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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
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Characters Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin kōng / kong1
Taiwan k`ung / kung
Japanese kuu / ku / くう    kara / から
Chinese to empty; vacant; unoccupied; space; leisure; free time; empty; air; sky; in vain
Japanese (1) empty air; sky; (2) {Buddh} shunyata; emptiness; the lack of an immutable intrinsic nature within any phenomenon; (3) (abbreviation) (See 空軍) air force; (noun or adjectival noun) (4) fruitlessness; meaninglessness; (5) (See 五大・1) void (one of the five elements); (can be adjective with の) (6) {math} empty (e.g. set); (noun - becomes adjective with の) emptiness; vacuum; blank; (female given name) Ron; (personal name) Hiroshi; (female given name) Hikari; (female given name) Haruka; (female given name) Noa; (surname) Sorasaki; (female given name) Sora; (female given name) Sukai; (female given name) Shieru; (personal name) Kuukai; (surname, female given name) Kuu; (female given name) Kanata; (female given name) Kasumi; (female given name) Urue; (surname, female given name) Aki; (female given name) Aoi
śūnya, empty, void, hollow, vacant, nonexistent. śūnyatā, 舜若多, vacuity, voidness, emptiness, non-existence, immateriality, perhaps spirituality, unreality, the false or illusory nature of all existence, the seeming 假 being unreal. The doctrine that all phenomena and the ego have no reality, but are composed of a certain number of skandhas or elements, which disintegrate. The void, the sky, space. The universal, the absolute, complete abstraction without relativity. There are classifications into 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 16, and 18 categories. The doctrine is that all things are compounds, or unstable organisms, possessing no self-essence, i.e. are dependent, or caused, come into existence only to perish. The underlying reality, the principle of eternal relativity, or non-infinity, i.e. śūnya, permeates all phenomena making possible their evolution. From this doctrine the Yogācārya school developed the idea of the permanent reality, which is Essence of Mind, the unknowable noumenon behind all phenomena, the entity void of ideas and phenomena, neither matter nor mind, but the root of both.

三諦


三谛

see styles
Mandarin sān dì / san1 di4
Taiwan san ti
Japanese santai;sandai / さんたい;さんだい
Japanese {Buddh} (in Tendai) threefold truth (all things are void; all things are temporary; all things are in the middle state between these two)
The three dogmas. The "middle" school of Tiantai says 卽空, 卽假. 卽中 i.e. 就是空, 假, 中; (a) by 空śūnya is meant that things causally produced are intheir essential nature unreal (or immaterial) 實空無; (b) 假, though thingsare unreal in their essential nature their derived forms are real; (c) 中;but both are one, being of the one 如 reality. These three dogmas arefounded on a verse of Nāgārjuna's— 因緣所生法, 我說卽是空 亦爲是假名, 亦是中道義 "All causally produced phenomena, I say, areunreal, Are but a passing name, and indicate the 'mean'." There are otherexplanations— the 圓教 interprets the 空 and 假 as 中; the 別教 makes 中 independent. 空 is the all, i.e. the totality of all things, and is spokenof as the 眞 or 實 true, or real; 假 is the differentiation of all thingsand is spoken of as 俗 common, i.e. things as commonly named; 中 is theconnecting idea which makes a unity of both, e.g. "all are but parts of onestupendous whole." The 中 makes all and the all into one whole, unifying thewhole and its parts. 空 may be taken as the immaterial, the undifferentiatedall, the sum of existences, by some as the tathāgatagarbha 如來藏; 假as theunreal, or impermanent, the material or transient form, the temporal thatcan be named, the relative or discrete; 中 as the unifier, which places eachin the other and all in all. The "shallower" 山外 school associated 空 and 中 with the noumenal universe as opposed to the phenomenal and illusoryexistence represented by 假. The "profounder" 山内 school teaches that allthree are aspects of the same; threefold truth

四諦


四谛

see styles
Mandarin sì dì / si4 di4
Taiwan ssu ti
Japanese shitai / したい
Chinese the Four Noble Truths (Budd.), covered by the acronym 苦集滅道: all life is suffering 苦, the cause of suffering is desire 集, emancipation comes only by eliminating passions 滅|灭, the way 道 to emancipation is the Eight-fold Noble Way 八正道
Japanese {Buddh} (See 苦集滅道) The Four Noble Truths (of Buddhism)
catvāri-ārya-satyāni; 四聖諦; 四眞諦. The four dogmas, or noble truths, the primary and fundamental doctrines of Śākyamuni, said to approximate to the form of medical diagnosis. They are pain or 'suffering, its cause, its ending, the way thereto; that existence is suffering, that human passion (taṇhā, 欲 desire) is the cause of continued suffering, that by the destruction of human passion existence may be brought to an end; that by a life of holiness the destruction of human passion may be attained'. Childers. The four are 苦, 聚 (or 集), 滅, and 道諦, i. e. duḥkha 豆佉, samudaya 三牟提耶, nirodha 尼棲陀, and mārga 末加. Eitel interprets them (1) 'that 'misery' is a necessary attribute of sentient existence'; (2) that 'the 'accumulation' of misery is caused by the passions'; (3) that 'the 'extinction' of passion is possible; (4) mārga is 'the doctrine of the 'path' that leads to the extinction of passion'. (1) 苦 suffering is the lot of the 六趣 six states of existence; (2) 集 is the aggregation (or exacerbation) of suffering by reason of the passions; (3) 滅 is nirvana, the extinction of desire and its consequences, and the leaving of the sufferings of mortality as void and extinct; (4) 道 is the way of such extinction, i. e. the 八正道 eightfold correct way. The first two are considered to be related to this life, the last two to 出世間 a life outside or apart from the world. The four are described as the fundamental doctrines first preached to his five former ascetic companions. Those who accepted these truths were in the stage of śrāvaka. There is much dispute as to the meaning of 滅 'extinction' as to whether it means extinction of suffering, of passion, or of existence. The Nirvana Sutra 18 says that whoever accepts the four dogmas will put an end to births and deaths 若能見四諦則得斷生死 which does not of necessity mean the termination of existence but that of continued transmigration. v. 滅.

虛空


虚空

see styles
Mandarin xū kōng / xu1 kong1
Taiwan hsü k`ung / hsü kung
Japanese kokū
Chinese void; hollow; empty
śūnya; empty, void, space; ākāśa, in the sense of space, or the ether; gagana, the sky, atmosphere, heaven; kha, space, sky, ether, 虛 is defined as that which is without shape or substantiality, 空 as that which has no resistance. The immaterial universe behind all phenomena.

