尸羅 尸罗 [shi1 luo1 ] /Sila, 尸; 尸怛羅 intp. by 淸凉 pure and cool, i.e. chaste; also by 戒 restraint, or keeping the commandments; also by 性善 of good disposition. It is the second pāramitā, moral purity, i. e. of thought, word, and deed. The four conditions of śīla are chaste, calm, quiet, extinguished, i. e. no longer perturbed by the passions. Also, perhaps śīla, a stone, i. e. a precious stone, pearl, or coral. For the ten śīlas or commandments v. 十戒, the first five, or pañca-śīla 五戒, are for all Buddhists./

尸羅不淸淨 尸罗不淸净 [shi1 luo1 bu4 qing1 jing4 ] /If the śīla, or moral state, is not pure, none can enter samādhi./

尸羅婆羅蜜 尸罗婆罗蜜 [shi1 luo1 po2 luo2 mi4 ] /śīla-pāramitā. Morality, the second of the pāramitās./

尸羅幢 尸罗幢 [shi1 luo1 chuang2 ] /A curtain made of chaste precious stones./

尸羅拔陀提 尸罗拔陀提 [shi1 luo1 ba2 tuo2 ti2 ] /戒賢 Śīlabhadra, a prince mentioned in 賢 愚 經 6./

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尸羅淸淨 尸罗淸净 [shi1 luo1 qing1 jing4 ] /Moral purity, essential to enter into samadhi./

尸羅跋提 尸罗跋提 [shi1 luo1 ba2 ti2 ] /Sravasti, idem 舍衞./

尸羅跋陀羅 尸罗跋陀罗 [shi1 luo1 ba2 tuo2 luo1 ] /Śīlabhadra. A learned monk of Nalanda, teacher of Hsumzang, A. D. 625./

尸羅達磨 尸罗达磨 [shi1 luo1 da2 mo2 ] /Śīladharma, a śramaṇa of Khotan./

尸羅鉢頗 尸罗钵颇 [shi1 luo1 bo1 po1 ] /Śīlaprabha. the Sanskrit name of a learned monk./

尸羅阿迭多 尸罗阿迭多 [shi1 luo1 a1 die2 duo1 ] /Śīladitya, son of Pratapaditya and brother of Rajyavardhana. Under thc spiritual auspices of Avalokiteśvara, he became king of Kanyakubja A. D. 606 and conquered India and the Punjab. He was merciful to all creatures, strained drinking water for horses and elephants, was a most liberal patron of Buddhism, re-established the great quinquennial assembly, built many stūpas, showed special favour to Śīlabhadra and Xuanzang, and composed the 八大靈塔梵讚 Aṣṭama-hāśrī -caitya-saṃskṛta-stotra. He reigned about forty years./

尸棄尼 尸弃尼 [shi1 qi4 ni2 ] /Also 識 (or 瑟 or 式) 匿. Chavames accepts the identification with Chighnan, a region of the Pamirs (Documents sur les Tou-kiue Occidentaux, p. 162)./

尸賴底 尸赖底 [shi1 lai4 di3 ] /Hiranyavati, M003296 離刺拏伐底; 阿利羅伐底; the gold river, a river of Nepal, now called the Gandaki, near which Śākyamuni is said to have entered nirvāṇa. The river is identifed with the Ajitavati./

尸迦羅 尸迦罗 [shi1 jia1 luo1 ] /越 said to be Sujāta, son of an elder of Rājagṛha and the same as 須闍陀./

尸陀 尸陀 [shi1 tuo2 ] /(林) Śītavana, 尸林; 尸陀婆; 尸多婆那; 屍陀 cold grove 寒林, i. e. a place for exposing corpses, a cemetery. It is also styled 恐毘林, 安陀林, 晝暗林; also v. 尸摩賖那 or 深摩舍那 śmaśāna./

[shan1 ] /A hill, mountain; a monastery./

山世 山世 [shan1 shi4 ] /Mountain world' i. e. monasteries./

山僧 山僧 [shan1 seng1 ] /(1) 'Hill monk', self-deprecatory term used by monks. (2) A monk dwelling apart from monasteries./

山外 山外 [shan1 wai4 ] /A branch of the Tiantai School founded by 晤恩 Wu En (d. A. D. 986) giving the 'shallower' interpretation of the teaching of this sect; called Shan-wai because it was developed in temples away from the Tiantai mountain. The 'Profounder' sect was developed at Tien-tai and is known as 山家宗 'the sect of the mountain family ' or home sect./

山家 山家 [shan1 jia1 ] /The 'mountain school', the ' profounder ' interpretation of Tiantai doctrines developed by 四明 Ssu-ming; v. last entry./

山斤 山斤 [shan1 jin1 ] /The weight of a mountain, or of Sumeru— may be more readily ascertained than the eternity of the Buddha./

山毫 山毫 [shan1 hao2 ] /Writing brushes as numerous as mountains, or as the trees on the mountains (and ink as vast as the ocean)./

山水衲 山水衲 [shan1 shui3 na4 ] /Mountain and water robe, ' the name of a monastic garment during the Sung dynasty; later this was the name given to a richly embroidered dress./

山海如來 山海如来 [shan1 hai3 ru2 lai2 ] /Sāgara-varadhara-buddhi-vikiditā-bhijñā. 山海慧 (or 惠) 自在通王如來. The name under which Ānanda is to reappear as Buddha, in Anavanamita-vaijayanta, during the kalpa Manojna-sabdabhigarjita, v. 法華經./

山海空市 山海空市 [shan1 hai3 kong1 shi4 ] /Mountains, seas, the sky, the (busy) market place' cannot conceal one from the eye of 無常 Impermanence, the messenger of death, a phrase summing up a story of four brothers who tried to use their miraculous power to escape death by hiding in the mountains, seas, sky, and market places. The one in the market place was the first to be reported as dead, 法句經 2./

山王 山王 [shan1 wang2 ] /The king of the mountains, i. e. the highest peak./

山門 山门 [shan1 men2 ] /The gate of a monastery; a monastery./

[chuan1 ] /A stream, a mountain stream; Ssu-ch'uan province./

川施餓鬼 川施饿鬼 [chuan1 shi1 e4 gui3 ] /Making offerings at the streams to the ghosts of the drowned./

[gong1 ] /Work, a period of work, a job./

工夫 工夫 [gong1 fu1 ] /Time, work, a term for meditation; also 功夫./

工巧明 工巧明 [gong1 qiao3 ming2 ] /Śilpasthana-vidyā. 巧業明 One of the five departments of knowledge dealing with the arts, e. g. the various crafts, mechanics, natural science (yin-yang), calculations (especially for the calendar and astrology), etc./

工伎鬼 工伎鬼 [gong1 ji4 gui3 ] /Nata, a dancer; the skilful or wily one, i. e. the heart or mind./

[ji3 ] /Self, personal, own./

己利 己利 [ji3 li4 ] /Personal advantage, or profit./

己心 己心 [ji3 xin1 ] /One's own heart./

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己心法門 己心法门 [ji3 xin1 fa3 men2 ] /己心中所行法門 The method of the self-realization of truth, the intuitive method of meditation, 止觀 1./

己界 己界 [ji3 jie4 ] /The buddha-kāya, or realm of Buddha in contrast with the realm of ordinary beings./

己證 己证 [ji3 zheng4 ] /自證 Self-attained assurance of the truth, such as that of the Buddha./

己身彌陀唯心淨土 己身弥陀唯心净土 [ji3 shen1 mi2 tuo2 wei2 xin1 jing4 tu3 ] /Myself (is) Amitābha, my mind (is) the Pure Land. All things are but the one Mind, so that outside existing beings there is no Buddha and no Pure Land. Thus Amitābha is the Amitābha within and the Pure Land is the Pure Land of the mind. It is an expression of Buddhist pantheism— that all is Buddha and Buddha is all./

[yi3 ] /Already, past; end, cease./

已今當 已今当 [yi3 jin1 dang1 ] /Past, present, future, 過去, 現在, 未來./

已今當往生 已今当往生 [yi3 jin1 dang1 wang3 sheng1 ] /Those born into the 'future life, ' (of the Pure Land) in the past, in the present, and to be born in the future./

已生 已生 [yi3 sheng1 ] /部多 bhūta. Become, the moment just come into existence, the present moment; being, existing; a being, ghost, demon; a fact; an element, of which the Hindus have five— earth, water, fire, air, ether; the past./

已知根 已知根 [yi3 zhi1 gen1 ] /ājñendriya. The second of the 三無漏根 q. v. One who already knows the indriya or roots that arise from the practical stage associated with the Four Dogmas, i. e. purpose, joy, pleasure, renunciation, faith, zeal, memory, abstract meditation, wisdom./

已過大德 已过大德 [yi3 guo da4 de2 ] /A monk far advanced in religion; an arhat./

已還 已还 [yi3 hai2 ] /Already returned, or, begun again, e. g. the recommencement of a cycle, or course./

已離欲者 已离欲者 [yi3 li2 yu4 zhe3 ] /Those who have abandoned the desire-realm; divided into two classes, 異生 ordinary people who have left desire, but will be born into the six gati; 聖者 the saints, who will not be reborn into the desire-realm; e. g. non-Buddhists and Buddhists./

[gan4 ] /A shield; a stem, or pole; to offend; to concern; to seek./

干栗馱 干栗驮 [gan4 li4 tuo2 ] /干栗太; 乾栗馱; 訖利多 hṛd, hṛdaya, the physical heart./

干闍那 干闍那 [gan4 du1 na4 ] /建折那 kāñcana, golden; i. e. a tree, a shrub of the same type, with golden hue, described as of the leguminous order; perhaps the Kunjara. Wrongly written 于 (or 那) 于闍羅 and 千闍那./

[gong1 ] /Dhanus. A bow; a bow's length, i. e. the 4, 000th part of a yojana. Seven grains of wheat 麥 make 1 finger-joint 指節; 24 finger-joints make 1 elbow or cubit 肘; 4 cubits make 1 bow; or 1 foot 5 inches make 1 elbow or cubit: 4 cubits make 1 bow; 300 bows make 1 li; but the measures are variously given./

弓槃茶 弓槃茶 [gong1 pan2 cha2 ] /Kumbhāṇḍa demons, v. 鳩./


[bu4 ] /No, not, none. (Sanskrit a, an. )./

不一不異 不一不异 [bu4 yi1 bu4 yi4 ] /Neither unity nor diversity, or doctrine of the 中論, v. 八不./

不久 不久 [bu4 jiu3 ] /Not long (in time)./

不久詣道場 不久诣道场 [bu4 jiu3 yi4 dao4 chang3 ] /Not long before he visits the place of enlightenment or of Truth, i. e. soon will become a Buddha./

不了 不了 [bu4 le ] /Not to bring to a finish, not to make plain, not plain, not to understand, incomprehensible./

不了義經 不了义经 [bu4 le yi4 jing1 ] /Texts that do not make plain the Buddha's whole truth, such as Hīnayāna and 通敎 or intermediate Mahāyāna texts./

不了佛智 不了佛智 [bu4 le fu2 zhi4 ] /The incomprehensible wisdom of Buddha./

不二 不二 [bu4 er4 ] /advaya. No second, non-duality, the one and undivided, the unity of all things, the one reality、 the universal Buddha-nature. There are numerous combinations, e. g. 善惡不二 good and evil are not a dualism: nor are 有 and 空 the material and immaterial, nor are 迷 and 悟 delusion and awareness— all these are of the one Buddha-nature./

不二不異 不二不异 [bu4 er4 bu4 yi4 ] /neither plural nor diverse, e. g. neither two kinds of nature nor difference in form./

不二之法 不二之法 [bu4 er4 zhi1 fa3 ] /The one undivided truth, the Buddha-truth. Also, the unity of the Buddha-nature./

不二法門 不二法门 [bu4 er4 fa3 men2 ] /is similar to 不二之法; also the cult of the monistic doctrine; and the immediacy of entering into the truth./

不但空 不但空 [bu4 dan4 kong1 ] /Not only the void '; or, non-void; śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas see only the 'void', bodhisattvas see also the non-void, hence 不但空 is the 中道空 the 'void' of the 'mean'. It is a term of the 通敎 Intermediate school./

不來 不来 [bu4 lai2 ] /Not coming (back to mortality), an explanation of 阿那含 anāgāmin./

不來不去 不来不去 [bu4 lai2 bu4 qu4 ] /anāgamana-nirgama. Neither coming into nor going out of existence, i. e. the original constituents of all 法 things are eternal; the eternal conservation of energy, or of the primal substance./

不來迎 不来迎 [bu4 lai2 ying2 ] /Without being called he comes to welcome; the Pure-land sect believes that Amitābha himself comes to welcome departing souls of his followers on their calling upon him, but the 淨土眞宗 (Jōdo Shin-shu sect) teaches that belief in him at any time ensures rebirth in the Pure Land, independently of calling on him at death./

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不修外道 不修外道 [bu4 xiu1 wai4 dao4 ] /One of the ten kinds of ' heresies' founded by Sañjayin Vairāṭīputra, v. 删, who taught that there is no need to 求道 seek the right path, as when the necessary kalpas have passed, mortality ends and nirvana naturally follows./

不偸盜 不偸盗 [bu4 tou1 dao4 ] /adinnādāna-veramaṇī; the second of the ten commandments, Thou shalt not steal./

不共 不共 [bu4 gong4 ] /Not in the same class, dissimilar, distinctive, each its own./

不共三昧 不共三昧 [bu4 gong4 san1 mei4 ] /asakṛt-samādhi; a samādhi in more than one formula, or mode./

不共不定 不共不定 [bu4 gong4 bu4 ding4 ] /One of the six 不定因 indefinite statements of a syllogism, where proposition and example do not agree./

不共中共 不共中共 [bu4 gong4 zhong1 gong4 ] /The general among the particulars, the whole in the parts./

不共業 不共业 [bu4 gong4 ye4 ] /Varied, or individual karma; each causing and receiving his own recompense./

不共法 不共法 [bu4 gong4 fa3 ] /āveṇika-buddhadharma. The characteristics, achievements, and doctrine of Buddha which distinguish him from all others. See 十八不共法./

十八不共法 十八不共法 [shi2 ba1 bu4 gong4 fa3 ] /the eighteen distinctive characteristics as defined by Hīnayāna are his 十力, 四無畏, 三念住 and his 大悲; the Mahāyāna eighteen are perfection of body; of speech; of memory; impartiality or universality; ever in samādhi; entre self-abnegation; never diminishing will (to save); zeal; thought; wisdom; salvation; insight into salvation; deeds and mind accordant with wisdom; also his speech; also his mind; omniscience in regard to the past; also to the present; and to the future./

不共無明 不共无明 [bu4 gong4 wu2 ming2 ] /Distinctive kinds of unenlightenment, one of the two kinds of ignorance, also styled 獨頭無明; particular results arising from particular evils./

不共相 不共相 [bu4 gong4 xiang1 ] /Dissimilarity, singularity, sui generis./

不共般若 不共般若 [bu4 gong4 ban1 ruo4 ] /The things special to bodhisattvas in the 般若經 in contrast with the things they have in common with śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas./

不共變 不共变 [bu4 gong4 bian4 ] /Varied, or individual conditions resulting from karma; every one is his own transmigration; one of the 四變./

不分別 不分别 [bu4 fen1 bie2 ] /The indivisible, or middle way 中道./

不動 不动 [bu4 dong4 ] /acala; niścala; dhruva. The unmoved, immobile, or motionless; also 無動 the term is used for the unvarying or unchanging, for the pole-star, for fearlessness, for indifference to passion or temptation. It is a special term of Shingon 異言 applied to its most important Bodhisattva, the 不動明王 q. v./

不動佛 不动佛 [bu4 dong4 fu2 ] /不動如來; 阿閦鞞 or 阿閦婆, Akṣobhya, one of the 五智如來 Five Wisdom, or Dhyāni-Buddhas, viz., Vairocana, Akṣobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitābha, and Amoghasiddhi. He is especially worshipped by the Shingon sect, as a disciple of Vairocana. As Amitābha is Buddha in the western heavens, so Akṣobhya is Buddha in the eastern heaven of Abhirati, the realm of joy, hence he is styled 善快 or 妙喜, also 無瞋恚 free from anger. His cult has existed since the Han dynasty, see the Akṣobhya-Tathāgatasya-vyūha. He is first mentioned in the prajnapāramitā sutra, then in the Lotus, where he is the first of the sixteen sons of Mahābhijñā-jñānabhibhu. His dhyāni-bodhisattva is Vajrapāṇi. His appearance is variously described, but he generally sits on a lotus, feet crossed, soles upward, left hand closed holding robe, right hand fingers extended touching ground calling it as color is pale gold, some say blue a vajra is before him. His esoteric word is Hum; his element the air, his human form Kanakamuni, v. 拘. Jap. Ashuku, Fudo, and Mudo; Tib. mi-bskyod-pa, mi-'khrugs-pa (mintug-pa); Mong. Ülü küdelükci. v. 不動明王./

不動供 不动供 [bu4 dong4 gong1 ] /Offerings to 不動明王./

不動使者 不动使者 [bu4 dong4 shi3 zhe3 ] /The messengers of Akṣobhya-buddha 不動佛./

不動咒 不动咒 [bu4 dong4 zhou4 ] /不動慈救咒; 不動慈護咒; 不動陀羅尼; 不動使者祕密法; 不動使者陀羅尼祕密法. Prayers and spells associated with Akṣobhya-buddha 不動佛 and his messengers./

不動地 不动地 [bu4 dong4 de ] /The eighth of the ten stages in a Buddha's advance to perfection./

不動安鎭法 不动安鎭法 [bu4 dong4 an1 zhen4 fa3 ] /Prayers to 不動明王 to protect the house./

不動定 不动定 [bu4 dong4 ding4 ] /The samādhi, or abstract meditation, in which he abides./

不動明王 不动明王 [bu4 dong4 ming2 wang2 ] /不動尊 Aryacalanatha 阿奢羅曩 tr. 不動尊 and 無動尊 and Acalaceta, 阿奢囉逝吒 tr. 不動使者. The mouthpiece or messenger, e. g. the Mercury, of the Buddhas; and the chief of the five Ming Wang. He is regarded as the third person in the Vairocana trinity. He has a fierce mien overawing all evil spirits. He is said to have attained to Buddhahood, but also still to retain his position with Vairocana. He has many descriptive titles, e. g. 無量力神通無動者; 不動忿怒王, etc. Five different verbal signs are given to him. He carries a sharp wisdom-sword, a noose, a thunder-bolt. The colour of his images is various—black, blue, purple. He has a youthful appearance; his hair falls over his left shoulder; he stands or sits on a rock; left eye closed; mouth shut, teeth gripping upper lip, wrinkled forehead, seven locks of hair, full-bodied, A second representation is with four faces and four arms, angry mien, protruding teeth, with fames around him. A third with necklaces. A fourth, red, seated on a rock, fames, trident, etc. There are other forms. He has fourteen distinguishing symbols, and many dharanis associated with the realm of fire, of saving those in distress, and of wisdom. He has two messengers 二童子 Kimkara 矜羯羅 and Cetaka 制吒迦, and, including these, a group of eight messengers 八大童子 each with image, symbol, word-sign, etc. Cf. 不動佛./

不動法 不动法 [bu4 dong4 fa3 ] /Prayer for the aid of 不動明王 to end calamity and cause prosperity./

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不動無爲 不动无为 [bu4 dong4 wu2 wei4 ] /One of the six 無爲 kinds of inaction, or laissez aIIer, the state of being unmoved by pleasure or pain./

不動解脫 不动解脱 [bu4 dong4 jie3 tuo1 ] /liberation from being disturbed (by the illusions of life)./

不動阿羅漢 不动阿罗汉 [bu4 dong4 a1 luo2 han4 ] /an arhat who has attained to the state of the immovable liberation 不動解脫./

不動生死 不动生死 [bu4 dong4 sheng1 si3 ] /Immortality, nirvana./

不動義 不动义 [bu4 dong4 yi4 ] /Immobility, one of the ten meanings of the void./

不動講 不动讲 [bu4 dong4 jiang3 ] /An assembly for preaching and praising the virtues of 不動尊./

不動金剛明王 不动金刚明王 [bu4 dong4 jin1 gang1 ming2 wang2 ] /The 不動尊 as the vajra representative, or embodiment, of Vairocana for saving all sentient beings./

不卽不離 不卽不离 [bu4 ji2 bu4 li2 ] /Neither the thing itself nor something apart, e. g. the water and the wave; similar to 不一不異./

不取正覺願 不取正觉愿 [bu4 qu3 zheng4 jue2 yuan4 ] /Amitābha's vow of not taking up his Buddhahood till each of his forty-eight vows is fulfilled, an affix to each of the vows./

不受一切法 不受一切法 [bu4 shou4 yi1 qie4 fa3 ] /Free from the receptivity, or sensation, of things, emancipated from desire./

不受三昧 不受三昧 [bu4 shou4 san1 mei4 ] /In the Lotus Sutra, cap. 25, the bodhisattva 無盡意 obeying the Buddha's command, offered Guanyin a jewel-garland, which the latter refused saying he had not received the Buddha's command to accept it. This attitude is attributed to his 不受 samādhi, the samādhi of 畢竟空 utter 'voidness', or spirituality./

不可 不可 [bu4 ke3 ] /May not, can not: unpermissible, for-bidden; unable. Buke, the name of a monk of the 靈妙寺 Ling Miao monastery in the Tang dynasty, a disciple of Subha-karāṣimha, and one of the founders of 眞言 Shingon./

不可得 不可得 [bu4 ke3 de2 ] /ampalabhya; alabhya. Beyond laying hold of, unobtainable, unknowable, unreal, another name for 空 the void. See 三世心不可得./

三世心不可得 三世心不可得 [san1 shi4 xin1 bu4 ke3 de2 ] /The mind or thought, past, present, future, cannot be held fast; the past is gone, the future not arrived, the present does not stay./

不可得空 不可得空 [bu4 ke3 de2 kong1 ] /One of the eighteen 空; it is the 言亡慮絕之空, the 'void' that is beyond words or thought./

不可思議 不可思议 [bu4 ke3 si1 yi4 ] /Beyond thought or description, v. 不思議./

言亡慮絕之空 言亡虑绝之空 [yan2 wang2 lv4 jue2 zhi1 kong1 ] /The 'void' that is beyond words or thought./

四不可思議 四不可思议 [si4 bu4 ke3 si1 yi4 ] /The four indescribables, v. 增一阿含經 18, are the worlds; living beings; dragons (nagas); and the size of the Buddha-lands./

五不可思議 五不可思议 [wu3 bu4 ke3 si1 yi4 ] /The five indescribables, of the 智度論 30, are: The number of living beings; all the consequences of karma; the powers of a state of dhyāna; the powers of nagas; the powers of the Buddhas./

不可思議尊 不可思议尊 [bu4 ke3 si1 yi4 zun1 ] /不可思議光如來 The ineffable Honoured One; the Tathāgata of ineffable light; titles of Amitābha./

不可思議解脫經 不可思议解脱经 [bu4 ke3 si1 yi4 jie3 tuo1 jing1 ] /A name for the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra./

不可思議經 不可思议经 [bu4 ke3 si1 yi4 jing1 ] /A name for the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra. The full title is also a name for the 維摩經 Vimalakīrti-sūtra./

不可思議解脫法門 不可思议解脱法门 [bu4 ke3 si1 yi4 jie3 tuo1 fa3 men2 ] /The samādhi, or liberation of mind, that ensures a vision of the ineffable./

不可有 不可有 [bu4 ke3 you3 ] /The existence of those who do the 不可, or forbidden, i. e. the hells./

不可棄 不可弃 [bu4 ke3 qi4 ] /Not to be cast away— said to be the name of the founder of the Mahīśāsakah, or 化地 school, cast into a well at birth by his mother, saved by his father, at first brahman, afterwards a Buddhist; v. 文殊問經, but probably apocryphal./

不可稱智 不可称智 [bu4 ke3 cheng1 zhi4 ] /The Buddha wisdom that in its variety is beyond description./

不可見有對色 不可见有对色 [bu4 ke3 jian4 you3 dui4 se4 ] /invisible, perceptible, or material things, e. g. sound, smell, etc./

不可見無對色 不可见无对色 [bu4 ke3 jian4 wu2 dui4 se4 ] /Invisible, imperceptible, or immaterial things./

