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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
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Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin/ yi4
Taiwan i
Japanese i / い
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese idea; meaning; thought; to think; wish; desire; intention; to expect; to anticipate; Italy; Italian; abbr. for 意大利[Yi4 da4 li4]
Japanese (1) feelings; thoughts; (2) meaning; (personal name) Kokoro
Manas, the sixth of the ṣaḍāyatanas or six means of perception, i.e. sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and mind. Manas means "mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers), intellect, intelligence, understanding, perception, sense, conscience, will". M.W. It is "the intellectual function of consciousness", Keith. In Chinese it connotes thought, idea, intention, meaning, will; but in Buddhist terminology its distinctive meaning is mind, or the faculty of thought; mentation

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Mandarin huì / hui4
Taiwan hui
Japanese megumi / めぐみ    muu / mu / むう    fui / ふい    takashi / たかし    sui / すい    sayaka / さやか    satoru / さとる    satori / さとり    satoshi / さとし    satoi / さとい    sato / さと    keiji / keji / けいじ    kei / ke / けい    e / え    akira / あきら
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese intelligent
Japanese (1) wisdom; enlightenment; (2) (Buddhist term) prajna (one of the three divisions of the noble eightfold path); wisdom; (female given name) Megumi; (female given name) Muu; (female given name) Fui; (given name) Toshi; (personal name) Takashi; (female given name) Sui; (female given name) Sayaka; (given name) Satoru; (female given name) Satori; (male given name) Satoshi; (female given name) Satoi; (female given name) Sato; (personal name) Keiji; (female given name) Kei; (personal name) E; (female given name) Akira
prajñā ; sometimes jñāna. Wisdom, discernment, understanding; the power to discern things and their underlying principles and to decide the doubtful. It is often interchanged with 智, though not correctly, for zhi means knowledge, the science of the phenomenal, while hui refers more generally to principles or morals. It is part of the name of many monks, e.g. 慧可 Huike; 慧思Huisi.

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Mandarin jué // jiào / jue2 // jiao4
Taiwan chüeh // chiao
Japanese satoru / さとる
Chinese to feel; to find that; thinking; awake; aware; a nap; a sleep; CL:場|场[chang2]
Japanese (personal name) Satoru
bodhi, from bodha, 'knowing, understanding', means enlightenment, illumination; 覺 is to awake, apprehend, perceive, realize; awake, aware; (also, to sleep). It is illumination, enlightenment, or awakening in regard to the real in contrast to the seeming; also, enlightenment in regard to moral evil. Cf. 菩提 and 佛.

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Mandarin liàng / liang4
Taiwan liang
Japanese ryou / ryo / りょう
Chinese to show understanding; to excuse; to presume; to expect
Japanese truth; (personal name) Ryouji; (female given name) Ryou; (female given name) Makoto; (given name) Akira; (female given name) Aki


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Japanese satori / さとり
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Japanese (1) comprehension; understanding; (2) (Buddhist term) enlightenment; spiritual awakening; satori


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Mandarin wù xìng / wu4 xing4
Taiwan wu hsing
Japanese gosei / gose / ごせい
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese perception; wits; power of understanding; comprehension
Japanese wisdom; understanding



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Mandarin zhèng jiàn / zheng4 jian4
Taiwan cheng chien
Japanese shouken / shoken / しょうけん
Japanese {Buddh} (See 八正道) right view; (female given name) Masami; (surname) Shoumi; (surname, given name) Shouken
samyag-dṛṣṭi, right views, understanding the four noble truths; the first of the 八正道; 'knowledge of the four noble truths. ' Keith.


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Mandarin pú tí / pu2 ti2
Taiwan p`u t`i / pu ti
Japanese bodai / ぼだい
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese bodhi (Sanskrit); enlightenment (Buddhism)
Japanese (1) {Buddh} bodhi; enlightenment; (2) {Buddh} happiness in the next world; (place-name, surname) Bodai
bodhi; from budh; knowledge, understanding; perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightened mind; anciently intp. by 道, later by 覺 to be aware, perceive; for saṃbodhi v. 三; enlightenment



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Mandarin tǐ huì / ti3 hui4
Taiwan t`i hui / ti hui
Chinese to know from experience; to learn through experience; to realize; understanding; experience


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Japanese omoiyari / おもいやり
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Japanese consideration; thoughtfulness; sympathy; compassion; feeling; kindness; understanding; regard; kindheartedness