ボイド

see styles
Japanese boido / ボイド
Japanese void; (personal name) Boyd

眞空妙有

see styles
Mandarin zhēn kōng miào yǒu / zhen1 kong1 miao4 you3
Taiwan chen k`ung miao yu / chen kung miao yu
Japanese shinkū myōu
The true void is the mysteriously existing; truly void, or immaterial, yet transcendentally existing; true emptiness is marvelous existence

地水火風空

see styles
Japanese chisuikafuukuu;jisuikafuukuu / chisuikafuku;jisuikafuku / ちすいかふうくう;じすいかふうくう Japanese {Buddh} earth, water, fire, wind and void (the five elements)

see styles
Mandarin jiǎ / jia3
Taiwan chia
Japanese ke
Chinese vacation; fake; false; artificial; to borrow; if; suppose
To borrow, pretend, assume, suppose; unreal, false, fallacious. In Buddhism it means empirical; nothing is real and permanent, all is temporal and merely phenomenal, fallacious, and unreal; hence the term is used in the sense of empirical, phenomenal, temporal, relative, unreal, seeming, fallacious, etc. The three fundamental propositions or 三諦 are 空假中 the void, or noumenon; the empirical, or phenomenal; and the mean.

see styles
Mandarin huà / hua4
Taiwan hua
Japanese ka / か
Chinese to make into; to change into; -ization; to ... -ize; to transform; abbr. for 化學|化学[hua4 xue2]; variant of 花[hua1]
Japanese (suffix) (See 化する) action of making something; -ification; (personal name) Fua
To transform, metamorphose: (1) conversion by instruction, salvation into Buddhism; (2) magic powers 通力 of transformation, of which there are said to be fourteen mental and eight formal kinds. It also has the meaning of immediate appearance out of the void, or creation 無而忽起; and of giving alms, spending, digesting, melting, etc; to teach


see styles
Mandarin/ xu1
Taiwan hsü
Japanese kyo
Chinese emptiness; void; abstract theory or guiding principles; empty or unoccupied; diffident or timid; false; humble or modest; (of health) weak; virtual; in vain
śūnya. Empty, vacant; unreal, unsubstantial, untrue; space; humble; in vain; void

一空

see styles
Mandarin yī kōng / yi1 kong1
Taiwan i k`ung / i kung
Japanese ikkuu / ikku / いっくう
Chinese leaving none left; (sold etc) out
Japanese (given name) Ikkuu
All is empty, or of the void, non-material; singular emptiness

三教

see styles
Mandarin sān jiào / san1 jiao4
Taiwan san chiao
Japanese sankyou / sankyo / さんきょう
Chinese the Three Doctrines (Daoism, Confucianism, Buddhism)
Japanese Shinto, Buddhism and Confucianism; (given name) Mitsunori
The three teachings, i.e. 儒, 佛 (or 釋), and 道Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism; or, 孔, 老, 釋 Confucianism, Taoism (aIso known as 神敎), and Buddhism. In Japan they are Shinto, Confucianism, and Buddhism. In Buddhism the term is applied to the three periods of Śākyamuni's own teaching, of which there are several definitions: (1) The Jiangnan 南中 School describe his teaching as (a) 漸progressive or gradual; (b) 頓 immediate, i.e. as one whole, especially in the 華嚴經; and (c) 不定 or indeterminate. (2) 光統 Guangtong, a writer of the Iater Wei dynasty, describes the three as (a) 漸 progressive for beginners, i.e. from impermanence to permanence, from the void to reality, etc.; (b) 頓 immediate for the more advanced; and (c) 圓complete, to the most advanced, i.e. the Huayan as above. (3) The 三時敎q.v. (4) The 南山 Southern school deals with (a) the 性空of Hīnayāna; (b) 相空of Mahāyāna; and (c) 唯識圓 the perfect idealism. v. 行事鈔中 4. Tiantai accepts the division of 漸, 頓, and 不定 for pre-Lotus teaching, but adopts 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 perfect, with the Lotus as the perfect teaching; it also has the division of 三藏敎 , 通敎 , and 別敎 q.v.

三智

see styles
Mandarin sān zhì / san1 zhi4
Taiwan san chih
Japanese michi / みち    misato / みさと    sanchi / さんち
Japanese (female given name) Michi; (female given name) Misato; (given name) Sanchi
The three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) 一切智 śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that all the dharma or laws are 空 void and unreal; (b) 道種智 bodhisattva-knowledge. of all things in their proper discrimination; (c) 一切種智 Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Tiantai associates the above with 室, 候, 中. (2) (a) 世間智 earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) 出世間智 supra-mundane, or spiritual (śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) 出世間上上智 supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas. v. 智度論 27, 止觀 3, and 概伽經 3. Cf. — 心三智.

三觀


三观

see styles
Mandarin sān guān / san1 guan1
Taiwan san kuan
Japanese sangan
The three studies, meditations, or insights. The most general group is that of Tiantai: (a) 空觀 study of all as void, or immaterial; (b) 假觀 of all as unreal, transient, or temporal; (c) 中觀 as the via media inclusive of both. The Huayan group is 眞空觀, 理事無礙觀 and 周遍含容觀, see 華嚴經:法界觀. The 南山 group is 性空觀, 相空觀, and 唯識觀. The 慈恩 group is 有觀, 空觀 and 中觀; three contemplations

三身

see styles
Mandarin sān shēn / san1 shen1
Taiwan san shen
Japanese sanjin;sanshin / さんじん;さんしん
Japanese {Buddh} trikaya (three bodies of the Buddha); (surname) Sanmi
trikāya. 三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men; three bodies [of the Buddha]

中諦


中谛

see styles
Mandarin zhōng dì / zhong1 di4
Taiwan chung ti
Japanese chuutai / chutai / ちゅうたい
Japanese {Buddh} (See 三諦) truth of the middle (all things are in a middle state, being void yet having temporary existence)
The third of the 三諦 three postulates of the Tiantai school, i. e. 空, 假, and 中 q. v; middle truth

