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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition


see styles
Mandarin yī xīn / yi1 xin1
Taiwan i hsin
Japanese isshin / いっしん
Chinese wholeheartedly; heart and soul
Japanese (adv,n) (1) one mind; (2) (See 一心に) wholeheartedness; one's whole heart; (female given name) Hitomi; (personal name) Kazumune; (female given name) Kazumi; (female given name) Kazuko; (female given name) Itsumi; (surname, given name) Isshin; (female given name) Ichiko
With the whole mind or heart; one mind of heart; also the bhūtatathatā, or the whole of things; the universe as one mind, or a spiritual unity.



see styles
Mandarin sān dì / san1 di4
Taiwan san ti
Japanese santai;sandai / さんたい;さんだい
Japanese {Buddh} threefold truth (all things are void; all things are temporary; all things are in the middle state between these two) (in Tendai)
The three dogmas. The "middle" school of Tiantai says 卽空, 卽假. 卽中 i.e. 就是空, 假, 中; (a) by 空śūnya is meant that things causally produced are intheir essential nature unreal (or immaterial) 實空無; (b) 假, though thingsare unreal in their essential nature their derived forms are real; (c) 中;but both are one, being of the one 如 reality. These three dogmas arefounded on a verse of Nāgārjuna's— 因緣所生法, 我說卽是空 亦爲是假名, 亦是中道義 "All causally produced phenomena, I say, areunreal, Are but a passing name, and indicate the 'mean'." There are otherexplanations— the 圓教 interprets the 空 and 假 as 中; the 別教 makes 中 independent. 空 is the all, i.e. the totality of all things, and is spokenof as the 眞 or 實 true, or real; 假 is the differentiation of all thingsand is spoken of as 俗 common, i.e. things as commonly named; 中 is theconnecting idea which makes a unity of both, e.g. "all are but parts of onestupendous whole." The 中 makes all and the all into one whole, unifying thewhole and its parts. 空 may be taken as the immaterial, the undifferentiatedall, the sum of existences, by some as the tathāgatagarbha 如來藏; 假as theunreal, or impermanent, the material or transient form, the temporal thatcan be named, the relative or discrete; 中 as the unifier, which places eachin the other and all in all. The "shallower" 山外 school associated 空 and 中 with the noumenal universe as opposed to the phenomenal and illusoryexistence represented by 假. The "profounder" 山内 school teaches that allthree are aspects of the same; threefold truth


see styles
Mandarin shì jiè / shi4 jie4
Taiwan shih chieh
Japanese sekai / せかい
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese world; CL:個|个[ge4]
Japanese (1) the world; society; the universe; (2) sphere; circle; world; (can be adjective with の) (3) renowned; world-famous; well-known outside of Japan; (4) {Buddh} (original meaning) realm governed by one Buddha; space; (surname, female given name) Sekai
Loka 世間; the finite world, the world, a world, which is of two kinds: (1) 衆生世界 that of the living, who are receiving their 正報 correct recompense or karma; (2) 器世界 that of the material, or that on which karma depends for expression. By the living is meant 有情 the sentient.



see styles
Mandarin dì yù / di4 yu4
Taiwan ti yü
Japanese jigoku / じごく
Chinese hell; infernal; underworld
Japanese hell; (place-name) Jigoku
naraka, 捺落迦 (or 那落迦) ; niraya 泥犂; explained by 不樂 joyless; 可厭 disgusting, hateful; 苦具, 苦器 means of suffering; if 地獄 earth-prison; 冥府 the shades, or departments of darkness. Earth-prison is generally intp. as hell or the hells; it may also be termed purgatory; one of the six gati or ways of transmigration. The hells are divided into three classes: I. Central, or radical, 根本地獄 consisting of (1) The eight hot hells. These were the original hells of primitive Buddhism, and are supposed to be located umder the southern continent Jambudvīpa 瞻部州, 500 yojanas below the surface. (a) 等活 or 更活 Saṃjīva, rebirth, where after many kinds of suffering a cold wind blows over the soul and returns it to this life as it was before, hence the name 等活. (b) 黑繩 Kaslasūtra, where the sufferer is bound with black chains and chopped or sawn asunder. (c) 線合; 衆合; 堆壓 Saṃghāta, where are multitudes of implements of torture, or the falling of mountains upon the sufferer. (d) 號呌; 呼呼; 叫喚 Raurava, hell of wailing. (e) 大呌; 大號呌; 大呼 Mahāraurava, hell of great wailing. (f) 炎熱; 燒炙 Tapana, hell of fames and burning. (g) 大熱; 大燒炙; 大炎熱 Pratāpana, hell of molten lead. (h) 無間; 河鼻旨; 阿惟越致; 阿毗至; 阿鼻; 阿毗 Avīci, unintermitted suffering, where sinners die and are reborn to suffer without interval. (2) The eight cold hells 八寒地獄. (a) 頞浮陀地獄 Arbuda, where the cold causes blisters. (b) 尼刺部陀 Nirarbuda, colder still causing the blisters to burst. (c) 頞哳吒; 阿吒吒 Atata, where this is the only possible sound from frozen lips. (d) 臛臛婆; 阿波波 Hahava or Apapa, where it is so cold that only this sound can be uttered. (e) 虎虎婆 Hāhādhara or Huhuva, where only this sound can be uttered. (f) 嗢鉢羅; 鬱鉢羅 (or 優鉢羅) Utpala, or 尼羅鳥 (or 漚) 鉢羅 Nīlotpala, where the skin is frozen like blue lotus buds. (g) 鉢特摩 Padma, where the skin is frozen and bursts open like red lotus buds. (h) 摩訶鉢特摩 Mahāpadma, ditto like great red lotus buds. Somewhat different names are also given. Cf. 倶舍論 8; 智度論 16; 涅槃經 11. II. The secondary hells are called 近邊地獄 adjacent hells or 十六遊增 each of its four sides, opening from each such door are four adjacent hells, in all sixteen; thus with the original eight there are 136. A list of eighteen hells is given in the 十八泥梨經. III. A third class is called the 孤地獄 (獨地獄) Lokāntarika, or isolated hells in mountains, deserts, below the earth and above it. Eitel says in regard to the eight hot hells that they range 'one beneath the other in tiers which begin at a depth of 11,900 yojanas and reach to a depth of 40,000 yojanas'. The cold hells are under 'the two Tchahavālas and range shaft-like one below the other, but so that this shaft is gradually widening to the fourth hell and then narrowing itself again so that the first and last hell have the shortest, those in the centre the longest diameter'. 'Every universe has the same number of hells, ' but 'the northern continent has no hell whatever, the two continents east and west of Meru have only small Lokāntarika hells... whilst all the other hells are required for the inhabitants of the southern continent '. It may be noted that the purpose of these hells is definitely punitive, as well as purgatorial. Yama is the judge and ruler, assisted by eighteen officers and a host of demons, who order or administer the various degrees of torture. 'His sister performs the same duties with regard to female criminals, ' and it may be mentioned that the Chinese have added the 血盆池 Lake of the bloody bath, or 'placenta tank' for women who die in childbirth. Release from the hells is in the power of the monks by tantric means.