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Mandarin xīn dé / xin1 de2
Taiwan hsin te
Japanese kokoroe / こころえ
Chinese what one has learned (through experience, reading etc); knowledge; insight; understanding; tips; CL:項|项[xiang4],個|个[ge4]
Japanese (1) knowledge; understanding; (2) (See 執務心得・しつむこころえ) rules; regulations; guideline; directions; (suffix noun) (3) deputy; acting
mental attainment


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Mandarin lǐ jiě / li3 jie3
Taiwan li chieh
Japanese rikai / りかい
Chinese to comprehend; to understand; comprehension; understanding
Japanese (noun/participle) understanding; comprehension; appreciation; sympathy
to comprehend



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Mandarin rèn shi / ren4 shi5
Taiwan jen shih
Japanese ninshiki / にんしき
Chinese to know; to recognize; to be familiar with; to get acquainted with sb; knowledge; understanding; awareness; cognition
Japanese (noun/participle) recognition; awareness; perception; understanding; knowledge; cognition; cognizance; cognisance
to acknowledge, e.g. sin 認罪; cognition



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Mandarin liàng jiě / liang4 jie3
Taiwan liang chieh
Japanese ryoukai / ryokai / りょうかい
Chinese to understand; to make allowances for; understanding
Japanese (noun/participle) comprehension; consent; understanding; agreement; roger (on the radio)


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Mandarin lǐ jiě lì / li3 jie3 li4
Taiwan li chieh li
Japanese rikairyoku / りかいりょく
Chinese ability to grasp ideas; understanding
Japanese (power of) understanding; comprehensive faculty

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Mandarin liǎo // le / liao3 // le5
Taiwan liao // le
Japanese ryou / ryo / りょう
Chinese to finish; to achieve; variant of 瞭|了[liao3]; to understand clearly; (modal particle intensifying preceding clause); (completed action marker)
Japanese finish; completion; understanding; (personal name) Riyou; (surname, female given name) Ryou; (female given name) Rio; (given name) Tooru; (given name) Satoru; (male given name) Satoshi; (given name) Owari; (given name) Osamu; (female given name) Akira
To end, see through, understand, thoroughly, know, make clear, thoroughly, completely, final; to cognitively apprehend

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Mandarin cuì / cui4
Taiwan ts`ui / tsui
Japanese iki(p);sui / いき(P);すい
Chinese Japanese variant of 粹
Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) (1) (いき is also written as 意気) (ant: 野暮) chic; smart; stylish; tasteful; refined; sophisticated; worldly (esp. in terms of being familiar with the red light district, geishas and actors); (2) considerate; understanding; sympathetic; (noun or adjectival noun) (3) (すい only) essence; the best; the cream; (female given name) Sui; (male given name) Kiyoshi; (female given name) Inase

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Mandarin zhì // shí / zhi4 // shi2
Taiwan chih // shih
Japanese shiki / しき
Chinese to record; to write a footnote; to know; knowledge; Taiwan pr. [shi4]
Japanese (1) acquaintanceship; (2) {Buddh} vijnana; consciousness; (3) (after a signature) written by...; (personal name) Tsuguhide; (female given name) Shiki; (given name) Satoru; (female given name) Sato
vijñāna, "the art of distinguishing, or perceiving, or recognizing, discerning, understanding, comprehending, distinction, intelligence, knowledge, science, learning . . . wisdom." M.W. parijñāna, "perception, thorough knowledge," etc. M.W. It is intp. by 心 the mind, mental discernment, perception, in contrast with the object discerned; also by 了別 understanding and discrimination. There are classifications of 一識 that all things are the one mind, or are metaphysical; 二識 q. v. discriminating the ālaya-vijñāna or primal undivided condition from the mano-vijñāna or that of discrimination; 三識 in the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra, fundamental, manifested and discriminate; 五識 q.v. in the 起信論, i.e. 業, 轉, 現, 知, and 相續識; 六識 the perceptions and discernings of the six organs of sense; also of 8, 9, 10, and 11 識. The most important is the eight of the 起信論, i.e. the perceptions of the six organs of sense, eye, ear, nose, tongue, body (or touch), and mind, together with manas, intp. as 意識 the consciousness of the previous moment, on which the other six depend; the eighth is the ālaya-vijñāna, v. 阿賴耶, in which is contained the seed or stock of all phenomena and which 無沒 loses none, or nothing, is indestructible; a substitute for the seventh is ādāna 'receiving' of the 唯識, which is intp. as 無解 undiscriminated, or indefinite perception; there is a difference of view between the 相 and the 性 schools in regard to the seventh and eight 識; and the latter school add a ninth called the amala, or pure vijñāna, i.e. the non-phenomenal 眞如識. The esoterics add that all phenomena are mental and all things are the one mind, hence the one mind is 無量識 unlimited mind or knowledge, every kind of knowledge, or omniscience. vijñāna is one of the twelve nidānas.; Ālaya-vijñāna and mano-vijñāna; i. e. 阿梨耶 | and 分別事 |; v. 識.