不可說 不可说 [bu4 ke3 shuo1 ] /Unmentionable, indefinable; truth that can be thought but not expressed./

不可說佛 不可说佛 [bu4 ke3 shuo1 fu2 ] /Gaṇendra; the 733rd of the Buddhas of the present kalpa 賢劫, in which 1,000 Buddhas are to appear, of whom four have appeared./

不可越守護 不可越守护 [bu4 ke3 yue4 shou3 hu4 ] /Two guardians of the Law on the right of Mañjuśrī in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, named 難持 and 難勝./

不和合性 不和合性 [bu4 he2 he2 xing4 ] /unharmonizing natures, one of the 五法./

不善 不善 [bu4 shan4 ] /Not good; contrary to the right and harmful to present and future life, e. g. 五逆十惡./

不善律儀 不善律仪 [bu4 shan4 lv4 yi2 ] /idem 非律儀, i. e. 不法 or 非善戒./

不喞𠺕 不喞𠺕 [bu4 ji1 liu1 ] /Ignorant, rustic: immature or ignorant./

不坐高廣大牀 不坐高广大床 [bu4 zuo4 gao1 guang3 da4 chuang2 ] /anuccaśayanāmahāśayana. Not to sit on a high, broad, large bed, the ninth of the ten commandments./

不增不減 不增不减 [bu4 zeng1 bu4 jian3 ] /Neither adding nor subtracting; nothing can be added or taken away. In referenc to the absolute 實相之空理 nothing can be added or taken away; vice versa with the relative./

不增減眞如 不增减眞如 [bu4 zeng1 jian3 zhen1 ru2 ] /the unvarying 眞如 bhūtatathatā, one of the ten 眞如; also the eighth of the 十地./

不壞 不坏 [bu4 huai4 ] /avināśya; indestructible, never decaying, eternal./

不壞句 不坏句 [bu4 huai4 ju4 ] /A term in 眞言 Shingon for the magic word 阿 'a', the indestructible embodiment of Vairocana./

不壞四禪 不坏四禅 [bu4 huai4 si4 chan2 ] /The four dhyāna heavens, where the samādhi mind of meditation is indestructible, and the external world is indestructible by the three final catastrophes./

不壞法 不坏法 [bu4 huai4 fa3 ] /Two kinds of arhats practice the 白骨觀 skull meditation, the dull who consider the dead as ashes, the intelligent who do not, but derive supernatural powers from the meditation./

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不壞金剛 不坏金刚 [bu4 huai4 jin1 gang1 ] /Vairocana the indestructible, or eternal./

不壞金剛光明心殿 不坏金刚光明心殿 [bu4 huai4 jin1 gang1 guang1 ming2 xin1 dian4 ] /The luminous mind-temple of the eternal 大日 Vairocana, the place in the Vajradhātu, or Diamond realm, of Vairocana as teacher./

不如蜜多 不如蜜多 [bu4 ru2 mi4 duo1 ] /The twenty-sixth patriarch, said to be Puryamitra (Eitel), son of a king in Southern India, labored in eastern India, d. A. D. 388 by samādhi./

不妄語 不妄语 [bu4 wang4 yu3 ] /musāvādā-veramaṇī, the fourth commandment, thou shalt not lie; no false speaking./

不婬慾 不淫欲 [bu4 yin2 yu4 ] /abrahamacaryā-veramaṇī, the third commandment, thou shalt not commit adultery, i. e. against fornication and adultery for the lay, and against all unchastity for the clerics./

不學 不学 [bu4 xue2 ] /aśaikṣa; no longer studying, graduated, one who has attained./

不定 不定 [bu4 ding4 ] /Unfixed, unsettled, undetermined, uncertain./

不定受業 不定受业 [bu4 ding4 shou4 ye4 ] /One of the 'four karma' — aniyata or indefinite karma; opposite of 定業./

不定地法 不定地法 [bu4 ding4 di4 fa3 ] /One of the six mental conditions, that of undetermined character, open to any influence good or evil./

不定性 不定性 [bu4 ding4 xing4 ] /(不定種性) Of indeterminate nature. The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school divides all beings into five classes according to their potentialities. This is one of the divisions and contains four combinations: (1) Bodhisattva-cum-śrāvaka, with uncertain result depending on the more dominant of the two; (2) bodhisattva-cum-pratyekabuddha; (3) śrāvaka-cum-pratyekabuddha; (4) the characteristcs of all three vehicles intermingled with uncertain results; the third cannot attain Buddhahood, the rest may./

不定性聚 不定性聚 [bu4 ding4 xing4 ju4 ] /不定聚 One of the three Tiantai groups of humanity, the indeterminate normal class of people, as contrasted with sages 定性聚 whose natures are determined for goodness, and the wicked 邪定性聚 whose natures are determined for evil./

不定教 不定教 [bu4 ding4 jiao4 ] /Indeterminate teaching. Tiantai divides the Buddha' s mode of teaching into four; this one means that Buddha, by his extraordinary powers of 方便 upāya-kauśalya, or adaptability, could confer Mahāyāna benefits on his hearers out of his Hīnayāna teaching and vice versa, dependent on the capacity of his hearers./

不定觀 不定观 [bu4 ding4 guan1 ] /(不定止觀) Direct insight without any gradual process of samādhi; one of three forms of Tiantai meditation./

不害 不害 [bu4 hai4 ] /ahiṃsā. Harmlessness, not injuring, doing harm to none./

不審 不审 [bu4 shen3 ] /A term of greeting between monks. i. e. I do not take the liberty of inquiring into your condition./

不廻 不迴 [bu4 hui2 ] /Anagamin. He who does not return; one exempt from transmigration./

不律儀 不律仪 [bu4 lv4 yi2 ] /Practices not in accord with the rule: immoral or subverted rules, i. e. to do evil, or prevent good; heretical rules and practices./

不忘禪 不忘禅 [bu4 wang4 chan2 ] /The meditation against forgetfulness./

不思議 不思议 [bu4 si1 yi4 ] /acintya. 阿軫帝也 Beyond thought and words, beyond conception, baffling description, amazing./

不思議乘 不思议乘 [bu4 si1 yi4 cheng2 ] /The ineffable vehicle, Buddhism./

不思議慧童子 不思议慧童子 [bu4 si1 yi4 hui4 tong2 zi ] /The youth of ineffable wisdom, one of the eight youths in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu./

不思議智 不思议智 [bu4 si1 yi4 zhi4 ] /acintya-jñāna, inconceivable wisdom, the indescribable Buddha-wisdom./

不思議業相 不思议业相 [bu4 si1 yi4 ye4 xiang1 ] /Inexpressible karma-merit always working for the benefit of the living./

不思議界 不思议界 [bu4 si1 yi4 jie4 ] /acintyadhātu. The realm beyond thought and words, another name for the bhūtatathatā, 眞如./

不思議眞言相道法 不思议眞言相道法 [bu4 si1 yi4 zhen1 yan2 xiang1 dao4 fa3 ] /The practice of the presence of the invisible Dharmakāya in the esoteric word./

不思議空 不思议空 [bu4 si1 yi4 kong1 ] /第一義空 The Void beyond thought or discussion, a conception of the void, or that which is beyond the material, only attained by Buddhas and bodhisattvas./

不思議空智 不思议空智 [bu4 si1 yi4 kong1 zhi4 ] /The wisdom thus attained which removes all distresses and illusions./

不思議經 不思议经 [bu4 si1 yi4 jing1 ] /The 華嚴經 Huayan sutra./

不思議解脫經 不思议解脱经 [bu4 si1 yi4 jie3 tuo1 jing1 ] /The 華嚴經 Huayan sutra./

不思議薰 不思议薰 [bu4 si1 yi4 xun1 ] /The indescribable vāsanā, i. e. suffusion, or 'fuming', or influence of primal 無明 ignorance, on the 眞如 bhūtatathatā, producing all illusion. v 起信論 Awakening of Faith./

不思議變 不思议变 [bu4 si1 yi4 bian4 ] /The indescribable changes of the bhūtatathatā in the multitudinous forms of all things./

不思議易生死 不思议易生死 [bu4 si1 yi4 yi4 sheng1 si3 ] /Ineffable changes and transmigrations, i. e. to the higher stages of mortality above the traidhātuka or trailokya 三界./

不悅 不悦 [bu4 yue4 ] /Unhappy, uneasy, the disturbing influence of desire./

不惜身命 不惜身命 [bu4 xi1 shen1 ming4 ] /The bodhisattva virtue of not sparing one's life (for the sake of bodhi)./

不懺舉 不忏举 [bu4 chan4 ju3 ] /The excommunication of an unrepentant monk; one of the 三舉./

不才淨 不才净 [bu4 cai2 jing4 ] /Neither clever nor pure— a term of rebuke./

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不拜 不拜 [bu4 bai4 ] /Lay Buddhists may not pay homage to the gods or demons of other religions; monks and nuns may not pay homage to kings or parents./

不捉持生像金銀寶物 不捉持生像金银宝物 [bu4 zhuo1 chi2 sheng1 xiang4 jin1 yin2 bao3 wu4 ] /jātarūpa-rajata-pratigrahaṇād vaira maṇī (virati). The tenth commandment, not to take or possess uncoined or coined gold and silver, or jewels./

不捨誓約 不舍誓约 [bu4 she3 shi4 yue1 ] /Amitābha's vow of non-abandonment, not to enter Buddhahood till all were born into his Paradise./

不放逸 不放逸 [bu4 fang4 yi4 ] /No slackness or looseness; concentration of mind and will on the good./

不斷 不断 [bu4 duan4 ] /Without ceasing, unceasing./

不斷光 不断光 [bu4 duan4 guang1 ] /The unceasing light (or glory) of Amitābha./

不斷光佛 不断光佛 [bu4 duan4 guang1 fu2 ] /One of the twelve shining Buddhas./

不斷常 不断常 [bu4 duan4 chang2 ] /Unceasing continuity./

不斷念佛 不断念佛 [bu4 duan4 nian4 fu2 ] /Unceasing remembrance, or invocation of the Buddha./

不斷相應染 不断相应染 [bu4 duan4 xiang1 ying1 ran3 ] /One of the 六染心./

不斷讀經 不断读经 [bu4 duan4 du2 jing1 ] /Unceasing reading of the sutras./

不斷經 不断经 [bu4 duan4 jing1 ] /Unceasing reading of the sutras./

不斷輪 不断轮 [bu4 duan4 lun2 ] /Unceasing turning of the wheel, as in a monastery by relays of prayer and meditation./

不時解脫 不时解脱 [bu4 shi2 jie3 tuo1 ] /The sixth, or highest of the six types of arhats; the other five groups have to bide their time and opportunity 時解脫 for liberation in samādhi, the sixth can enter immediately./

不更惡趣願 不更恶趣愿 [bu4 geng4 e4 qu4 yuan4 ] /The second of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that those born in his kingdom should never again enter the three evil lower paths of transmigration./

不染世間法 不染世间法 [bu4 ran3 shi4 jian1 fa3 ] /Unsullied by the things of the world (e. g. the lotus)./

不染汚無知 不染污无知 [bu4 ran3 wu1 wu2 zhi1 ] /Uncontaminated ignorance./

不染著諸法三昧 不染着诸法三昧 [bu4 ran3 zhe zhu1 fa3 san1 mei4 ] /The samādhi which is uncontaminated by any (evil) thing, the samādhi of purity; i. e. Mañjuśrī in samādhi holding as symbol of it a blue lotus in his left hand./

不歌舞倡伎不往觀聽 不歌舞倡伎不往观听 [bu4 ge1 wu3 chang4 ji4 bu4 wang3 guan1 ting1 ] /nāṭya-gīta-vāditra-viśūkadarśanād-vairamaṇī (virati). The seventh commandment against taking part in singing, dancing, plays, or going to watch and hear them./

不正食 不正食 [bu4 zheng4 shi2 ] /Not strict food, not exactly food, things that do not count as a meal, e. g. fruit and nuts./

不死 不死 [bu4 si3 ] /Undying, immortal./

不死甘露 不死甘露 [bu4 si3 gan1 lu4 ] /Sweet dew of immortality, a baptismal water of 眞言 Shingon./

不死藥 不死药 [bu4 si3 yao4 ] /Medicine of immortality, called shāhē 裟訶, which grows on 雪山 the Himālayas and bestows on anyone seeing it endless and painless life./

不死覺 不死觉 [bu4 si3 jue2 ] /One of the eight 覺, the desire for long life./

不死門 不死门 [bu4 si3 men2 ] /The gate of immortality or nirvana, i. e. Mahāyāna./

不殺生 不杀生 [bu4 sha1 sheng1 ] /prāṇātipātād vairamaṇī (virati). The first commandment, Thou shalt not kill the living./

不法 不法 [bu4 fa3 ] /Not in accordance with the Buddha law, wrong, improper, unlawful./

不活畏 不活畏 [bu4 huo2 wei4 ] /The fear of giving all and having nothing to keep one alive: one of the five fears./

不滅 不灭 [bu4 mie4 ] /anirodha, not destroyed, not subject to annihilation./

不滅不生 不灭不生 [bu4 mie4 bu4 sheng1 ] /anirodhānupāda, neither dying nor being reborn, immortal, v. 不生./

不淨 不净 [bu4 jing4 ] /Unclean, common, vile./

不淨忿怒 不净忿怒 [bu4 jing4 fen4 nu4 ] /不淨金剛; 鳥樞沙摩明王 or 鳥芻沙摩明王; 觸金剛 Ucchuṣma, a bodhisattva connected with 不動明王 who controls unclean demons./

不淨施 不净施 [bu4 jing4 shi1 ] /Unclean' almsgiving, i. e. looking for its reward in this or the next life./

不淨肉 不净肉 [bu4 jing4 rou4 ] /Unclean', flesh, i. e. that of animals, fishes, etc., seen being killed, heard being killed, or suspected of being killed; Hīnayāna forbids these, Mahāyāna forbids all flesh./

不淨行 不净行 [bu4 jing4 xing2 ] /非梵行 Ignoble or impure deeds, sexual immorality./

不淨觀 不净观 [bu4 jing4 guan1 ] /The meditation on the uncleanness of the human body of self and others, e. g. the nine stages of disintegration of the dead body 九想 q.v.; it is a meditation to destroy 貪 desire; other details are: parental seed, womb, the nine excretory passages, the body's component parts, worm-devoured corpse — all unclean./

不淨觀經 不净观经 [bu4 jing4 guan1 jing1 ] /A sutra of Dharmatrata./

不淨說法 不净说法 [bu4 jing4 shuo1 fa3 ] /邪命說法 'Unclean' preaching, i. e. to preach, whether rightly or wrongly, from an impure motive, e. g. for making a living./

不淨輪 不净轮 [bu4 jing4 lun2 ] /One of the three 輪: impermanence, impurity, distress 無常, 不淨, 苦./

不生 不生 [bu4 sheng1 ] /anutpatti; anutpāda. Non-birth: not to be reborn, exempt from rebirth; arhan is mistakenly interpreted as 'not born', meaning not born again into mortal worlds. The 'nir' in nirvana is also erroneously said to mean 'not born'; certain schools say that nothing ever has been born, or created, for all is eternal. The Shingon word 'a' is interpreted as symbolizing the uncreated. The unborn or uncreated is a name for the Tathāgata, who is not born, but eternal ; hence by implication the term means "eternal". ādi, which means"at first, " "beginning","primary", is also interpreted as 不生 uncreated./

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不生斷 不生断 [bu4 sheng1 duan4 ] /One of the 三斷, when illusion no longer arises the sufferings of being reborn in the evil paths are ended./

不生不滅 不生不灭 [bu4 sheng1 bu4 mie4 ] /v. 不滅 'Neither (to be) born nor ended' is another term for 常住 permanent, eternal; nothing having been created nothing can be destroyed; Hīnayāna limits the meaning to the state of nirvana, no more births and deaths; Mahāyāna in its Mādhyamika form extends it universally, no birth and death, no creation and annihilation, see 中論./

四不生 四不生 [si4 bu4 sheng1 ] /Nothing is produced (1) of itself; (2) of another, i. e. of a cause without itself; (3) of both; (4) of no-cause./

不疑殺 不疑杀 [bu4 yi2 sha1 ] /Not in doubt that the creature has been killed to feed me, v. 不淨肉./

不相應心 不相应心 [bu4 xiang1 ying4 xin1 ] /The non-interrelated mind, see 起信論./

不相應行 不相应行 [bu4 xiang1 ying1 xing2 ] /Actions non-interrelated (with mind)./

不空 不空 [bu4 kong1 ] /Amogha, Amoghavajra. 不空三藏; 智藏; 阿目佉跋折羅 Not empty (or not in vain) vajra. The famous head of the Yogācāra school in China. A Singhalese of northern brahmanic descent, having lost his father, he came at the age of 15 with his uncle to 東海, the eastern sea, or China, where in 718 he became a disciple of 金剛智 Vajrabodhi. After the latter's death in 732, and at his wish, Eliot says in 741, he went to India and Ceylon in search of esoteric or tantric writings, and returned in 746, when he baptized the emperor Xuan Tsung. He was especially noted for rain-making and stilling storms. In 749 he received permission to return home, but was stopped by imperial orders when in the south of China. In ?756 under Su Tsung he was recalled to the capital. His time until 771 was spent translating and editing tantric books in 120 volumes, and the Yogacara 密教 rose to its peak of prosperity. He died greatly honoured at 70 years of age, in 774, the twelfth year of Tai Tsung, the third emperor under whom he had served. The festival of feeding the hungry spirits 孟蘭勝會 is attributed to him. His titles of 智藏 and 不空三藏 are Thesaurus of Wisdom and Amogha Tripitaka./

不空供養菩薩 不空供养菩萨 [bu4 kong1 gong4 yang3 pu2 sa4 ] /Āryāmogha-pūrṇamaṇi, also styled 如意金剛 'At will vajra'; in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, the fifth on the south of the 悉地 court./

不空如來藏 不空如来藏 [bu4 kong1 ru2 lai2 cang2 ] /不空眞如 The realm of phenomena; in contrast with the universal 眞如 or 法身 dharmakāya, unmingled with the illusion of phenomena./

不空成就如來 不空成就如来 [bu4 kong1 cheng2 jiu4 ru2 lai2 ] /Amoghasiddhi. The Tathāgata of unerring performance, the fifth of the five wisdom or dhyāni-buddhas of the diamond-realm. He is placed in the north; his image is gold-colored, left hand clenched, right fingers extended pointing to breast. Also, 'He is seated in 'adamantine' pose (legs closely locked) '(Getty), soles apparent, left hand in lap, palm upwards, may balance a double vajra, or sword; right hand erect in blessing, fingers extended. Symbol, double vajra; color, green (Getty); word, ah!; blue-green lotus; element, earth; animal, garuḍa; Śakti (female personification), Tārā; Mānuṣi-Buddha (human or savior Buddha), Maitreya. T., dongrub; J., Fukū jō-jū./

不空羂索 不空羂索 [bu4 kong1 juan4 suo3 ] /An unerring lasso. See 不空羂索菩薩./

不空羂索菩薩 不空羂索菩萨 [bu4 kong1 juan4 suo3 pu2 sa4 ] /(不空羂索觀音 or 不空羂索王); Amoghapāśa 阿牟伽皤賖. Not empty (or unerring) net, or lasso. One of the six forms of Guanyin in the Garbhadhātu group, catching deva and human fish for the bodhi-shore. The image has three faces, each with three eyes and six arms, but other forms have existed, one with three heads and ten arms, one with one head and four arms. The hands hold a net, lotus, trident, halberd, the gift of courage, and a plenipotentiary staff; sometimes accompanied by 'the green Tārā, Sudhana-Kumāra, Hayagrīva and Bhṛkuṭī (Getty). There are numerous sutras, etc./

不空見菩薩 不空见菩萨 [bu4 kong1 jian4 pu2 sa4 ] /Amoghadarśin, the unerringly seeing Bodhisattva, shown in the upper second place of Titsang's court in the Garbhadhātu; also 普觀金剛./

不空金剛菩薩 不空金刚菩萨 [bu4 kong1 jin1 gang1 pu2 sa4 ] /Amoghavajra-bodhisattva. 阿目佶跋折羅 A Bodhisattva in the 蘇悉地 court of the Garbhadhātu./

不空鉤觀音 不空钩观音 [bu4 kong1 gou1 guan1 yin1 ] /Amoghāṅkuśa. 央倶捨 Guanyin of the 'Unerring hook', similar to 不空羂索觀音; also styled 淸淨蓮華明王央倶捨; in the court of the empyrean./

不立文字 不立文字 [bu4 li4 wen2 zi4 ] /(不立文字教) The 禪 ch'an or intuitive School does 'not set up scriptures'; it lays stress on meditation and intuition rather than on books and other external aids: cf. Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra./

不輕 不轻 [bu4 qing1 ] /Never Despise, 常不輕菩薩 a previous incarnation of the Buddha, as a monk whose constant greeting to all he met, that they were destined for Buddhahood, brought him much persecution; see the chapter of this title in the Lotus Sutra./

不輕行 不轻行 [bu4 qing1 xing2 ] /The practice of 'Never Despise'. See 不輕./

不綺語 不绮语 [bu4 qi3 yu3 ] /Unrefined, indecent, improper, or smart speech./

不著香華鬘不香塗身 不着香华鬘不香涂身 [bu4 zhe xiang1 hua2 man2 bu4 xiang1 tu2 shen1 ] /mālā-gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana-vibhūṣaṇasthānād vairamaṇī (virati). The eighth commandment against adorning the body with wreaths of fragrant fowers, or using fragrant unguents./

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不聞惡名願 不闻恶名愿 [bu4 wen2 e4 ming2 yuan4 ] /The sixteenth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that he would not enter final Buddhahood as long as anyone of evil repute existed./

不臘次 不腊次 [bu4 la4 ci4 ] /(or 不臈次) Not in order of age, i. e. clerical age; disorderly sitting; taking a seat to which one is not entitled./

不自在 不自在 [bu4 zi4 zai4 ] /Not independent, not one's own master, under governance./

不與取 不与取 [bu4 yu3 qu3 ] /adattādāna. Taking that which is not given, i. e. theft; against this is the second commandment./

不苦不樂受 不苦不乐受 [bu4 ku3 bu4 le4 shou4 ] /one of the 三受, the state of experiencing neither pain nor pleasure, i. e. above them. Also styled 捨受 the state in which one has abandoned both./

不蘭迦葉 不兰迦叶 [bu4 lan2 jia1 ye4 ] /Pūraṇa-kāśyapa. 富蘭那迦葉 One of the six heretics, or Tirthyas, opposed to Śākyamuni./

不虛妄性 不虚妄性 [bu4 xu1 wang4 xing4 ] /Not of false or untrue nature; true, sincere; also 眞實性./

不行而行 不行而行 [bu4 xing2 er2 xing2 ] /Without doing yet to do, e. g. 無爲而爲./

不覺 不觉 [bu4 jue2 ] /Unenlightened, uncomprehending, without 'spiritual' insight, the condition of people in general, who mistake the phenomenal for the real, and by ignorance beget karma, reaping its results in the mortal round of transmigration; i. e. people generally./

不覺現行位 不觉现行位 [bu4 jue2 xian4 xing2 wei4 ] /The first two of the 十地 of the saint, in which the illusion of mistaking the phenomenal for the real still arises./

不說四衆過罪戒 不说四众过罪戒 [bu4 shuo1 si4 zhong4 guo4 zui4 jie4 ] /The prohibition of mentioning the errors and sins of other disciples, cleric or lay./

不請 不请 [bu4 qing3 ] /Not to request; uninvited; voluntary./

不請之友 不请之友 [bu4 qing3 zhi1 you3 ] /The uninvited friend, i. e. the Bodhisattva./

不請法 不请法 [bu4 qing3 fa3 ] /Uninvited preaching or offering of the Law, i. e. voluntarily bestowing its benefits./

不變易性 不变易性 [bu4 bian4 yi4 xing4 ] /Unchanging nature, immutable, i. e. the bhūtatathatā./

不變眞如 不变眞如 [bu4 bian4 zhen1 ru2 ] /The immutable bhūtatathatā in the absolute, as compared with 隨緣眞如, i. e. in relative or phenomenal conditions./

不變隨緣 不变随缘 [bu4 bian4 sui2 yuan2 ] /The conditioned immutable, i. e. immutable as a whole, but not in its parts, i. e. its phenomenal activity./