see styles
Mandarin tiān dì / tian1 di4
Taiwan t`ien ti / tien ti
Japanese tenchi(p);ametsuchi / てんち(P);あめつち
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese heaven and earth; world; scope; field of activity
Japanese (1) heaven and earth; the universe; nature; top and bottom; realm; sphere; world; (2) (てんち only) top and bottom; (3) (あめつち only) gods of heaven and earth; (surname) Amachi
heaven and earth


see styles
Mandarin yǔ zhòu / yu3 zhou4
Taiwan yü chou
Japanese uchuu / uchu / うちゅう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese universe; cosmos
Japanese universe; cosmos; space; (given name) Hiroshi; (female given name) Hiroi; (female given name) Haruka; (personal name) Takahiro; (personal name) Takatoki; (surname, female given name) Sora; (female given name) Kozumi; (female given name) Kosumosu; (female given name) Kosumo; (female given name) Kosumikku; (female given name) Kanata; (female given name) Umi; (female given name) Utena; (surname, given name) Uchuu



see styles
Mandarin rì lián / ri4 lian2
Taiwan jih lien
Japanese nichiren / にちれん
Japanese (given name) Nichiren; (person) Nichiren (Buddhist priest, 1222-82, founder of the Nichiren sect)
Nichiren, the Japanese founder, in A. D. 1252, of the 日蓮宗 Nichiren sect, which is also known as the 法華宗 or Lotus sect. Its chief tenets are the three great mysteries 三大祕法, representing the trikāya: (1) 本尊 or chief object of worship, being the great maṇḍala of the worlds of the ten directions, or universe, i. e. the body or nirmāṇakāya of Buddha; (2) 題目 the title of the Lotus Sutra 妙法蓮華經 Myo-ho-ren-gwe-kyo, preceded by Namo, or, 'Adoration to the scripture of the lotus of the wonderful law, ' for it is Buddha's spiritual body; (3) 戒壇 the altar of the law, which is also the title of the Lotus as above; the believer, wherever he is, dwells in the Pure-land of calm light 寂光淨土, the saṃbhogakāya.



see styles
Mandarin xū kōng / xu1 kong1
Taiwan hsü k`ung / hsü kung
Japanese kokū
Chinese void; hollow; empty
śūnya; empty, void, space; ākāśa, in the sense of space, or the ether; gagana, the sky, atmosphere, heaven; kha, space, sky, ether, 虛 is defined as that which is without shape or substantiality, 空 as that which has no resistance. The immaterial universe behind all phenomena.


see styles
Mandarin qián kūn / qian2 kun1
Taiwan ch`ien k`un / chien kun
Japanese kenkon / けんこん
Chinese yin and yang; heaven and earth; the universe
Japanese heaven and earth; universe


see styles
Mandarin liù hé // lù hé / liu4 he2 // lu4 he2
Taiwan liu ho // lu
Japanese rikugou / rikugo / りくごう
Chinese the six directions (north, south, east, west, up, down); the whole country; the universe; everything under the sun; Luhe district of Nanjing City 南京市 in Jiangsu 江蘇|江苏
Japanese the universe; the cosmos; (place-name) Rokugou; (place-name, surname) Kuni
six combinations

see styles
Mandarin/ yu3
Japanese u / う
Chinese room; universe
Japanese (counter) counter for buildings, etc.; (male given name) Hiroshi; (personal name) Takashi; (female given name) Taka; (personal name) Sora; (personal name) Sakai; (surname) U; (surname) Ie

see styles
Mandarin fàn / fan4
Taiwan fan
Japanese bon / ぼん
Chinese abbr. for 梵教[Fan4 jiao4] Brahmanism; abbr. for Sanskrit 梵語|梵语[Fan4 yu3] or 梵文[Fan4 wen2]; abbr. for 梵蒂岡|梵蒂冈[Fan4 di4 gang1], the Vatican
Japanese (1) Brahman; Brahma; ultimate reality of the universe (in Hinduism); (2) Brahma; Hindu creator god; (3) (abbreviation) (See 梵語) Sanskrit; (given name) Bon; (surname) Soyogi
Brahman (from roots bṛh, vṛh, connected with bṛṃh, "religious devotion," "prayer," "a sacred text," or mantra, "the mystic syllable om"; "sacred learning," "the religious life," "the Supreme Being regarded as impersonal," "the Absolute," "the priestly or sacerdotal class," etc. M.W. Translit.

see styles
Mandarin biàn / bian4
Taiwan pien
Japanese hen / へん
Chinese everywhere; all over; classifier for actions: one time
Japanese (counter) (See 一遍,回・1,回・2) number of times; (female given name) Amane
sarvatraga. Everywhere, universe, whole; a time.


see styles
Mandarin yī zhēn / yi1 zhen1
Taiwan i chen
Japanese kazumasa / かずまさ    kazuma / かずま
Japanese (personal name) Kazuma
The whole of reality, the universe, the all, idem 眞如; cf. 一如, 一實 bhūtatathatā; one reality



see styles
Mandarin yī tǐ / yi1 ti3
Taiwan i t`i / i ti
Japanese ittai
Chinese an integral whole; all concerned; everybody
Though externally differing, in nature the same; the fundamental unity of the universe. 天地與我同根, 萬物與我一體 Heaven, earth, and myself have the same root; all things are one corpus with me.


