Suffering in Chinese / Japanese...

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Four Noble Truths: Suffering

Dukkha

 kǔ dì
 kutai
Four Noble Truths: Suffering Scroll

苦諦 relays that part of life in this universe is suffering.

All living things experience some form of suffering, according to Buddhist teaching. This title is about accepting and understanding that the world is full of suffering.


This term is exclusively used by devout Buddhists. It is not a common term, and is remains an unknown concept to most Chinese, Japanese and Korean people.


See Also:  Buddhism | Enlightenment

Four Noble Truths: Path Leading Away From Suffering

Magga

 dào dì
 doutai
Four Noble Truths: Path Leading Away From Suffering Scroll

道諦 is the idea that once you have dealt with your desires and left all desire and attachment behind, only then are you on the path away from suffering (and on your way to enlightenment).

道諦 is also called the path to liberation in some English texts on Buddhism.


This term is exclusively used by devout Buddhists. It is not a common term, and is remains an unknown concept to most Chinese, Japanese and Korean people.


See Also:  Buddhism | Enlightenment

Birth Old-Age Sickness Death

Born to Suffer

 shēng lǎo bìng sǐ
 shou rou byou shi
Birth Old-Age Sickness Death Scroll

生老病死 means “to be born, to grow old, to get sick and to die” or “birth, aging, sickness, and death.”

This is an old somewhat-morbid Chinese proverb that is also used in Korean and Japanese. It figuratively means the fate of humankind (i.e. mortality) or suggests that we are all born to suffer.

In the Buddhist context, there are the “four inevitables in human life” or “four afflictions that are the lot of every human” known as “四苦” (literally “four afflictions”). Sometimes this proverb is written with that affliction character, 苦, at the end like 生老病死苦.


These search terms might be related to Suffering:

Misery Loves Company

No Pain No Gain

Pain

Pain is Weakness Leaving the Body

The Pain of Love / Love Troubles

The Pain of Separation From Your Loves

There is No Pleasure Without Pain

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Below are some entries from our dictionary that may match your suffering search...

Characters

If shown, 2nd row is Simp. Chinese

Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
xīn
    xin1
hsin
 shinkou / shinko
    しんこう

More info & calligraphy:

Sheen
(of taste) hot or pungent; hard; laborious; suffering; eighth in order; eighth of the ten Heavenly Stems 十天干[shi2 tian1 gan1]; letter "H" or Roman "VIII" in list "A, B, C", or "I, II, III" etc; ancient Chinese compass point: 285°; octa
8th in rank; eighth sign of the Chinese calendar; (surname) Shinkou
sharp

四諦


四谛

see styles
sì dì
    si4 di4
ssu ti
 shitai
    したい

More info & calligraphy:

Four Noble Truths (Buddhism)
the Four Noble Truths (Budd.), covered by the acronym 苦集滅道|苦集灭道[ku3 ji2 mie4 dao4]: all life is suffering 苦[ku3], the cause of suffering is desire 集[ji2], emancipation comes only by eliminating passions 滅|灭[mie4], the way 道[dao4] to emancipation is the Eight-fold Noble Way 八正道[ba1 zheng4 dao4]
{Buddh} (See 苦集滅道) The Four Noble Truths
catvāri-ārya-satyāni; 四聖諦; 四眞諦. The four dogmas, or noble truths, the primary and fundamental doctrines of Śākyamuni, said to approximate to the form of medical diagnosis. They are pain or 'suffering, its cause, its ending, the way thereto; that existence is suffering, that human passion (taṇhā, 欲 desire) is the cause of continued suffering, that by the destruction of human passion existence may be brought to an end; that by a life of holiness the destruction of human passion may be attained'. Childers. The four are 苦, 聚 (or 集), 滅, and 道諦, i. e. duḥkha 豆佉, samudaya 三牟提耶, nirodha 尼棲陀, and mārga 末加. Eitel interprets them (1) 'that 'misery' is a necessary attribute of sentient existence'; (2) that 'the 'accumulation' of misery is caused by the passions'; (3) that 'the 'extinction' of passion is possible; (4) mārga is 'the doctrine of the 'path' that leads to the extinction of passion'. (1) 苦 suffering is the lot of the 六趣 six states of existence; (2) 集 is the aggregation (or exacerbation) of suffering by reason of the passions; (3) 滅 is nirvana, the extinction of desire and its consequences, and the leaving of the sufferings of mortality as void and extinct; (4) 道 is the way of such extinction, i. e. the 八正道 eightfold correct way. The first two are considered to be related to this life, the last two to 出世間 a life outside or apart from the world. The four are described as the fundamental doctrines first preached to his five former ascetic companions. Those who accepted these truths were in the stage of śrāvaka. There is much dispute as to the meaning of 滅 'extinction' as to whether it means extinction of suffering, of passion, or of existence. The Nirvana Sutra 18 says that whoever accepts the four dogmas will put an end to births and deaths 若能見四諦則得斷生死 which does not of necessity mean the termination of existence but that of continued transmigration. v. 滅; four [noble] truths