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Mandarin sān rěn / san1 ren3
Taiwan san jen
Japanese sannin
The tree forms of kṣānti, i.e. patience (or endurance, tolerance). One of the groups is patience under hatred, under physical hardship, and in pursuit of the faith. Another is patience of the blessed in the Pure Land in understanding the truth they hear, patience in obeying the truth, patience in attaining absolute reality; v. 無量壽經. Another is patience in the joy of remembering Amitābha, patience in meditation on his truth, and patience in constant faith in him. Another is the patience of submission, of faith, and of obedience; three kinds of tolerance



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Mandarin sān guǐ / san1 gui3
Taiwan san kuei
Japanese sanki
The three rules 三法 (三法妙) of the Tiantai Lotus School: (a) 眞性軌 The absolute and real, the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā; (b) 觀照軌meditation upon and understanding of it; (c) 資成軌 the extension of this understanding to all its workings. In the 三軌弘經 the three are traced to the 法師品 of the Lotus Sutra and are developed as: (a) 慈悲室 the abode of mercy, or to dwell in mercy; (b) 忍辱衣 the garment of endurance, or patience under opposition; (c) 法空座 the throne of immateriality (or spirituality), a state of nirvāṇa tranquility. Mercy to all is an extension of 資成軌 , patience of 觀照軌 and nirvāṇa tranquility of 眞性軌 .



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Mandarin sān lún / san1 lun2
Taiwan san lun
Japanese sanrin / さんりん
Japanese three wheels; (p,s,f) Miwa; (place-name, surname) Minowa; (surname) Mitsuwa; (surname) Mitsurin; (surname) Sanwa; (surname) Sanrin
The three wheels: (1) The Buddha's (a) 身 body or deeds; (b) 口 mouth, or discourse; (c) 意 mind or ideas. (2) (a) 神通 (or 變) His supernatural powers, or powers of (bodily) self-transformation, associated with 身 body; (b) 記心輪 his discriminating understanding of others, associated with 意 mind; (c) 敎誡輪 or 正敎輪 his (oral) powers of teaching, associated with 口. (3) Similarly (a) 神足輪 ; (b) 說法輪 ; (c) 憶念輪 . (4) 惑, 業, and 苦. The wheel of illusion produces karma, that of karma sets rolling that of suffering, which in turn sets rolling the wheel of illusion. (5) (a) Impermanence; (b) uncleanness; (c) suffering. Cf. 三道.



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Mandarin bù shěn / bu4 shen3
Taiwan pu shen
Japanese fushin / ふしん
Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) incomplete understanding; doubt; question; distrust; suspicion; strangeness; infidelity
A term of greeting between monks. i. e. I do not take the liberty of inquiring into your condition; unattended


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Mandarin bù jiě / bu4 jie3
Taiwan pu chieh
Japanese fuge
Chinese to not understand; to be puzzled by; indissoluble
not understanding; not understanding


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Japanese ryoushou / ryosho / りょうしょう Japanese (noun/participle) acknowledgement; acknowledgment; understanding (e.g. "please be understanding of the mess during our renovation"); noting; acceptance


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Mandarin le zhī / le zhi1
Taiwan le chih
Japanese ryouchi / ryochi / りょうち
Japanese (noun/participle) knowing; understanding; appreciation
Parijñā, thorough knowledge; to fully realize


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Mandarin liǎo jiě / liao3 jie3
Taiwan liao chieh
Japanese ryoukai / ryokai / りょうかい
Chinese to understand; to realize; to find out
Japanese (noun/participle) comprehension; consent; understanding; agreement; roger (on the radio)
clear understanding; clear understanding