see styles
Japanese banshou / bansho / ばんしょう Japanese all creation; all nature; all the universe; (given name) Banshou


see styles
Mandarin sān shì / san1 shi4
Taiwan san shih
Japanese sanze;miyo(ok) / さんぜ;みよ(ok)    sansei / sanse / さんせい
Chinese the Third (of numbered kings)
Japanese (1) {Buddh} past, present and future existences; (2) (さんぜ only) three generations; (1) three generations; (2) third generation (immigrant, monarch, etc.); sansei; (female given name) Miyo; (surname, female given name) Mitsuyo; (personal name) Mitsuse; (personal name) Mise; (given name) Sansei; (personal name) Sanse
The three periods, 過去, 現在, 未來or 過, 現, 未, past, present, and future. The universe is described as eternally in motion, like flowing stream. Also 未生, 巳生,後滅, or 未, 現, 過 unborn, born, dead The 華嚴經 Hua-yen sūtra has a division of ten kinds of past, present, and future i.e. the past spoken of as past, present, and future, the present spoken of in like manner, the future also, with the addition of the present as the three periods in one instant. Also 三際; three times


see styles
Mandarin sān jù / san1 ju4
Taiwan san chü
Japanese sanku
Three cryptic questions of 雲門 Yunmen, founder of the Yunmen Chan School. They are: (1) 截斷衆流 What is it that stops all flow (of reincarnation) ? The reply from the 起信論 is 一心, i. e. the realization of the oneness of mind, or that all is mind. (2) 函蓋乾坤 What contains and includes the universe? The 眞如. (3) 隨波逐浪 One wave following another— what is this? Birth and death 生死, or transmigration, phenomenal existence; three phrases


see styles
Mandarin sān jiè / san1 jie4
Taiwan san chieh
Japanese sangai / さんがい
Japanese (1) {Buddh} (See 欲界,色界,無色界) the three realms of existence; (2) (abbreviation) {Buddh} (See 三千大千世界) the whole universe (of a billion worlds) that Buddha enlightened; (3) {Buddh} (See 三世・さんぜ・1) past, present and future existences; (suffix) (4) far-off ...; distant ...; (surname) Mikai
Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are 欲, 色, and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of sensuous desire, of 婬 and 食 sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful一a semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天, or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界 Arūpadhātu, or ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. v. 倶舍論世間品.


see styles
Mandarin zhǔ zǎi / zhu3 zai3
Taiwan chu tsai
Japanese shusai / しゅさい
Chinese to dominate; to rule; to dictate; master
Japanese (noun/participle) supervision; superintendence; chairmanship; chairman
Lord, master; to dominate, control; the lord within, the soul; the lord of the universe, God; director


see styles
Mandarin èr rú / er4 ru2
Taiwan erh ju
Japanese ninyo
There are various definitions of the two aspects of the 眞如 bhūtatathatā. (1) (a) 不變眞如 The changeless essence or substance, e.g. the sea; (b) 隨緣眞如 its conditioned or ever-changing forms, as in the phenomenal world, e.g. the waves. (2) (a) 離言眞如 The inexpressible absolute, only mentally conceivable; (6) 依言眞如 aspects of it expressible in words, its ideal reflex. (3) (a) 空眞如 The absolute as the void, e.g. as space, the sky, a clear mirror; (b) 不空眞如 the absolute in manifestation, or phenomenal, e. g. images in the mirror: the womb of the universe in which are all potentialities. (4) (a) 在纏眞如The Buddha-nature in bonds, i.e. all beings in suffering; (b) 出纏真如the Buddha-nature set free by the manifestation of the Buddha and bodhisattvas. (5) (a) 有垢眞如The Buddha-nature defiled, as in unenlightened man, etc., e.g. the water-lily with its roots in the mud; (b) 無垢眞如 the pure Buddha-nature, purifed or bright as the full moon. (6) 安立 and 非安立眞如 similar to the first definition given above; thusness in two aspects


see styles
Mandarin zhù jié / zhu4 jie2
Taiwan chu chieh
Japanese juukou / juko / じゅうこう
Japanese {Buddh} (See 四劫) the kalpa of existence (the second aeon of the universe)
vivartasiddhakalpa; the abiding or existing kalpa; the kalpa of human existence; v. 劫; eons of persistence


see styles
Mandarin fú shā / fu2 sha1
Taiwan fu sha
Japanese bussetsu
buddhakṣetra. 佛紇差怛羅 Buddha realm, land or country; see also 佛土, 佛國. The term is absent from Hīnayāna. In Mahāyāna it is the spiritual realm acquired by one who reaches perfect enlightenment, where he instructs all beings born there, preparing them for enlightenment. In the schools where Mahāyāna adopted an Ādi-Buddha, these realms or Buddha-fields interpenetrated each other, since they were coexistent with the universe. There are two classes of Buddhakṣetra: (1) in the Vairocana Schools, regarded as the regions of progress for the righteous after death; (2) in the Amitābha Schools, regarded as the Pure Land; v. McGovern, A Manual of Buddhist Philosophy, pp. 70-2; buddha field


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Mandarin jié huǒ / jie2 huo3
Taiwan chieh huo
Japanese kōka
the conflagration of the universe at the end of time; the conflagration of the universe at the end of time


see styles
Mandarin shā tǔ / sha1 tu3
Taiwan sha t`u / sha tu
Japanese setsudo
乞叉; 乞漉 kṣetra, land, fields, country, place; also a universe consisting of three thousand large chiliocosms; also, a spire, or flagstaff on a pagoda, a monastery but this interprets caitya, cf. 制. Other forms are 刹多羅 (or 制多羅 or 差多羅); 紇差怛羅; world