二如

see styles
Mandarin èr rú / er4 ru2
Taiwan erh ju
Japanese ninyo
There are various definitions of the two aspects of the 眞如 bhūtatathatā. (1) (a) 不變眞如 The changeless essence or substance, e.g. the sea; (b) 隨緣眞如 its conditioned or ever-changing forms, as in the phenomenal world, e.g. the waves. (2) (a) 離言眞如 The inexpressible absolute, only mentally conceivable; (6) 依言眞如 aspects of it expressible in words, its ideal reflex. (3) (a) 空眞如 The absolute as the void, e.g. as space, the sky, a clear mirror; (b) 不空眞如 the absolute in manifestation, or phenomenal, e. g. images in the mirror: the womb of the universe in which are all potentialities. (4) (a) 在纏眞如The Buddha-nature in bonds, i.e. all beings in suffering; (b) 出纏真如the Buddha-nature set free by the manifestation of the Buddha and bodhisattvas. (5) (a) 有垢眞如The Buddha-nature defiled, as in unenlightened man, etc., e.g. the water-lily with its roots in the mud; (b) 無垢眞如 the pure Buddha-nature, purifed or bright as the full moon. (6) 安立 and 非安立眞如 similar to the first definition given above; thusness in two aspects

五乘

see styles
Mandarin wǔ chéng / wu3 cheng2
Taiwan wu ch`eng / wu cheng
Japanese gojō
The five vehicles conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the vehicle: they are generally summed up as (1) 入乘 rebirth among men conveyed by observing the five commandments; (2) 天乘 among the devas by the ten forms of good action; (3) 聲聞乘 among the śrāvakas by the four noble truths; (4) 緣覺乘 among pratyekabuddhas by the twelve nidānas; (5) 菩薩乘 among the Buddhas and bodhisattvas by the six pāramitās 六度 q. v. Another division is the various vehicles of bodhisattvas; pratyekabuddhas; śrāvakas; general; and devas-and-men. Another is Hīnayāna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, the gods of the Brahma heavens, and those of the desire-realm. Another is Hīnayāna ordinary disciples: śrāvakas: pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas; and the one all-inclusive vehicle. And a sixth, of Tiantai, is for men; devas; śrāvakas-cum-pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas: and the Buddha-vehicle. The esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: śrāvakas, with fire: pratyekabuddhas, with wind; and bodhisattvas, with 空 the 'void'.

五大

see styles
Mandarin wǔ dà / wu3 da4
Taiwan wu ta
Japanese godai / ごだい
Japanese (1) {Buddh} (See 五行・ごぎょう・1) the five elements (in Japanese philosophy: earth, water, fire, wind and void); (2) (abbreviation) {Buddh} (See 五大明王) five great wisdom kings; (surname) Godai
The five elements— earth, water, fire, wind, and space. v. also 五行 the five agents. In the esoteric cult the five are the physical manifestation, or garbhadhātu, v. 胎; as being in all phenomena they are called 五輪 the five evolvers; their phonetic embryos 種子 are those of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas of the five directions, v. 五佛.

五觀


五观

see styles
Mandarin wǔ guān / wu3 guan1
Taiwan wu kuan
Japanese gokan
The five meditations referred to in the Lotus Sutra 25: (1) 眞 on the true, idem 空觀, to meditate on the reality of the void or infinite, in order to be rid of illusion in views and thoughts; (2) 淸淨觀 on purity, to be rid of any remains of impurity connected with the temporal, idem 假觀; (3) 廣大智慧觀 on the wider and greater wisdom, idem 中觀, by study of the 'middle' way; (4) 悲觀 on pitifulness, or the pitiable condition of the living, and by the above three to meditate on their salvation; (5) 慈觀 on mercy and the extension of the first three meditations to the carrying of joy to all the living; five contemplations

人空

see styles
Mandarin rén kōng / ren2 kong1
Taiwan jen k`ung / jen kung
Japanese ningū
Man is only a temporary combination formed by the five skandhas and the twelve nidānas, being the product of previous causes, and without a real self or permanent soul. Hīnayāna is said to end these causes and consequent reincarnation by discipline in subjection of the passions and entry into nirvana by the emptying of the self. Mahāyāna fills the "void" with the Absolute, declaring that when man has emptied himself of the ego he realizes his nature to be that of the absolute, bhūtatathatā; v. 二空; emptiness of person

八諦


八谛

see styles
Mandarin bā dì / ba1 di4
Taiwan pa ti
Japanese hachitai
The eight truths, postulates, or judgments of the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school, i.e. four common or mundane, and four of higher meaning. The first four are (1) common postulates on reality, considering the nominal as real, e.g. a pot; (2) common doctrinal postulates, e.g. the five skandhas; (3) abstract postulates, e.g. the four noble truths 四諦; and (4) temporal postulates in regard to the spiritual in the material. The second abstract or philosophical four are (5) postulates on constitution and function, e.g. of the skandhas; (6) on cause and effect, e.g. the 四諦; (7) on the void, the immaterial, or reality; and (8) on the pure inexpressible ultimate or absolute; eight noble truths

六大

see styles
Mandarin liù dà / liu4 da4
Taiwan liu ta
Japanese rokudai / ろくだい
Japanese {Buddh} the six elements (earth, water, fire, wind, void, and consciousness); (place-name) Rokudai
The six great or fundamental things, or elements — earth; water; fire; wind (or air); space (or ether); and 識 mind, or perception. These are universal and creative of all things, but the inanimate 非情 are made only of the first five, while the animate 有情 are of all six. The esoteric cult represents the six elements, somewhat differently interpreted in the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu. Also 六大界.

十心

see styles
Mandarin shí xīn / shi2 xin1
Taiwan shih hsin
Japanese jisshin
The ten kinds of heart or mind; there are three groups. One is from the 止觀 4, minds ignorant and dark; affected by evil companions; not following the good; doing evil in thought, word, deed; spreading evil abroad; unceasingly wicked; secret sin; open crime; utterly shameless; denying cause and effect (retribution)―all such must remain in the flow 流 of reincarnation. The second group (from the same book) is the 逆流 the mind striving against the stream of perpetual reincarnation; it shows itself in devout faith, shame (for sin), fear (of wrong-doing), repentance and confession, reform, bodhi (i.e. the bodhisattva mind), doing good, maintaining the right law, thinking on all the Buddhas, meditation on the void (or, the unreality of sin). The third is the 眞言 group from the 大日經疏 3; the "seed" heart (i.e. the original good desire), the sprout (under Buddhist religious influence), the bud, leaf, flower, fruit, its serviceableness; the child-heart, the discriminating heart, the heart of settled judgment (or resolve); ten kinds of mind

卽中

see styles
Mandarin jí zhōng / ji2 zhong1
Taiwan chi chung
Japanese soku chū
The via media is that which lies between or embraces both the 空 and the 假, i.e. the void, or noumenal, and the phenomenal; is none other than the mean