不起法忍 不起法忍 [bu4 qi3 fa3 ren3 ] /The stage of endurance, or patient meditation, that has reached the state where phenomenal illusion ceases to arise, through entry into the realization of the Void, or noumenal; also 生法忍 (or 起法忍) ./

不退 不退 [bu4 tui4 ] /(不退轉) avaivartika, or avinivartanīya. Never receding, always progressing, not backsliding, or losing ground; never retreating but going straight to nirvana; an epithet of every Buddha./

三不退 三不退 [san1 bu4 tui4 ] /Never receding from 位 position attained; from a right course of 行 action; from pursuing a right line of 念 thought, or mental discipline. These are duties of every bodhisattva, and have numerous interpretations./

四不退 四不退 [si4 bu4 tui4 ] /The four kinds of non-backsliding, which includes three kinds of non-backsliding 三不退, on top of which the Pure Land sect adds another 處 place or abode, i. e. that those who reach the Pure Land never fall away, for which five reasons are given termed 五種不退. The 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect makes their four 信, 位, 證, and 行, faith, position attained, realization, and accordant procedure./

不退住 不退住 [bu4 tui4 zhu4 ] /The seventh of the 十住, the stage of never receding, or continuous progress./

不退土 不退土 [bu4 tui4 tu3 ] /The Pure Land, from which there is no falling away./

不退地 不退地 [bu4 tui4 de ] /The first of a bodhisattva's 十地; it is also interpreted by right action and right thought./

不退相 不退相 [bu4 tui4 xiang1 ] /One of the nine 無學 aśaikṣa, i. e. the stage beyond study, where intuition rules. Name of one of the twenty-seven sages./

不退菩薩 不退菩萨 [bu4 tui4 pu2 sa4 ] /A never receding bodhisattva, who aims at perfect enlightenment./

不退輪 不退轮 [bu4 tui4 lun2 ] /(不退轉法輪) The never-receding Buddha vehicle, of universal salvation./

不還 不还 [bu4 hai2 ] /Not to return, never returning. Cf. 不退./

不還向 不还向 [bu4 hai2 xiang4 ] /The third of the 四向 four directions or aims, see 阿那含 anāgāmin, not returning to the desire-world, but rising above it to the 色界 or the 無色界 form-realm, or even formless realm./

不還果 不还果 [bu4 hai2 guo3 ] /The fruits, fruition, or rewards of the last. Various stages in the final life of parinirvāṇa are named, i. e. five, six, seven, eight, nine, or eleven kinds./

不釐務侍者 不厘务侍者 [bu4 li2 wu4 shi4 zhe3 ] /A nominal assistant or attendant, an attendant who has no responsibilities./

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不非時食 不非时食 [bu4 fei1 shi2 shi2 ] /Vikāla-bhojanād vairamaṇī (virati); part of the sixth of the ten commandments, i. e. against eating out of regulation hours, v. 不食肉./

不顧論宗 不顾论宗 [bu4 gu4 lun4 zong1 ] /One of the 因明四宗, a philosophical school, whose rule was self-gratification, 'not caring for' others./

不飮酒 不飮酒 [bu4 yin3 jiu3 ] /surā-maireya-madya-pramādasthānād vairamaṇī (virati). The fifth of the ten commandments, i. e. against alcohol./

不食肉 不食肉 [bu4 ] /vikālabhojana; part of the sixth of the ten commandments, i. e. against eating flesh; v. 不非時食./

[zhong1 ] /madhya. Middle, central, medium, the mean, within; to hit the centre. v. also 三諦./

中乘 中乘 [zhong1 cheng2 ] /The middle vehicle to nirvana, includes all intermediate or medial systems between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. It also corresponds with the state of a pratyekabuddha, who lives chiefly for his own salvation but partly for others, like a man sitting in the middle of a vehicle, leaving scarcely room for others. It is a definition made by Mahayanists unknown to Hīnayāna./

中價衣 中价衣 [zhong1 jia4 yi1 ] /Another name for the uttarā saṅghāṭī, the middle garment of price, or esteem./

中元 中元 [zhong1 yuan2 ] /The fifteenth of the seventh moon; see 孟蘭盆./

上元 上元 [shang4 yuan2 ] /The fifteenth of the first moon. See 孟蘭盆./

下元 下元 [xia4 yuan2 ] /The fifteenth of the tenth moon; cf. 孟蘭盆./

中劫 中劫 [zhong1 jie2 ] /Middling kalpa, a period of 336, 000, 000 years./

中千界 中千界 [zhong1 qian1 jie4 ] /(中千世界) A middling chiliocosm, see 三千大千世界./

中印 中印 [zhong1 yin4 ] /Central India, i. e. of the 五印 five Indies, as mentioned by Xuanzang in the 西域記./

中含 中含 [zhong1 han2 ] /The middle Agama 阿含經./

中品 中品 [zhong1 pin3 ] /Middle rank or class./

中唄 中呗 [zhong1 bei ] /Chanting of 梵唄 Buddhist hymns is divided into three kinds 初, 中, and 後./

中因 中因 [zhong1 yin1 ] /An arrangement by the esoteric sect of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, Vairocana being the first in position, Akṣobhya east, and so on./

中國 中国 [zhong1 guo2 ] /Madhyadesa. 中天 (中天竺); 中梵 The middle kingdom, i. e. Central North India, v. 中印./

中士 中士 [zhong1 shi4 ] /medium disciples, i. e. śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, who can gain emancipation for themselves, but cannot confer it on others: cf. 下士 and 上士./

中天 中天 [zhong1 tian1 ] /(中天竺) Central North India, idem 中國./

中天竺寺 中天竺寺 [zhong1 tian1 zhu2 si4 ] /A monastery on the 飛來 Feilai peak at Hangchow./

中宗 中宗 [zhong1 zong1 ] /The school or principle of the mean, represented by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, which divides the Buddha's teaching into three periods, the first in which he preached 有 existence, the second 空 non-existence, the third 中 neither, something 'between' or above them, e. g. a realm of pure spirit, vide the 深密經 Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra and the Lotus Sutra./

中宿依 中宿依 [zhong1 su4 yi1 ] /A monk's inner garment, i. e. the five-patch garment; also 中着依./

中實 中实 [zhong1 shi2 ] /idem 中道實相./

中尊 中尊 [zhong1 zun1 ] /The central honored one— in any group of Buddhas, e. g. 不動尊 among the five 明王./

中心 中心 [zhong1 xin1 ] /idem 忠心經./

中悔 中悔 [zhong1 hui3 ] /Repenting or recanting midway, i. e. doubting and falling away./

中有 中有 [zhong1 you3 ] /One of the 四有, i. e. the antarā-bhāva or intermediate state of existence between death and reincarnation; hence 中有之旅 is an unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincarnation; v. 中陰./

中有之旅 中有之旅 [zhong1 you3 zhi1 lv3 ] /An unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincarnation; v. 中陰./

中根 中根 [zhong1 gen1 ] /Medium capacity, neither clever nor dull, of each of the six organs 六根; there are three powers of each organ 上根, 中根, and 下根./

中梵 中梵 [zhong1 fan4 ] /Central North India, idem 中國./

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中洲 中洲 [zhong1 zhou1 ] /Each of the four great continents at the foot of Mount Sumeru has two middling continents./

中流 中流 [zhong1 liu2 ] /In the midst of the stream, i. e. of 生死 mortality, or reincarnations./

中胎 中胎 [zhong1 tai1 ] /(中胎藏) The central figure of the eight-petalled group of the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala; i. e. the phenomenal Vairocana who has around him four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas, each on a petal. From this maṇḍala spring the four other great maṇḍalas./

中臺 中台 [zhong1 tai2 ] /The name of a Buddha in the center of lotus./

中臺八葉院 中台八叶院 [zhong1 tai2 ba1 ye4 yuan4 ] /The Court of the eight-petaled lotus in the middle of the Garbhadhātu, with Vairocana in its center and four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the eight petals. The lotus is likened to the human heart, with the Sun-Buddha 大日 at its center. The four Buddhas are E. Akṣobhya, S. Ratnasambhava, W. Amitābha, N. Amoghasiddhi; the four bodhisattvas are S. E. Samantabhadra, S. W. Mañjuśrī, N. W. Avalokiteśvara, and N. E. Maitreya./

中般 中般 [zhong1 ban1 ] /One of the five kinds of those who never recede but go on to parinirvāṇa, cf. 不還./

中草 中草 [zhong1 cao3 ] /Medium-sized herbs, medium capacity, v. 三草./

中觀 中观 [zhong1 guan1 ] /Meditation on the Mean, one of the 三觀; also meditation on the absolute which unites all opposites. There are various forms of such meditation, that of the 法相宗, the 三論宗, the 天台宗. v. 中論./

中論 中论 [zhong1 lun4 ] /中觀論 Prāñnyāya-mūla-śāstra-ṭīkā, or Prāṇyamula-śāstra-ṭīkā; the Mādhyamika-śāstra, attributed to the bodhisattvas Nāgārjuna as creator, and Nīlacakṣus as compiler; tr. by Kumārajīva A. D. 409. It is the principal work of the Mādhyamika, or Middle School, attributed to Nāgārjuna. Versions only exist in Chinese and Tibetan; an English translation by Miyamoto exists and publication is promised; a German version is by Walleser. The 中論 is the first and most?? important of the 三論 q. v. The teaching of this School is found additionally in the 順中論; 般若燈論釋大乘中觀釋論 and 中論疏. Cf. 中道. The doctrine opposes the rigid categories of existence and non-existence 假 and 空, and denies the two extremes of production (or creation) and nonproduction and other antitheses, in the interests of a middle or superior way./

中論性教 中论性教 [zhong1 lun4 xing4 jiao4 ] /The Mādhyamika school, which has been described as a system of sophisiic nihilism, dissolving every proposition into a thesis and its antithesis, and refuting both; but it is considered by some that the refuting of both is in the interests of a third, the 中 which transcends both./

中諦 中谛 [zhong1 di4 ] /The third of the 三諦 three postulates of the Tiantai school, i. e. 空, 假, and 中 q. v./

中輩 中辈 [zhong1 bei4 ] /The middle stage of the 三輩 referred to in the 無量壽經 i. e. the middle class of those in the next life; also 中輩生./

中輩觀 中辈观 [zhong1 bei4 guan1 ] /the meditation on the condition of 中輩./

中道 中道 [zhong1 dao4 ] /The 'mean' has various interpretations. In general it denotes the mean between two extremes, and has special reference to the mean between realism and nihilism, or eternal substantial existence and annihilation; this 'mean' is found in a third principle between the two, suggesting the idea of a realm of mind or spirit beyond the terminology of 有 or 無, substance or nothing, or, that which has form, and is therefore measurable and ponderable, and its opposite of total non-existence. See 中論. The following four Schools define the term according to their several scriptures: the 法相 School describes it as the 唯識, v. 唯識中道; the 三論 School as the 八不 eight negations, v. 三論; the Tiantai as 實相 the true reality; and the Huayan as the 法界 dharmadhātu. Four forms of the Mean are given by the 三論玄義./

中道卽法界 中道卽法界 [zhong1 dao4 ji2 fa3 jie4 ] /The doctrine of the 'mean', is the dharmadhātu, or 'spiritual ' universe./

中道宗 中道宗 [zhong1 dao4 zong1 ] /The third period of the Buddha's teaching, according to the 法相宗, giving the via media between the two extremes, the absolute as not confined to the phenomenal or the noumenal; also called 中道教./

中道實相 中道实相 [zhong1 dao4 shi2 xiang1 ] /The reality of the 'mean' is neither 有 substance or existent, nor 空 void or non-existent, but a reality which is neither, or a mean between the two extremes of materialism and nihilism; also 中實./

中道應本 中道应本 [zhong1 dao4 ying4 ben3 ] /The 'mean' as the basic principle in the 別 and 圓 schools of the doctrine of the 應化身 'transformation body'./

中道第一義 中道第一义 [zhong1 dao4 di4 yi1 yi4 ] /The 'mean' is the first and chief of all principles, nothing is outside it./

中道觀 中道观 [zhong1 dao4 guan1 ] /One of the Tiantai 三觀 three meditations, i. e. on the doctrine of the Mean to get rid of the illusion of phenomena./

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中邊論 中边论 [zhong1 bian1 lun4 ] /A treatise by Vasubandhu, translated by Xuanzang in three chuan and by 陳眞諦Chen Zhen-ti in two fascicles. It is an explanation of the 辨中邊論頌 Madhyānta-vibhāga-śāstra, said to have been given by Maitreya to Asaṅga./

中間定 中间定 [zhong1 jian1 ding4 ] /An intermediate dhyāna stage between two dhyāna-heavens; also 中間三昧; 中間靜慮./

中陰 中阴 [zhong1 yin1 ] /The intermediate existence between death and reincarnation, a stage varying from seven to forty-nine days, when the karma-body will certainly be reborn; v. 中有./

中陰法事 中阴法事 [zhong1 yin1 fa3 shi4 ] /The means used (by the deceased' s family) for ensuring a favorable reincarnation during the intermediate stage, between death and reincarnation./

中食 中食 [zhong1 shi2 ] /The midday meal, after which nothing whatever may be eaten./

中體 中体 [zhong1 ti3 ] /The central Buddha in a group./

[dan1 ] /Red, cinnabar color; a remedy, drug, elixir./

丹田 丹田 [dan1 tian2 ] /The pubic region, 2 1/2 inches below the navel./

[yun2 ] /To say, speak./

云云 云云 [yun2 yun2 ] /Continuing to speak; they say, people say; as follows, and so on, etc./

云何 云何 [yun2 he2 ] /Why?/

云何唄 云何呗 [yun2 he2 bei ] /The opening stanza of the Nirvana sutra 3./

[hu4 ] /Interlock, dovetail-mutual./

互用罪 互用罪 [hu4 yong4 zui4 ] /The fault of transferring from one object of worship over to another a, gift, or duty, e. g. using gilt given for an image of Śākyamuni to make one for Maitreya; or 'robbing Peter to pay Paul'./

互跪 互跪 [hu4 gui4 ] /Kneeling with both knees at once, as in India; in China the left knee is first placed on the ground; also 互胡跪./

互裟伽藍 互裟伽蓝 [hu4 sha1 qie2 lan2 ] /Haṃsa saṃghārāma, 'Wild goose monastery, ' on Mount Indraśailaguhā, whose inmates were once saved from starving by the self-sacrifice of a wild goose; also 僧裟伽藍 (or 僧鷹伽藍) ./

[jing3 ] /A well./

井中撈月 井中捞月 [jing3 zhong1 lao1 yue4 ] /Like ladling the moon out of the well; the parable of the monkeys who saw the moon fallen into a well, and fearing there would be no more moonlight, sought to save it; the monkey-king hung on to a branch, one hung on to his tail and so on, but the branch broke and all were drowned./

井河 井河 [jing3 he2 ] /Like the well and the river', indicating the impermanence of life. The 'well ' refers to the legend of the man who running away from a mad elephant fell into a well; the 'river ' to a great tree growing on the river bank yet blown over by the wind./

井華 井华 [jing3 hua2 ] /The flower of the water, i. e. that drawn from the well in the last watch of the night, at which time the water is supposed not to produce animal life./

[wu3 ] /pañca, five./

五三八二 五三八二 [wu3 san1 ba1 er4 ] /Five, three, eight, two, a summary of the tenets of the 法相 school, 五法, 三性, 八識, and 二無我 q. v./

五上分結 五上分结 [wu3 shang4 fen1 jie2 ] /The five higher bonds of desire still existing in the upper realms, i. e. in both the form and formless realms./

五下分結 五下分结 [wu3 xia4 fen1 jie2 ] /The five bonds in the lower desire-realms, i. e. desire, dislike, self, heretical ideals, doubt 貪, 瞋, 我, 邪戒, 疑./

五不可思議 五不可思议 [wu3 bu4 ke3 si1 yi4 ] /The five inconceivable, or thought-surpassing things. v. 不可思議./

五不正食 五不正食 [wu3 bu4 zheng4 shi2 ] /Five improper things for a monk to eat— twigs, leaves, flowers, fruit, powders./

五不還天 五不还天 [wu3 bu4 hai2 tian1 ] /idem 五淨居天./

五不還果 五不还果 [wu3 bu4 hai2 guo3 ] /idem 五種阿那含./

五乘 五乘 [wu3 cheng2 ] /The five vehicles conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the vehicle: they are generally summed up as (1) 入乘 rebirth among men conveyed by observing the five commandments; (2) 天乘 among the devas by the ten forms of good action; (3) 聲聞乘 among the śrāvakas by the four noble truths; (4) 緣覺乘 among pratyekabuddhas by the twelve nidānas; (5) 菩薩乘 among the Buddhas and bodhisattvas by the six pāramitās 六度 q. v. Another division is the various vehicles of bodhisattvas; pratyekabuddhas; śrāvakas; general; and devas-and-men. Another is Hīnayāna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, the gods of the Brahma heavens, and those of the desire-realm. Another is Hīnayāna ordinary disciples: śrāvakas: pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas; and the one all-inclusive vehicle. And a sixth, of Tiantai, is for men; devas; śrāvakas-cum-pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas: and the Buddha-vehicle. The esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: śrāvakas, with fire: pratyekabuddhas, with wind; and bodhisattvas, with 空 the 'void'./

五乘齊入 五乘齐入 [wu3 cheng2 qi2 ru4 ] /All the different classes will obtain an entrance into the Pure Land by the vow of Amitābha./

五事妄語 五事妄语 [wu3 shi4 wang4 yu3 ] /The five things fallaciously explained by Mahādeva, as stated in the Kathāvatthu./

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五五百年 五五百年 [wu3 wu3 bai3 nian2 ] /The five periods each of 500 years. In the tenth chapter of the 大集月藏經 the Buddha is reported as saying that after his death there would be five successive periods each of 500 years, strong consecutively in power (1) of salvation, (2) of meditation, (3) of learning, (4) of stūpa and temple building, and finally (5) of dissension./

五五菩薩 五五菩萨 [wu3 wu3 pu2 sa4 ] /The twenty-five Bodhisattvas 二十五菩薩./

五人說經 五人说经 [wu3 ren2 shuo1 jing1 ] /v. 五種說人./

五住地 五住地 [wu3 zhu4 de ] /(五住) The five fundamental condition of 煩惱 the passions and delusions: wrong views which are common to the trailokya; clinging, or attachment, in the desire-realm; clinging, or attachment, in the form-realm; clinging, or attachment, in the formless realm which is still mortal: the state of unenlightenment or ignorance in the trailokya 三界 which is the root-cause of all distressful delusion, Also 五住地惑./

五佛 五佛 [wu3 fu2 ] /The Five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu; v. 五智如來./

五佛五身 五佛五身 [wu3 fu2 wu3 shen1 ] /A Shingon term for the five Buddhas in their five manifestations: Vairocana as eternal and pure dharmakāya; Akṣobhya as immutable and sovereign; Ratnasaṃbhava as bliss and glory; Amitābha as wisdom in action; Śākyamuni as incarnation and nirmāṇakāya./

五佛子 五佛子 [wu3 fu2 zi ] /Five classes of Buddhists; also idem 五比丘 q. v./

五佛寶冠 五佛宝冠 [wu3 fu2 bao3 guan1 ] /五佛冠; 五智冠 (五智寶冠) ; 五寶天冠; 寶冠 A Buddha-crown containing the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas. The five Buddhas 'are always crowned when holding the śakti, and hence are called by the Tibetans the 'crowned Buddhas' (Getty). Vairocana in the Vajradhātu wears a crown with five points indicative of the five qualities of perfect wisdom, etc., as represented by the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas./

五佛性 五佛性 [wu3 fu2 xing4 ] /The five characteristics of a Buddha' s nature: the first three are the 三因佛性 q. v., the fourth is 果佛性 the fruition of perfect enlightenment, and the fifth 果果佛性 the fruition of that fruition, or the revelation of parinirvāṇa. The first three are natural attributes, the two last are acquired./

五佛羯磨印 五佛羯磨印 [wu3 fu2 jie2 mo2 yin4 ] /The manual signs by which the characteristic of each of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas is shown in the Diamond-realm group, i. e. Vairocana, the closed hand of wisdom; Akṣobhya, right fingers touching the ground, firm wisdom; Ratnasaṃbhava, right hand open uplifted, vow-making sign; Amitābha, samādhi sign, right fingers in left palm, preaching and ending doubts; and Amoghasiddhi, i. e. Śākyamuni, the karma sign, i. e. final nirvana. These mūdra, or manual signs, are from the 瑜祇經 but other forms are common./

五佛頂 五佛顶 [wu3 fu2 ding3 ] /(五佛頂尊); 五頂輪王 Five bodhisattvas sometimes placed on the left of Śākyamuni, indicative of five forms of wisdom: (1) 白傘佛頂輪王 (白蓋佛頂輪王); 白 M027897佛頂, Sitāta-patra, with white parasol, symbol of pure mercy, one of the titles of Avalokiteśvara; (2) 勝佛頂 Jaya, with sword symbol of wisdom, or discretion; (3) 最勝佛頂 (一字最勝佛頂輪王); 金輪佛頂 (最勝金輪佛頂); 轉輪王佛頂 Vijaya, with golden wheel symbol of unexcelled power of preaching; (4) 火聚佛頂; 光聚佛頂 (or 放光佛頂 or 火光佛頂) ; 高佛頂 Tejorāṣi, collected brilliance, with insignia of authority 如意寶 or a fame; (5) 捨除佛頂; 除障佛頂; 摧碎佛頂; 除業佛頂; 除蓋障佛頂; 尊勝, etc. Vikīrṇa, scattering and destroying all distressing delusion, with a hook as symbol./

五佛頂法 五佛顶法 [wu3 fu2 ding3 fa3 ] /The forms, colors, symbols, etc., of the 五佛頂./

五佛頂經 五佛顶经 [wu3 fu2 ding3 jing1 ] /Abbreviation for— 一字佛頂輪王經. There is also a 五佛頂三昧陀羅尼經 translated by Bodhiruci circa A. D. 503./

五佛灌頂 五佛灌顶 [wu3 fu2 guan4 ding3 ] /Baptism with five vases of perfumed water, symbol of Buddha-wisdom in its five forms./

五作業根 五作业根 [wu3 zuo4 ye4 gen1 ] /The five working organs: the mouth, hands, feet, sex organ, and anus./

五位 五位 [wu3 wei4 ] /The five categories, or divisions; there are several groups, e. g. (1) Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna have groupings of all phenomena under five heads, i. e. Hīnayāna has 75 法 which are 11 色法, 1 心法, 46 心所法, 14 不相離法, and 3 無爲法; Mahāyāna has 100 法 which are 8 心, 51 心所, 11 色, 24 不相因, and 6 無爲法. (2) The five divisions of 唯識 are 資糧位, 加行位, 通達位, 修習位, and 究竟 or 佛位. (3) The five evolutions in the womb are: kalalaṃ, embryo-initiation; arbudaṃ, after 27 days; peśī, 37; ghana, 47; praśākha, 57 days when form and organs are all complete. (4) Certain combinations of the 八卦 Eight Diagrams are sometimes styled 五位君臣 five positions of prince and minister./

五位三昧 五位三昧 [wu3 wei4 san1 mei4 ] /五種三昧 The five kinds of samādhi: (1) On mortality, the 四禪 and 八定; (2) śrāvaka on the four axioms; (3) pratyekabuddha on the twelve nidānas; (4) bodhisattva on the 六度 and the 萬行; (5) Buddha on the one Buddha-vehicle, which includes all others; v. 五乘./

五供養 五供养 [wu3 gong4 yang3 ] /The five kinds of offerings— unguents, chaplets, incense, food, and lamps (or candles)./

五使者 五使者 [wu3 shi3 zhe3 ] /The five messengers of Mañjuśrī, 丈殊五使者, 五種金剛使; they are shown on his left in his court in the Garbhadhātu group; their names are (1) Keśīnī 髻設尼 (or 計設尼) ; 繼室尼. (2) Upakeśīnī 鄔波髻設尼; 烏波髻施儞 (or 烏波髻施尼); 優婆計設尼. (3) Citrā 質多羅 (or 質怛羅). (4) Vasumatī, tr. 慧 and 財慧; 嚩蘇磨 底. (5) Ākarṣaṇī, tr. 請召 , 釣召 and 招召 ;阿羯沙尼./