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Mandarin le dá / le da2
Taiwan le ta
Japanese ryōdatsu
Thorough penetration, clear understanding; to thoroughly understand


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Mandarin èr wù / er4 wu4
Taiwan erh wu
Japanese ni go
The two awakenings, or kinds of entry into bodhisattvahood, i.e. 頓悟 immediate and 漸悟 gradual; two kinds of awakening; two kinds of understanding


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Mandarin wǔ fǎ / wu3 fa3
Taiwan wu fa
Japanese gohō
pañcadharma. The five laws or categories, of which four groups are as follows: I. 相名五法 The five categories of form and name: (1) 相 appearances, or phenomena; (2) 名 their names; (3) 分別 sometimes called 妄想 ordinary mental discrimination of them— (1) and (2) are objective, (3) subjective; (4) 正智 corrective wisdom, which corrects the deficiencies and errors of the last: (5) 如如 the 眞如 Bhutatathata or absolute wisdom, reached through the 如理智 understanding of the law of the absolute, or ultimate truth. II. 事理五法 The five categories into which things and their principles are divided: (1) 心法 mind; (2) 心所法 mental conditions or activities; (3) 色法 the actual states or categories as conceived; (4) 不相應法 hypothetic categories, 唯識 has twenty-four, the Abhidharma fourteen; (5) 無爲法 the state of rest, or the inactive principle pervading all things; the first four are the 事 and the last the 理. III. 理智五法 cf. 五智; the five categories of essential wisdom: (1) 眞如 the absolute; (2) 大圓鏡智 wisdom as the great perfect mirror reflecting all things; (3) 平等性智 wisdom of the equal Buddha nature of all beings; (4) 妙觀察智 wisdom of mystic insight into all things and removal of ignorance and doubt; (5) 成所作智 wisdom perfect in action and bringing blessing to self and others. IV. 提婆五法 The five obnoxious rules of Devadatta: not to take milk in any form, nor meat, nor salt; to wear unshaped garments, and to live apart. Another set is: to wear cast-off rags, beg food, have only one set meal a day, dwell in the open, and abstain from all kinds of flesh, milk, etc.


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Japanese etoku / えとく Japanese (noun/participle) understanding; comprehension; grasp; perception; appreciation; mastery (of an art or skill)


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Mandarin sì jiě / si4 jie3
Taiwan ssu chieh
Japanese jige
apparent understanding; apparent understanding


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Japanese tainin / たいにん Japanese (noun/participle) understanding based on experience


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Mandarin xiān zhé / xian1 zhe2
Taiwan hsien che
Japanese sentetsu / せんてつ
Chinese distinguished precursor; famous thinker of antiquity
Japanese ancient wise men
先達 One who has preceded (me) in understanding, or achievement; wise men of old


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Mandarin quán zhī / quan2 zhi1
Taiwan ch`üan chih / chüan chih
Japanese zenchi / ぜんち
Chinese omniscient
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) omniscience
full understanding; full understanding


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Mandarin liù huì / liu4 hui4
Taiwan liu hui
Japanese rokue
The six kinds of wisdom. Each is allotted seriatim to one of the six positions 六位 q. v. (1) 聞慧 the wisdom of hearing and apprehending the truth of the middle way is associated with the 十住; (2) 思慧 of thought with the 十行; (3) 修慧 of observance with the 十廻向; (4) 無相慧 of either extreme, or the mean, with the 十地; (5) 照寂慧 of understanding of nirvana with 等覺慧; (6) 寂照慧 of making nirvana illuminate all beings associated with 佛果 Buddha-fruition. They are a 別教 Differentiated School series and all are associated with 中道 the school of the 中 or middle way.



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Mandarin gòng shí / gong4 shi2
Taiwan kung shih
Chinese common understanding; consensus


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Japanese naiou / naio / ないおう Japanese (noun/participle) secret understanding; collusion; betrayal


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Japanese naiyaku / ないやく Japanese (noun/participle) (marriage) engagement; secret treaty; tacit understanding; private contract


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Japanese naitsuu / naitsu / ないつう Japanese (noun/participle) secret understanding; collusion


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Japanese wakari / わかり Japanese understanding; comprehension


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Mandarin fēn míng / fen1 ming2
Taiwan fen ming
Japanese funmyou;bunmyou;bunmei / funmyo;bunmyo;bunme / ふんみょう;ぶんみょう;ぶんめい
Chinese clear; distinct; evidently; clearly
Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) clearness; clear understanding
to see clearly