四劫

see styles
Mandarin sì jié / si4 jie2
Taiwan ssu chieh
Japanese shikou / shiko / しこう
Japanese {Buddh} (See 劫・1) the four kalpa (formation, existence, destruction, nothingness)
The four kalpas, or epochs, of a world, 成劫 that of formation and completion; 住劫 existing or abiding; 懷劫 destruction; and 空劫 annihilation, or the succeeding void. 倶舍論 12; four eons

四宗

see styles
Mandarin sì zōng / si4 zong1
Taiwan ssu tsung
Japanese shishū
The four kinds of inference in logic— common, prejudged or opposing, insufficiently founded, arbitrary. Also, the four schools of thought I. According to 淨影 Jingying they are (1) 立性宗 that everything exists, or has its own nature; e. g. Sarvāstivāda, in the 'lower' schools of Hīnayāna; (2) 破性宗 that everything has not a nature of its own; e. g. the 成實宗 a 'higher' Hīnayāna school, the Satyasiddhi; (3) 破相宗 that form has no reality, because of the doctrine of the void, 'lower' Mahāyāna; (4) 願實宗 revelation of reality, that all comes from the bhūtatathatā, 'higher ' Mahāyāna. II. According to 曇隱 Tanyin of the 大衍 monastery they are (1) 因緣宗, i. e. 立性宗 all things are causally produced; (2) 假名宗, i. e. 破性宗 things are but names; (3) 不眞宗, i. e. 破相宗, denying the reality of form, this school fails to define reality; (4) 眞宗, i. e. 顯實宗 the school of the real, in contrast with the seeming; four cardinal principles

四教

see styles
Mandarin sì jiào / si4 jiao4
Taiwan ssu chiao
Japanese shikyō
Four teachings, doctrines, or schools; five groups are given, whose titles are abbreviated to 光天曉苑龍: (1) 光宅四教 The four schools of 法雲 Fayun of the 光宅 Guangzhai monastery are the four vehicles referred to in the burning house parable of the Lotus Sutra, i. e. śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, bodhisattva, and the final or one vehicle teaching. (2) 天台四教 The Tiantai four are 藏通, 別, and 圓, v. 八教. (3) 曉公四教 The group of 元曉 Wŏnhyo of 海東 Haedong are the 三乘別教 represented by the 四諦緣起經; 三乘通教 represented by the 般若深密教; 一乘分教 represented by the 究網經; and 一乘滿教 represented by the 華嚴經. (4) 苑公四教 The group of 慧苑 Huiyuan: the schools of unbelievers, who are misled and mislead; of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas who know only the phenomenal bhūtatathatā; of novitiate bodhisattvas who know only the noumenal bhūtatathatā; and of fully developed bodhisattvas, who know both. (5) 龍樹四教 Nāgārjuna's division of the canon into 有 dealing with existence, or reality, cf. the 四阿含; 空 the Void, cf. 般若經; 亦有亦 空 both, cf. 深密經; and 非有非 空 neither, cf. 中論.

大刧


大劫

see styles
Mandarin dà jié / da4 jie2
Taiwan ta chieh
Japanese daikō
mahākalpa. The great kalpa, from the beginning of a universe till it is destroyed and another begins in its place. It has four kalpas or periods known as vivarta 成刧 the creation period; vivarta‐siddha 住刧 the appearance of sun and moon, i.e. light, and the period of life, human and general; saṃvarta 壤刧 or 滅刧 destruction first by fire, then water, then fire, then deluge, then a great wind, i.e. water during seven small kalpas, fire during 56 and wind one, in all 64; saṃvartatthāhi 増滅刧 total destruction gradually reaching the void. A great kalpa is calculated as eighty small kalpas and to last 1,347,000,000 years; great eon

大空

see styles
Mandarin dà kōng / da4 kong1
Taiwan ta k`ung / ta kung
Japanese oozora / おおぞら
Japanese heavens; firmament; sky; (personal name) Hirotaka; (female given name) Haruka; (surname) Daiku; (female given name) Daia; (personal name) Taku; (male given name) Taisei; (given name) Taikuu; (female given name) Sora; (female given name) Sukai; (female given name) Kanata; (surname, female given name) Oozora; (surname) Oosora; (female given name) Ao
The great void, or the Mahāyāna parinirvāṇa, as being more complete and final than the nirvāṇa of Hīnayāna. It is used in the Shingon sect for the great immaterial or spiritual wisdom, with its esoteric symbols; its weapons, such as the vajra; its samādhis; its sacred circles, or maṇḍalas, etc. It is used also for space, in which there is neither east, west, north, nor south; great emptiness

天虛


天虚

see styles
Mandarin tiān xū / tian1 xu1
Taiwan t`ien hsü / tien hsü
Japanese tenko
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

太虛


太虚

see styles
Mandarin tài xū / tai4 xu1
Taiwan t`ai hsü / tai hsü
Japanese taiko
Chinese great emptiness; the void; heaven; the skies; universe; cosmos; original essence of the cosmos; Taixu (famed Buddhist monk, 1890-1947)
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

小空

see styles
Mandarin xiǎo kōng / xiao3 kong1
Taiwan hsiao k`ung / hsiao kung
The Hīnayāna doctrine of the void, as contrasted with that of Mahāyāna.

性空

see styles
Mandarin xìng kōng / xing4 kong1
Taiwan hsing k`ung / hsing kung
Japanese shoukuu / shoku / しょうくう
Japanese (personal name) Shoukuu
The nature void, i. e. the immateriality of the nature of all things; empty in nature

法性

see styles
Mandarin fǎ xìng / fa3 xing4
Taiwan fa hsing
Japanese hosshou;houshou / hossho;hosho / ほっしょう;ほうしょう
Japanese {Buddh} (See 法相・ほっそう・1) dharmata (dharma nature, the true nature of all manifest phenomena); (personal name) Hosshou; (surname) Houshou
dharmatā. Dharma-nature, the nature underlying all thing, the bhūtatathatā, a Mahāyāna philosophical concept unknown in Hīnayāna, v. 眞如 and its various definitions in the 法相, 三論 (or法性), 華嚴, and 天台 Schools. It is discussed both in its absolute and relative senses, or static and dynamic. In the Mahāparinirvāṇa sūtra and various śāstras the term has numerous alternative forms, which may be taken as definitions, i. e. 法定 inherent dharma, or Buddha-nature; 法住 abiding dharma-nature; 法界 dharmakṣetra, realm of dharma; 法身 dharmakāya, embodiment of dharma; 實際 region of reality; 實相 reality; 空性 nature of the Void, i. e. immaterial nature; 佛性 Buddha-nature; 無相 appearance of nothingness, or immateriality; 眞如 bhūtatathatā; 如來藏 tathāgatagarbha; 平等性 universal nature; 離生性 immortal nature; 無我性 impersonal nature; 虛定界: realm of abstraction; 不虛妄性 nature of no illusion; 不變異性 immutable nature; 不思議界 realm beyond thought; 自性淸淨心 mind of absolute purity, or unsulliedness, etc. Of these the terms 眞如, 法性, and 實際 are most used by the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