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五倶倫 五倶伦 [wu3 ju4 lun2 ] /The five comrades, i. e. Śākyamuni's five old companions in asceticism and first converts, v. 五比丘. Also 五拘鄰./

五條袈裟 五条袈裟 [wu3 tiao2 jia1 sha1 ] /(五條) The monk' s robe of five patches or lengths, also termed 下衣 as the lowest of the grades of patch-robes. It is styled 院内道行雜作衣 the garment ordinarily worn in the monastery, when abroad and for general purposes; also written 五帖袈裟、五條衣./

五停四念 五停四念 [wu3 ting2 si4 nian4 ] /idem 五停心觀 and 四念處 i. e. the five meditations for settling the mind and ridding it of the five errors of desire, hate, ignorance, the self, and a wayward or confused mind; the five meditations are 不淨觀, 慈悲觀, 因緣觀, 界分別觀 and 數息觀 i. e. the vileness of all things, pity for all, causality, right discrimination, breathing; some substitute meditation on the Buddha in place of the fourth; another division puts breathing first, and there are other differences./

五八 五八 [wu3 ba1 ] /Five eights, i. e. forty./

五八十具 五八十具 [wu3 ba1 shi2 ju4 ] /All the five, eight, and ten commandments, i. e. the three groups of disciples, laity who keep the five and eight and monks who keep the ten./

五八尊 五八尊 [wu3 ba1 zun1 ] /The forty forms of Guanyin, or the Guanyin with forty hands: the forty forms multiplied by the twenty-five things 二十五有 make 1, 000, hence Guanyin with the thousand hands./

五八識 五八识 [wu3 ba1 shi2 ] /The five sense perceptions and the eighth or ālaya vijñāna, the fecundating principle of consciousness in man./

五具足 五具足 [wu3 ju4 zu2 ] /The five complete utensils for worship— two flower vases, two candlesticks, and a censer./

五刀 五刀 [wu3 dao1 ] /The 'five swords' or slayers who were sent in pursuit of a man who fled from his king, e. g. the five skandhas 五蘊./

五分 五分 [wu3 fen1 ] /idem 五分法身 and 五部大論./

五分律 五分律 [wu3 fen1 lv4 ] /五分戒本 The Mahīśāsaka Vinaya, or five divisions of the law according to that school./

五分法身 五分法身 [wu3 fen1 fa3 shen1 ] /pañca-dharmakāya, the five attributes of the dharmakāya or 'spiritual' body of the Tathāgata, i. e. 戒 that he is above all moral conditions; 定 tranquil and apart from all false ideas; 慧 wise and omniscient; 解脫 free, unlimited, unconditioned, which is the state of nirvana; 解脫知見 that he has perfect knowledge of this state. These five attributes surpass all conditions of form, or the five skandhas; Eitel interprets this by exemption from all materiality (rūpa); all sensations (vedana); all consciousness (saṃjñā); all moral activity (karman); all knowledge (vijñāna). The esoteric sect has its own group. See also 五種法身./

五分香 五分香 [wu3 fen1 xiang1 ] /The five kinds of incense, or fragrance, corresponding with the 五分法身, i. e. the fragrance of 戒香, 定香, etc./

五利使 五利使 [wu3 li4 shi3 ] /Five of the ten 'runners 'or lictors, i. e. delusions; the ten are divided into five 鈍 dull, or stupid, and five 利 sharp or keen, appealing to the intellect; the latter are 身見, 邊見, 邪見, 見取見, 戒禁取見./

五劫思惟 五劫思惟 [wu3 jie2 si1 wei2 ] /The five kalpas spent by Amitābha thinking out and preparing for his vows./

五力 五力 [wu3 li4 ] /pañcabalāni, the five powers or faculties — one of the categories of the thirty-seven bodhipakṣika dharma 三十七助道品; they destroy the 五障 five obstacles, each by each, and are: 信力 śraddhābala, faith (destroying doubt); 精進力 vīryabala, zeal (destroying remissness); 念 or 勤念 smṛtibala, memory or thought (destroying falsity); 正定力 samādhibala, concentration of mind, or meditation (destroying confused or wandering thoughts); and 慧力 prajñābala, wisdom (destroying all illusion and delusion). Also the five transcendent powers, i. e. 定力 the power of meditation; 通力 the resulting supernatural powers; 借識力 adaptability, or powers of 'borrowing' or evolving any required organ of sense, or knowledge, i. e. by beings above the second dhyāna heavens; 大願力 the power of accomplishing a vow by a Buddha or bodhisattva; and 法威德力 the august power of Dharma. Also, the five kinds of Mara powers exerted on sight, 五大明王./

五功德門 五功德门 [wu3 gong1 de2 men2 ] /The five effective or meritorious gates to Amitābha's Pure Land, i. e. worship of him, praise of him, vows to him, meditation on him, willingness to suffer for universal salvation./

五十三佛 五十三佛 [wu3 shi2 san1 fu2 ] /Fifty-three past Buddhas, of which the lists vary./

五十三尊 五十三尊 [wu3 shi2 san1 zun1 ] /The fifty-three honored ones of the Diamond group, i. e. the thirty-seven plus sixteen bodhisattvas of the present kalpa./

五十三智識 五十三智识 [wu3 shi2 san1 zhi4 shi2 ] /五十三參 The fifty-three wise ones mentioned in the 入法界 chapter of the Huayan Sutra./

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五十二位 五十二位 [wu3 shi2 er4 wei4 ] /The fifty-two stages in the process of becoming a Buddha; of these fifty-one are to bodhisattvahood, the fifty-second to Buddhahood. They are: Ten 十信 or stages of faith; thirty of the 三賢 or three grades of virtue i. e. ten 十住, ten 十行, and ten 十廻向; and twelve of the three grades of 聖 holiness, or sainthood, i. e. ten 地, plus 等覺 and 妙覺. These are the Tiantai stages; there are others, and the number and character of the stages vary in different schools./

五十二衆 五十二众 [wu3 shi2 er4 zhong4 ] /五十二類 The fifty-two groups of living beings, human and not-human, who, according to the Nirvana-sutra, assembled at the nirvana of the Buddha./

五十二種供物 五十二种供物 [wu3 shi2 er4 zhong3 gong1 wu4 ] /The fifty-two kinds of offerings of the 五十二衆./

五十二身像 五十二身像 [wu3 shi2 er4 shen1 xiang4 ] /The maṇḍala of Amitābha with his fifty-two attendant Bodhisattvas and Buddhas. Also known as 阿彌陀佛五十菩薩像 or 五十 ニ 尊 or 五通曼荼羅; said to have been communicated to 五通菩薩 in India at the 鷄頭磨寺./

五十五善知識 五十五善知识 [wu3 shi2 wu3 shan4 zhi1 shi2 ] /similar to 五十三智識. 五十八戒 The ten primary commands and the forty-eight secondary commands of the 梵綱經. 五十六億七千萬歳 The perod to elapse between Śākyamuni's nirvana and the advent of Maitreya, 56, 070, 000 years./

五十天供 五十天供 [wu3 shi2 ] /The fifty (or fify-two) objects of worship for suppressing demons and pestilences, and producing peace, good harvests, etc.; the lists differ./

五十字門 五十字门 [wu3 shi2 zi4 men2 ] /The Sanskrit alphabet given as of fifty letters./

五十小劫 五十小劫 [wu3 shi2 xiao3 jie2 ] /The fifty minor kalpas which, in the 涌出 chapter of the Lotus, are supernaturally made to seem as but half a day./

五十展轉 五十展转 [wu3 shi2 zhan3 zhuan3 ] /The fiftieth turn, i. e. the great-ness of the bliss of one who hears the Lotus Sutra even at fiftieth hand: how much greater that of him who hears at first hamd ! 五十功德 idem 五十展轉 and 五十轉五十惡 The fifty evils produced by the five skandhas, i. e. 色 seventeen, 受 eight, 想 eight, 行 nine, 識 eight./

五十法 五十法 [wu3 shi2 fa3 ] /Fifty modes of meditation mentioned in the 大品般若; i. e. the 三十七品 bodhi paksika dharma, the 三三昧, four 禪, four 無量心, four 無色定, eight 背捨, eight 勝處, nine 次第定, and eleven 切處./

五千上慢 五千上慢 [wu3 qian1 shang4 man4 ] /The five thousand supremely arrogant (i. e. Hīnayāna) monks who left the great assemibly, refusing to hear the Buddha preach the new doctrine of the Lotus Sutra; see its 方便 chapter./

[yin4 ] /(度) The five Indias, or five regions of India, idem 五天竺 q. v./

[can1 ] /Worship on the four fives, i. e. the fifth, tenth, twentieth, and twenty-fifth days of the month; also ||上堂./

叉地獄 叉地狱 [cha1 di4 yu4 ] /The hell in which the sufferers are dismembered with five-pronged forks./

取蘊 取蕴 [qu3 yun4 ] /The five tenacious bonds, or skandhas, attaching to mortality./

五受 五受 [wu3 shou4 ] /The five vedanas, or sensations; i. e. of sorrow, ofjoy; of pain, of pleasure; of freedom from them all; the first two are limited to mental emotions, the two next are of the senses, and the fifth of both; v. 唯識論 5./

五同緣意識 五同缘意识 [wu3 tong2 yuan2 yi4 shi2 ] /One of the four kinds of 意識 q. v.; the mental concept of the perceptions of the five senses. 五味 The five flavours, or stages of making ghee, which is said to be a cure for all ailments; it is a Tiantai illustration of the five periods of the Buddha's teaching: (1) M000190 |ksira, fresh milk, his first preaching, i. e. that of the 華嚴經 Avatamsaka, for śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas; (2) 酪 |dadhi, coagulated milk, cream, the 阿含經 Agamas, for Hīnayāna generally; (3) 生酥 | navanita, curdled, the 方等經 Vaipulyas, for the Mahāyāna 通經(4) 涅槃經 |ghola, butter, the 般若經 Prajna, for the Mahāyāna 別教; (5) 醍醐 |sarpirmandla, clarified butter, ghee, the 法華 Lotus and 涅槃經 Nirvana sutras, for the Mahāyāna 圓教; see also 五時教, and v. 涅槃經 14. Also, the ordinary five flavours -sour, bitter, sweet, pungent, and salty./

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五味禪 五味禅 [wu3 wei4 chan2 ] /Five kinds of concentration, i. e. that of heretics, ordinary people, Hīnayāna, Mahāyāna, and 最上乘 the supreme vehicle, or that of believers in the fundamental Buddha-nature of all things; this is styled 如來滿淨禪; 一行三昧,; 眞如三昧./

五味粥 五味粥 [wu3 wei4 zhou1 ] /The porridge of five flavors made on the eighth day of the twelfth moon, the anniversary of the Buddha's enlightenment./

五周因果 五周因果 [wu3 zhou1 ] /The five circuits or areas of cause and effect, i. e. the five main subjects of the Huayan sutra./

五品 五品 [wu3 pin3 ] /A division of the disciples, in the Lotus Sutra, into five grades— those who hear and rejoice; read and repeat; preach; observe and meditate; and transform self and others./

五唯 五唯 [wu3 wei2 ] /(五唯量) pañcatanmātrāṇi, the five subtle or rudimentary elements out of which rise the five sensations of sound, touch, form, taste, and smell. They are the fourth of the 二十五諦./

五善 五善 [wu3 shan4 ] /The five good (things), i. e. the first five commandments./

五因 五因 [wu3 yin1 ] /The five causes, v. 倶舍論 7. i. e. (1) 生因 producing cause; (2) 依因supporting cause; (3) 立因 upholding or establishing cause; (4) 持因 maintaining cause; (5) 養因 nourishing or strengthening cause. These all refer to the four elements, earth, water, fire, wind, for they are the causers or producers and maintainers of the infinite forms of nature. Another list from the Nirvana-Sutra 21 is (1) 生因 cause of rebirth, i. e. previous delusion; (2) 和合因 intermingling cause, i. e. good with good, bad with bad, neutral with neutral; (3) 住因 cause of abiding in the present condition, i. e. the self in its attachments; (4) 增長因 causes of development, e. g. food, clothing, etc.; (5) 遠因 remoter cause, the parental seed./

五堅固 五坚固 [wu3 ] /idem 五五百年./

五執 五执 [wu3 zhi2 ] /The five planets, see 五星./

五境 五境 [wu3 jing4 ] /The objects of the five senses, corresponding to the senses of form, sound, smell, taste, and touch./

五塵 五尘 [wu3 chen2 ] /The objects of the five senses, which being dusty or earthly things can taint the true nature; idem 五境./

五壇法 五坛法 [wu3 tan2 fa3 ] /The ceremonies before the 五大明王./

五夢 五梦 [wu3 meng4 ] /The five bad dreams of King Ajātaśatru on the night that Buddha entered nirvana— as the moon sank the sun arose from the earth. the stars fell like rain, seven comets appeared, and a great conflagration filling the sky fell on the earth./

五大 五大 [wu3 da4 ] /The five elements— earth, water, fire, wind, and space. v. also 五行 the five agents. In the esoteric cult the five are the physical manifestation, or garbhadhātu, v. 胎; as being in all phenomena they are called 五輪 the five evolvers; their phonetic embryos 種子 are those of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas of the five directions, v. 五佛./

五大使者 五大使者 [wu3 da4 shi3 zhe3 ] /五天使者 The five dūta, i. e. great lictors, or deva-messengers— birth, old age, disease, death, earthly laws and punishments— said to be sent by Māra as warnings./

五大力菩薩 五大力菩萨 [wu3 da4 li4 pu2 sa4 ] /The five powerful Bodhisattvas, guardians of the four quarters and the centre./

五大尊 五大尊 [wu3 da4 zun1 ] /idem 五大明王./

五大形 五大形 [wu3 da4 xing2 ] /The symbols of the five elements— earth as square, water round, fire triangular, wind half-moon, and space a combination of the other four./

五大施 五大施 [wu3 da4 shi1 ] /The five great gifts, i. e. ability to keep the five commandments./

五大明王 五大明王 [wu3 da4 ming2 wang2 ] /The five Dharmapālas, or Law-guardians of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, of whom they are emanations or embodiments in two forms, compassionate and minatory. The five kings are the fierce aspect, e. g. Yamantaka, or the 六足尊金剛 Six-legged Honoured One is an emanation of Mañjuśrī, who is an emanation of Amitābha. The five kings are 不動, 降三世, 軍荼梨, 六足尊, and 淨身, all vajra-kings./

五大色 五大色 [wu3 da4 se4 ] /The five chief colours— yellow for earth, white for water, red for fire, black for wind, azure for space (or the sky). Some say white for wind and black for water./

五大觀 五大观 [wu3 da4 guan1 ] /The meditation on the five elements 五大./

五大院 五大院 [wu3 da4 yuan4 ] /The fifth of the thirteen great courts of the Garbhadhātu-maṇḍala, named 持明院, the court of the five Dharmapālas 五大明王./

五大龍王 五大龙王 [wu3 da4 long2 wang2 ] /五類龍王 The five great dragon-kings of India./

五天 五天 [wu3 tian1 ] /(五天子) Five devas in the Garbhadhātumaṇḍala located in the north-east. Also 五乘居天 (or 五乘居衆 ); 五那含天子./

五天 五天 [wu3 tian1 ] /五天竺; The five regions of India, north, south, east, west, and central; v. 西域記./

五如來 五如来 [wu3 ru2 lai2 ] /The five Tathāgatas, or Dhyāni-Buddhas, in their special capacity of relieving the lot of hungry ghosts; i. e. Ratnasambhava. Akṣobhya, Amoghasiddhi, Vairocana, and Śākyamuni; v. 五智如來. '/

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五妙 五妙 [wu3 miao4 ] /The five wonders, i. e. of purified or transcendental sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch in the Pure-land./

五妙境界樂 五妙境界乐 [wu3 miao4 jing4 jie4 le4 ] /The joys in the Pure land./

五妙欲 五妙欲 [wu3 miao4 yu4 ] /The five creature desires stimulated by the objects of the five earthly senses./

五學處 五学处 [wu3 xue2 chu4 ] /idem 五戒./

五官 五官 [wu3 guan1 ] /The five controlling powers, v. 五大使, birth, old age, sickness, death, and the (imperial) magistrate./

五官王 五官王 [wu3 guan1 wang2 ] /The fourth of the 十王 judges of the dead, who registers the weight of the sins of the deceased./

五宗 五宗 [wu3 zong1 ] /The five great schools of Mahāyāna, i. e. 天台, 華嚴法相, 三論, and 律宗. There are other classes, or groups./

五家七宗 五家七宗 [wu3 jia1 qi1 zong1 ] /(五家) Division in China of the 禪 Ch'an, Intuitive or Meditative School. It divided into northern and southern schools under 神秀 Shenxiu and 慧能 Huineng respectively. The northern school continued as a unit, the southern divided into five or seven 宗, viz. 潙仰宗, 臨濟宗, 曹洞宗, 雲門宗, and 法眼宗; the two others are 黃龍 and 揚岐./

五家所共 五家所共 [wu3 jia1 suo3 gong4 ] /What the five classes, i. e. rulers, thieves, water, fire, and prodigal sons, have as their common prey, the wealth struggled for by others./

五寶 五宝 [wu3 bao3 ] /The five precious things, syn. all the precious things. There are several groups, e. g. — gold, silver, pearls, cowries, and rubies; or, coral, crystal, gold, silver, and cowries; or, gold, silver, pearls, coral, and amber; etc./

五專 五专 [wu3 zhuan1 ] /The five special things, or five devotions, observance of any one of which, according to the Japanese 眞宗 Shin sect, ensures rebirth in the Pure Land; they are 專禮, 專讀, 專觀, 專名, or 專讚嘆 either worship, reading, meditation, invocation, or praise./

五居 五居 [wu3 ju1 ] /idem 五淨居天./

五山 五山 [wu3 shan1 ] /Five mountains and monasteries: (1) in India, sacred because of their connection with the Buddha: 鞞婆羅跋怒 Vaibhāra-vana; 薩多般那求呵 Saptaparṇaguhā; 因陀羅勢羅求呵 Indraśailaguhā; 薩簸恕魂直迦鉢婆羅 Sarpiṣ kuṇḍikā-prāgbhāra; 耆闍崛 Gṛdhrakūṭa; (2) in China, established during the Five Dynasties and the Southern Sung dynasty, on the analogy of those in India; three at Hangzhou at 徑山 Jingshan, 北山 Beishan, and 南山 Nanshan and two at Ningbo at 阿育王山 King Aśoka Shan and 太白山 Taiboshan. Later the Yuan dynasty established one at 全陵 Chin Ling, the 天界大龍翔隻慶寺 which became chief of these under the Ming dynasty./

五師 五师 [wu3 shi1 ] /The five masters or teachers, i. e. respectively of the sutras, the vinaya, the śāstras, the abhidharma, and meditation. A further division is made of 異世五師 and 同世五師. The first, i. e. of different periods, are Mahākāśyapa, Ānanda, Madhyāntika, Śāṇavāsa, and Upagupta; another group connected with the Vinaya is Upāli, Dāsaka, Sonaka, Siggava, and Moggaliputra Tissva. The 同世 or five of the same period are variously stated: the Sarvāstivādins say they were the five immediate disciples of Upagupta, i. e. Dharmagupta, etc.; see 五部./

五師子 五师子 [wu3 shi1 zi ] /The five lions that sprang from the Buddha's five fingers; 涅槃經 16./

五年大會 五年大会 [wu3 nian2 da4 hui4 ] /pañca-vārṣika-pariṣad, or mokṣa-mahā-parisad, v. 般. The ancient quinquennial assembly for confession and exhortation, ascribed by some to Aśoka./

五度 五度 [wu3 du4 ] /The five means of transportation over the sea of mortality to salvation; they are the five pāramitās 五波羅蜜— almsgiving, commandment-keeping, patience under provocation, zeal, and meditation./

五律 五律 [wu3 lv4 ] /The doctrines of the 五部 q. v./

五德 五德 [wu3 de2 ] /The five virtues, of which there are various definitions. The five virtues required in a confessor at the annual confessional ending the rainy retreat are: freedom from predilections, from anger, from fear, not easily deceived, discernment of shirkers of confession. Another group is the five virtues for a nurse of the sick, and there are others./

五心 五心 [wu3 xin1 ] /The five conditions of mind produced by objective perception: 卒爾心 immediate or instantaneous, the first impression; 尋求心attention, or inquiry; 決定心conclusion, decision; 染淨心the effect, evil or good; 等流心the production therefrom of other causations./

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五忍 五忍 [wu3 ren3 ] /The five stages of bodhisattva-kṣānti, patience or endurance according to the 別教: (1) 伏忍the causes of passion and illusion controlled but not finally cut off, the condition of 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (2) 信忍 firm belief, i. e. from the 初地 to the 三地; (3) 順忍 patient progress towards the end of all mortality, i. e. 四地 to 六地; (4) 無生忍 patience for full apprehension, of the truth of no rebirth, 七地 to 九地; and (5) 寂滅忍 the patience that leads to complete nirvana, 十地 to 妙覺; cf. 五位./

五忿怒 五忿怒 [wu3 fen4 nu4 ] /The five angry ones, idem 五大明王./

五念門 五念门 [wu3 nian4 men2 ] /The five devotional gates of the Pure-land sect: (1) worship of Amitābha with the 身 body; (2) invocation with the 口 mouth; (3) resolve with the 意 mind to be reborn in the Pure-land; (4) meditation on the glories of that land, etc.; (5) resolve to bestow one's merits, e. g. works of supererogation, on all creatures./

五性 五性 [wu3 xing4 ] /The five different natures as grouped by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect; of these the first and second, while able to attain to non-return to mortality, are unable to reach Buddhahood; of the fourth some may, others may not reach it; the fifth will be reborn as devas or men: (1) śrāvakas for arhats; (2) pratyekabuddhas for pratyekabuddha-hood; (3) bodhisattvas for Buddhahood; (4) indefinite; (5) outsiders who have not the Buddha mind. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圓覺經 has another group, i. e. the natures of (1) ordinary good people; (2) śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas; (3) bodhisattvas; (4) indefinite; (5) heretics./

五性宗 五性宗 [wu3 xing4 zong1 ] /idem 法相宗./

五怖畏 五怖畏 [wu3 bu4 wei4 ] /(五畏) The five fears of beginners in the bodhisattva-way: fear of (1) giving away all lest they should have no means of livelihood; (2) sacrificing their reputation; (3) sacrificing themselves through dread of dying; (4) falling into evil; (5) addressing an assembly, especially of men of position./

五悔 五悔 [wu3 hui3 ] /The five stages in a penitential service. Tiantai gives: (1) confession of past sins and forbidding them for the future; (2) appeal to the universal Buddhas to keep the law-wheel rolling; (3) rejoicing over the good in self and others; (4) 廻向 offering all one's goodness to all the living and to the Buddha-way; (5) resolve, or vows, i. e. the 四弘誓. The Shingon sect 眞言宗 divides the ten great vows of Samantabhadra 普賢 into five 悔, the first three vows being included under 歸命 or submission; the fourth is repentance; the fifth rejoicing; the sixth, seventh, and eighth appeal to the Buddhas; the ninth and tenth, bestowal of acquired merit./

五惑 五惑 [wu3 huo4 ] /The five delusions, idem 五鈍使./

五情 五情 [wu3 qing2 ] /The feelings, or passions, which are stirred by the 五根 five senses./

五惡 五恶 [wu3 e4 ] /The five sins— killing, stealing, adultery, lying, drinking intoxicants. Cf. 五戒./

五惡見 五恶见 [wu3 e4 jian4 ] /idem 五見./

五惡趣 五恶趣 [wu3 e4 qu4 ] /idem 五趣 and 五道./

五慳 五悭 [wu3 qian1 ] /The five kinds of selfishness, or meanness: monopolizing (1) an abode; (2) an almsgiving household; (3) alms received; (4) praise; (5) knowledge of the truth, e. g. of a sutra./

五戒 五戒 [wu3 jie4 ] /pañca-veramaṇī; the first five of the ten commandments, against killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and intoxicating liquors. 不殺生; 不偸盜; 不邪婬; 不妄語; 不飮酒 They are binding on laity, male and female, as well as on monks and nuns. The observance of these five ensures rebirth in the human realm. Each command has five spirits to guard its observer 五戒二十五神./

