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4. Art of War
藝術 is a Chinese, Japanese, and old Korean Hanja word that means art, as in fine art, the arts, or artwork.
醫道 means art of healing or medical skill.
This can also refer to a Korean TV show, Hur Jun about an ancient doctor. The Chinese-subtitled version of the show is also quite popular in China.
While this is a common title in Chinese and Korean, it's not used as often in Japanese where someone might read it as "medical course" or "the way of medicine".
孫子兵法 is the full title of the most famous book of military proverbs about warfare.
The English title is "Sun Tzu's The Art of War."
The last two characters have come to be known in the west as "The Art of War" but a better translation would be, "military strategy and tactics," "military skills" or "army procedures."
Note: Sometimes the author's name is Romanized as "Sun Zi" or "Sunzi."
It's written the same in Chinese, Japanese Kanji, and Korean Hanja.
In Chinese, 美容 is the title for the art of beauty, as applying makeup or cosmetics to enhance beauty.
Note: In Japanese and Korean, this takes the meaning of beautiful face or beauty of figure or form. Be sure you know who your audience is, and have matched the desired meaning.
The first chapter of Sun Tzu's Art of War lists five key points to analyzing your situation.
It reads like a 5-part military proverb. Sun Tzu says that to sharpen your skills, you must plan. To plan well, you must know your situation. Therefore, you must consider and discuss the following:
1. Philosophy and Politics: Make sure your way or your policy is agreeable among all of your troops (and the citizens of your kingdom as well). For when your soldiers believe in you and your way, they will follow you to their deaths without hesitation, and will not question your orders.
2. Heaven/Sky: Consider climate / weather. This can also mean to consider whether God is smiling on you. In the modern military, this could be waiting for clear skies so that you can have air support for an amphibious landing.
3. Ground/Earth: Consider the terrain in which the battle will take place. This includes analyzing defensible positions, exit routes, and using varying elevation to your advantage. When you plan an ambush, you must know your terrain, and the best location from which to stage that ambush. This knowledge will also help you avoid being ambushed, as you will know where the likely places in which to expect an ambush from your enemy.
4. Leadership: This applies to you as the general, and also to your lieutenants. A leader should be smart and be able to develop good strategies. Leaders should keep their word, and if they break a promise, they should punish themselves as harshly as they would punish subordinates. Leaders should be benevolent to their troops, with almost a fatherly love for them. Leaders must have the ability to make brave and fast decisions. Leaders must have steadfast principles.
5. [Military] Methods: This can also mean laws, rules, principles, model, or system. You must have an efficient organization in place to manage both your troops and supplies. In the modern military, this would be a combination of how your unit is organized, and your SOP (Standard Operating Procedure).
Notes: This is a simplistic translation and explanation. Much more is suggested in the actual text of the Art of War (Bing Fa). It would take a lot of study to master all of these aspects. In fact, these five characters can be compared to the modern military acronyms such as BAMCIS or SMEAC.
CJK notes: I have included the Japanese and Korean pronunciations but in Chinese, Korean and Japanese, this does not make a typical phrase (with subject, verb, and object) it is a list that only someone familiar with Sun Tzu's writings would understand.
生活法 is a Japanese and Chinese title meaning, "art of living" or "way of life."
This can also be translated a few other ways, such as, "rule of life" and "the act of living."
The "art" title kind of comes from the fact that the last character is the same as the book, "The Art of War." So when you write your book, this is the title for, "The Art of Life," in Chinese and Japanese.
棒術 is the title Bōjutsu (though some use the romanization Bojitsu). A martial art centered around the use of a "bō" or staff as a weapon.
This title is a combination of the Japanese word "bō" (which means staff, stick, club, rod, pole, or cudgel) with the Japanese word "jutsu" (which means art, or technique).
While this word can be pronounced in Chinese (bang shu), it's not a common term in China. Please consider this title to be "Japanese only."
Hapkido or 合氣道 is a mostly-defensive martial art of Korea.
Hapkido has some connection to Aikido of Japan. In fact, they are written with the same characters in both languages. However, it should be noted that the Korean Hanja characters shown here are the traditional Chinese form - but in modern Japan, the middle character was slightly simplified.
Note: You can consider this to be the older Japanese written form of Aikido. Titles on older books and signs about Aikido use this form.
The connection between Japanese Aikido and Korean Hapkido is a bit muddled in history. The issue is probably due to the difficult relationship between the two countries around the time of WWII. Many Koreans became virtual slaves for the Japanese during that period. After WWII, many things in Korea were disassociated from having any Japanese origin. The relationship has greatly mellowed out now.
Looking at the characters, the first means "union" or "harmony."
The second character means "universal energy" or "spirit."
The third means "way" or "method."
One way to translate this into English is "Harmonizing Energy Method." This makes since, as Hapkido has more to do with redirecting energy, rather that fighting with strength against strength.