地獄


地狱

see styles
dì yù
    di4 yu4
ti yü
 jigoku
    じごく

More info & calligraphy:

Hell
hell; infernal; underworld; (Buddhism) Naraka
hell; (place-name) Jigoku
naraka, 捺落迦 (or 那落迦) ; niraya 泥犂; explained by 不樂 joyless; 可厭 disgusting, hateful; 苦具, 苦器 means of suffering; if 地獄 earth-prison; 冥府 the shades, or departments of darkness. Earth-prison is generally intp. as hell or the hells; it may also be termed purgatory; one of the six gati or ways of transmigration. The hells are divided into three classes: I. Central, or radical, 根本地獄 consisting of (1) The eight hot hells. These were the original hells of primitive Buddhism, and are supposed to be located umder the southern continent Jambudvīpa 瞻部州, 500 yojanas below the surface. (a) 等活 or 更活 Saṃjīva, rebirth, where after many kinds of suffering a cold wind blows over the soul and returns it to this life as it was before, hence the name 等活. (b) 黑繩 Kaslasūtra, where the sufferer is bound with black chains and chopped or sawn asunder. (c) 線合; 衆合; 堆壓 Saṃghāta, where are multitudes of implements of torture, or the falling of mountains upon the sufferer. (d) 號呌; 呼呼; 叫喚 Raurava, hell of wailing. (e) 大呌; 大號呌; 大呼 Mahāraurava, hell of great wailing. (f) 炎熱; 燒炙 Tapana, hell of fames and burning. (g) 大熱; 大燒炙; 大炎熱 Pratāpana, hell of molten lead. (h) 無間; 河鼻旨; 阿惟越致; 阿毗至; 阿鼻; 阿毗 Avīci, unintermitted suffering, where sinners die and are reborn to suffer without interval. (2) The eight cold hells 八寒地獄. (a) 頞浮陀地獄 Arbuda, where the cold causes blisters. (b) 尼刺部陀 Nirarbuda, colder still causing the blisters to burst. (c) 頞哳吒; 阿吒吒 Atata, where this is the only possible sound from frozen lips. (d) 臛臛婆; 阿波波 Hahava or Apapa, where it is so cold that only this sound can be uttered. (e) 虎虎婆 Hāhādhara or Huhuva, where only this sound can be uttered. (f) 嗢鉢羅; 鬱鉢羅 (or 優鉢羅) Utpala, or 尼羅鳥 (or 漚) 鉢羅 Nīlotpala, where the skin is frozen like blue lotus buds. (g) 鉢特摩 Padma, where the skin is frozen and bursts open like red lotus buds. (h) 摩訶鉢特摩 Mahāpadma, ditto like great red lotus buds. Somewhat different names are also given. Cf. 倶舍論 8; 智度論 16; 涅槃經 11. II. The secondary hells are called 近邊地獄 adjacent hells or 十六遊增 each of its four sides, opening from each such door are four adjacent hells, in all sixteen; thus with the original eight there are 136. A list of eighteen hells is given in the 十八泥梨經. III. A third class is called the 孤地獄 (獨地獄) Lokāntarika, or isolated hells in mountains, deserts, below the earth and above it. Eitel says in regard to the eight hot hells that they range 'one beneath the other in tiers which begin at a depth of 11,900 yojanas and reach to a depth of 40,000 yojanas'. The cold hells are under 'the two Tchahavālas and range shaft-like one below the other, but so that this shaft is gradually widening to the fourth hell and then narrowing itself again so that the first and last hell have the shortest, those in the centre the longest diameter'. 'Every universe has the same number of hells, ' but 'the northern continent has no hell whatever, the two continents east and west of Meru have only small Lokāntarika hells... whilst all the other hells are required for the inhabitants of the southern continent '. It may be noted that the purpose of these hells is definitely punitive, as well as purgatorial. Yama is the judge and ruler, assisted by eighteen officers and a host of demons, who order or administer the various degrees of torture. 'His sister performs the same duties with regard to female criminals, ' and it may be mentioned that the Chinese have added the 血盆池 Lake of the bloody bath, or 'placenta tank' for women who die in childbirth. Release from the hells is in the power of the monks by tantric means.