see styles
Mandarin jié bō / jie2 bo1
Taiwan chieh po
Japanese kōhi
Chinese kalpa (loanword) (Hinduism)
kalpa; also劫簸; 劫跛; v. 劫. Aeon, age. The period of time between the creation and recreation ofa world or universe; also the kalpas offormation, existence, destruction, and non-existence, which four as acomplete period are called mahākalpa 大劫. Eachgreat kalpa is subdivided into four asaṇkhyeya-kalpas (阿僧企耶 i.e. numberless,incalculable): (1) kalpa of destructionsaṃvarta; (2)kalpaof utter annihilation, or empty kalpa 増滅劫; 空劫 saṃvarta-siddha; (3) kalpa of formation 成劫 vivarta; (4) kalpa ofexistence 住劫 vivartasiddha; or they may betaken in the order 成住壤空. Each of the four kalpas is subdivided into twenty antara-kalpas, 小劫 or small kalpas, so that a mahākalpaconsists of eighty small kalpas. Each smallkalpa is divided into a period of 増 increaseand 減 decrease; the increase period is ruled over by the four cakravartīs in succession, i.e. the four ages of iron,copper, silver, gold, during which the length of human life increases by oneyear every century to 84,000 years, and the length of the human body to8,400 feet. Then comes the kalpa of decreasedivided into periods of the three woes, pestilence, war, famine, duringwhich the length of human life is gradually reduced to ten years and thehuman body to 1 foot in height. There are other distinctions of the kalpas. A small kalpa isrepresented as 16,800,000 years, a kalpa as336,000,000 years, and a mahākalpa as1,334,000,000 years. There are many ways of illustrating the length of akalpa, e.g. pass a soft cloth over a solid rock40 li in size once in a hundred years, whenfinally the rock has been thus worn away a kalpa will not yet have passed; or a city of 40 li, filled with mustard seeds, one being removed everycentury till all have gone, a kalpa will notyet have passed. Cf. 成劫.


see styles
Mandarin shí miào / shi2 miao4
Taiwan shih miao
Japanese jūmyō
The ten wonders, or incomprehensibles; there are two groups, the 迹v traceable or manifested and 本門妙 the fundamental. The 迹門十妙 are the wonder of: (1) 境妙 the universe, sphere, or whole, embracing mind, Buddha, and all things as a unity; (2) 智妙 a Buddha's all-embracing knowledge arising from such universe; (3) 行妙 his deeds, expressive of his wisdom; (4) 位妙 his attainment of all the various Buddha stages, i.e. 十住 and十地; (5) 三法妙 his three laws of 理, 慧, and truth, wisdom, and vision; (6) 感應妙 his response to appeal, i.e. his (spiritual) response or relation to humanity, for "all beings are my children"; (7) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (8) 說法妙 his preaching; (9) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (10) 利益妙 the blessings derived through universal elevation into Buddhahood. The 本門十妙 are the wonder of (1) 本因妙 the initial impulse or causative stage of Buddhahood; (2) 本果妙 its fruit or result in eternity, joy, and purity; (3) 國土妙 his (Buddha) realm; (4) 感應妙 his response (to human needs); (5) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (6) 說法妙 his preaching; (7) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (8) 涅槃妙 his nirvāṇa; (9) 壽命妙 his (eternal) life; (10) his blessings as above. Both groups are further defined as progressive stages in a Buddha's career. These "wonders" are derived from the Lotus sūtra.


see styles
Mandarin sì zhōu / si4 zhou1
Taiwan ssu chou
Japanese shishū
catur-dvīpa; the four inhabited continents of every universe; they are situated S., E., W., and N. of the central mountain Sumeru; S. is Jambudvīpa 暗部洲; E. Pūrva-videha 東毘提訶; W. Apara-godānīya 牛貨; and N. Uttarakuru 瞿盧; four continents



see styles
Mandarin sì chán / si4 chan2
Taiwan ssu ch`an / ssu chan
Japanese shizen
(四禪天) The four dhyāna heavens, 四靜慮 (四靜慮天), i. e. the division of the eighteen brahmalokas into four dhyānas: the disciple attains to one of these heavens according to the dhyāna he observes: (1) 初禪天 The first region, 'as large as one whole universe' comprises the three heavens, Brahma-pāriṣadya, Brahma-purohita, and Mahābrahma, 梵輔, 梵衆, and 大梵天; the inhabitants are without gustatory or olfactory organs, not needing food, but possess the other four of the six organs. (2) 二禪天 The second region, equal to 'a small chiliocosmos' 小千界, comprises the three heavens, according to Eitel, 'Parīttābha, Apramāṇābha, and Ābhāsvara, ' i. e. 少光 minor light, 無量光 infinite light, and 極光淨 utmost light purity; the inhabitants have ceased to require the five physical organs, possessing only the organ of mind. (3) 三禪天 The third region, equal to 'a middling chiliocosmos '中千界, comprises three heavens; Eitel gives them as Parīttaśubha, Apramāṇaśubha, and Śubhakṛtsna, i. e. 少淨 minor purity, 無量淨 infinite purity, and 徧淨 universal purity; the inhabitants still have the organ of mind and are receptive of great joy. (4) 四禪天 The fourth region, equal to a great chiliocosmos, 大千界, comprises the remaining nine brahmalokas, namely, Puṇyaprasava, Anabhraka, Bṛhatphala, Asañjñisattva, Avṛha, Atapa, Sudṛśa, Sudarśana, and Akaniṣṭha (Eitel). The Chinese titles are 福生 felicitous birth, 無雲 cloudless, 廣果 large fruitage, 無煩 no vexations, atapa is 無熱 no heat, sudṛśa is 善見 beautiful to see, sudarśana is 善現 beautiful appearing, two others are 色究竟 the end of form, and 無想天 the heaven above thought, but it is difficult to trace avṛha and akaniṣṭha; the inhabitants of this fourth region still have mind. The number of the dhyāna heavens differs; the Sarvāstivādins say 16, the 經 or Sutra school 17, and the Sthavirāḥ school 18. Eitel points out that the first dhyāna has one world with one moon, one mem, four continents, and six devalokas; the second dhyāna has 1, 000 times the worlds of the first; the third has 1, 000 times the worlds of the second; the fourth dhyāna has 1, 000 times those of the third. Within a kalpa of destruction 壞劫 the first is destroyed fifty-six times by fire, the second seven by water, the third once by wind, the fourth 'corresponding to a state of absolute indifference' remains 'untouched' by all the other evolutions; when 'fate (天命) comes to an end then the fourth dhyāna may come to an end too, but not sooner'.