洞ろ

see styles
Japanese utsuro / うつろ Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) (1) cavity; hollow; void; (adjectival noun) (2) hollow (voice); empty (heart); blank (eyes, face, etc.); vacant (stare)

淘汰

see styles
Mandarin táo tài / tao2 tai4
Taiwan t`ao t`ai / tao tai
Japanese touta / tota / とうた
Chinese to wash out; elimination (by selection); natural selection; to knock out (in a competition); to die out; to phase out
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) weeding out; elimination (e.g. of unneeded employees); culling; selection; (2) (See 自然淘汰・しぜんとうた) selection (e.g. natural selection)
The fourth of the five periods of Buddha's teaching, according to Tiantai, i.e. the sweeping away of false ideas, produced by appearance, with the doctrine of the void, or the reality behind the seeming; cleansing

生空

see styles
Mandarin shēng kōng / sheng1 kong1
Taiwan sheng k`ung / sheng kung
Japanese shōkū
Empty at birth, i. e. 我空, 人空 void of a permanent ego; emptiness of person

皆空

see styles
Mandarin jiē kōng / jie1 kong1
Taiwan chieh k`ung / chieh kung
Japanese kaikū
All is empty and void.

眞如

see styles
Mandarin zhēn rú / zhen1 ru2
Taiwan chen ju
Japanese shinnyo / しんにょ
Japanese (surname) Shinnyo
bhūtatathatā, 部多多他多. The眞 is intp. as 眞實 the real, 如 as 如常 thus always or eternally so; i.e. reality as contrasted with 虛妄 unreality, or appearance, and 不變不改 unchanging or immutable as contrasted with form and phenomena. It resembles the ocean in contrast with the waves. It is the eternal, impersonal, unchangeable reality behind all phenomena. bhūta is substance, that which exists; tathatā is suchness, thusness, i.e. such is its nature. The word is fundamental to Mahāyāna philosophy, implying the absolute, the ultimate source and character of all phenomena, it is the All. It is also called 自性淸淨心 self-existent pure Mind; 佛性 Buddha-nature; 法身 dharmakāya; 如來藏 tathāgata-garbha, or Buddha-treasury; 實相 reality; 法界 Dharma-realm; 法性Dharma-nature; 圓成實性 The complete and perfect real nature, or reality. There are categories of 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 12 in number: (1) The undifferentiated whole. (2) There are several antithetical classes, e.g. the unconditioned and the conditioned; the 空 void, static, abstract, noumenal, and the 不 空 not-void, dynamic, phenomenal; pure, and affected (or infected); undefiled (or innocent), i.e. that of Buddhas, defiled, that of all beings; in bonds and free; inexpressible, and expressible in words. (3) 無相 Formless; 無生 uncreated; 無性 without nature, i.e. without characteristics or qualities, absolute in itself. Also, as relative, i.e. good, bad, and indeterminate. (7, 10, 12) The 7 are given in the 唯識論 8; the 10 are in two classes, one of the 別教 cf. 唯識論 8; the other of the 圓教, cf. 菩提心義 4; the 12 are given in the Nirvana Sutra.

眞空

see styles
Mandarin zhēn kōng / zhen1 kong1
Taiwan chen k`ung / chen kung
Japanese mahiro / まひろ    shinkuu / shinku / しんくう
Japanese (female given name) Mahiro; (personal name) Shinkuu
(1) The absolute void, complete vacuity, said to be the nirvana of the Hīnayāna. (2) The essence of the bhūtatathatā, as the 空眞如 of the 起信論, 唯識, and 華嚴. (3) The void or immaterial as reality, as essential or substantial, the 非 空 之 空 not-void void, the ultimate reality, the highest Mahāyāna concept of true voidness, or of ultimate reality; true emptiness

眞色

see styles
Mandarin zhēn sè / zhen1 se4
Taiwan chen se
Japanese shinjiki
The mystic or subtle form of the bhūtatathatā, or absolute, the form of the void, or immaterial, dharmakāya; true form

空々

see styles
Japanese sorara / そらら    kuukuu / kuku / くうくう    akua / あくあ Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) empty; vacant; void; (female given name) Sorara; (given name) Kuukuu; (female given name) Akua

空ろ

see styles
Japanese utsuro / うつろ Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) (1) cavity; hollow; void; (adjectival noun) (2) hollow (voice); empty (heart); blank (eyes, face, etc.); vacant (stare)

空定

see styles
Mandarin kōng dìng / kong1 ding4
Taiwan k`ung ting / kung ting
Japanese kūjō
The meditation which dwells on the Void or the Immaterial; it is divided into 内道, i.e. the 三三昧, and 外道, the latter limited to the four dhyānas 四空定 q.v., except the illusion that things have a reality in themselves, as individuals 法我 q.v.

空寂

see styles
Mandarin kōng jì / kong1 ji4
Taiwan k`ung chi / kung chi
Japanese kuujaku / kujaku / くうじゃく
Japanese (1) {Buddh} complete emptiness (i.e. as a denial of the inherent existence of all things); nirvana (where this emptiness is realized); (noun or adjectival noun) (2) (archaism) quiet and lonely
Immaterial; a condition beyond disturbance, the condition of nirvana; void and tranquil

空心

see styles
Mandarin kōng xīn / kong1 xin1
Taiwan k`ung hsin / kung hsin
Japanese kūshin
Chinese on an empty stomach; hollow; empty headed; mindless
An empty mind, or heart; a mind meditating on the void, or infinite; a mind not entangled in cause and effect, i.e. detached from the phenomenal.