滅諦


灭谛

see styles
miè dì
    mie4 di4
mieh ti
 mettai
    めったい
{Buddh} (See 四諦) truth of the cessation of suffering
nirodha-āryasatya, the third of the four dogmas, the extinction of suffering, which is rooted in reincarnation, v. 四諦; noble truth of the cessation of suffering

自愛


自爱

see styles
zì ài
    zi4 ai4
tzu ai
 jiai
    じあい
self-respect; self-love; self-regard; regard for oneself; to cherish one's good name; to take good care of one's health
(noun/participle) (1) taking care of oneself (esp. used as an epistolary imperative); (noun/participle) (2) self-love
Self-love, cause of all pursuit or seeking, which in turn causes all suffering. All Buddhas put away self-love and all pursuit, or seeking, such elimination being nirvāṇa.

苦諦


苦谛

see styles
kǔ dì
    ku3 di4
k`u ti
    ku ti
 kutai
    くたい

More info & calligraphy:

Four Noble Truths: Suffering
{Buddh} (See 四諦) truth of suffering
(苦聖諦) duḥkaha-ārya-satyam. The first of the four dogmas, that of suffering; v. 苦集; truth of suffering

道諦


道谛

see styles
dào dì
    dao4 di4
tao ti
 doutai / dotai
    どうたい
{Buddh} (See 四諦) truth of the way to the cessation of suffering
mārga, the dogma of the path leading to the extinction of passion, the fourth of the four axioms, i.e. the eightfold noble path, v. 八聖道; truth of the Way

集諦


集谛

see styles
jí dì
    ji2 di4
chi ti
 jittai
    じったい
{Buddh} (See 四諦) truth of the origin of suffering
samudaya, the second of the four dogmas, that the cause of suffering lies in the passions and their resultant karma. The Chinese 集 'accumulation' does not correctly translate samudaya, which means 'origination'; [noble] truth of the arising of suffering

三牟提耶

see styles
sān móu tí yé
    san1 mou2 ti2 ye2
san mou t`i yeh
    san mou ti yeh
 sanmudaiya

More info & calligraphy:

Samudaya
samudaya, gather together, accumulate, the 聚 or 集諦, i.e. the second of the Four Truths, the aggregation of suffering.

刻苦耐勞


刻苦耐劳

see styles
kè kǔ nài láo
    ke4 ku3 nai4 lao2
k`o k`u nai lao
    ko ku nai lao

More info & calligraphy:

Use Hard Work to Overcome Adversity
to bear hardships and work hard (idiom); assiduous and long-suffering; hard-working and capable of overcoming adversity

四無量心


四无量心

see styles
sì wú liàng xīn
    si4 wu2 liang4 xin1
ssu wu liang hsin
 shi muryōshin

More info & calligraphy:

Brahmavihara
catvāri apramāṇāni; the four immeasurables, or infinite Buddha-states of mind, also styled 四等 the four equalities, or universals, and 四梵行 noble acts or characteristics; i. e. four of the twelve 禪 dhyānas: 慈無量心 boundless kindness, maitrī, or bestowing of joy or happiness; 悲無量心 boundless pity, karuṇā, to save from suffering; 喜無量心 boundless joy, muditā, on seeing others rescued from suffering; 捨無量心 limitless indifference, upekṣā, i. e. rising above these emotions, or giving up all things, e. g. distinctions of friend and enemy, love and hate, etc. The esoteric sect has a special definition of its own, connecting each of the four with 普賢; 虛 空 藏; 觀自在; or 盧 空 庫; four immeasurable states of mind