see styles
Mandarin yuán xìn / yuan2 xin4
Taiwan yüan hsin
Japanese enshin
Complete faith; the faith of the 'perfect' school. A Tiantai doctrine that a moment's faith embraces the universe; perfect faith



see styles
Mandarin chén jié / chen2 jie2
Taiwan ch`en chieh / chen chieh
Japanese jingō
(塵點劫) A period of time as impossible of calculation as the atoms of a ground-up world, an attempt to define the infinite, v. Lotus Sūtra 7 and 16; eons as great in number of all the atoms in the universe


see styles
Japanese ekou / eko / えこう Japanese {Buddh} (See 四劫) the kalpa of destruction (the third aeon of the universe)



see styles
Mandarin huài jié / huai4 jie2
Taiwan huai chieh
Japanese e kō
saṃvarta, v. 劫 7, the periodical gradual destruction of a universe, one of its four kalpas, i.e. 成 vivarta, formation; 住 vivarta-siddha; abiding, or existence; 壞 saṃvarta, decay, or destruction; 滅 saṃvarta-siddha, final annihilation; eon of annihilation



see styles
Mandarin dà jié / da4 jie2
Taiwan ta chieh
Japanese daikō
mahākalpa. The great kalpa, from the beginning of a universe till it is destroyed and another begins in its place. It has four kalpas or periods known as vivarta 成刧 the creation period; vivarta‐siddha 住刧 the appearance of sun and moon, i.e. light, and the period of life, human and general; saṃvarta 壤刧 or 滅刧 destruction first by fire, then water, then fire, then deluge, then a great wind, i.e. water during seven small kalpas, fire during 56 and wind one, in all 64; saṃvartatthāhi 増滅刧 total destruction gradually reaching the void. A great kalpa is calculated as eighty small kalpas and to last 1,347,000,000 years; great eon


see styles
Mandarin dà qiān / da4 qian1
Taiwan ta ch`ien / ta chien
Japanese daisen
(世界) A major chiliocosm, or universe, of 3,000 great chiliocosms, v. 三千大千.


see styles
Mandarin dài wang // dà wáng / dai4 wang5 // da4 wang2
Taiwan tai wang // ta
Japanese daiou / daio / だいおう
Chinese robber baron (in opera, old stories); magnate; king; magnate; person having expert skill in something
Japanese great king; (place-name, surname) Daiou; (surname) Daio; (place-name, surname) Taiou
mahārāja 摩賀羅惹. Applied to the four guardians of the universe, 四大天王; great king(s)


see styles
Japanese taikyo / たいきょ Japanese (1) the sky; the universe; (2) taixu (the great vacuity, in Chinese philosophy, the primordial substance that gives rise to qi); (given name) Taikyo


see styles
Japanese taikyo / たいきょ Japanese (1) the sky; the universe; (2) taixu (the great vacuity, in Chinese philosophy, the primordial substance that gives rise to qi)



see styles
Mandarin tài xū / tai4 xu1
Taiwan t`ai hsü / tai hsü
Japanese taiko
Chinese great emptiness; the void; heaven; the skies; universe; cosmos; original essence of the cosmos; Taixu (famed Buddhist monk, 1890-1947)
great voidness


see styles
Mandarin suō pó / suo1 po2
Taiwan so p`o / so po
Japanese shaba / しゃば
Japanese (1) this world; this life; (2) (colloquialism) the free world (outside of prison, the army, red light district, etc.); (3) {Buddh} this corrupt world; present world
sahā; that which bears, the earth, v. 地; intp. as bearing, enduring; the place of good and evil; a universe, or great chiliocosm, Where all are subject to transmigration and which a Buddha transforms; it is divided into three regions 三界 and Mahābrahmā Sahāmpati is its lord. Other forms: 娑婆世界; 娑界; 娑媻; 娑訶; 沙訶; 索訶.


see styles
Mandarin huán yǔ / huan2 yu3
Taiwan huan yü
Chinese the whole earth; the universe


see styles
Mandarin dì xiāng / di4 xiang1
Taiwan ti hsiang
Japanese Taisō
Indra-dhvaja, a Buddha 'said to have been a contemporary of Śākyamuni, living south-west of our universe, an incarnation of the seventh son of Mahābhijñajñānabhibhū.' Eitel.



see styles
Mandarin biàn jiè / bian4 jie4
Taiwan pien chieh
Japanese hengai
The whole universe; every realm


see styles
Mandarin xīn gēn / xin1 gen1
Taiwan hsin ken
Japanese kokorone;shinkon / こころね;しんこん
Japanese (1) innermost feelings; heart; motive; (2) (こころね only) nature; disposition; spirit
Manas, or the mind-organ, one of the twenty-five tattva 諦 or postulates of a universe; mental faculty


see styles
Mandarin rěn jiè / ren3 jie4
Taiwan jen chieh
Japanese ninkai
sahā, or sahāloka, or sahālokadhātu. The universe of persons subject to transmigration, the universe of endurance; world [requiring] patience


see styles
Mandarin chéng jié / cheng2 jie2
Taiwan ch`eng chieh / cheng chieh
Japanese joukou;jougou / joko;jogo / じょうこう;じょうごう
Japanese {Buddh} (See 四劫) the kalpa of formation (the first aeon of the universe)
vivarta kalpa, one of the four kalpas, consisting of twenty small kalpas during which worlds and the beings on them are formed. The others are: 住劫 vivarta-siddha kalpa, kalpa of abiding, or existence, sun and moon rise, sexes are differentiated, heroes arise, four castes are formed, social life evolves. 壞劫saṃvarta kalpa, that of destruction, consisting of sixty-four small kalpas when fire, water, and wind destroy everything except the fourth dhyāna. 空劫 saṃvarta-siddha kalpa, i.e. of annihilation. v. 劫波; eons of formation