五所依土 五所依土 [wu3 suo3 yi1 tu3 ] /The five Buddha-kṣetra, or dependencies, the realms, or conditions of a Buddha. They are: (1) 法性土 his dharmakāya-kṣetra, or realm of his 'spiritual nature', dependent on and yet identical with the 眞如 bhutatathata; (2) 實 with its five immortal skandhas, i. e. his glorified body for his own enjoyment;. (3) 色相土 the land or condition of his self-expression as wisdom; (4) 他受用土 his saṃbhogakāya realm for the joy of others; (5) 變化土 the realm on which his nirmāṇakāya depends, that of the wisdom of perfect service of all, which results in his relation to every kind of condition./

五扇提羅 五扇提罗 [wu3 shan4 ti2 luo1 ] /idem 五闡提羅./

五拔刀賊 五拔刀贼 [wu3 ba2 dao1 zei2 ] /The five skandhas, idem 五刀./

五攝論 五摄论 [wu3 she4 lun4 ] /A śāstra of Asaṅga 無著, also translated as the 攝大乘論, giving a description of Mahāyāna doctrine; Vasubandhu prepared a summary of it; tr. by 無性 Wuxiang. Translations were also made by Paramārtha and Xuanzang; other versions and treatises under various names exist./

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五支作法 五支作法 [wu3 zhi1 zuo4 fa3 ] /(or 五分作法) The five parts (avayava) of a syllogism: 立宗 pratijñā, the proposition; 辯因 hetu, the reason; 引喩 udāharaṇa, the example; 合 upanaya, the application; and 結 nigamana, the summing up, or conclusion. These are also expressed in other terms, e. g. 立義; 因; 譬如; 合譬;, and 決定./

五支戒 五支戒 [wu3 zhi1 jie4 ] /The five moral laws or principles arising out of the idea of the mahā-nirvāṇa in the 大涅槃經 11./

五教 五教 [wu3 jiao4 ] /The five division of Buddhism according to the Huayan School, of which there are two That of 杜順 Dushun down to 賢首 Xianshou is (1) 小乘教 Hīnayāna which interprets nirvana as annihilation; (2) 大乘始教 the primary stage of Mahāyāna, with two sections the 相始教 and 空 始教 or realistic and idealistic, (3) 大乘終教 Mahāyāna in its final stage, teaching the 眞如 and universal Buddhahood; (4) 頓教 the immediate, direct, or intuitive school, e. g. by right concentration of thought, or faith, apart from 'works'; (5) 圓教 the complete or perfect teaching of the Huayan, combining all the rest into one all-embracing vehicle. The five are now differentiated into 十宗 ten schools. The other division, by 圭峯 Guifeng of the same school, is (1) 人天教 rebirth as human beings for those who keep the five commandments and as devas those who keep the 十善 as 相始教 above; (4) 大乘破相教 as 空始教 above; and (5) 一乘顯性教 the one vehicle which reveals the universal Buddha-nature; it includes (3), (4), and (5) of the first group. See also 五時教./

五教章 五教章 [wu3 jiao4 zhang1 ] /The work in three juan by 法藏 Fazang of the Tang dynasty, explaining the doctrines of the Five Schools./

五方五智 五方五智 [wu3 fang1 wu3 zhi4 ] /The five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the five regions; see the esoteric 五大./

五方便 五方便 [wu3 fang1 bian4 ] /An abbreviation for 五五才便, i. e. 二十五才便; also the Tiantai 五方便念佛門./

五族如來 五族如来 [wu3 zu2 ru2 lai2 ] /The five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the Vajradhātu./

五旬 五旬 [wu3 xun2 ] /pañca-bhijñā. The five supernatural or magical powers; six is the more common number in Chinese texts, five is the number in Ceylon; v. 五神通./

五更 五更 [wu3 geng4 ] /The five night watches; also the fifth watch./

五明 五明 [wu3 ming2 ] /pañca-vidyā, the five sciences or studies of India: (1) śabda, grammar and composition; śilpakarmasthāna, the arts and mathematics; cikitsā, medicine; hetu, logic; adhyātma, philosophy, which Monier Williams says is the 'knoowledge of the supreme spirit, or of ātman', the basis of the four Vedas; the Buddhists reckon the Tripiṭṭaka and the 十二部教 as their 内明, i. e. their inner or special philosophy./

五星 五星 [wu3 xing1 ] /The five planets, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus, and Mercury; also 五執./

五時八教 五时八教 [wu3 shi2 ba1 jiao4 ] /A Tiantai classification of the Buddha's teaching into five periods and eight kinds of doctrine, which eight are subdivided into two groups of four each, 化儀四教 and 化法四教./

五時 五时 [wu3 shi2 ] /(五時教) The five periods or divisions of Śākyamuni's teaching. According to Tiantai they are (1) 華嚴時 the Avataṃsaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment, when he preached the content, of this sutra; (2) 鹿苑時 the twelve years of his preaching the Āgamas 阿含 in the Deer Park; (3) 方等時 the eight years of preaching Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna doctrines, the vaipulya period; (4) 般若時 the twenty-two years of his preaching the prajñā or wisdom sutras; (5) 法華涅槃時 the eight years of his preaching the Lotus Sutra and, in a day and a night, the Nirvana Sutra. According to the Nirvana School (now part of the Tiantai) they are (1) 三乘別教 the period when the differentiated teaching began and the distinction of the three vehicles, as represented by the 四諦 Four Noble Truths for śrāvakas, the 十二因緣 Twelve Nidānas for pratyekabuddhas, and the 六度 Six Pāramitās for bodhisattvas; (2) 三乘通教 the teaching common to all three vehicles, as seen in the 般若經; (3) 抑揚教 the teaching of the 維摩經, the 思益梵天所問經, and other sutras olling the bodhisattva teaching at the expense of that for śrāvakas; (4) 同歸教 the common objective teaching calling all three vehicles, through the Lotus, to union in the one vehicle; (5) 常住教 the teaehmg of eternal life i. e. the revelation through the Nirvana sutra of the eternity of Buddhahood; these five are also called 有相; 無相; 抑揚; 曾三歸—; and 圓常. According to 劉虬 Liu Chiu of the 晉 Chin dynasty, the teaching is divided into 頓 immediate and 漸 gradual attainment, the latter having five divisions called 五時教 similar to those of the Tiantai group. According to 法寶 Fabao of the Tang dynasty the five are (1) 小乘; (2) 般着 or 大乘; (3) 深密 or 三乘; (4) 法華 or 一乘; (5) 涅槃 or 佛性教./

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五智 五智 [wu3 zhi4 ] /The five kinds of wisdom of the 眞言宗 Shingon School. Of the six elements 六大 earth, water, fire, air (or wind), ether (or space) 曇空, and consciousness (or mind 識 ), the first five form the phenomenal world, or Garbhadhātu, the womb of all things 胎藏界, the sixth is the conscious, or perceptive, or wisdom world, the Vajradhātu 金剛界, sometimes called the Diamond realm. The two realms are not originally apart, but one, and there is no consciousness without the other five elements. The sixth element, vijñāna, is further subdivided into five called the 五智 Five Wisdoms: (1) 法界體性智 dharmadhātu-prakṛti-jñāna, derived from the amala-vijñāna, or pure 識; it is the wisdom of the embodied nature of the dharmadhātu, defined as the six elements, and is associated with Vairocana 大日, in the centre, who abides in this samādhi; it also corresponds to the ether 空 element. (2) 大圓鏡智 adarśana-jñāna, the great round mirror wisdom, derived from the ālaya-vijñāna, reflecting all things; corresponds to earth, and is associated with Akṣobhya and the east. (3) 平等性智 samatā-jñāna, derived from mano-vijñāna, wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally; corresponds to fire, and is associated with Ratnasaṃbhava and the south. (4) 妙觀察智 pratyavekṣaṇa-jñāna, derived from 意識, wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for exposition and doubt-destruction; corresponds to water, and is associated with Amitābha and the west. (5) 成所作智 kṛtyānuṣṭhāna-jñāna, derived from the five senses, the wisdom of perfecting the double work of self-welfare and the welfare of others; corresponds to air 風 and is associated with Amoghasiddhi and the north. These five Dhyāni-Buddhas are the 五智如來. The five kinds of wisdom are the four belonging to every Buddha, of the exoteric cult, to which the esoteric cult adds the first, pure, all-refecting, universal, all-discerning, and all-perfecting./

五智如來 五智如来 [wu3 zhi4 ru2 lai2 ] /五智五佛; 五佛; 五如來 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas, or Wisdom-Tathāgatas of the Vajradhātu 金剛界, idealizations of five aspects of wisdom; possibly of Nepalese origin. The Wisdom Buddha represents the dharmakāya or Buddha-mind, also the Dharma of the triratna, or trinity. Each evolves one of the five colours, one of the five senses, a Dhyani-bodhisattva in two forms onegracious, the other fierce, and a Mānuṣi-Buddha; each has his own śakti, i. e. feminine energy or complement; also his own bīja, or germ-sound 種子or 印 seal, i. e. 眞言 real or substantive word, the five being for 大日 aṃ, for 阿閦 hūṃ, for 寶生 ? hrīḥ, for 彌陀 ? aḥ, for 不 空 ? āḥ. The five are also described as the emanations or forms of an Ādi-Buddha, Vajrasattva; the four are considered by others to be emanations or forms of Vairocana as theSupreme Buddha. The five are not always described as the same, e. g. they may be 藥師 (or 王) Bhaiṣajya, 多寶 Prabhūtaratna, Vairocana, Akṣobhya, andeither Amoghasiddhi or Śākyamuni. Below is a classified list of the generally accepted five with certain particulars connected with them, butthese differ in different places, and the list can only be a general guide. As to the Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, each Buddha evolves three forms 五佛生五菩薩, 五金剛, 五忿怒, i. e. (1) a bodhisattva who represents the Buddha's dharmakāya, or spiritual body; (2) a vajra ordiamond form who represents his wisdom in graciousness; and (3) a fierce or angry form, the 明王 who represents his power against evil. (1) Vairocanaappears in the three forms of 轉法輪菩薩 Vajra-pāramitā Bodhisattva, 遍照金剛 Universally Shining Vajrasattva, and 不動明王 Ārya-Acalanātha Rāja; (2) Akṣobhya's three forms are 虛空藏 Ākāśagarbha, 如意 complete power, and 軍荼利明王 Kuṇḍalī-rāja; (3 ) Ratnasaṃbhava's are 普賢 Samantabhadra, 薩埵Sattvavajra, and 孫婆 or 降三世明王 Trailokyavijayarāja; (4) Amitābha's are 觀世音 Avalokiteśvara, 法金剛 Dharmarāja, and 馬頭明王 Hayagrīva, thehorse-head Dharmapāla; (5) Amoghasiddhi's are 彌勒 Maitreya, 業金剛Karmavajra, and 金剛夜叉 Vajrayakṣa. The above Bodhisattvas differ from those in the following list:

?aḥhorseRatnapāṇi 寶手Kāśyapa
? hrīḥgoose orpeacockAvalokiteśvara 觀音Śākyamuni

五智寶冠 五智宝冠 [wu3 zhi4 bao3 guan1 ] /idem 五佛寶冠./

五智所生三身 五智所生三身 [wu3 zhi4 suo3 sheng1 san1 shen1 ] /Each of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas is accredited with the three forms which represent his 身業 body, 口業 speech, and 意業 mind, e. g. the embodiment of Wisdom is Vairocana, his preaching form is 普賢, and his will form is 不動明王; the embodiment 身 of the mirror is Akṣobhya, his 口 is Mañjuśrī, his 意 is 降三世金剛; and so on; v. 五智如來./

五會念佛 五会念佛 [wu3 hui4 nian4 fu2 ] /Five ways of intoning 'Amitābha' established by 法照 Fazhao of the Tang dynasty, known as 五曾法師 from his brochure 五曾法事讚./

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五果 五果 [wu3 guo3 ] /The five fruits, or effects; there are various groups, e. g. I. (1) 異熟果 fruit ripening divergently, e. g. pleasure and goodness are in different categories; present organs accord in pain or pleasure with their past good or evil deeds; (2) 等流果 fruit of the same order, e. g. goodness reborn from previous goodness; (3) 土用果 present position and function fruit, the rewards of moral merit in previous lives; (4) 增上果 superior fruit, or position arising from previous earnest endeavor and superior capacity: (5) 離繋果 fruit of freedom from all bonds, nirvana fruit. II. Fruit, or rebirth: (1) 識 conception (viewed psychologically); (2) 名色 formation mental and physical; (3) 六處 the six organs of perception complete; (4) 觸 their birth and contact with the world; (5) 受 consciousness. III. Five orders of fruit, with stones, pips, shells (as nuts), chaff-like (as pine seeds), and with pods./

五根 五根 [wu3 gen1 ] /pañcendriyāṇi. (1) The five roots, i. e. the five organs of the senses: eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body as roots of knowing. (2) The five spiritual organs pr positive agents: 信 faith, 精進 energy, 念 memory, 定 visionary meditation, 慧 wisdom. The 五力 q. v. are regarded as negative agents./

五根色 五根色 [wu3 gen1 se4 ] /see 五色./

五根本 五根本 [wu3 gen1 ben3 ] /They are the six great kleśa, i. e. passions, or disturbers, minus 見 views, or delusions; i. e. desire, anger, stupidity (or ignorance), pride, and doubt./

五業 五业 [wu3 ye4 ] /The five kinds of karma: of which the groups are numerous and differ./

五樂 五乐 [wu3 le4 ] /The pleasures of the five senses, v. 五欲./

五欲 五欲 [wu3 yu4 ] /The five desires, arising from the objects of the five senses, things seen, heard, smelt, tasted, or touched. Also, the five desires of wealth, sex, foodand-drink, fame, and sleep./

五正色 五正色 [wu3 zheng4 se4 ] /idem 五色./

五正行 五正行 [wu3 zheng4 xing2 ] /五種正行 The five proper courses to ensure the bliss of the Pure Land: (1) Intone the three sutras 無量壽經, 觀無量壽經, and 阿彌陀經; (2) meditate on the Pure Land; (3) worship solely Amitābha; (4) invoke his name; (5 ) extol and make offerings to him. Service of other Buddhas, etc., is styled 五 (種) 雜行./

五正食 五正食 [wu3 zheng4 shi2 ] /半者蒲膳尼 pañcabhojanīya. The five foods considered proper for monks in early Buddhism: boiled rice, boiled grain or pease, parched grain, flesh, cakes./

五股 五股 [wu3 gu3 ] /(五股杵 or 五股金剛); also 五鈷, 五古, or 五M029401 The five-pronged vajra or thunderbolt emblem of the 五部 five groups and 五智 five wisdom powers of the vajradhātu; doubled it is an emblem of the ten pāramitās. In the esoteric cult the 五股印 five-pronged vajra is the symbol of the 五智 five wisdom powers and the 五佛 five Buddhas, and has several names 五大印, 五智印, 五峯印; 金剛慧印, 大羯印, and 大率都婆印, and has many definitions./

五比丘 五比丘 [wu3 bi3 qiu1 ] /The first five of Buddha's converts, also called 五佛子, Ājñāta-Kauṇḍinya 憍陳如, Aśvajit 額鞞, Bhadrika 拔提, Daśabala-Kāśyapa 十力迦葉, and Mahānāma-Kulika 摩男拘利, i. e. but there are numerous other forms of their names./

五法 五法 [wu3 fa3 ] /pañcadharma. The five laws or categories, of which four groups are as follows: I. 相名五法 The five categories of form and name: (1) 相 appearances, or phenomena; (2) 名 their names; (3) 分別 sometimes called 妄想 ordinary mental discrimination of them— (1) and (2) are objective, (3) subjective; (4) 正智 corrective wisdom, which corrects the deficiencies and errors of the last: (5) 如如 the 眞如 Bhutatathata or absolute wisdom, reached through the 如理智 understanding of the law of the absolute, or ultimate truth. II. 事理五法 The five categories into which things and their principles are divided: (1) 心法 mind; (2) 心所法 mental conditions or activities; (3) 色法 the actual states or categories as conceived; (4) 不相應法 hypothetic categories, 唯識 has twenty-four, the Abhidharma fourteen; (5) 無爲法 the state of rest, or the inactive principle pervading all things; the first four are the 事 and the last the 理. III. 理智五法 cf. 五智; the five categories of essential wisdom: (1) 眞如 the absolute; (2) 大圓鏡智 wisdom as the great perfect mirror reflecting all things; (3) 平等性智 wisdom of the equal Buddha nature of all beings; (4) 妙觀察智 wisdom of mystic insight into all things and removal of ignorance and doubt; (5) 成所作智 wisdom perfect in action and bringing blessing to self and others. IV. 提婆五法 The five obnoxious rules of Devadatta: not to take milk in any form, nor meat, nor salt; to wear unshaped garments, and to live apart. Another set is: to wear cast-off rags, beg food, have only one set meal a day, dwell in the open, and abstain from all kinds of flesh, milk, etc./

五法人 五法人 [wu3 ] /Followers of the five ascetic rules of Devadatta, the enemy of the Buddha./

五法成身 五法成身 [wu3 fa3 cheng2 shen1 ] /idem 五相成身./

五法身 五法身 [wu3 fa3 shen1 ] /idem 五分法身./

五波羅密 五波罗密 [wu3 bo1 luo1 mi4 ] /The five pāramitās (omitting the sixth, wisdom), i. e. dāna, almsgiving: śīla, commandment-keeping; kṣānti, patience (under provocation): vīrya, zeal; and dhyāna, meditation./

五海 五海 [wu3 hai3 ] /The five 'seas' or infinities seen in a vision by Puxian, v. 舊華嚴經 3, viz., (1) all worlds, (2) all the living, (3) universal karma, (4) the roots of desire and pleasure of all the living, (5) all the Buddhas, past, present, and future./

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五淨 五净 [wu3 jing4 ] /The five 'clean' products of the cow, its pañca-gavya, i. e. urine, dung, milk, cream (or sour milk), and cheese (or butter); cf M. W./

五淨居天 五净居天 [wu3 jing4 ju1 tian1 ] /五不還天 Cf. 色界. The five pure-dwelling heavens in the fourth dhyāna heaven, into which arhats are finally born: 無煩天 Avṛhās, the heaven free from all trouble; 無熱天 Atapās, of no heat or distress; 善現天 Sudṛsās, of beautiful presentation; 善見天 Sudarśanās, beautiful; and 色究竟天 Akaniṣṭhās, the highest heaven of the form-realm./

五淨食 五净食 [wu3 jing4 shi2 ] /五種淨食 idem 五正食./

五濁 五浊 [wu3 zhuo2 ] /五滓; 五渾 The five kaṣāya periods of turbidity, impurity, or chaos, i. e. of decay; they are accredited to the 住 kalpa, see 四劫, and commence when human life begins to decrease below 20,000 years. (1) 劫濁 the kalpa in decay, when it suffers deterioration and gives rise to the ensuing form; (2) 見濁 deterioration of view, egoism, etc., arising; (3) 煩惱濁 the passions and delusions of desire, anger, stupidity, pride, and doubt prevail; (4) 衆生濁 in consequence human miseries increase and happiness decreases; (5) 命濁 human life time gradually diminishes to ten years. The second and third are described as the 濁 itself and the fourth and fifth its results./

五濁增時 五浊增时 [wu3 zhuo2 zeng1 shi2 ] /The period of increasing turbidity or decay; see 五濁./

五燒 五烧 [wu3 shao1 ] /The five burnings, or 五痛 five pains, i. e. infraction of the first five commandments leads to state punishment in this life and the hells in the next./

五無量 五无量 [wu3 wu2 liang4 ] /The five infinites, or immeasurables — body, mind, wisdom, space, and all the living— as represented respectively by the five Dhyāni Buddhas, i. e. 寶生, 阿閦, 無量壽, 大日, and 不空./

五無間 五无间 [wu3 wu2 jian1 ] /The uninterrupted, or no-interval hell, i. e. avīci hell, the worst, or eighth of the eight hells. It is ceaseless in five respects— karma and its effects are an endless chain with no escape; its sufferings are ceaseless; it is timeless; its fate or life is endless; it is ceaselessly full. Another interpretation takes the second, third, and fifth of the above and adds that it is packed with 罪器 implements of torture, and that it is full of all kinds of living beings./

五無間業 五无间业 [wu3 wu2 jian1 ye4 ] /or 五無間罪 The five karma, or sins, leading to the avīci hell v. 五逆 and 五無間./

五燈錄 五灯录 [wu3 deng1 lu4 ] /The five Teng-lu are (1) 傳燈錄 A. D 1004-8; (2) 廣燈錄; (3) 讀燈錄; (4) 聯燈錄, and (5) 普燈錄; the 燈錄會元 and 燈錄嚴統 are later collections./

五甁 五甁 [wu3 ping2 ] /The five vases used by the esoteric school for offering flowers to their Buddha, the flowers are stuck in a mixture of the five precious things, the five grains and the five medicines mingled with scented water./

五甁智水 五甁智水 [wu3 ping2 zhi4 shui3 ] /The five vases are emblems of the five departments of the Vajradhātu, and the fragrant water the wisdom of the five. Wisdom— Buddhas./

五甁灌頂 五甁灌顶 [wu3 ping2 guan4 ding3 ] /Baptism with water of the five vases 五甁 representing the wisdom of the five Buddhas 五佛./

五生 五生 [wu3 sheng1 ] /Five rebirths, i. e. five states, or conditions of a bodhisattva's rebirth: (1) to stay calamities, e. g. by sacrificing himself; (2) in any class that may need him; (3) in superior condition, handsome, wealthy, or noble; (4) in various grades of kingship; (5) final rebirth before Buddhahood; v. 瑜伽論 4./

五畏 五畏 [wu3 wei4 ] /idem 五怖畏./

五痛 五痛 [wu3 tong4 ] /idem 五燒./

五百 五百 [wu3 bai3 ] /pañcaśata. Five hundred, of which there are numerous instances, e. g. 500 former existences; the 500 disciples, etc./

五百世 五百世 [wu3 bai3 shi4 ] /or 五百生 500 generations./

五百世無手 五百世无手 [wu3 bai3 shi4 wu2 shou3 ] /A disciple who even passes the wine decanter to another person will be reborn without hands for 500 generations; v. 梵網經下./

五百羅漢 五百罗汉 [wu3 bai3 luo2 han4 ] /(五百大羅漢) 500 great arhats who formed the synod under Kaniṣka and are the supposed compilers of the Abhidharma-mahāvibhāṣā-śāstra, 400 years after Buddha entered nirvana (阿毗達磨大毗婆娑論), tr. by Xuanzang (A. D. 656-9). The 500 Lohans found in some monasteries have various definitions./

五百戒 五百戒 [wu3 bai3 jie4 ] /The 'five hundred ' rules for nuns, really 348, viz. 8 波羅夷, 17 僧殘, 30 捨墮, 178 單提, 8 提捨尼, 100 衆學, and 7 滅諍./

五百生 五百生 [wu3 bai3 sheng1 ] /idem 五百世./

五百部 五百部 [wu3 bai3 bu4 ] /五百小乘; 五百異部 The 500 sects according to the 500 years after the Buddha's death; 智度論 63./

五百問 五百问 [wu3 bai3 wen4 ] /(五百問事) The 500 questions of Mahā-maudgalyāyana to the Buddha on discipline./

五百由旬 五百由旬 [wu3 bai3 you2 xun2 ] /The 500 yojanas of difficult and perilous journey to the Land of Treasures: v. the Lotus Sutra./

五盛陰苦 五盛阴苦 [wu3 sheng4 yin1 ku3 ] /The mental and physical sufferings arising from the full-orbed activities of the skandhas 五陰, one of the eight sufferings; also 五陰盛 (五陰盛苦)./

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五眼 五眼 [wu3 yan3 ] /The five kinds of eyes or vision: human; deva (attainable by men in dhyāna); Hīnayāna wisdom; bodhisattva truth; and Buddha-vision or omniscience. There are five more relate to omniscience making 十眼 ten kinds of eyes or vision./

五相 五相 [wu3 xiang1 ] /idem 五相成身 and 五衰./

五相成身 五相成身 [wu3 xiang1 cheng2 shen1 ] /(五相成身觀) A contemplation of the five stages in Vairocana Buddhahood— entry into the bodhi-mind; maintenance of it; attainment of the diamond mind; realization of the diamond embodiment; and perfect attainment of Buddhahood. It refers also to the 五智 of the Vairocana group; also 五轉成身 (or 五法成身) ./