愛別離苦


爱别离苦

see styles
ài bié lí kǔ
    ai4 bie2 li2 ku3
ai pieh li k`u
    ai pieh li ku
 aibetsuriku
    あいべつりく
(Buddhism) the pain of parting with what (or whom) one loves, one of the eight distresses 八苦[ba1 ku3]
(yoji) {Buddh} the pain of separation from loved ones
The suffering of being separated from those whom one loves. v. 八苦; suffering experienced when we are separated from the persons and things that we love

生老病死

see styles
shēng lǎo bìng sǐ
    sheng1 lao3 bing4 si3
sheng lao ping ssu
 shouroubyoushi / shorobyoshi
    しょうろうびょうし

More info & calligraphy:

Birth Old-Age Sickness Death
lit. to be born, to grow old, to get sick and to die; fig. the fate of humankind (i.e. mortality)
(yoji) {Buddh} the four inevitables in human life (birth, aging, sickness, and death)
Birth, age, sickness, death, the 四苦 four afflictions that are the lot of every man. The five are the above four and 苦 misery, or suffering; birth, aging, sickness, and death

使

see styles
shǐ
    shi3
shih
 tsukasa
    つかさ
to make; to cause; to enable; to use; to employ; to send; to instruct sb to do something; envoy; messenger
(1) messenger; (2) (abbreviation) (See 検非違使) police and judicial chief (Heian and Kamakura periods); (3) {Buddh} (See 煩悩・2) klesha (polluting thoughts such as greed, hatred and delusion, which result in suffering); (female given name) Tsukasa
To send; cause; a messenger; a pursuer, molester, lictor, disturber, troubler, intp. as 煩惱 kleśa, affliction, distress, worldly cares, vexations, and as consequent reincarnation. There are categories of 10, 16, 98, 112, and 128 such troublers, e. g. desire, hate, stupor, pride, doubt, erroneous views, etc., leading to painful results in future rebirths, for they are karma-messengers executing its purpose. Also 金剛童子 q. v; affliction, proclivities

see styles
gòu
    gou4
kou
 yoshimi
    よしみ
dirt; disgrace
{Buddh} (See 煩悩・2) klesha (polluting thoughts such as greed, hatred and delusion, which result in suffering); (personal name) Yoshimi
mala. Dust, impurity, dregs; moral impurity; mental impurity. Whatever misleads or deludes the mind; illusion; defilement; the six forms are vexation, malevolence, hatred, flattery, wild talk, pride; the seven are desire, false views, doubt, presumption, arrogance, inertia, and meanness.

see styles
chǔ
    chu3
ch`u
    chu
 chiyu
    ちゆ
distinct; clear; orderly; pain; suffering; deciduous bush used in Chinese medicine (genus Vitex); punishment cane (old)
(1) (archaism) switch (long, tender shoot of a plant); (2) switch (cane used for flogging); (archaism) switch (flogging implement made from a branch); (place-name) Chu (name of several ancient Chinese states); Ch'u
Brambles, spinous; painful, grievous; to flog; clear up; the Chu state; to whip

see styles

    ku3
k`u
    ku
 ku
    く
bitter; hardship; pain; to suffer; to bring suffering to; painstakingly
(1) pain; anguish; suffering; distress; anxiety; worry; trouble; difficulty; hardship; (2) {Buddh} (See 八苦) duhkha (suffering)
duḥkha, 豆佉 bitterness; unhappiness, suffering, pain, distress, misery; difficulty. There are lists of two, three, four, five, eight, and ten categories; the two are internal, i. e. physical and mental, and external, i. e. attacks from without. The four are birth, growing old, illness, and death. The eight are these four along with the pain of parting from the loved, of meeting with the hated, of failure in one's aims, and that caused by the five skandhas; cf. 四諦.


see styles

    di4
ti
 tai
    たい
to examine; truth (Buddhism)
{Buddh} satya; truth; (given name) Tai
To judge, examine into, investigate, used in Buddhism for satya, a truth, a dogma, an axiom; applied to the āryasatyāni, the four dogmas, or noble truths, of 苦, 集, 滅, and 道 suffering, (the cause of its) assembly, the ( possibility of its cure, or) extinction, and the way (to extinction), i.e. the eightfold noble path, v. 四諦 and 八聖道. There are other categories of 諦, e.g. (2) 眞 and 俗 Reality in contrast with ordinary ideas of things; (3) 空, 假 and 中 q.v. (6) by the 勝論宗; and(8) by the 法相宗.; Two forms of statement: (a) 俗諦 saṃvṛti-satya, also called 世諦, 世俗諦, 覆俗諦, 覆諦, meaning common or ordinary statement, as if phenomena were real; (b) 眞諦 paramartha-satya, also called 第一諦, 勝義諦, meaning the correct dogma or averment of the enlightened. Another definition is 王法 and 佛法, royal law and Buddha law.