see styles
Mandarin wén shū / wen2 shu1
Taiwan wen shu
Japanese monju / もんじゅ
Chinese Manjushri, the Bodhisattva of keen awareness
Japanese (Buddhist term) Manjushri; Manjusri; Bodhisattva that represents transcendent wisdom; (p,s,f) Monju
(文殊師利) Mañjuśrī 滿殊尸利 -later 曼殊室利. 文殊 is also used for Mañjunātha, Mañjudeva, Mañjughoṣa, Mañjuṣvara, et al. T., hjamdpal; J., Monju. Origin unknown; presumably, like most Buddhas and bodhisattvas, an idealization of a particular quality, in his case of Wisdom. Mañju is beautiful, Śrī; good fortune, virtue, majesty, lord, an epithet of a god. Six definitions are obtained from various scriptures: 妙首 (or 頭 ) wonderful or beautiful) head; 普首 universal head; 濡首 glossy head (probably a transliteration); 敬首 revered head; 妙德 wonderful virtue (or power); 妙吉祥 wonderfully auspicious; the last is a later translation in the 西域記. As guardian of wisdom 智慧 he is often placed on Śākyamuni's left, with 普顯 on the right as guardian of law 理, the latter holding the Law, the former the wisdom or exposition of it; formerly they held the reverse positions. He is often represented with five curls or waves to his hair indicating the 五智 q. v. or the five peaks; his hand holds the sword of wisdom and he sits on a lion emblematic of its stern majesty: but he has other forms. He is represented as a youth, i. e. eternal youth. His present abode is given as east of the universe, known as 淸涼山 clear and cool mountain, or a region 寶住 precious abode, or Abode of Treasures, or 寶氏 from which he derives one of his titles, 寶相如來. One of his dhāraṇīs prophesies China as his post-nirvāṇa realm. In past incarnations he is described as being the parent of many Buddhas and as having assisted the Buddha into existence; his title was 龍種上佛 the supreme Buddha of the nāgas, also 大身佛 or 神仙佛; now his title is 歡喜藏摩尼寶精佛 The spiritual Buddha who joyfully cares for the jewel: and his future title is to be 普現佛 Buddha universally revealed. In the 序品 Introductory Chapter of the Lotus Sutra he is also described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Śākyamuni. He is looked on as the chief of the Bodhisattvas and represents them, as the chief disciple of the Buddha, or as his son 法王子. Hīnayāna counts Śāriputra as the wisest of the disciples, Mahāyāna gives Mañjuśrī the chief place, hence he is also styled 覺母 mother, or begetter of understanding. He is shown riding on either a lion or a peacock, or sitting on a white lotus; often he holds a book, emblem of wisdom, or a blue lotus; in certain rooms of a monastery he is shown as a monk; and he appears in military array as defender of the faith. His signs, magic words, and so on, are found in various sutras. His most famous centre in China is Wu-tai shan in Shansi. where he is the object of pilgrimages, especially of Mongols. The legends about him are many. He takes the place in Buddhism of Viśvakarman as Vulcan, or architect, of the universe. He is one of the eight Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, and sometimes has the image of Akṣobhya in his crown. He was mentioned in China as early as the fourth century and in the Lotus Sutra he frequently appears, especially as the converter of the daughter of the Dragon-king of the Ocean. He has five messengers 五使者 and eight youths 八童子 attending on him. His hall in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala is the seventh, in which his group numbers twenty-five. His position is northeast. There are numerous sutras and other works with his name as title, e. g. 文殊師利問菩提經 Gayaśīrṣa sūtra, tr. by Kumārajīva 384-417: and its 論 or .Tīkā of Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhiruci 535. see list in B. N.



see styles
Mandarin pǔ mén / pu3 men2
Taiwan p`u men / pu men
Japanese fumon / ふもん
Japanese (surname) Fumon
Universal door, the opening into all things, or universality; the universe in anything; the unlimited doors open to a Buddha, or bodhisattva, and the forms in which he can reveal himself; universal gate


see styles
Mandarin rǎn jiè / ran3 jie4
Taiwan jan chieh
Japanese zenkai
The sphere of pollution, i. e. the inhabited part of every universe, as subject to reincarnation; defiled realm


see styles
Mandarin fàn xiāng / fan4 xiang1
Taiwan fan hsiang
Japanese Bonsō
Brahmadhvaja, one of the sons of Mahābhijña; his Buddha domain is south-west of our universe.


see styles
Japanese hottai;houtai / hottai;hotai / ほったい;ほうたい Japanese (1) {Buddh} clerical appearance; appearance of a priest; (2) teachings of Buddha; condition of the universe at creation; in the pure land teachings, the name of Amitabha, or prayers to Amitabha; investiture of a Buddhist priest


see styles
Mandarin fǎ míng / fa3 ming2
Taiwan fa ming
Japanese noriaki / のりあき
Japanese (given name) Noriaki
Dharmaprabhāsa, brightness of the law, a Buddha who will appear in our universe in the Ratnāvabhāsa-kalpa in a realm called Suviśuddha 善淨, when there will be no sexual difference, birth taking place by transformation; Dharma radiance


see styles
Mandarin fǎ jiè / fa3 jie4
Taiwan fa chieh
Japanese hokkai;houkai / hokkai;hokai / ほっかい;ほうかい
Japanese (1) {Buddh} universe; (2) {Buddh} realm of thought; (3) {Buddh} underlying principle of reality; manifestation of true thusness; (4) (ほうかい only) (abbreviation) (See 法界悋気) being jealous of things that have nothing to do with one; being jealous of others who are in love with each other
dharmadhātu, 法性; 實相; 達磨馱都 Dharma-element, -factor, or-realm. (1) A name for "things" in general, noumenal or phenomenal; for the physical universe, or any portion or phase of it. (2) The unifying underlying spiritual reality regarded as the ground or cause of all things, the absolute from which all proceeds. It is one of the eighteen dhātus. These are categories of three, four, five, and ten dharmadhātus; the first three are combinations of 事 and 理 or active and passive, dynamic and static; the ten are: Buddha-realm, Bodhisattva-realm, pratyekabuddha-realm, śrāvaka, deva, Human, asura, Demon, Animal, and Hades realms-a Huayan category. Tiantai has ten for meditaton, i.e. the realms of the eighteen media of perception (the six organs, six objects, and six sense-data or sensations), of illusion, sickness, karma, māra, samādhi, (false) views, pride, the two lower Vehicles, and the Bodhisattva Vehicle; experiential realm


see styles
Mandarin fǎ cáng / fa3 cang2
Taiwan fa ts`ang / fa tsang
Japanese houzou / hozo / ほうぞう
Japanese (personal name) Houzou
Dharma-store; also 佛法藏; 如來藏 (1) The absolute, unitary storehouse of the universe, the primal source of all things. (2) The Treasury of Buddha's teaching the sutras, etc. (3) Any Buddhist library. (4) Dharmākara, mine of the Law; one of the incarnations of Amitābha. (5) Title of the founder of the Huayan School 賢首法藏Xianshou Fazang.