空性

see styles
Mandarin kōng xìng / kong1 xing4
Taiwan k`ung hsing / kung hsing
Japanese kuushou / kusho / くうしょう
Chinese emptiness
Japanese (personal name) Kuushou
śūnyata, v. 空, the nature of the Void, or immaterial, the bhūtatathatā, the universal substance, which is not 我法 ego and things, but while not Void is of the Void-nature; emptiness

空曠

see styles
Mandarin kōng kuàng / kong1 kuang4
Taiwan k`ung k`uang / kung kuang
Chinese spacious and empty; void

空空

see styles
Mandarin kōng kōng / kong1 kong1
Taiwan k`ung k`ung / kung kung
Japanese kūkū / くうくう
Chinese empty; vacuous; nothing; vacant; in vain; all for nothing; air-to-air (missile)
Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) empty; vacant; void
Unreality of unreality. When all has been regarded as illusion, or unreal, the abstract idea of unreality itself must be destroyed; emptiness of emptiness

空諦


空谛

see styles
Mandarin kōng dì / kong1 di4
Taiwan k`ung ti / kung ti
Japanese kuutai / kutai / くうたい
Japanese {Buddh} (See 三諦) truth of emptiness (holding that all things are void)
The doctrine of immateriality, one of the three dogmas of Tiantai, that all things animate and inanimate, seeing that they result from previous causes and are without reality in themselves, are therefore 空or not material, but "spiritual"; truth of emptiness

虚ろ

see styles
Japanese utsuro / うつろ Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) (1) cavity; hollow; void; (adjectival noun) (2) hollow (voice); empty (heart); blank (eyes, face, etc.); vacant (stare)

通教

see styles
Mandarin tōng jiào / tong1 jiao4
Taiwan t`ung chiao / tung chiao
Japanese michinori / みちのり
Japanese (given name) Michinori
Tiantai classified Buddhist schools into four periods 藏, 通, 別, and 圓. The 藏 Piṭaka school was that of Hīnayāna. The 通Tong, interrelated or intermediate school, was the first stage of Mahāyāna, having in it elements of all the three vehicles, śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva. Its developing doctrine linked it with Hīnayāna on the one hand and on the other with the two further developments of the 別 'separate', or 'differentiated' Mahāyāna teaching, and the 圓 full-orbed, complete, or perfect Mahāyāna. The 通教 held the doctrine of the Void, but had not arrived at the doctrine of the Mean.

重空

see styles
Mandarin zhòng kōng / zhong4 kong1
Taiwan chung k`ung / chung kung
Japanese jūkū
The double space, i.e. the space beyond space, the void beyond the void; emptiness within emptiness

金輪


金轮

see styles
Mandarin jīn lún / jin1 lun2
Taiwan chin lun
Japanese konrin / こんりん
Japanese (1) {Buddh} gold wheel (highest of the three layered wheels that support the earth above the primordial void); (2) (abbreviation) {Buddh} (See 金輪王) gold wheel-turning sage king; (place-name, surname) Kanawa
The metal circle on which the earth rests, above the water circle which is above the wind (or air) circle which rests on space. Also the cakra, wheel or disc, emblem of sovereignty, one of the seven precious possessions of a king; metal wheel

靜慧

see styles
Mandarin jìng huì / jing4 hui4
Taiwan ching hui
Calm wisdom, insight into the void, or immaterial, removed from the transient.

不但空

see styles
Mandarin bù dàn kōng / bu4 dan4 kong1
Taiwan pu tan k`ung / pu tan kung
Japanese fu tankū
Not only the void '; or, non-void; śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas see only the 'void', bodhisattvas see also the non-void, hence 不但空 is the 中道空 the 'void' of the 'mean'. It is a term of the 通敎 Intermediate school.

不動義


不动义

see styles
Mandarin bù dòng yì / bu4 dong4 yi4
Taiwan pu tung i
Japanese fudō gi
Immobility, one of the ten meanings of the void; meaning of immovability

不可得

see styles
Mandarin bù kě dé / bu4 ke3 de2
Taiwan pu k`o te / pu ko te
Japanese fukatoku / ふかとく
Japanese {Buddh} the unobtainable (that which cannot be known)
ampalabhya; alabhya. Beyond laying hold of, unobtainable, unknowable, unreal, another name for 空 the void. See 三世心不可得.

二空觀


二空观

see styles
Mandarin èr kōng guān / er4 kong1 guan1
Taiwan erh k`ung kuan / erh kung kuan
Japanese ni kūkan
Two kinds of meditation on the "void', or unreality: (a) 無生觀 the meditation that things are unproduced, having no individual or separate natures, i.e. that all things are void and unreal; cf. 性空; (b) 無相觀 that they are therefore formless, cf. 相空. Also 人 and 法空觀 see above; two meditations on emptiness

五種性


五种性

see styles
Mandarin wǔ zhǒng xìng / wu3 zhong3 xing4
Taiwan wu chung hsing
Japanese goshu shō
The five germ-natures, or roots of bodhisattva development: (1) 習種性 the germ nature of study of the 空 void (or immaterial), which corrects all illusions of time and space; it corresponds to the 十住 stage; (2) 性種性 that of ability to discriminate all the 性 natures of phenomena and transform the living; the 十行 stage; (3) 道種性(the middle-) way germ-nature, which attains insight into Buddha-laws; the 十廻向; (4) 聖種性 the saint germ-nature which produces holiness by destroying ignorance; the 十廻向 which the bodhisattva leaves the ranks of the 賢 and becomes 聖; (5) 等覺種性 the bodhi-rank germ-nature which produces Buddhahood, i. e. 等覺; five kinds of natures

五門禪


五门禅

see styles
Mandarin wǔ mén chán / wu3 men2 chan2
Taiwan wu men ch`an / wu men chan
Japanese gomon zen / ごもんぜん
Japanese (out-dated kanji) (Buddhist term) five approaches to meditation; five objects of meditation
idem 五停心觀; there is also a fivefold meditation on impermanence, suffering, the void, the non-ego, and nirvana; five approaches to meditation

化地部

see styles
Mandarin huà de bù / hua4 de bu4
Taiwan hua te pu
Japanese Keji bu
Mahīśāsakah, 磨醯奢婆迦部; 彌喜捨婆阿; 彌婆塞部, 正地部 an offshoot from the 說一切有部 or Sarvāstivāda school, supposed to have been founded 300 years after the nirvana. The name Mahisasakah is said to be that of a ruler who 'converted his land' or people; or 正地 'rectified his land'. The doctrines of the school are said to be similar to those of the 大衆部 Mahāsāṅghika; and to have maintained, inter alia, the reality of the present, but not of the past and future; also the doctrine of the void and the non-ego; the production of taint 染 by the five 識 perceptions; the theory of nine kinds of non-activity, and so on. It was also called 法無去來宗 the school which denied reality to past and future.

四不見


四不见

see styles
Mandarin sì bù jiàn / si4 bu4 jian4
Taiwan ssu pu chien
Japanese shi fuken
The four invisibles— water to fish, wind (or air) to man, the nature (of things) to the deluded, and the 空 'void'to the 悟 enlightened, because he is in his own element, and the Void is beyond conception.