see styles
lún
    lun2
lun
 run
    るん
wheel; disk; ring; steamship; to take turns; to rotate; classifier for big round objects: disk, or recurring events: round, turn
(counter) counter for wheels and flowers; (female given name) Run
cakra; wheel, disc, rotation, to revolve; v. 研. The three wheels are 惑業苦illusion, karma, suffering, in constant revolution. The five are earth, water, fire, wind, and space; the earth rests on revolving spheres of water, fire, wind, and space. The nine are seen on the tops of pagodas, cf. 九輪.; The two wheels of a cart compared by the Tiantai school to 定 (or to its Tiantai form 止觀) and 慧 meditation and wisdom; see 止觀 5. Also 食 food and 法 the doctrine, i. e. food physical and spiritual.

ぐう

see styles
 guu / gu
    グウ
(1) (See じゃん拳,グー・2) rock (in rock, paper, scissors game); (adv,n) (2) (onomatopoeic or mimetic word) (See ぐうの音も出ない) ungh; sound made through constricted throat; (adv,n) (3) (onomatopoeic or mimetic word) ungh; sound made in suffering or under adversity; (female given name) Guu

り災

see styles
 risai
    りさい
(noun/participle) suffering (from a calamity); affliction

れる

see styles
 reru
    れる
(aux-v,v1) (1) indicates passive voice (incl. the "suffering passive"); (2) indicates the potential form; (3) indicates spontaneous occurrence; (4) (honorific or respectful language) used as an honorific for others' actions

三苦

see styles
sān kǔ
    san1 ku3
san k`u
    san ku
 sanku
The three kinds of duḥkha, pain, or suffering: 苦苦 that produced by direct causes; 壞苦 by loss or deprivation; 行苦 by the passing or impermanency of all things; three kinds of suffering

三輪


三轮

see styles
sān lún
    san1 lun2
san lun
 miwa
    みわ
three wheels; (p,s,f) Miwa
The three wheels: (1) The Buddha's (a) 身 body or deeds; (b) 口 mouth, or discourse; (c) 意 mind or ideas. (2) (a) 神通 (or 變) His supernatural powers, or powers of (bodily) self-transformation, associated with 身 body; (b) 記心輪 his discriminating understanding of others, associated with 意 mind; (c) 敎誡輪 or 正敎輪 his (oral) powers of teaching, associated with 口. (3) Similarly (a) 神足輪 ; (b) 說法輪 ; (c) 憶念輪 . (4) 惑, 業, and 苦. The wheel of illusion produces karma, that of karma sets rolling that of suffering, which in turn sets rolling the wheel of illusion. (5) (a) Impermanence; (b) uncleanness; (c) suffering. Cf. 三道.

三轉


三转

see styles
sān zhuǎn
    san1 zhuan3
san chuan
 santen
(三轉法輪) The three turns of the law-wheel when the Buddha preached in the Deer Park: (a) 示轉 indicative, i.e. postulation and definition of the 四諦; (b) 勸轉 hortative, e.g. 苦當知 suffering should be diagnosed; (c) 證轉 evidential, e.g. I have overcome suffering, etc; three turns of the wheel

三道

see styles
sān dào
    san1 dao4
san tao
 mitsumichi
    みつみち
(surname) Mitsumichi
(1) The three paths all have to tread; 輪廻三道, 三輪, i.e. (a) 煩惱道 ; 惑道 ; the path of misery, illusion, mortality; (b) 業道 the path of works, action, or doing, productive of karma; (c) 苦道 the resultant path of suffering. As ever recurring they are called the three wheels. (2) 聾, 緣, 菩 śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, cf. 三乘; three holy paths