see styles
Mandarin fǎ shēn / fa3 shen1
Taiwan fa shen
Japanese hosshin;houshin / hosshin;hoshin / ほっしん;ほうしん
Japanese {Buddh} (See 三身) dharmakaya (dharma body, Buddhism's highest form of existence); (surname) Hotsushin; (female given name) Norimi
dharmakāya, embodiment of Truth and Law, the "spiritual" or true body; essential Buddhahood; the essence of being; the absolute, the norm of the universe; the first of the trikāya, v.三身. The dharmakāya is divided into 總 unity and 別 diversity; as in the noumenal absolute and phenomenal activities, or potential and dynamic; but there are differences of interpretation, e.g. as between the 法相 and 法性 schools. Cf. 法身體性. There are many categories of the dharmakāya. In the 2 group 二法身 are five kinds: (1) 理 "substance" and 智 wisdom or expression; (2) 法性法身 essential nature and 應化法身 manifestation; the other three couples are similar. In the 3 group 三法身 are (1) the manifested Buddha, i.e. Śākyamuni; (2) the power of his teaching, etc.; (3) the absolute or ultimate reality. There are other categories.



see styles
Mandarin fǎ tǐ / fa3 ti3
Taiwan fa t`i / fa ti
Japanese hōtai
Embodiment of the Law, or of things. (1) Elements into which the Buddhists divided the universe; the Abhidharmakośa has 75, the 成實論 Satyasiddhi Sāstra 84, the Yogācārya 100. (2) A monk; essence of all things


see styles
Mandarin hào hào / hao4 hao4
Taiwan hao hao
Chinese vast; expansive (universe); torrential (floods)


see styles
Mandarin hùn yuán / hun4 yuan2
Taiwan hun yüan
Japanese Kongen
Chinese time immemorial; origin of the universe; the world
primordial chaos



see styles
Mandarin xuán ào / xuan2 ao4
Taiwan hsüan ao
Chinese abstruse; profound mystery; the mysteries of the universe


see styles
Japanese rishin / りしん Japanese deism; belief in God as creator of universe



see styles
Mandarin pán gǔ / pan2 gu3
Taiwan p`an ku / pan ku
Japanese banko / ばんこ
Chinese Pangu (creator of the universe in Chinese mythology)
Japanese Pangu; creator of heaven and earth in Chinese mythology


see styles
Mandarin kōng jié / kong1 jie2
Taiwan k`ung chieh / kung chieh
Japanese kuukou;kuugou / kuko;kugo / くうこう;くうごう
Japanese {Buddh} (See 四劫) the kalpa of nothingness (the final aeon of the universe)
The empty kalpa, v. 劫; eons of nothingness



see styles
Mandarin jiàn dà / jian4 da4
Taiwan chien ta
Japanese kendai
Visibility (or perceptibility) as one of the seven elements of the universe; element of visibility


see styles
Mandarin lù jiā / lu4 jia1
Taiwan lu chia
Japanese roka
loka, intp. by 世間, the world, a region or realm, a division of the universe.



see styles
Mandarin zhuàn lún / zhuan4 lun2
Taiwan chuan lun
Japanese tenrin
Chinese rotating disk; wheel; rotor; cycle of reincarnation in Buddhism
cakravartī, "a ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without hindrance." M.W. Revolving wheels; to turn a wheel: also 轉輪王 (轉輪聖王); 輪王; 轉輪聖帝, cf. 斫. The symbol is the cakra or disc, which is of four kinds indicating the rank, i.e. gold, silver, copper, or iron, the iron cakravartī ruling over one continent, the south; the copper, over two, east and south: the silver, over three, east, west, and south; the golden being supreme over all the four continents. The term is also applied to the gods over a universe, and to a buddha as universal spiritual king, and as preacher of the supreme doctrine. Only a cakravartī possesses the 七寳 saptaratna and 1, 000 sons. The cakra, or discus, is also a missile used by a cakravartī for overthrowing his enemies. Its origin is probably the sun with its myriad rays.


see styles
Mandarin zào huà / zao4 hua4
Taiwan tsao hua
Japanese zouka / zoka / ぞうか
Chinese good luck; Nature (as the mother of all things)
Japanese creation; nature; the Universe
To create; to make and transform.



see styles
Mandarin bà yè / ba4 ye4
Taiwan pa yeh
Chinese the business of hegemony; toiling to become master of the universe



see styles
Mandarin yī yuán lùn / yi1 yuan2 lun4
Taiwan i yüan lun
Japanese ichigenron / いちげんろん
Chinese monism, belief that the universe is made of a single substance
Japanese monism


see styles
Mandarin yī xiǎo jié / yi1 xiao3 jie2
Taiwan i hsiao chieh
Japanese isshō kō
A small kalpa; a period of the growth and decay of a universe. See 一增一滅 and 劫; minor eon



see styles
Mandarin yī wéi chén / yi1 wei2 chen2
Taiwan i wei ch`en / i wei chen
Japanese ichi mijin
A particle of dust; an atom, the smallest particle, a microcosm of the universe.


see styles
Mandarin yī fǎ jiè / yi1 fa3 jie4
Taiwan i fa chieh
Japanese ippokkai
The bhūtatathatā considered in terms of mind and as a whole; a law-realm; a spiritual realm; a universe; single reality realm


see styles
Mandarin qī jīn shān / qi1 jin1 shan1
Taiwan ch`i chin shan / chi chin shan
Japanese shichi konsen
The seven concentric mountain ranges around Sumeru, the central mountain of a universe, each range separated from the others by a sea; see 九山八海. Their names are 持隻, 持軸, 雙木 (雙木樹), 擔見, 馬耳 , 障礙 (or 象鼻), 持地 (or 遠) 山; seven gold mountains


see styles
Mandarin sān shì jiè / san1 shi4 jie4
Taiwan san shih chieh
Japanese san sekai
the triple universe; the triple universe



see styles
Mandarin èr yuán lùn / er4 yuan2 lun4
Taiwan erh yüan lun
Japanese nigenron / にげんろん
Chinese dualism, belief that the universe is made of two different substance (e.g. mind and matter or good and evil)
Japanese dualism


see styles
Mandarin guāng yīn tiān / guang1 yin1 tian1
Taiwan kuang yin t`ien / kuang yin tien
Japanese kōon ten
Ābhāsvara, light and sound, or light-sound heavens, also styled 極光淨天, the heavens of utmost light and purity, i. e. the third of the second dhyāna heavens, in which the inhabitants converse by light instead of words; they recreate the universe from the hells up to and including the first dhyāna heavens after it has been destroyed by fire during he final series of cataclysms; but they gradually diminish in power and are reborn in lower states. The three heavens of the second dhyāna are 少光, 無量光, and 光音; heaven of radiant sound