五知根 五知根 [wu3 zhi1 gen1 ] /The five indriyas or organs of perception— eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. v. 五根./

五礙 五碍 [wu3 ai4 ] /idem 五障./

五神通 五神通 [wu3 shen2 tong1 ] /(or 五神變) pañcabhijñā; also 五通 (力) the five supernatural powers. (1 ) 天眼通 (天眼智證通) divyacakṣus ; deva-vision, instantaneous view of anything anywhere in the form-realm. (2) 天耳通 (天耳智證通) divyaśrotra, ability to hear any sound anywhere. (3) 他心通 (他心智證通) paracitta-jñāna, ability to know the thoughts of all other minds. (4) 宿命通 (宿命智證通) pūrvanivāsānusmṛti-jñāna, knowledge of all formed existences of self and others. (5) 神通 (神通智證通) 通; 神足通; 神如意通 ṛddhi-sākṣātkriyā, power to be anywhere or do anything at will. See 智度論 5. Powers similar to these are also attainable by meditation, incantations, and drugs, hence heterodox teachers also may possess them./

五祖 五祖 [wu3 zu3 ] /The five patriarchs. Those of the Huayan (Kegon) sect are 終南杜順; 雲華智儼; 賢首法藏; 淸涼澄觀, and 圭峯宗密. The Pure-land sect five patriarchs are 曇鸞; 道綽; 善導; 懷感 and 少康. The 蓮社 (白蓮社) Lianshe sect has 善導; 法照; 少康; 省常, and 宗賾./

五禁 五禁 [wu3 jin4 ] /idem 五戒./

五祕密 五秘密 [wu3 mi4 mi4 ] /(五祕) The five esoteric or occult ones, i. e. the five bodhisattvas of the diamond realm, known as Vajrasattva in the middle; 欲 desire on the east; 觸 contact, south; 愛 love, west; and 慢 pride, north. Vajrasattva represents the six fundamental elements of sentient existence and here indicates the birth of bodhisattva sentience; desire is that of bodhi and the salvation of all: contact with the needy world for its salvation follows; love of all the living comes next; pride or the power of nirvana succeeds./

五祕密曼荼羅 五秘密曼荼罗 [wu3 mi4 mi4 man4 tu2 luo1 ] /or 十七尊曼荼羅 The maṇḍala of this group contains seventeen figures representing the five above named, with their twelve subordinates./

五種 五种 [wu3 zhong3 ] /The five kinds; but frequently the 種 is omitted, e. g. for 五種正食 see 五正食./

五種三歸 五种三归 [wu3 zhong3 san1 gui1 ] /The five modes of trisarana, or formulas of trust in the Triratna, taken by those who (1) 翻邪 turn from heresy; (2) take the five commandments; (3) the eight commandments; (4) the ten commandments; (5) the complete commandments./

五種不女 五种不女 [wu3 zhong3 bu4 nv3 ] /The five kinds of sexually incomplete females, 螺, 筋, 鼓, 角, and 脉. v. 大藏法數 32./

五種不男 五种不男 [wu3 zhong3 bu4 nan2 ] /The five kinds of 般荼迦 paṇḍakas, i. e. eunuchs, or impotent males: by birth; emasculation; uncontrollable emission; hermaphrodite; impotent for half the month; they are known as 扇搋 Sandha; 留拏 ? Runda; 伊梨沙掌拏 Irṣyāpaṇḍaka; 半擇迦 Paṇḍaka; 博叉 Pakṣapaṇḍaka; there are numerous subdivisions./

五種不翻 五种不翻 [wu3 zhong3 bu4 fan1 ] /The five kinds of terms which Xuanzang did not translate but transliterated— the esoteric (such as 陀羅尼); those with several meanings (such as 薄伽梵); those without equivalent in China (such as 閻浮樹); old-established terms (such as 阿耨菩提); and those which would be less impressive when translated./

五種不還 五种不还 [wu3 zhong3 bu4 hai2 ] /The five kinds of anāgāmins 那含, who never return to the desire-realm: (1) 中般 the anāgāmin who enters on the intermediate stage between the realm of desire and the higher realm of form; (2) 生般 who is born into the form world and soon overcomes the remains of illusion; (3) 有行般 who diligently works his way through the final stages; (4) 無行般 whose final departure is delayed through lack of aid and slackness; (5) 上流般 who proceeds from lower to higher heavens into nirvana. Also 五種那含 and 五種般 the 般 being 'Parinirvāṇa'./

五種修法 五种修法 [wu3 zhong3 xiu1 fa3 ] /Five kinds of esoteric ceremonial, i. e. (1) 扇底迦 śāntika, for stopping calamities; (2) 布瑟徵迦 or 補瑟徵迦 pauṣṭika, for success or prosperity; (3) 阿畏遮迦 abhicāraka, for suppressing, or exorcising; (4) 阿羯沙尼 ākarṣaṇī, for calling, or attracting (good beings, or aid); (5) 伐施迦囉軌 vaśīkaraṇa, for seeking the aid of Buddhas and bodhisattvas; also 五部尊法 and cf. 五種灌頂./

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五種印 五种印 [wu3 zhong3 yin4 ] /The signs of the five kinds of vision, v. 五眼./

五種唯識 五种唯识 [wu3 zhong3 wei2 shi2 ] /The five kinds of weishi, or idealistic representation in the sutras and śāstras as summed up by Cien 慈恩 of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school: (1) 境唯識 wisdom or insight in objective conditions; (2) 教唯識 in interpretation; (3) 理唯識 in principles; (4) 行唯識 in meditation and practice; (5) 果唯識 in the fruits or results of Buddhahood. The first four are objective, the fifth subject./

五種壇法 五种坛法 [wu3 zhong3 tan2 fa3 ] /The five kinds of maṇḍala ceremonials, v. 五部尊法./

五增上緣 五增上缘 [wu3 zeng1 shang4 yuan2 ] /(種增上緣) ; 五緣 Five excellent causes, e.g. of blessedness: keeping the commandments; sufficient food and clothing; a secluded abode; cessation of worry; good friendship. Another group is: riddance of sin; protection through long life; vision of Buddha (or Amitābha, etc. ); universal salvation (by Amitābha); assurance of Amitābha's heaven./

五種布施 五种布施 [wu3 zhong3 bu4 shi1 ] /The five kinds of almsgiving or dānas— to those from afar, to those going afar, to the sick, the hungry, and those wise in Buddhist doctrine./

五種性 五种性 [wu3 zhong3 xing4 ] /The five germ-natures, or roots of bodhisattva development: (1) 習種性 the germ nature of study of the 空 void (or immaterial), which corrects all illusions of time and space; it corresponds to the 十住 stage; (2) 性種性 that of ability to discriminate all the 性 natures of phenomena and transform the living; the 十行 stage; (3) 道種性(the middle-) way germ-nature, which attains insight into Buddha-laws; the 十廻向; (4) 聖種性 the saint germ-nature which produces holiness by destroying ignorance; the 十廻向 which the bodhisattva leaves the ranks of the 賢 and becomes 聖; (5) 等覺種性 the bodhi-rank germ-nature which produces Buddhahood, i. e. 等覺./

五種惡病 五种恶病 [wu3 zhong3 e4 bing4 ] /Five epidemics in Vaiśālī during the Buddha's lifetime— bleeding from the eyes, pus from the ears, nose-bleeding, lockjaw, and astringent taste of all food./

五種散亂 五种散乱 [wu3 zhong3 san4 luan4 ] /The five kinds of mental aberration: (1) the five senses themselves not functioning properly; (2) external distraction, or inability to concentrate the attention; (3) internal distraction, or mental confusion; (4) distraction caused by ideas of mean and mine, personality, possession, etc. (5) confusion of thought produced by Hīnayāna ideas./

五種比量 五种比量 [wu3 zhong3 bi3 liang4 ] /The five inferences in (Indian) logic: (1) 相比量 from appearance, e. g. fire from smoke; (2) 體比量 from the corporeal, e. g. two or more things from one; (3) 業比量 from action, e. g. the animal from its footmark; (4) 法比量 from recognized law, old age from birth; (5) 因果比量 from cause and effect, that a traveler has a destination./

五種法師 五种法师 [wu3 zhong4 fa3 shi1 ] /The five kinds of masters of the Law, v. Lotus Sutra, 法師品— one who receives and keeps; reads; recites; expounds; and copies the sutra./

五種法界 五种法界 [wu3 zhong4 fa3 jie4 ] /The Huayan school's five forms of dharmadhātu: (1) 有爲法界 or 事世界 the phenomenal realm; (2) 無爲法界 or 理世界 the dependent and interactive; the inactive, quiescent, or noumenal realm; (3) 亦有爲亦無爲世界 or 事理無礙世界, both, i.e., interdependent and interactive; (4) 非有爲非無爲世界 either active nor inactive, but it is also 事理無礙世界, e. g. water and wave, wave being water and water wave; (5) 無障礙世界 or 事事無礙世界 the unimpeded realm, the unity of the phenomenal and noumenal, of the collective and individual./

五種法身 五种法身 [wu3 zhong4 fa3 shen1 ] /The five kinds of a Buddha's dharmakāya. There are four groups. I. (1) 如如智法身 the spiritual body of bhūtatathatā-wisdom; (2) 功德法身 of all virtuous achievement; (3) 自法身 of incarnation in the world; (4) 變化法身 of unlimited powers of transformation; (5) 虛空法身 of unlimited space; the first and second are defined as saṃbhogakāya, the third and fourth as nirmāṇakāya, and the fifth as the dharmakāya, but all are included under dharmakāya as it possesses all the others. II. The esoteric cult uses the first four and adds as fifth 法界身 indicating the universe as pan-Buddha. III. Huayan gives (1) 法性生身 the body or person of Buddha born from the dharma-nature. (2) 功德生身 the dharmakāya evolved by Buddha virtue, or achievement; (3) 變化法身 the dharmakāya with unlimited powers of transformation; (4) 實相法身 the real dharmakāya; (5) 虛 空法身 the universal dharmakāya. IV. Hīnayāna defines them as 五分法身 q. v./

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五種灌頂 五种灌顶 [wu3 zhong3 guan4 ding3 ] /The five abhiṣecanī baptisms of the esoteric school— for ordaining ācāryas, teachers, or preachers of the Law: for admitting disciples: for putting an end to calamities or suffering for sins; for advancement, or success; and for controlling (evil spirits ) or getting rid of difficulties, cf. 五種修法. Also, baptism of light: of sweet dew (i. e. perfume): of the 'germ-word' as seed; of the five baptismal signs of wisdom made on the forehead, shoulders, heart, and throat, indicating the five Dhyāni-Buddhas; and of the ' true word' on the breast./

五種藏 五种藏 [wu3 zhong3 cang2 ] /The five 'stores', or the five differentiations of the one Buddha-nature; (1) 如來藏 the Tathāgata-nature, which is the fundamental universal nature possessed by all the living: (2) 正法藏 the source or treasury of all right laws and virtues: (3) 法身藏 the storehouse of the dharmakāya obtained by all saints: (4) 出世藏 the eternal spiritual nature, free from earthly errors; (5) 自性淸淨藏 the storehouse of the pure Buddha-nature. Another similar group is 如來藏, 法界藏, 法身藏, 出世間上上藏, and 自性淸淨藏./

五種般 五种般 [wu3 zhong3 ban1 ] /see 五種不還./

五種行 五种行 [wu3 zhong3 xing2 ] /The acts of the 五種法師 q. v.; also idem 五正行./

五種說人 五种说人 [wu3 zhong3 shuo1 ren2 ] /The five kinds of those who have testified to Buddhism; also 五人說經; 五說; i. e. the Buddha,. his disciples, the ṛṣis, devas, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, sages, devas, supernatural beings, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, men, and things. See 五類說法./

五種通 五种通 [wu3 zhong3 tong1 ] /Five kinds of supernatural power: (1) 道通 of bodhisattvas through their insight into truth; (2) 神通 of arhats through their mental concentration; (3) 依通 supernatural or magical powers dependent on drugs, charms, incantations, etc.; (4) 報通 or 業通 reward or karma powers of transformation possessed by devas, nāgas, etc.; (5) 妖通 magical power of goblins, satyrs, etc./

五種那含 五种那含 [wu3 zhong3 na4 han2 ] /v. 五種不還./

五種鈴 五种铃 [wu3 zhong3 ling2 ] /The five kinds of bells used by the Shingon sect in Japan, also called 金剛鈴, i. e. 五鈷鈴, 賣鈴, 一鈷. 三鈷鈴, 塔鈴; the different names are derived from their handles; the four first named, beginning with the five-pronged one, are placed each at a corner of the altar, the last in the middle./

五種雜行 五种杂行 [wu3 zhong3 za2 xing2 ] /see 五正行./

五種魔 五种魔 [wu3 zhong3 mo2 ] /The five māras associated with the five skandhas; also 五蘊魔; 五陰魔, 五衆魔./

五箭 五箭 [wu3 jian4 ] /The five arrows, i. e. the five desires 五欲./

五納衣 五纳衣 [wu3 na4 yi1 ] /A monk's garment of patches./

五結 五结 [wu3 jie2 ] /The five bonds to mortality: 貧 desire, 恚 hata, 慢 pride, 嫉 envy, 慳 grudging./

五結樂子 五结乐子 [wu3 jie2 le4 zi ] /One of Indra's musicians who praised Buddha on a crystal lute; v. 中阿含經 33./

五繫 五系 [wu3 xi4 ] /The five suspended corpses, or dead snakes, hanging from the four limbs and neck of Mara as Papiyan; v. Nirvana sutra 6./

五翳 五翳 [wu3 yi4 ] /The five films, or interceptors of the light of sun and moon— smoke, cloud dust, fog, and the hands of asuras./

五聲 五声 [wu3 sheng1 ] /idem 五音./

五臺山 五台山 [wu3 tai2 shan1 ] /Pañcaśirsha, Pancaśikha. Wutai Shan, near the northeastern border of Shanxi, one of the four mountains sacred to Buddhism in China. The principal temple was built A. D. 471-500. There are about 150 monasteries, of which 24 are lamaseries. The chief director is known as Changjia Fo (the ever-renewing Buddha). Mañjuśrī is its patron saint. It is also styled 淸涼山./

五色 五色 [wu3 se4 ] /The five primary colors, also called 五正色 (or 五大色): 靑 blue, 黃 yellow, 赤 red, 白 white, 黑 black. The 五間色 or compound colors are 緋 crimson, 紅, scarlet, 紫 purple, 綠 green, 磂黃 brown. The two sets correspond to the cardinal points as follows: east, blue and green; west, white, and crimson; south, red and scarlet; north, black and purple; and center, yellow and brown. The five are permutated in various ways to represent various ideas./

五間色 五间色 [wu3 jian4 se4 ] /five compound colors are 緋 crimson, 紅, scarlet, 紫 purple, 綠 green, 磂黃 brown./

五根色: 五根色: [wu3 gen1 ] /faith, white; zeal, red; memory yellow; meditation, blue; and wisdom, black. These are represented inter alia in the 五色線 (or 五色縷, or 五色綖, or 五色繩) the five-colored emblematic cord; this cord is also a brahman's sign worn on the shoulder and forbidden by the Buddha./

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五苦 五苦 [wu3 ku3 ] /The five forms of suffering: I. (1) Birth, age, sickness, death; (2) parting with those loved; (3) meeting with the hated or disliked; (4) inability to obtain the desired; (5) the five skandha sufferings, mental and physical. II. Birth, age, sickness, death, and the shackles (for criminals). III. The sufferings of the hells, and as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, and human beings./

五菩提 五菩提 [wu3 pu2 ti2 ] /The five bodhi, or stages of enlightenment: (1) 發心菩提 resolve on supreme bodhi; (2) 伏心菩提 mind control, i. e. of the passions and observance of the pāramitās: (3) 明心菩提 mental enlightenment, study, and increase in knowledge and in the prajñāpāramitā: (4) 出到菩提 mental expansion, freedom from the limitations of reincarnation and attainment of complete knowledge; (5) 無上菩提 attainment of a passionless condition and of supreme perfect enlightenment;./

五蓋 五盖 [wu3 gai4 ] /The five covers, i. e. mental and moral hindrances— desire, anger, drowsiness, excitability, doubt./

五葷 五荤 [wu3 hun1 ] /idem 五辛./

五蘊 五蕴 [wu3 yun4 ] /The five skandhas, pañca-skandha: also 五陰; 五衆; 五塞犍陀 The five cumulations, substances, or aggregates, i. e. the components of an intelligent being, specially a human being: (1) 色 rūpa, form, matter, the physical form related to the five organs of sense; (2) 受 vedana, reception, sensation, feeling, the functioning of the mind or senses in connection with affairs and things; (3) 想 saṃjñā, conception, or discerning; the functioning of mind in distinguishing; (4) 行 saṃskāra, the functioning of mind in its processes regarding like and dislike, good and evil, etc.; (5) 識 vijñāna, mental faculty in regard to perception and cognition, discriminative of affairs and things. The first is said to be physical, the other four mental qualities; (2), (3), and (4) are associated with mental functioning, and therefore with 心所; (5) is associated with the faculty or nature of the mind 心王 manas. Eitel gives— form, perception, consciousness, action, knowledge. See also Keith's Buddhist Philosophy, 85-91./

五蘊世間 五蕴世间 [wu3 yun4 shi4 jian1 ] /(or 五陰世間 or 五衆世間) The worlds in which the five skandhas exist./

五蘊宅 五蕴宅 [wu3 yun4 zhai2 ] /The abode of the five skandhas— the human body./

五蘊論 五蕴论 [wu3 yun4 lun4 ] /大乘五蘊論 A śāstra by Vasubandhu on the Mahāyāna interpretation of the five skandhas, tr. by Xuanzang; 1 chuan. Other works are the 五蘊皆空經 tr. by Yijing of the Tang dynasty. 五蘊譬喩經 tr. by 安世高 An Shih Kao of the Han dynasty: both are in the 雜阿含經 2 and 10 respectively; also 五蘊論釋 a commentary by Vinītaprabha./

五蘊魔 五蕴魔 [wu3 yun4 mo2 ] /The Mara of the skandhas, v. 五種魔./

五處供養 五处供养 [wu3 chu4 gong4 yang3 ] /The five to be constantly served — father, mother, teacher, religious director, the sick./

五處加持 五处加持 [wu3 chu4 jia1 chi2 ] /Ceremonial touching of the five places on the body— brow, right and left shoulders, heart, and throat./

五處眞言 五处眞言 [wu3 chu4 zhen1 yan2 ] /has similar reference to 五處加持. v. 五種灌頂./

五衆 五众 [wu3 zhong4 ] /idem 五蘊. Also, the five groups, i. e. monks, nuns, nun-candidates, and male and female novices./

五行 五行 [wu3 xing2 ] /The five lines of conduct. I. According to the 起信論 Awakening of Faith they are almsgiving; keeping the commandments; patience under insult; zeal or progress; meditation. II. According to the 涅槃經 Nirvana Sutra they are saintly or bodhisattva deeds; arhat, or noble deeds; deva deeds; children's deeds (i. e. normal good deeds of men, devas, and Hinayanists); sickness conditions, e. g. illness, delusion, etc.; — into all these lines of conduct and conditions a Bodhisattva enters. III. The five elements, or tanmātra— wood, fire, earth, metal, and water; or earth, water, ire, air, and ether (or space) as taught by the later Mahāyāna philosophy; idem 五大./

五衍 五衍 [wu3 yan3 ] /The five Yanas or Vehicles, idem 五乘./

五衣 五衣 [wu3 yi1 ] /The five garments worn by a nun are the three worn by a monk: with two others./

五衰 五衰 [wu3 shuai1 ] /The five signs of decay or approaching death, of which descriptions vary. e. g. uncontrolled discharges, flowers on the head wither. unpleasant odor, sweating armpits, uneasiness (or anxiety); Nirvana Sutra 19./

五見 五见 [wu3 jian4 ] /The five wrong views: (1) 身見 satkāya-dṛṣṭi, i. e. 我見 and 我所見 the view that there is a real self, an ego, and a mine and thine: (2) 邊見 antar-grāha, extreme views. e. g. extinction or permanence; (3) 邪見 mithyā, perverse views, which, denying cause and effect, destroy the foundations of morality; (4) 見取見 dṛṣṭi-parāmarśa, stubborn perverted views, viewing inferior things as superior, or counting the worse as the better; (5) 戒禁取見 śīla-vrata-parāmarśa, rigid views in favour of rigorous ascetic prohibitions, e. g. covering oneself with ashes. Cf. 五利使./

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五覺 五觉 [wu3 jue2 ] /The five bodhi, or states of enlightenment, as described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith; see also 五菩提 for a different group. (1) 本覺 Absolute eternal wisdom, or bodhi; (2) 始覺 bodhi in its initial stages, or in action, arising from right observances; (3) 相似覺 bodhisattva. attainment of bodhi in action, in the 十信; (4) 隨分覺 further bodhisattva-enlightenment according to capacity, i. e. the stages 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (5) 究竟覺 final or complete enlightenment, i. e. the stage of 妙覺, which is one with the first, i. e. 本覺. The 本覺 is bodhi in the potential, 始覺 is bodhi in the active state, hence (2), (3), (4), and (5) are all the latter, but the fifth has reached the perfect quiescent stage of original bodhi./

五觀 五观 [wu3 guan1 ] /The five meditations referred to in the Lotus Sutra 25: (1) 眞 on the true, idem 空觀, to meditate on the reality of the void or infinite, in order to be rid of illusion in views and thoughts; (2) 淸淨觀 on purity, to be rid of any remains of impurity connected with the temporal, idem 假觀; (3) 廣大智慧觀 on the wider and greater wisdom, idem 中觀, by study of the 'middle' way; (4) 悲觀 on pitifulness, or the pitiable condition of the living, and by the above three to meditate on their salvation; (5) 慈觀 on mercy and the extension of the first three meditations to the carrying of joy to all the living./

五解脫輪 五解脱轮 [wu3 jie3 tuo1 lun2 ] /The five wheels of liberation, or salvation, i. e. the five maṇḍalas in which are the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, see 五智如來; also called五大月輪 and五輪塔婆./

五說 五说 [wu3 shuo1 ] /idem 五種說人./

五論 五论 [wu3 lun4 ] /It idem 五部大論./

五調子 五调子 [wu3 diao4 zi ] /idem 五音./

五諦 五谛 [wu3 di4 ] /The five axioms: (1) 因諦 the cause, which is described as 集諦 of the Four Noble Truths; (2) 果諦 the effect as 苦諦; (3) 智諦 or 能知諦 diagnosis as 道諦; (4) 境諦 or 所知諦 the end or cure as 滅諦; to these add (5) 勝諦 or 至諦, the supreme axiom, i. e. the 眞如; v. 四諦./

五識 五识 [wu3 shi2 ] /The five parijñānas, perceptions or cognitions; ordinarily those arising from the five senses, i. e. of form-and-color, sound, smell, taste, and touch. The 起信論 Awakening of Faith has a different set of five steps in the history of cognition; (1) 業識 initial functioning of mind under the influence of the original 無明 unenlightenment or state of ignorance; (2) 轉識 the act of turning towards the apparent object for its observation; (3) 現識 observation of the object as it appears; (4) 知識 the deductions derived from its appearance; (5) 相續識 the consequent feelings of like or dislike, pleasure or pain, from which arise the delusions and incarnations./

五趣 五趣 [wu3 qu4 ] /The five gati, i. e. destinations, destinies: the hells, hungry ghosts, animals, human beings, devas; cf. 五惡趣 and 五道./

五趣生死輪 五趣生死轮 [wu3 qu4 sheng1 si3 lun2 ] /A series of pictures to show the course of life and death, ascribed in the Sarvāstivāda Vinaya 34 to the Buddha./

五身 五身 [wu3 shen1 ] /see 五種法身./

五輪 五轮 [wu3 lun2 ] /The five wheels, or things that turn: I. The 五體 or five members, i. e. the knees, the elbows, and the head; when all are placed on the ground it implies the utmost respect. II. The five foundations of the world. first and lowest the wheel or circle of space; above are those of wind; of water; the diamond, or earth; on these rest the nine concentric circles and eight seas. III. The esoteric sect uses the term for the 五大 five elements, earth, water, fire, wind, and space; also for the 五解脫輪 q. v. IV. The five fingers (of a Buddha)./