下品

see styles
xià pǐn
    xia4 pin3
hsia p`in
    hsia pin
 shimoshina
    しもしな
(noun or adjectival noun) vulgar; indecent; coarse; crude; (place-name) Shimoshina
The three lowest of the nine classes born in the Amitābha Pure Land, v. 無量壽經. These three lowest grades are (1) 下品上生 The highest of the three lowest classes who enter the Pure Land of Amitābha, i.e. those who have committed all sins except dishonouring the sūtras. If at the end of life the sinner clasps hands and says "Namo Amitābha", such a one will be born in His precious lake. (2) 下品中生 The middle class consists of those who have broken all the commandments, even stolen from monks and abused the law. If at death such a one hears of the great power of Amitābha, and assents with but a thought, he will be received into paradise. (3) 下品下生 The lowest class, because of their sins, should have fallen into the lowest gati, but by invoking the name of Amitābha, they can escape countless ages of reincarnation and suffering and on dying will behold a lotus flower like the sun, and, by the response of a single thought, will enter the Pure Land of Amitābha; lower level

不苦

see styles
bù kǔ
    bu4 ku3
pu k`u
    pu ku
 fuku
non-suffering; non-suffering

丸香

see styles
wán xiāng
    wan2 xiang1
wan hsiang
 gankō
Incense balls made of various kinds of ingredients; typifying the aggregation of mortal suffering, and its destruction by the, fires of wisdom; incense balls

九道

see styles
jiǔ dào
    jiu3 dao4
chiu tao
 kudō
idem 九有情居.; The nine truths, or postulates: impermanence; suffering; voidness (or unreality of things); no permanent ego, or soul; love of existence or possessions, resulting in suffering; the opposite (or fear of being without them), also resulting in suffering; the cutting off of suffering and its cause; nirvāṇa with remainder still to be worked out; complete nirvāṇa; nine paths

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The following table may be helpful for those studying Chinese or Japanese...

Title CharactersRomaji (Romanized Japanese)Various forms of Romanized Chinese
Four Noble Truths: Suffering苦諦
苦谛
kutaikǔ dì / ku3 di4 / ku di / kudik`u ti / kuti / ku ti
Four Noble Truths: Path Leading Away From Suffering道諦
道谛
doutai / dotaidào dì / dao4 di4 / dao di / daoditao ti / taoti
Birth Old-Age Sickness Death生老病死shou rou byou shi
shouroubyoushi
sho ro byo shi
shēng lǎo bìng sǐ
sheng1 lao3 bing4 si3
sheng lao bing si
shenglaobingsi
sheng lao ping ssu
shenglaopingssu
In some entries above you will see that characters have different versions above and below a line.
In these cases, the characters above the line are Traditional Chinese, while the ones below are Simplified Chinese.


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Birth Old-Age Sickness Death Scroll
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All of our calligraphy wall scrolls are handmade.

When the calligrapher finishes creating your artwork, it is taken to my art mounting workshop in Beijing where a wall scroll is made by hand from a combination of silk, rice paper, and wood.
After we create your wall scroll, it takes at least two weeks for air mail delivery from Beijing to you.

Allow a few weeks for delivery. Rush service speeds it up by a week or two for $10!

When you select your calligraphy, you'll be taken to another page where you can choose various custom options.


A nice Chinese calligraphy wall scroll

The wall scroll that Sandy is holding in this picture is a "large size"
single-character wall scroll.
We also offer custom wall scrolls in small, medium, and an even-larger jumbo size.

A professional Chinese Calligrapher

Professional calligraphers are getting to be hard to find these days.
Instead of drawing characters by hand, the new generation in China merely type roman letters into their computer keyboards and pick the character that they want from a list that pops up.

There is some fear that true Chinese calligraphy may become a lost art in the coming years. Many art institutes in China are now promoting calligraphy programs in hopes of keeping this unique form of art alive.

Trying to learn Chinese calligrapher - a futile effort

Even with the teachings of a top-ranked calligrapher in China, my calligraphy will never be good enough to sell. I will leave that to the experts.

A high-ranked Chinese master calligrapher that I met in Zhongwei

The same calligrapher who gave me those lessons also attracted a crowd of thousands and a TV crew as he created characters over 6-feet high. He happens to be ranked as one of the top 100 calligraphers in all of China. He is also one of very few that would actually attempt such a feat.


Check out my lists of Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Wall Scrolls and Old Korean Hanja Calligraphy Wall Scrolls.

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65 people have searched for Suffering in Chinese or Japanese in the past year.
Suffering was last searched for by someone else on Jan 3rd, 2023