see styles
Japanese zenuchuu / zenuchu / ぜんうちゅう Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) whole universe; total universe; all of creation



see styles
Mandarin jié jìn huǒ / jie2 jin4 huo3
Taiwan chieh chin huo
Japanese kōjinka
the conflagration at the end of the age that destroys the physical universe; the conflagration at the end of the age that destroys the physical universe



see styles
Mandarin kě zhī lùn / ke3 zhi1 lun4
Taiwan k`o chih lun / ko chih lun
Chinese gnosticism, the philosophical doctrine that everything about the universe is knowable



see styles
Mandarin chén diǎn jié / chen2 dian3 jie2
Taiwan ch`en tien chieh / chen tien chieh
Japanese jinden gō
eons as great in number of all the particles in the universe; eons as great in number of all the particles in the universe



see styles
Mandarin duō yuán lùn / duo1 yuan2 lun4
Taiwan to yüan lun
Japanese tagenron / たげんろん
Chinese pluralism, philosophical doctrine that the universe consists of different substances
Japanese pluralism


see styles
Japanese daiuchuu / daiuchu / だいうちゅう Japanese (See 小宇宙) macrocosmos; macrocosm; the universe; the cosmos


see styles
Mandarin dà shuǐ huǒ / da4 shui3 huo3
Taiwan ta shui huo
Japanese dai suika
(大水災) mahāpralaya; the final and utter destruction of a universe by (wind), flood, and fire; great conflagration


see styles
Japanese uchuukan / uchukan / うちゅうかん Japanese one's outlook on the universe



see styles
Mandarin fù lóu shā / fu4 lou2 sha1
Taiwan fu lou sha
Japanese furōsha
puruṣa, v. 布; a man, mankind. Man personified as Nārāyaṇa; the soul and source of the universe; soul. Explained by 神我 the spiritual self; the ātman whose characteristic is thought, and which produces, through successive modifications, all forms of existence.


see styles
Japanese shimauchuu / shimauchu / しまうちゅう Japanese {astron} galaxy; island universe


see styles
Mandarin bù lù shā / bu4 lu4 sha1
Taiwan pu lu sha
Japanese furosha
puruṣa, 布嚕沙; 補盧沙 man, mankind, a man, Man as Nārayāṇa the soul and origin of the universe, the soul, the Soul, Supreme Being, God, see M. W.; intp. as 人 and 丈夫 man, and an adult man, also by 士夫 master or educated man, 'explained by 神我, literally the spiritual self. A metaphysical term; the spirit which together with nature (自性 svabhāva), through the successive modifications (轉變) of guṇa (求那 attributes or qualities), or the active principles (作者), produces all forms of existence (作一切物). ' Eitel.



see styles
Mandarin shī zǐ xiāng / shi1 zi3 xiang1
Taiwan shih tzu hsiang
Japanese Shishisō
Siṃdhadhvaja; 'lion-flag,' a Buddha south-east of our universe, fourth son of Mahābhijña; Siṃdha-dhvaja



see styles
Mandarin shī zǐ yīn / shi1 zi3 yin1
Taiwan shih tzu yin
Japanese Shishion
Siṃhaghoṣa; 'lion's voice,' a Buddha south-east of our universe, third son of Mahābhijña.



see styles
Mandarin rì xīn shuō / ri4 xin1 shuo1
Taiwan jih hsin shuo
Chinese heliocentric theory; the theory that the sun is at the center of the universe



see styles
Mandarin jí shàng jiè / ji2 shang4 jie4
Taiwan chi shang chieh
Japanese gokujō kai
the highest realm (of the universe); the highest realm (of the universe)



see styles
Mandarin huān xǐ guó / huan1 xi3 guo2
Taiwan huan hsi kuo
Japanese Kanki koku
妙喜國 Abhirati, the happy land, or paradise of Akṣobhya, east of our universe; (Skt. Abhirati)


see styles
Japanese boshuudan / boshudan / ぼしゅうだん Japanese {math} population; universe; parent set



see styles
Mandarin pí lán fēng / pi2 lan2 feng1
Taiwan p`i lan feng / pi lan feng
Japanese biran pū
vairambha. The great wind which finally scatters the universe; the circle of wind under the circle of water on which the world rests. Also 毘藍 (毘藍婆) (鞞藍 or 鞞藍婆) (吠藍 or 吠藍婆); 鞞嵐; 吠嵐婆 (or 吠嵐儈伽); 毘樓那; and 毘藍婆 which is also Pralambā, one of the rākṣasīs.


see styles
Mandarin fǎ jiè zhì / fa3 jie4 zhi4
Taiwan fa chieh chih
Japanese hokkai chi
intelligence as the fundamental nature of the universe; intelligence as the fundamental nature of the universe



see styles
Mandarin fàn shén lùn / fan4 shen2 lun4
Taiwan fan shen lun
Chinese pantheism, theological theory equating God with the Universe



see styles
Mandarin qīng liáng shān / qing1 liang2 shan1
Taiwan ch`ing liang shan / ching liang shan
Japanese Shōryōzan
A name for Wu-tai in north Shansi; also the abode of Mañjuśrī north-east of our universe; Qingliang shan



see styles
Mandarin wú shèng guó / wu2 sheng4 guo2
Taiwan wu sheng kuo
Japanese mushō koku
The unexcelled land, the Pure Land located west of this universe.


see styles
Japanese netsutekishi / ねつてきし Japanese heat death (i.e. of the universe)


see styles
Mandarin lǐ fǎ jiè / li3 fa3 jie4
Taiwan li fa chieh
Japanese ri hokkai
One of the 四界, that of the common essence or dharmakāya of all beings; view of the dharma realm as the perception of all things in the universe as true thusness



see styles
Mandarin lǐ shén lùn / li3 shen2 lun4
Taiwan li shen lun
Japanese rishinron / りしんろん
Chinese deism, theological theory of God who does not interfere in the Universe
Japanese deism


This page contains 100 results for "universe" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

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Japanese Kanji Dictionary

Free Asian Dictionary

Chinese Kanji Dictionary

Chinese Words Dictionary

Chinese Language Dictionary

Japanese Chinese Dictionary