五輪六大 五轮六大 [wu3 lun2 liu4 da4 ] /The five are the 五大 five elements, to which the sixth 大 is added, i. e. the six elements, earth, water, fire, air and space, and 識 intelligence or mind./

五輪塔婆 五轮塔婆 [wu3 lun2 ta3 po2 ] /(五輪率塔婆) A stūpa with five wheels at the top; chiefly used by the Shingon sect on graves as indicating the indwelling Vairocana./

五輪觀 五轮观 [wu3 lun2 guan1 ] /五輪三摩地 A meditation of the esoteric school on the five elements, earth, water, fire, air, and space, with their germ-words, their forms (i. e. square, round, triangular, half-moon, and spherical), and their colors (i. e. yellow, white, red, black, and blue). The five wheels also represent the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, v. 五智. The object is that 五輪成身 the individual may be united with the five Buddhas, or Vairocana./

五輪際 五轮际 [wu3 lun2 ji4 ] /The fifth wheel limit, or world foundation, i. e. that of space./

五轉 五转 [wu3 zhuan3 ] /The five evolutions, or developments; (1) resolve on Buddhahood; (2) observance of the rules; (3) attainment of enlightenment; (4) of nirvana; (5) of power to aid others according to need./

五轉成身 五转成身 [wu3 zhuan3 cheng2 shen1 ] /idem 五相成身./

五轉色 五转色 [wu3 zhuan3 se4 ] /The above five developments are given the colors respectively of yellow, red, white, black, and blue (or green), each color being symbolic, e. g. yellow of Vairocana, red of Mañjuśrī, etc./

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五辛 五辛 [wu3 xin1 ] /The five forbidden pungent roots, 五葷 garlic, three kinds of onions, and leeks; if eaten raw they are said to cause irritability of temper, and if eaten cooked, to act as an aphrodisiac; moreover, the breath of the eater, if reading the sutras, will drive away the good spirits./

五逆 五逆 [wu3 ni4 ] /pañcānantarya; 五無間業 The five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, killing an arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity. The above definition is common both to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. The lightest of these sins is the first; the heaviest the last. II. Another group is: (1) sacrilege, such as destroying temples, burning sutras, stealing a Buddha's or a monk's things, inducing others to do so, or taking pleasure therein; (2) slander, or abuse of the teaching of śrāvaka s, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas; (3) ill-treatment or killing of a monk; (4) any one of the five deadly sins given above; (5) denial of the karma consequences of ill deeds, acting or teaching others accordingly, and unceasing evil life. III. There are also five deadly sins, each of which is equal to each of the first set of five: (1) violation of a mother, or a fully ordained nun; (2) killing a bodhisattva in a sangha; (5) destroying a Buddha's stūpa. IV. The five unpardonable sin of Devadatta who (1) destroyed the harmony of the community; (2) injured Śākyamuni with a stone, shedding his blood; (3) induced the king to let loose a rutting elephant to trample down Śākyamuni; (4) killed a nun; (5) put poison on his finger-nails and saluted Śākyamuni intending to destroy him thereby./

五通 五通 [wu3 tong1 ] /v. 五神通./

五通仙 五通仙 [wu3 tong1 xian1 ] /One who by non-Buddhistic methods has attained to the five supernatural powers 五通./

五通神 五通神 [wu3 tong1 shen2 ] /Spirits possessed of the five supernatural powers. They are also identified five bodhisattvas of the 雞頭摩: monastery in India, who, possessed of supernatural powers, went to the Western Paradise and begged the image of Maitreya, whence it is said to have been spread over India./

五道 五道 [wu3 dao4 ] /idem 五趣./

五道六道 五道六道 [wu3 dao4 liu4 dao4 ] /There is difference of statement whether there are five or six gati, i. e. ways or destinies; if six, then there is added the asura, a being having functions both good and evil, both deva and demon./

五道冥官 五道冥官 [wu3 dao4 ming2 guan1 ] /An officer in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades./

五道將軍 五道将军 [wu3 dao4 jiang1 jun1 ] /A general in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades, who keeps the book of life./

五道轉輪王 五道转轮王 [wu3 dao4 zhuan3 lun2 wang2 ] /One of the ten kings of Hades who retries the sufferers on their third year of imprisonment./

五邉 五邉 [wu3 bian1 ] /The five alternatives, i. e. (things) exist; do not exist; both exist and non-exist; neither exist nor non-exist: neither non-exist nor are without non-existence./

五遍行 五遍行 [wu3 bian4 xing2 ] /The five universal mental activities associated with every thought— the idea, mental contact, reception, conception, perception, 作意, 觸, 受, 想, 思; cf. 五蘊./

五那含天 五那含天 [wu3 na4 han2 tian1 ] /idem 五淨居天./

五邪命 五邪命 [wu3 xie2 ming4 ] /(五邪) The five improper ways of gain or livelihood for a monk, i. e. (1) changing his appearance, e. g. theatrically; (2) advertising his own powers and virtue; (3) fortuning by physiognomy, etc.; (4) hectoring and bullying; (5) praising the generosity of another to induce the hearer to bestow presents./

五部 五部 [wu3 bu4 ] /The five classes, or groups I. The 四諦 four truths, which four are classified as 見道 or theory, and 修道 practice, e. g. the eightfold path. II. The five early Hīnayāna sects, see 一切有部 or Sarvastivadah. III. The five groups of the Vajradhātu maṇḍala./

五部合斷 五部合断 [wu3 bu4 he2 duan4 ] /To cut off the five classes of misleading things, i. e. four 見 and one 修, i. e. false theory in regard to the 四諦 four truths, and erroneous practice. Each of the two classes is extended into each of the three divisions of past, three of present, and three of future, making eighteen mental conditions./

五部大乘經 五部大乘经 [wu3 bu4 da4 cheng2 jing1 ] /The five chief Mahāyāna sutras according to Tiantai are: 華嚴經; 大集經; 大品般若經; 法華經, and 涅槃經, i. e. Avataṃsaka, Mahāsanghāta, Mahāprajñāpāramitā, Lotus, and Nirvana sutras./

五部大論 五部大论 [wu3 bu4 da4 lun4 ] /Asaṅga, founder of the Yogācāra school, is said, by command of Maitreya, to have edited the five great śāstras, 瑜伽師地論, 分別瑜伽論, 大乘莊嚴經論, 辨中邉論頌論, and 金剛般若論./

五部尊法 五部尊法 [wu3 bu4 zun1 fa3 ] /五種壇法 (or 五部護摩 or 五部悉地). Ceremonials of the esoteric cult for ridding from calamity; for prosperity; subduing evil (spirits); seeking the love of Buddhas; calling the good to aid; cf. 五種修法./

五部座 五部座 [wu3 bu4 zuo4 ] /The five Dhyāni-Buddhas, v. 五智如來./

五部律 五部律 [wu3 bu4 lv4 ] /The first five Hīnayāna sects— Dharmagupta, Sarvāstivāda, Mahīśāsaka, Kāśyapīya, and Vātsīputrīya; see 五師./

五部教主 五部教主 [wu3 bu4 jiao4 zhu3 ] /The five Dhyāni-Buddhas v.五 智 如 來./

五部法 五部法 [wu3 bu4 fa3 ] /idem 五部尊法./

五部淨 五部净 [wu3 bu4 jing4 ] /(居 炎 摩 羅) Yama as protector in the retinue of the thousand-hand Guanyin./

五部秘藏 五部秘藏 [wu3 bu4 mi4 cang2 ] /idem 五部尊法./

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五重世界 五重世界 [wu3 zhong4 shi4 jie4 ] /The five graduated series of universes: (1) 三千大千世界 tri-sahasra-mahā-sahasra-loka-dhātu; a universe, or chiliocosm; (2) such chiliocosms, numerous as the sands of Ganges, form one Buddha-universe; (3) an aggregation of these forms a Buddha-universe ocean; (4) an aggregation of these latter forms a Buddha-realm seed; (5) an infinite aggregation of these seeds forms a great Buddha-universe, 智度論 50. Another division is (1) a world, or universe; (2) a Buddha-nature universe, with a different interpretation; and the remaining three areas above, the sea, the seed, and the whole Buddha-universe./

五重滯 五重滞 [wu3 zhong4 zhi4 ] /The five heavy blockages, or serious hindrances; see 五鈍使 infra./

五重雲 五重云 [wu3 zhong4 yun2 ] /The five banks of clouds or obstructions for a woman, see 五障./

五鈍使 五钝使 [wu3 dun4 shi3 ] /pañca-kleśa 五重滯; 五惑 The five dull, unintelligent, or stupid vices or temptations: 貪 desire, 嗔 anger or resentment, 癡 stupidity or foolishness, 慢 arrogance, 疑 doubt. Overcoming these constitutes the pañca-śīla, five virtues, v. 尸羅. Of the ten 十使 or agents the other five are styled 五利 keen, acute, intelligent, as they deal with higher qualities./

五鈷金剛杵 五钴金刚杵 [wu3 gu3 jin1 gang1 chu3 ] /(五股金剛杵, 五鈷金剛) The five-armed vajra, 五智金剛杵; 五峯金剛杵, 五峯光明; emblem of the powers of the 五智如來 q. v./

五門禪 五门禅 [wu3 men2 chan2 ] /idem 五停心觀; there is also a fivefold meditation on impermanence, suffering, the void, the non-ego, and nirvana./

五間色 五间色 [wu3 jian4 se4 ] /The five compound colours, v. 五色./

五闡提羅 五阐提罗 [wu3 chan3 ti2 luo1 ] /The five ṣaṇḍhilās, i. e. five bad monks who died, went to the hells, and were reborn as ṣaṇḍhilās or imperfect males; also 五扇提羅./

五阿含 五阿含 [wu3 a1 han2 ] /(五阿含經) The five Agamas, 五阿笈魔, i. e. (1) 長阿含經 Dīrghāgama; (2) 中阿含經 Madhyamāgama; (3) 僧育多阿含經 Samyuktāgama; (4) 鴦掘多羅阿含經 Ekottarikāgama, and (5) 屈陀伽阿合經 Kṣudrakāgama./

五陰 五阴 [wu3 yin1 ] /五衆 see 五蘊. 陰 is the older term./

五陰世間 五阴世间 [wu3 yin1 shi4 jian1 ] /idem 五蘊世間./

五陰苦 五阴苦 [wu3 yin1 ku3 ] /(五陰盛苦) idem 五盛陰苦./

五陰魔 五阴魔 [wu3 yin1 mo2 ] /idem 五蘊魔./

五障 五障 [wu3 zhang4 ] /The five hindrances, or obstacles; also 五礙; 五雲. I. Of women, i. e. inability to become Brahma-kings, Indras, Māra-kings, Caikravarti-kings, or Buddhas. II. The hindrances to the five 五力 powers, i. e. (self-) deception a bar to faith, as sloth is to zeal, anger to remembrance, hatred to meditaton, and discontent to wisdom. III. The hindrances of (1) the passion-nature, e. g. original sin; (2) of karma caused in previous lives; (3) the affairs of life; (4) no friendly or competent preceptor; (5) partial knowledge./

五障三從 五障三从 [wu3 zhang4 san1 cong2 ] /The five hindrances to woman, see above, and her three subordinations, i. e. to father, husband. and son./

五雲 五云 [wu3 yun2 ] /v. 五障./

五音 五音 [wu3 yin1 ] /The five musical tones, or pentatonic scale— do, re, mi, sol, la; also 五聲; 五調子./

五頂 五顶 [wu3 ding3 ] /pañcaśikha, the five locks on a boy's head; also used for 五佛頂尊 q. v./

五頂輪王 五顶轮王 [wu3 ding3 lun2 wang2 ] /idem 五佛頂尊./

五頂山 五顶山 [wu3 ding3 shan1 ] /idem Wu-Tai Shan 五臺./

五類天 五类天 [wu3 lei4 tian1 ] /The five kinds of devas: (1) 上界天 in the upper realms of form and non-form; (2) 虛空天 in the sky, i. e. four of the six devas of the desire-realm; (3) 地居天 on the earth, i. e. the other two of the six devas, on Sumeru; (4) 遊虛天空 wandering devas of the sky, e. g. sun, moon, starvas, (5) 地下天 under-world devas, e. g. nāgas, asuras, māras, etc. Of. 五大明王./

五類聲 五类声 [wu3 lei4 sheng1 ] /The five groups of five each of the consonants in the syllabary called 悉曇 Siddha./

五類說法 五类说法 [wu3 lei4 shuo1 fa3 ] /The five preachers in the Huayan sutra: the Buddha; bodhisattvas; śrāvakas; the devas in their praise songs; and material things, e. g. the bodhi-tree; v. 五種說人./

五食 五食 [wu3 shi2 ] /The five kinds of spiritual food by which roots of goodness are nourished: correct thoughts; delight in the Law; pleasure in meditation; firm resolve, or vows of self-control; and deliverance from the karma of illusion./

五香 五香 [wu3 xiang1 ] /The incense composed of five ingredients (sandalwood, aloes, cloves, saffron, and camphor) offered by the esoteric sects in building their altars and in performing their rituals. Cf. 五分香./

五體 五体 [wu3 ti3 ] /and 五體投地 v. 五輪./

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五髻 五髻 [wu3 ji4 ] /The five cūḍā, topknots or locks, emblems of the 五智 q. v./

五髻冠 五髻冠 [wu3 ji4 guan1 ] /A five-pointed crown with a meaning similar to 五髻./

五髻文殊 五髻文殊 [wu3 ji4 wen2 shu1 ] /Mañjuśrī of the five locks./

[jin1 ] /Now, at present, the present./

今圓 今圆 [jin1 yuan2 ] /A Tiantai term indicating the present 'perfect' teaching, i. e. that of the Lotus, as compared with the 昔圓 older 'perfect ' teaching which preceded it./

今家 今家 [jin1 jia1 ] /The present school, i. e. my school or sect./

[jie4 ] /scales, mail: important; resolute, firm; an attendant; petty, small./

介爾 介尔 [jie4 er3 ] /A transient thought, see kṣaṇa 刹./

[ren2 ] /Kindness, benevolence, virtue./

仁者 仁者 [ren2 zhe3 ] /Kind sir!/

仁尊 仁尊 [ren2 zun1 ] /Benevolent and honored, or kindly honored one, i. e. Buddha./

仁王 仁王 [ren2 wang2 ] /The benevolent king, Buddha; the name Śākya is intp. as 能仁 able in generosity. Also an ancient king, probably imaginary, of the 'sixteen countries' of India, for whom the Buddha is said to have dictated the 仁王經, a sutra with two principal translations into Chinese, the first by Kumārajīva styled 仁王般若經 or 佛說仁王般若波羅蜜經 without magical formulae, the second by Amogha (不空) styled 仁王護國般若波羅蜜經, etc., into which the magical formulae were introduced; these were for royal ceremonials to protect the country from all kinds of calamities and induce prosperity./

仁王供 仁王供 [ren2 wang2 gong1 ] /Service of the 仁王曾 (or 仁王講) the meeting of monks to chant the above incantations./

仁王咒 仁王咒 [ren2 wang2 zhou4 ] /仁王陀羅尼 The incantations made in the 仁王供./

仁王尊 仁王尊 [ren2 wang2 zun1 ] /The two Vajrapāṇi 阿 and 吽 who act as door guardians of temples, variously known as 密跡菩薩, 密修力士, 執金剛神, and 那羅延金剛./

[shen2 ] /A file of ten; sundry, what./

什物 什物 [shi2 wu4 ] /Things (in general), oddments./

什肇 什肇 [shen2 zhao4 ] /The 什 is Kumārajīva and the 肇 his disciple 僧肇 Sengzhao./

什麽 什么 [shen2 ] /idem 甚麽 What ? What./

[yun3 ] /Sincere, true; to assent./

允堪 允堪 [yun3 kan1 ] /Yun-k'an, a famous monk of the Sung dynasty./

允若 允若 [yun3 ruo4 ] /Yun-jo, a famous monk of the Yuan dynasty./

[yuan2 ] /Beginning, first, original, head; dollar; Mongol (dynasty)./

元吉樹 元吉树 [yuan2 ji2 shu4 ] /The tree of the origin of felicity, i. e. the bodhi-tree or ficus religiosa, also styled 佛樹; 道樹, and 菩提樹./

元品無明 元品无明 [yuan2 pin3 wu2 ming2 ] /Primal ignorance; the original state of avidya, unenlightenment, or ignorance; original innocence. Also 根本無明; 無始無明./

元因 元因 [yuan2 yin1 ] /原因 The original or fundamental cause which produces phenomena, e. g. karma, reincarnation, etc.; every cause has its fruit or consequences. The idea of cause and effect is a necessary condition of antecedent and consequence; it includes such relations as interaction, correlation, interdependence, co-ordination based on an intrinsic necessity./

元妙 元妙 [yuan2 miao4 ] /The original or fundamental marvel or mystery, i. e. the conception of nirvana./

元始 元始 [yuan2 shi3 ] /Prabhū, 波羅赴; 鉢利部 beginning, in the beginning, primordial. Prabhū is a title of Viṣṇu as a personification of the sun./

元心 元心 [yuan2 xin1 ] /The original or primal mind behind all things, idem the 一心 of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith, the 森羅萬象之元 source of all phenomena, the mind which is in all things./

元明 元明 [yuan2 ming2 ] /本明 Original brightness or intelligence; the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā as the source of all light or enlightenment./

元曉 元晓 [yuan2 xiao3 ] /Yuan-hsiao, a famous Korean monk who traveled, and studied and wrote in China during the Tang dynasty, then returned to Korea; known as 海東師 Hai-tung Shih./

元照 元照 [yuan2 zhao4 ] /Name of 湛然 Chan-jan, the seventh head of the Tiantai School; he died 1116./

元祖 元祖 [yuan2 zu3 ] /The original patriarch, or founder of a sect or school; sometimes applied to the Buddha as the founder of virtue./

元藏 元藏 [yuan2 cang2 ] /The Yuan tripiṭaka, compiled by order of Shih Tsu (Kublai), founder of the Yuan dynasty, and printed from blocks; begun in 1277, the work was finished in 1290, in 1, 422 部 works, 6, 017 卷 sections, 558 凾 cases or covers. It contained 528 Mahayanist and 242 Hinayanist sutras; 25 Mahāyāna and 54 Hīnayāna vinaya; 97 Mahāyāna and 36 Hīnayāna śāstras; 108 biographies; and 332 supplementary or general works. In size, and generally, it was similar to the Sung edition. The 元藏目錄 or Catalogue of the Yuan tripiṭaka is also known as 大普寧寺大藏經目錄./

元辰星 元辰星 [yuan2 chen2 xing1 ] /元神星 A star that controls the attainment of honors, and the riddance of sickness and distresses. The star varies according to the year star of the suppliant which is one of the seven stars in Ursa Major./

[nei4 ] /Within, inner./

内乞 内乞 [nei4 qi3 ] /The bhikṣu monk who seeks control from within himself, i. e. by mental processes, as compared with the 外乞 the one who aims at control by physical discipline. e. g. fasting, etc./

内供奉 内供奉 [nei4 gong4 feng4 ] /(内供) A title for the monk who served at the alter in the imperial palace, instituted in A. D. 756; also called 供奉./

内典 内典 [nei4 dian3 ] /Buddhist scriptures; of. 外典 non-Buddhist scriptures. There are also divisions of internal and external in Buddhist scriptures./

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內凡 内凡 [nei4 fan2 ] /The inner or higher ranks of ordinary disciples as contrasted with the 外凡 lower grades; those who are on the road to liberation; Hīnayāna begins the stage at the 四善根位 also styled 內凡位; Mahāyāna with the 三賢位 from the 十住 upwards. Tiantai from the 相似卽 of its 六卽 q. v./

內塵 内尘 [nei4 chen2 ] /The inner, or sixth 塵 guṇa associated with mind, in contrast with the other five guṇas, qualities or attributes of the visible, audible, etc./

內史 内史 [nei4 shi3 ] /The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also 內記./

內外 内外 [nei4 wai4 ] /Internal and external: subjective and objective./

內外兼明 内外兼明 [nei4 wai4 jian1 ming2 ] /Inner and outer both 'ming '; the first four of the 五明 q. v. are 'outer' and the fifth 'inner'./

內外空 内外空 [nei4 wai4 kong1 ] /Internal organ and external object are both unreal, or not material./

內外道 内外道 [nei4 wai4 dao4 ] /Within and without the religion; Buddhists and non-Buddhists; also, heretics within the religion./

內學 内学 [nei4 xue2 ] /The inner learning, i. e. Buddhism./

內宿 内宿 [nei4 su4 ] /Food that has been kept overnight in a monastic bedroom and is therefore one of the 'unclean' foods; v. 內煮./

內寺 内寺 [nei4 si4 ] /The Buddhist shrines or temples in the palace, v. 內道塲./

內心 内心 [nei4 xin1 ] /The mind or heart within; the red lotus is used in the 大日經 as its emblem./

內心曼荼羅 内心曼荼罗 [nei4 xin1 man4 tu2 luo1 ] /(or 祕密曼荼羅) The 'central heart ' maṇḍala of the 大日經 or the central throne in the diamond realm lotus to which it refers./

內我 内我 [nei4 wo3 ] /The antarātman or ego within, one's own soul or self, in contrast with bahirātman 外我 an external soul, or personal, divine ruler./

內教 内教 [nei4 jiao4 ] /Buddhism, in contrast with 外教 other cults./

內明 内明 [nei4 ming2 ] /adhyatmāvidyā, a treatise on the inner meaning (of Buddhism), one of the 五明 q. v./

內法 内法 [nei4 fa3 ] /Buddhism, as contrasted with other religions./

內無爲 内无为 [nei4 wu2 wei4 ] /Inner quiescence, cf. the six 妙門./

內煮 内煮 [nei4 zhu3 ] /Cooked food in a monastic bedroom, becoming thereby one of the 'unclean' foods; v. 內宿食./

內界 内界 [nei4 jie4 ] /The realm of mind as contrasted with 外界 that of the body; also the realm of cognition as contrasted with externals, e. g. the 五界 five elements./

內祕 内秘 [nei4 mi4 ] /The inner mystic mind of the bodhisattva, though externally he may appear to be a śrāvaka./

內種 内种 [nei4 zhong3 ] /The seed contained in the 八識, i. e. ālayavijñāna, the basis of all phenomena./

內空 内空 [nei4 kong1 ] /Empty within, i. e. no soul or self within./

內緣 内缘 [nei4 yuan2 ] /The condition of perception arising from the five senses; also immediate, conditional, or environmental causes, in contrast with the more remote./

內薰 内薰 [nei4 xun1 ] /Inner censing; primal ignorance, or unenlightenment; perfuming, censing, or acting upon original intelligence causes the common uncontrolled mind to resent the miseries of mortality and to seek nirvana; v. 起信論 Awakening of Faith./

內胎 内胎 [nei4 tai1 ] /The inner garbhadhātu, i. e. the eight objects in the eight leaves in the central group of the maṇḍala./

內衆 内众 [nei4 zhong4 ] /The inner company, i. e. the monks, in contrast with 外俗 the laity./

內衣 内衣 [nei4 yi1 ] /antaravāsaka, one of the three regulation garments of a monk, the inner garment./

內記 内记 [nei4 ji4 ] /The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also 內史./

內證 内证 [nei4 zheng4 ] /The witness or realization within: one's own assurance of the truth./

內識 内识 [nei4 shi2 ] /Internal perception, idem 心識./

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內道塲 内道塲 [nei4 dao4 chang2 ] /A place for Buddhist worship in the palace, v. 内齋 and 内寺./

內門轉 内门转 [nei4 men2 zhuan3 ] /The psychological elements in the 八識, viz. the seventh and eighth categories./

內陣 内阵 [nei4 zhen4 ] /The inner ranks, i. e. the part of a temple near the altar, where the monks sit./

內院 内院 [nei4 yuan4 ] /The inner court— of the Tusita heaven, where Maitreya dwells and preaches; also 善法堂./

內障 内障 [nei4 zhang4 ] /Internal, or mental hindrances, or obstacles./

內齋 内斋 [nei4 zhai1 ] /Buddhist ceremonies in the palace on the emperor's birthday, v. 內道塲./

[gong1 ] /Public, general, official; a duke, grandparent, gentleman; just, fair./