More Hapkido info
1. Sometimes Hapkido is Romanized as "hap ki do," "hapki-do" "hab gi do" or "hapgido."
2. Korean Hanja characters are actually Chinese characters that usually hold the same meaning in both languages. There was a time when these characters were the standard and only written form of Korean. The development of modern Korean Hangul characters is a somewhat recent event in the greater scope of history. There was a time when Chinese characters were the written form of many languages in places known in modern times as North Korea, South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mainland China, and a significant portion of Malaysia. Even today, more people in the world can read Chinese characters than English.
3. While these Korean Hanja characters can be pronounced in Chinese, this word is not well-known in China and is not considered part of the Chinese lexicon.
擊氣道 is the title of the Kyuki-Do form of Korean martial arts.
In Korean Hangul, it's 격기도.
While "Kyuki-Do" is the most common romanized form of this title, the official Korean romanization is actually "Gyeog Gi Do" or "Gyeoggi-Do.">
The first character means to hit, strike, attack, rout, or break.
The second means "life energy" or "atmosphere."
The last means "the way" or "method."
FYI: The last two characters are the same as the last two in the titles Hapkido and Aikido.
I have included Mandarin Chinese pronunciation above, however, this term would only be known by Chinese people familiar with this style of martial arts. Consider this to be a Korean-only title.
This title suggests that you are actively trying to keep your life in balance. Think of this as being the action-verb of seeking or having a balanced life.
The first two characters mean balance, equilibrium or keeping things equal.
The last two characters mean "life." Literally "human life."
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The following table may be helpful for those studying Chinese or Japanese...
|Title||Characters||Romaji(Romanized Japanese)||Various forms of Romanized Chinese|
|geijutsu||yì shù / yi4 shu4 / yi shu / yishu||i shu / ishu|
|The Art of Love||愛的藝術|
|ài de yì shù|
ai4 de yi4 shu4
ai de yi shu
|ai te i shu
|yǎ tè / ya3 te4 / ya te / yate||ya t`e / yate / ya te|
|Art||アート||aato / ato|
|Art of War||兵法||hyou hou / hyouhou / hyo ho / hyoho||bīng fǎ / bing1 fa3 / bing fa / bingfa||ping fa / pingfa|
|Art of Healing||醫道|
|idou / ido||yī dào / yi1 dao4 / yi dao / yidao||i tao / itao|
|Sun Tzu - Art of War||孫子兵法|
|son shi hyou hou|
son shi hyo ho
|sūn zǐ bīng fǎ|
sun1 zi3 bing1 fa3
sun zi bing fa
|sun tzu ping fa
|Beauty: The art of makeup|
|美容||biyou / biyo||měi róng / mei3 rong2 / mei rong / meirong||mei jung / meijung|
|Art of War: 5 Points of Analysis||道天地將法|
|dou ten chi shou hou|
do ten chi sho ho
|dào tiān dì jiàng fǎ|
dao4 tian1 di4 jiang4 fa3
dao tian di jiang fa
|tao t`ien ti chiang fa
tao tien ti chiang fa
|Way of Life|
Art of Life
|shēng huó fǎ|
sheng1 huo2 fa3
sheng huo fa
|bou jutsu / boujutsu / bo jutsu / bojutsu||bàng shù / bang4 shu4 / bang shu / bangshu||pang shu / pangshu|
|ai ki do / aikido||hé qì dào|
he2 qi4 dao4
he qi dao
|ho ch`i tao
ho chi tao
|jī qì dào|
ji1 qi4 dao4
ji qi dao
|chi ch`i tao
chi chi tao
|Life in Balance|
|平衡人生||hei kou jin sei|
hei ko jin sei
|píng héng rén shēng|
ping2 heng2 ren2 sheng1
ping heng ren sheng
|p`ing heng jen sheng
ping heng jen sheng
|In some entries above you will see that characters have different versions above and below a line.|
In these cases, the characters above the line are Traditional Chinese, while the ones below are Simplified Chinese.
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Professional calligraphers are getting to be hard to find these days.
Instead of drawing characters by hand, the new generation in China merely type roman letters into their computer keyboards and pick the character that they want from a list that pops up.
There is some fear that true Chinese calligraphy may become a lost art in the coming years. Many art institutes in China are now promoting calligraphy programs in hopes of keeping this unique form of art alive.
Even with the teachings of a top-ranked calligrapher in China, my calligraphy will never be good enough to sell. I will leave that to the experts.
The same calligrapher who gave me those lessons also attracted a crowd of thousands and a TV crew as he created characters over 6-feet high. He happens to be ranked as one of the top 100 calligraphers in all of China. He is also one of very few that would actually attempt such a feat.
Check out my lists of Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Wall Scrolls and Old Korean Hanja Calligraphy Wall Scrolls.
Some people may refer to this entry as Art Kanji, Art Characters, Art in Mandarin Chinese, Art Characters, Art in Chinese Writing, Art in Japanese Writing, Art in Asian Writing, Art Ideograms, Chinese Art symbols, Art Hieroglyphics, Art Glyphs, Art in Chinese Letters, Art Hanzi, Art in Japanese Kanji, Art Pictograms, Art in the Chinese Written-Language, or Art in the Japanese Written-Language.
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