四法施

see styles
Mandarin sì fǎ shī / si4 fa3 shi1
Taiwan ssu fa shih
Japanese shi hōse
The Buddha' s gift of the four laws or dogmas, that all things are impermanent, that all (sentient) existence is suffering, that there is no (essential) personality, that all form (or matter) returns to the void; gift of four truths

四空定

see styles
Mandarin sì kōng dìng / si4 kong1 ding4
Taiwan ssu k`ung ting / ssu kung ting
Japanese shi kūjō
四無色定 The last four of the twelve dhyānas; the auto-hypnotic, or ecstatic entry into the four states represented by the four dhyāna heavens, i. e. 四 空 處 supra. In the first, the mind becomes void and vast like space; in the second, the powers of perception and understanding are unlimited; in the third, the discriminative powers of mind are subdued; in the fourth, the realm of consciousness or knowledge) without thought is reached, e. g. intuitive wisdom. These four are considered both as states of dhyāna, and as heavens into which one who practices these forms of dhyāna may be born; four formless concentrations

本來空


本来空

see styles
Mandarin běn lái kōng / ben3 lai2 kong1
Taiwan pen lai k`ung / pen lai kung
Japanese honrai kū
That all things come from the Void, or Absolute, the 眞如; fundamentally empty

無始空


无始空

see styles
Mandarin wú shǐ kōng / wu2 shi3 kong1
Taiwan wu shih k`ung / wu shih kung
Japanese mushi kū
Without beginning and unreal, void without beginning, the abstract idea of 無始 i.e. without beginning; beginningless emptiness

畢境空

see styles
Mandarin bì jìng kōng / bi4 jing4 kong1
Taiwan pi ching k`ung / pi ching kung
Fundamentally unreal, immaterial, or void, see 空.

空しい

see styles
Japanese munashii / munashi / むなしい Japanese (adjective) (1) empty; void; vacant; (2) vain; fruitless; futile; ineffective; (3) lifeless

空虚感

see styles
Japanese kuukyokan / kukyokan / くうきょかん Japanese feeling of emptiness; sense of void

舜若多

see styles
Mandarin shùn ruò duō / shun4 ruo4 duo1
Taiwan shun jo to
Japanese shunnyata
śūnyatā; emptiness, unreality, i.e. 空性 of the nature of the void.

虚しい

see styles
Japanese munashii / munashi / むなしい Japanese (adjective) (1) empty; void; vacant; (2) vain; fruitless; futile; ineffective; (3) lifeless

虚空蔵

see styles
Japanese kokuuzou / kokuzo / こくうぞう Japanese Akasagarbha (bodhisattva); the Receptacle of Void; (place-name) Kokuzou

超空洞

see styles
Japanese choukuudou / chokudo / ちょうくうどう Japanese {astron} (See ボイド) void

間隙比

see styles
Japanese kangekihi / かんげきひ Japanese void ratio

須菩提

see styles
Mandarin xū pú tí / xu1 pu2 ti2
Taiwan hsü p`u t`i / hsü pu ti
Subhuti, also 須扶提; 須浮帝; 蘇補底 (or 蘇部底); one of the ten chief disciples, said to have been the best exponent of śūnya, or the void 解空第一; he is the principal interlocutor in the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra. There are two later personages of this name.

一切皆空

see styles
Mandarin yī qiè jiē kōng / yi1 qie4 jie1 kong1
Taiwan i ch`ieh chieh k`ung / i chieh chieh kung
Japanese issaikaikuu / issaikaiku / いっさいかいくう
Japanese (expression) (yoji) matter is void; all is vanity
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

三涅槃門


三涅槃门

see styles
Mandarin sān niè pán mén / san1 nie4 pan2 men2
Taiwan san nieh p`an men / san nieh pan men
Japanese san nehan mon
The three gates to the city of nirvāṇa, i.e. 空, 無相, and 無作 the void (or the immaterial), formlessness, and inactivity; idem 三解脫門; three gates to nirvāṇa

不可得空

see styles
Mandarin bù kě dé kōng / bu4 ke3 de2 kong1
Taiwan pu k`o te k`ung / pu ko te kung
Japanese fu katoku kū
One of the eighteen 空; it is the 言亡慮絕之空, the 'void' that is beyond words or thought; ungraspable emptiness

不増不減

see styles
Japanese fuzoufugen / fuzofugen / ふぞうふげん Japanese {Buddh} nothing increases or decreases (because all things are void)

不思議空


不思议空

see styles
Mandarin bù sī yì kōng / bu4 si1 yi4 kong1
Taiwan pu ssu i k`ung / pu ssu i kung
Japanese fu shigi kū
第一義空 The Void beyond thought or discussion, a conception of the void, or that which is beyond the material, only attained by Buddhas and bodhisattvas; inconceivable emptiness

不起法忍

see styles
Mandarin bù qǐ fǎ rěn / bu4 qi3 fa3 ren3
Taiwan pu ch`i fa jen / pu chi fa jen
Japanese fukihō nin
The stage of endurance, or patient meditation, that has reached the state where phenomenal illusion ceases to arise, through entry into the realization of the Void, or noumenal; also 生法忍 (or 起法忍) ; patience based on the realization of the non-arising of phenomena

中道實相


中道实相

see styles
Mandarin zhōng dào shí xiāng / zhong1 dao4 shi2 xiang1
Taiwan chung tao shih hsiang
Japanese chūdō jissō
The reality of the 'mean' is neither 有 substance or existent, nor 空 void or non-existent, but a reality which is neither, or a mean between the two extremes of materialism and nihilism; also 中實; true character of the middle way

十二眞如

see styles
Mandarin shí èr zhēn rú / shi2 er4 zhen1 ru2
Taiwan shih erh chen ju
Japanese jūni shinnyo
The twelve aspects of the bhūtatathhatā or the ultimate, which is also styled the 十二無為 "inactive" or nirvana-like: and the 十二空 "void" or immaterial: (1) The chen ju itself; (2) 法界 as the medium of all things; (3) 法性 as the nature of all things; (4) 不虛妄性 its reality contra the unreality of phenomena; (5) 不變異性 its immutability contra mortality and phenomenal variation; (6) 平等性 as universal or undifferentiated; (7) 離生性 as immortal, i.e. apart from birth and death, or creation and destruction; (8) 法定 as eternal, its nature ever sure; (9) 法住 as the abode of all things; (10) 實際 as the bounds of all reality; (11) 虛空界 as the realm of space, the void, or immateriality; (12)不思議界 as the realm beyond thought or expression; twelve aspects of thusness