公案 公案 [gong1 an4 ] /J. kōan; 因緣 A dossier, or case-record; a cause; public laws, regulations; case-law. Problems set by Zen masters, upon which thought is concentrated as a means to attain inner unity and illumination./

公界 公界 [gong1 jie4 ] /A public place; in public./

[liu4 ] /ṣaṭ, ṣaḍ. Six./

六事成就 六事成就 [liu4 shi4 cheng2 jiu4 ] /The six things which enable a bodhisattva to keep perfectly the six pāramitās — worshipful offerings, study of the moral duties, pity, zeal in goodness, isolation, delight in the law; these are described as corresponding to the pāramitās seriatim; v. 莊嚴經 12./

六住 六住 [liu4 zhu4 ] /The sixth of the 十住 q. v./

六作 六作 [liu4 zuo4 ] /idem 六受./

六位 六位 [liu4 wei4 ] /The six stages of Bodhisattva development, i. e. 十信位; 十住位; 十廻向位; 十地位; 等覺位; 佛地位; these are from the order Huayan jing./

六供具 六供具 [liu4 gong4 ju4 ] /The six articles for worship— flowers, a censer, candles, hot liquid, fruits, tea./

六依 六依 [liu4 yi1 ] /The six senses on which one relies, or from which knowledge is received; v. 六情./

六入 六入 [liu4 ru4 ] /ṣaḍāyatana; 六阿耶怛那 (or 六阿也怛那) the six entrances, or locations, both the organ and the sensation — eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind; sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and perception. The six form one of the twelve nidanas, see 十二因緣. The 六根 are the six organs, the 六境 the six objects, and the 六塵 or guṇas, the six inherent qualities. The later term is 六處 q. v./

六八弘誓 六八弘誓 [liu4 ba1 hong2 shi4 ] /The forty-eight great or surpassing vows of Amitābha, also 六八超世本願./

六决定 六决定 [liu4 jue2 ding4 ] /v. 六種决定; also 七深信./

六凡 六凡 [liu4 fan2 ] /The six stages of rebirth for ordinary people, as contrasted with the saints 聖者: in the hells, and as hungry: ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas./

六到彼岸 六到彼岸 [liu4 dao4 bi3 an4 ] /The six things that ferry one to the other shore, i. e. the six pāramitās, v. 六度./

六劍 六剑 [liu4 jian4 ] /六箭 The six swords (or arrows), i. e. the six senses, v. 六塵, which are defined as the qualities of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and mind./

六十 六十 [liu4 shi2 ] /ṣaṣṭi, sixty./

六十二見 六十二见 [liu4 shi2 er4 jian4 ] /The sixty-two 見 or views, of which three groups are given: The 大品般若經 in the 佛母品 takes each of the five skandhas under four considerations of 常 time, considered as time past, whether each of the five has had permanence, impermanence, both, neither, 5 x 4 = 20; again as to their space, or extension, considered as present time, whether each is finite, infinite, both, neither =20; again as to their destination, i. e. future, as to whether each goes on, or does not, both, neither (e. g. continued personality) = 20, or in all 60; add the two ideas whether body and mind 神 are a unity or different = 62. The Tiantai School takes 我見, or personality, as its basis and considers each of the five skandhas under four aspects, e. g (1) rūpa, the organized body, as the ego; (2) the ego as apart from the rūpa; (3) rūpa as the greater, the ego the smaller or inferior, and the ego as dwelling in the rūpa; (4) the ego as the greater, rupa the inferior, and the rupa in the ego. Consider these twenty in the past, present, and future = 60, and add 斷 and 常 impermanence and permanence as fundamentals = 62. There is also a third group./

六十卷 六十卷 [liu4 shi2 juan3 ] /The 60 rolls: the Tiantai 三大部, or three collections of fundamental texts of that school./

六十四書 六十四书 [liu4 shi2 si4 shu1 ] /The sixty-four classes of Indian writing or literature, Brahmi, Kharosthi, etc./

六十四梵音 六十四梵音 [liu4 shi2 si4 fan4 yin1 ] /The sixty-four Aryan or noble characteristics of a Buddha's tones or voice, e. g. snigdha 流澤聲 smooth; mṛdukā 柔軟聲 gentle, etc./

六十四眼 六十四眼 [liu4 shi2 si4 yan3 ] /Eighteen lictors in the avīci hell each with sixty-four eyes./

六十心 六十心 [liu4 shi2 xin1 ] /The sixty different mental positions that may occur to the practitioner of Yoga, see 大日經, 住心品; examples of them are desire, non-desire, ire, kindness, foolishness, wisdom, decision, doubt, depression, brightness, contention, dispute, non-contention, the spirit of devas, of asuras, of nāgas, of humanity, woman (i. e. lust), mastery, commercial, and so on./

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六卽 六卽 [liu4 ji2 ] /The six stages of Bodhisattva developments as defined in the Tiant 'ai 圓教, i. e. Perfect, or Final Teaching, in contrast with the previous, or ordinary six developments of 十信, 十住, 十行, etc., as found in the 別教 Differentiated or Separate school. The Tiantai six are: (1) 理卽 realization that all beings are of Buddha-nature; (2) 名字卽 the apprehension of terms, that those who only hear and believe are in the Buddha. law and potentially Buddha; (3) 觀行卽 advance beyond terminology to meditation, or study and accordant action; it is known as 五品觀行 or 五品弟子位; (4) 相似卽 semblance stage, or approximation to perfection in purity, the 六根淸淨位, i. e. the 十信位; (5) 分證卽 discrimination of truth and its progressive experiential proof, i. e. the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地, and 等覺位 of the 別教 known also as the 聖因 cause or root of holiness. (6) 究竟卽 perfect enlightenment, i. e. the 妙覺位 or 聖果 fruition of holiness. (1) and (2) are known as 外凡 external for, or common to, all. (1) is theoretical; (2) is the first step in practical advance, followed by (3) and (4) styled 内凡 internal for all, and (3), (4), (5), and (6) are known as the 八位 the eight grades./

六卽佛 六卽佛 [liu4 ji2 fu2 ] /Buddha in six forms; (1) 理佛 as the principle in and through all things, as pan-Buddha— all things being of Buddha-nature; (2) 名字佛 Buddha as a name or person. The other four are the last four forms above./

六受 六受 [liu4 shou4 ] /The six vedanas, i. e. receptions, or sensations from the 六根 six organs. Also 六作./

六合釋 六合释 [liu4 he2 shi4 ] /v. 六離釋./

六和敬 六和敬 [liu4 he2 jing4 ] /(六和) The six points of reverent harmony or unity in a monastery or convent: 身 bodily unity in form of worship, 口 oral unity in chanting, 意 mental unity in faith, 戒 moral unity in observing the commandments, 見 doctrinal unity in views and explanations, and 利, 行, 學, or 施 economic unity in community of goods, deeds, studies, or charity./

六和合 六和合 [liu4 he2 he2 ] /The six unions of the six sense organs with the six objects of the senses, the eye with the object seen, etc./

六味 六味 [liu4 wei4 ] /The six tastes, or flavors — bitter, sour, sweet, acrid, salt, and insipid./

六喩 六喩 [liu4 yu4 ] /The six illustrations of unreality Diamond Sutra: a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning. Also 六如./

六因 六因 [liu4 yin1 ] /The six causations of the 六位 six stages of Bodhisattva development, q. v. Also, the sixfold division of causes of the Vaibhāṣikas (cf. Keith, 177-8); every phenomenon depends upon the union of 因 primary cause and 緣 conditional or environmental cause; and of the 因 there are six kinds: (1) 能作因 karaṇahetu, effective causes of two kinds: 與力因 empowering cause, as the earth empowers plant growth, and 不障因 non-resistant cause, as space does not resist, i. e. active and passive causes; (2) 倶有因 sahabhūhetu, co-operative causes, as the four elements 四大 in nature, not one of which can be omitted; (3) 同類因 sabhāgahetu, causes of the same kind as the effect, good producing good, etc.; (4) 相應因 saṃprayuktahetu, mutual responsive or associated causes, e. g. mind and mental conditions, subject with object; Keith gives 'faith and intelligence'; similar to (2); (5) 遍行因 sarvatragahetu, universal or omnipresent cause, i. e. of illusion, as of false views affecting every act; it resembles (3) but is confined to delusion; (6) 異熟因 vipākahetu, differental fruition, i. e. the effect different from the cause, as the hells are from evil deeds./

六地 六地 [liu4 de ] /Six bodhisattvas in the Dizang group of the garbhadhātu, each controlling one of the 六道 or ways of sentient existence. They deal with rebirth in the hells, as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas./

六垢 六垢 [liu4 gou4 ] /(六垢法) Six things that defile: 誑 exaggeration, 謟 flattery, 憍 arrogance, 惱 vexation, 恨 hatred, 害 malice./

六城部 六城部 [liu4 cheng2 bu4 ] /Ṣaṇṇagarikāḥ, 山拖那伽梨柯部; or 密林山部. One of the twenty Hīnayāna sects, connected with the Vātsīputtrīyāḥ 犢子部./

六境 六境 [liu4 jing4 ] /The six fields of the senses, i. e. the objective fields of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea (or thought); rūpa, form and color, is the field of vision; sound, of hearing; scent, of smelling; the five flavors, of tasting; physical feeling, of touch; and mental presentation, of discernment; cf. 六入; 六處 and next./

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六塵 六尘 [liu4 chen2 ] /The six guṇas, qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense, i. e. sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea; the organs are the 六根, 六入, 六處, and the perceptions or discernments the 六識; cf. 六境. Dust 塵 is dirt, and these six qualities are therefore the cause of all impurity. Yet 六塵說法 the Buddha made use of them to preach his law./

六大 六大 [liu4 da4 ] /The six great or fundamental things, or elements — earth; water; fire; wind (or air); space (or ether); and 識 mind, or perception. These are universal and creative of all things, but the inanimate 非情 are made only of the first five, while the animate 有情 are of all six. The esoteric cult represents the six elements, somewhat differently interpreted in the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu. Also 六大界./

六大法性 六大法性 [liu4 da4 fa3 xing4 ] /The unity in variety of the six elements and their products; ordinary eyes see only the differentiated forms or appearances, the sage or philosopher sees the unity./

六大無礙 六大无碍 [liu4 da4 wu2 ai4 ] /The six elements unimpeded, or interactive; or 六大體大 the six elements in their greater substance, or whole. The doctrine of the esoteric cult of tran-substantiation, or the free interchangeability of the six Buddha elements with the human, like with like, whereby yoga becomes possible, i. e. the Buddha elements entering into and possessing the human elements, for both are of the same elemental nature./

六大煩惱 六大烦恼 [liu4 da4 ] /The six great kleśa, passions, or distressers: desire, resentment, stupidity, pride, doubt, and false views./

六大神 六大神 [liu4 da4 shen2 ] /The spirits of the six elements./

六大觀 六大观 [liu4 da4 guan1 ] /Meditation on the six elements; in the exoteric cult, that they are unreal and unclean; in the esoteric cult, that the Buddha and human elements are of the same substance and interchangeable, see above./

六大賊 六大贼 [liu4 da4 zei2 ] /v. 六賊./

六天 六天 [liu4 tian1 ] /The six devalokas, i. e. the heavens with sense organs above Sumeru, between the brahmalokas and the earth, i. e. 四王天; 忉利天; 夜摩天; 兜率天; 樂變化天; and 他化自在天. The sixth is the heaven of Mara, v. 六欲天./

六夷 六夷 [liu4 yi2 ] /The six pārājikas, v. 波羅夷./

六如 六如 [liu4 ru2 ] /The six 'likes' or comparisons, like a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning, v. 六喩./

六妄 六妄 [liu4 wang4 ] /The six misleaders, i. e. the six senses./

六妙行 六妙行 [liu4 miao4 xing2 ] /idem 六行觀./

六字 六字 [liu4 zi4 ] /The six words or syllables, 南無阿彌陀佛 Namo Amitābha./

六字名號 六字名号 [liu4 zi4 ming2 hao4 ] /a name for Mañjuśrī. See 六字文殊./

六字文殊 六字文殊 [liu4 zi4 wen2 shu1 ] /The six-word dhāraṇī of Mañjuśrī 闇婆髻駄那麽 (or 闇婆計陀那麽) or 唵縛鷄淡納莫. There are also the esoteric (Shingon) six words connected with the six forms of Guanyin and the 六字法, 六字供, 六字河臨法, and六字護摩 ceremonials, some connected with Mañjuśrī, and all with Guanyin. There are several 六字 dhāraṇīs, e. g. the Ṣaḍakṣara-vidyāmantra. The six words generally associated with Guanyin are 安荼詈般茶詈 (or 安荼隸般茶詈). There is also the six word Lamaistic charm oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ 唵?呢叭 M061971 吽./

六宗 六宗 [liu4 zong1 ] /The six schools, i. e. 三論宗; 法相宗; 華嚴宗; 律宗; 成實宗, and 倶舍宗 q. v.; the last two are styled Hīnayāna schools. Mahāyāna in Japan puts in place of them 天台宗 and 眞言宗 Tendai and Shingon./

六師 六师 [liu4 shi1 ] /The six tīrthikas or heterodox teachers— Pūraṇa-Kāśyapa, Maskarin, Sañjayin, Ajita-keśakambala, Kakuda-Kātyāyana, and Nirgrantha; see 外道./

六師迦王 六师迦王 [liu4 shi1 jia1 wang2 ] /Name of the king who, thirteen years after the destruction of the Jetavana vihāra. which had been rebuilt 'five centuries ' after the nirvana, again restored it./

六年苦行 六年苦行 [liu4 nian2 ku3 xing2 ] /The six years of Śākyamuni's austerities before his enlightenment./

六度 六度 [liu4 du4 ] /The six things that ferry one beyond the sea of mortality to nirvana, i. e. the six pāramitās 波羅蜜 (波羅蜜多): (1) 布施 dāna, charity, or giving, including the bestowing of the truth on others; (2) 持戒 śīla, keeping the command rents; (3) 忍辱 kṣānti, patience under insult; (4) 精進 vīrya, zeal and progress; (5) 闡定 dhyāna, meditation or contemplation; (6) 智慧 prajñā; wisdom, the power to discern reality or truth. It is the last that carries across the saṃsāra (sea of incarnate life) to the shores of nirvana. The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, a distracted mind, and ignorance. The 唯識論 adds four other pāramitās: (7) 方便 upāya, the use of appropriate means; (8) 願 praṇidhāna, pious vows; (9) 力 bala, power of fulfillment; (10) 智 jñāna knowledge./

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六度果報 六度果报 [liu4 du4 guo3 bao4 ] /The reward s stimulated by the six pāramitās are 富 enrichment; 具色 all things, or perfection; 力 power; 壽 long life; 安 peace (or calmness); 辯 discrimination, or powers of exposition of the truth./

六度無極 六度无极 [liu4 du4 wu2 ji2 ] /The six infinite means of crossing the sea of mortality, i. e. the six pāramitās 六度./

六德 六德 [liu4 de2 ] /The six characteristics of a bhagavat, which is one of a Buddha's titles: sovereign, glorious, majestic, famous, propitious, honored./

六念 六念 [liu4 nian4 ] /(六念法) The six thoughts to dwell upon: Buddha, the Law, the Order, the commands, almsgiving, and heaven with its prospective joys./

六念處 六念处 [liu4 nian4 chu4 ] /The six stages of the six kinds of mindfulness 六念./

六情 六情 [liu4 qing2 ] /The emotions arising from the six organs of sense 六根 for which term 六情 is the older interpretation; v. 六依./

六慧 六慧 [liu4 hui4 ] /The six kinds of wisdom. Each is allotted seriatim to one of the six positions 六位 q. v. (1) 聞慧 the wisdom of hearing and apprehending the truth of the middle way is associated with the 十住; (2) 思慧 of thought with the 十行; (3) 修慧 of observance with the 十廻向; (4) 無相慧 of either extreme, or the mean, with the 十地; (5) 照寂慧 of understanding of nirvana with 等覺慧; (6) 寂照慧 of making nirvana illuminate all beings associated with 佛果 Buddha-fruition. They are a 別教 Differentiated School series and all are associated with 中道 the school of the 中 or middle way./

六成就 六成就 [liu4 cheng2 jiu4 ] /Six perfections (some say five, some seven) found in the opening phrase of each sutra: (1) 'Thus' implies perfect faith; (2) ' have I heard, ' perfect hearing; (3) 'once, 'the perfect time; (4) 'the Buddha, ' the perfect lord or master; (5) 'on Mt. Gṛdhrakūṭa, ' the perfect place; (6) 'with the great assembly of bhikṣus, ' the perfect assembly./

六方 六方 [liu4 fang1 ] /The six directions— E. W. N. S. above and below./

六方禮 六方礼 [liu4 fang1 li3 ] /The brahman morning act of bathing and paying homage in the six directions; observing the 'well-born' do this; the Buddha is said to have given the discourse in the 善生經./

六方護念 六方护念 [liu4 fang1 hu4 nian4 ] /六方證明 (or 六方證誠) The praises of Amitābha proclaimed by the Buddhas of the six directions./

六時 六时 [liu4 shi2 ] /The six 'hours' or periods in a day, three for night and three for day, i. e. morning noon, evening; night, midnight, and dawn. Also, the six divisions of the year, two each of spring, summer, and winter./

六時懺 六时忏 [liu4 shi2 chan4 ] /six daily periods of worship./

六時三昧 六时三昧 [liu4 shi2 san1 mei4 ] /six daily periods of meditation./

六時不斷 六时不断 [liu4 shi2 bu4 duan4 ] /six daily periods of unintermitting devotions./

六時禮讚 六时礼赞 [liu4 shi2 li3 zan4 ] /six daily periods of worship of ceremonial./

六染心 六染心 [liu4 ran3 xin1 ] /The six mental 'taints' of the Awakening of Faith 起心論. Though mind-essence is by nature pure and without stain, the condition of 無明 ignorance, or innocence, permits of taint or defilement corresponding to the following six phases: (1) 執相應染 the taint interrelated to attachment, or holding the seeming for the real; it is the state of 執取相 and 名字相 which is cut off in the final pratyeka and śrāvaka stage and the bodhisattva 十住 of faith; (2) 不斷相應染 the taint interrelated to the persisting attraction of the causes of pain and pleasure; it is the 相續相 finally eradicated in the bodhisattva 初地 stage of purity; (3) 分別智相應染 the taint interrelated to the 'particularizing intelligence' which discerns things within and without this world; it is the first 智相, cut off in the bodhisattva 七地 stage of spirituality; (4) 現色不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint, i. e. of the 'ignorant' mind as yet hardly discerning subject from object, of accepting an external world; the third 現相 cut of in the bodhisattva 八地 stage of emancipation from the material; (5) 能見心不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint of accepting a perceptive mind, the second 轉相, cut of in the bodhisattva 九地 of intuition, or emancipation from mental effort; (6) 根本業不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint of accepting the idea of primal action or activity in the absolute; it is the first 業相, and cut of in the 十地 highest bodhisattva stage, entering on Buddhahood. See Suzuki's translation, 80-1./

六相 六相 [liu4 xiang1 ] /The six characteristics found in everything— hole and parts, unity and diversity, entirety and (its) fractions./

六根 六根 [liu4 gen1 ] /The six indriyas or sense-organs: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. See also 六入, 六境, 六塵, and 六處./

六根五用 六根五用 [liu4 gen1 wu3 yong4 ] /Substitution of one organ for another, or use of one organ to do the work of all the others, which is a Buddha's power./

六根功德 六根功德 [liu4 gen1 gong1 de2 ] /The powers of the six senses, i. e. the achievement by purification of their interchange of function./

六根懺悔 六根忏悔 [liu4 gen1 chan4 hui3 ] /A penitential service over the sins of the six senses./

六根淸淨 六根淸净 [liu4 gen1 qing1 jing4 ] /The six organs and their purification in order to develop their unlimited power and interchange, as in the case of a Buddha. This full development enables e. g. the eye to see everything in a great chiliocosm from its highest heaven down to its lowest hells and all the beings past, present, and future, with all the karma of each./

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六根淸淨位 六根淸净位 [liu4 gen1 qing1 jing4 wei4 ] /The state of the organs thus purified is defined by Tiantai as the 十信位 of the 別教, or the 相似卽 of the 圓教, v. 六卽./

六欲 六欲 [liu4 yu4 ] /The six sexual attractions arising from color; form; carriage; voice (or speech); softness (or smoothness); and features./

六欲天 六欲天 [liu4 yu4 tian1 ] /The devalokas, i. e. the heavens of desire, i. e. with sense-organs; the first is described as half-way up Mt. Sumeru, the second at its summit, and the rest between it and the Brahmalokas; for list v. 六天. Descriptions are given in the 智度論 9 and the 倶舍論 8. They are also spoken of as 六欲天婬相, i. e. as still in the region of sexual desire./

六欲四禪 六欲四禅 [liu4 yu4 si4 chan2 ] /the six heavens where sexual desire continues, and the four dhyāna heavens of purity above them free from such desire./

六法戒 六法戒 [liu4 fa3 jie4 ] /The six prohibition rules for a female devotee: indelicacy of contact with a male; purloining four cash; killing animals; untruthfulness; food after the midday meal; and wine-drinking. Abbreviated as 六法./

六法 六法 [liu4 fa3 ] /is also a term for 六法念./

六波 六波 [liu4 bo1 ] /The six pāramitās, v. 波羅密./

六無常六譬 六无常六譬 [liu4 wu2 chang2 liu4 pi4 ] /v. 六喩./

六煩惱 六烦恼 [liu4 ] /v. 六大煩惱./

六物 六物 [liu4 wu4 ] /The six things personal to a monk— saṅghāṭī, the patch robe; uttarā saṅghāṭī, the stole of seven pieces; antara-vaasaka, the skirt or inner garment of five pieces; the above are the 三衣 three garments: paatra, begging bowl; ni.siidana, a stool: and a water-strainer: the six are also called the 三衣六物./

六瑞 六瑞 [liu4 rui4 ] /The six auspicious indications attributed to the Buddha as a preliminary to his delivery of the Lotus Sutra, see 法華經, 序品: (1) his opening address on the infinite; (2) his samādhi; (3) the rain of flowers; (4) the earthquake; (5) the delight of the beholders; (6) the Buddha-ray./

六界 六界 [liu4 jie4 ] /The six elements: earth, water, fire, air (or wind), space, and mind; idem 六大./

六界聚 六界聚 [liu4 jie4 ju4 ] /The (human) body, which is composed of the six elements 六界./

六畜 六畜 [liu4 chu4 ] /The six animals likened to the six organs 六根, v. 六衆生./

六神通 六神通 [liu4 shen2 tong1 ] /The six transcendental, or magical, powers, v. 六通./

六祖 六祖 [liu4 zu3 ] /The six patriarchs of the Ch'an (Zen) school 禪宗, who passed down robe and begging bowl in succession i. e. Bodhidharma, Huike, Sengcan, Daoxin, Hongren, and Huineng 達摩, 慧可, 僧璨, 道信, 弘忍, and 慧能./

六種住 六种住 [liu4 zhong3 zhu4 ] /The six Bodhisattva-stages in the Bodhisattva-bhumi sutra 菩薩地持經 are: (1) 種性住 the attainment of the Buddha-seed nature in the 十住; (2) 解行住 of discernment and practice in the 十行 and 十廻向; (3) 淨心住 of purity by attaining reality in the 初地見道; (4) 行道迹住 of progress in riddance of incorrect thinking, in the 二地 to the 七地; (5) 決定住 of powers of correct decision and judgment in the eighth and ninth 地; (6) 究竟住 of the perfect Bodhisattva stage in the tenth 地 and the 等覺位, but not including the 妙覺位 which is the Buddha-stage./

六種倶生惑 六种倶生惑 [liu4 zhong3 ju4 sheng1 huo4 ] /The six deceivers common to all the living— greed, anger, torpor, ignorance, doubt, and incorrect views./

六種決定 六种决定 [liu4 zhong3 jue2 ding4 ] /The six kinds of certainty resulting from observance of the six pāramitās: 財成決定 the certainty of wealth; 生勝決定 of rebirth in honorable families; 不退決定 of no retrogression (to lower conditions); 修習決定 of progress in practice; 定業決定 of unfailingly good karma; 無功用決定 of effortless abode in truth and wisdom. 大乘莊嚴論 12./

六種印 六种印 [li