十大弟子

see styles
Mandarin shí dà dì zi / shi2 da4 di4 zi
Taiwan shih ta ti tzu
Japanese juudaideshi / judaideshi / じゅうだいでし
Japanese {Buddh} the ten great disciples (of Buddha)
The ten chief discip1es of Śākyamuni, each of whom was master of one power or gift. Śāriputra of wisdom; Maudgalyāyana of supernatural powers; Mahākāśyapa of discipline; Aniruddha of 天眼 deva vision; Subhūti of explaining the void or immaterial; Pūrṇa of expounding the law; Kātyāyana of its fundamental principles; Upāli of maintaining the rules; Rāhula of the esoteric; and Ānanda of hearing and remembering; ten principal disciples

卽有卽空

see styles
Mandarin jí yǒu jí kōng / ji2 you3 ji2 kong1
Taiwan chi yu chi k`ung / chi yu chi kung
Japanese sokuu sokkū
All things, or phenomena, are identical with the void or the noumenon; all existent things are emptiness

口力外道

see styles
Mandarin kǒu lì wài dào / kou3 li4 wai4 dao4
Taiwan k`ou li wai tao / kou li wai tao
Japanese kuriki gedō
One of the eleven heretical sects of India. which is said to have compared the mouth to the great void out of which all things were produced. The great void produced the four elements, these produced herbs, and these in turn all the living; or more in detail the void produced wind, wind fire, fire warmth, warmth water, water congealed and formed earth which produced herbs, herbs cereals and life, hence life is food; ultimately all returns to the void, which is nirvana; voice power non-Buddhist

口力論師


口力论师

see styles
Mandarin kǒu lì lùn shī / kou3 li4 lun4 shi1
Taiwan k`ou li lun shih / kou li lun shih
Japanese kuriki ronshi
Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which all things are produced; see 口力外道; exponents of oral power

四枯四榮


四枯四荣

see styles
Mandarin sì kū sì róng / si4 ku1 si4 rong2
Taiwan ssu k`u ssu jung / ssu ku ssu jung
Japanese shiko shiei
When the Buddha died, of the eight śāla trees surrounding him four are said to have withered while four continued in full leaf— a sign that the four doctrines of 苦 suffering, 空 the void, 無常 impermanence, and 無我 impersonality were to perish and those of 常 permanence, 葉 joy, 我 personality, and 淨 purity, the transcendent bodhisattva doctrines, were to flourish; four withered, four teemed

四無常偈


四无常偈

see styles
Mandarin sì wú cháng jì / si4 wu2 chang2 ji4
Taiwan ssu wu ch`ang chi / ssu wu chang chi
Japanese shi mujō ge
(or 四非常偈) Eight stanzas in the 仁王經, two each on 無常 impermanence, 苦 suffering, 空 the void, and 無我 non-personality; the whole four sets embodying the impermanence of all things; four stanzas on impermanence

因力論師


因力论师

see styles
Mandarin yīn lì lùn shī / yin1 li4 lun4 shi1
Taiwan yin li lun shih
Japanese inriki ronshi
Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which all things are produced; see 口力外道; exponents of causation power

天眞獨朗


天眞独朗

see styles
Mandarin tiān zhēn dú lǎng / tian1 zhen1 du2 lang3
Taiwan t`ien chen tu lang / tien chen tu lang
Japanese tenshin dokurō
The fundamental reality or bhūtatathatā, is the only illumination. It is a dictum of 道邃 Daosui of the Tang to the famous Japanese monk 傳教 Dengyō. The apprehension of this fundamental reality makes all things clear, including the universality of Buddha- hood. It also interprets the phrase 一心三觀 that 空中假 the void, the 'mean ', the seeming, are all aspects of the one mind; original Buddhahood is the only illumination

宇宙空間

see styles
Japanese uchuukuukan / uchukukan / うちゅうくうかん Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) outer space; void of space

心無所住


心无所住

see styles
Mandarin xīn wú suǒ zhù / xin1 wu2 suo3 zhu4
Taiwan hsin wu so chu
Japanese shin mu shojū
The mind without resting-place, i. e. detached from time and space, e. g. the past being past may be considered as a 'non-past' or non-existent, so with present and future, thus realizing their unreality. The result is detachment, or the liberated mind, which is the Buddha-mind, the bodhi-mind, 無生心 the mind free from ideas of creation and extinction, of beginning and end, recognizing that all forms and natures are of the Void, or Absolute; the mind lacks a set place of abiding

方廣道人


方广道人

see styles
Mandarin fāng guǎng dào rén / fang1 guang3 dao4 ren2
Taiwan fang kuang tao jen
Japanese hōkō dōnin
Heretical followers of Mahāyāna, who hold a false doctrine of 空 the Void, teaching it as total non-existence, or nihilism; non-Buddhist followers of Mahāyāna

有爲無爲


有为无为

see styles
Mandarin yǒu wéi wú wèi / you3 wei2 wu2 wei4
Taiwan yu wei wu wei
Japanese ui mui
Action and inaction; active and passive; dynamic and static; things and phenomena in general are 有爲; nirvāṇa quiescence, the void, etc., are 無爲; conditioned and unconditioned

眞如實相


眞如实相

see styles
Mandarin zhēn rú shí xiāng / zhen1 ru2 shi2 xiang1
Taiwan chen ju shih hsiang
Japanese shinnyo jissō
The essential characteristic or mark (lakṣaṇa) of the bhūtatathatā i.e. reality. 眞如 is bhūtatathatā from the point of view of the void, attributeless absolute; 實相 is bhūtatathatā from the point of view of phenomena; true aspect of thusness

空々寂々

see styles
Japanese kuukuujakujaku / kukujakujaku / くうくうじゃくじゃく Japanese (adj-no,adj-t,adv-to) (archaism) (yoji) deserted and lonesome; quiet and alone; innocent and nonattached; All is void

空空寂寂

see styles
Mandarin kōng kōng jì jì / kong1 kong1 ji4 ji4
Taiwan k`ung k`ung chi chi / kung kung chi chi
Japanese kūkū jakujaku / くうくうじゃくじゃく
Japanese (adj-no,adj-t,adv-to) (archaism) (yoji) deserted and lonesome; quiet and alone; innocent and nonattached; All is void
Void and silent, i.e. everything in the universe, with form or without form, is unreal and not to be considered as real; perfectly void and still

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This page contains 100 results for "void" in Chinese and/or Japanese.



Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).



Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

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