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Japanese wakari / わかり Japanese understanding; comprehension


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Mandarin shí zhù / shi2 zhu4
Taiwan shih chu
Japanese jū jū
The ten stages, or periods, in bodhisattva-wisdom, prajñā 般若, are the 十住; the merits or character attained are the 十地 q.v. Two interpretations may be given. In the first of these, the first four stages are likened to entry into the holy womb, the next four to the period of gestation, the ninth to birth, and the tenth to the washing or baptism with the water of wisdom, e.g. the baptism of a Kṣatriya prince. The ten stages are (1) 發心住 the purposive stage, the mind set upon Buddhahood; (2) 治地住 clear understanding and mental control; (3) 修行住 unhampered liberty in every direction; (4) 生貴住 acquiring the Tathāgata nature or seed; (5) 方便具足住 perfect adaptability and resemblance in self-development and development of others; (6) 正心住 the whole mind becoming Buddha-like; (7) 不退住 no retrogression, perfect unity and constant progress; (8) 童眞住 as a Buddha-son now complete; (9) 法王子住 as prince of the law; (10) 灌頂住 baptism as such, e.g. the consecration of kings. Another interpretation of the above is: (1) spiritual resolve, stage of śrota-āpanna; (2) submission to rule, preparation for Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (3) cultivation of virtue, attainment of Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (4) noble birth, preparation for the anāgāmin stage; (5) perfect means, attainment of anāgāmin stage; (6) right mind, preparation for arhatship; (7) no-retrogradation, the attainment of arhatship; (8) immortal youth, pratyekabuddhahood; (9) son of the law-king, the conception of bodhisattvahood; (10) baptism as the summit of attainment, the conception of Buddhahood.


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Mandarin shí zhì / shi2 zhi4
Taiwan shih chih
Japanese jū chi
The ten forms of understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto, applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智; (8) 他心智 understanding of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10) 無生智 nirvāṇa wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26. II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界無礙智 unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6) 普照一切世間智 understanding of universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) 知一切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) 知一切法智 understanding of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) 知無邊諸佛智 understanding of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings, karma, passions, and Buddhas; ten kinds of cognition


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Mandarin qǔ jiě / qu3 jie3
Taiwan ch`ü chieh / chü chieh
Japanese shuge
grasp to a (certain) understanding; grasp to a (certain) understanding


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Mandarin hé yì / he2 yi4
Taiwan ho i
Japanese goui / goi / ごうい
Chinese to suit one's taste; suitable; congenial; by mutual agreement
Japanese (n,vs,adj-no) agreement; consent; mutual understanding; accord; consensus


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Japanese gaten(p);gatten / がてん(P);がってん Japanese (noun/participle) consent; assent; understanding; agreement; comprehension; grasp


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Mandarin sì dào / si4 dao4
Taiwan ssu tao
Japanese shimichi / しみち    shidou / shido / しどう
Japanese (surname) Shimichi; (surname) Shidou
The Dao or road means the nirvana road; the 'four' are rather modes of progress, or stages in it: (1) 加行道 discipline or effort, i. e. progress from the 三賢 and 四善根 stages to that of the 三學位, i. e. morality, meditation, and understanding; (2) 無間道 uninterrupted progress to the stage in which all delusion is banished; (3) 解脫道 liberaton, or freedom, reaching the state of assurance or proof and knowledge of the truth; and (4) 勝進道 surpassing progress in dhyāni-wisdom. Those four stages are also associated with those of srota-āpanna, sakṛdāgāmin, anāgāmin, and arhat; four paths


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Mandarin wàng xīn / wang4 xin1
Taiwan wang hsin
Japanese moushin;moujin / moshin;mojin / もうしん;もうじん
Japanese {Buddh} (See 煩悩・2) deluded mind (a mind polluted with klesha, incapable of understanding the original essence of things)
A wrong, false, or misleading mind; deluded mind


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Japanese myoutei;myoutai / myote;myotai / みょうてい;みょうたい Japanese amazing truth; cardinal principle; key (to understanding)



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Mandarin shí jiě / shi2 jie3
Taiwan shih chieh
Japanese jitsuge
accurate understanding; accurate understanding


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Japanese tokushin / とくしん Japanese (noun/participle) consenting to; being convinced of; being satisfied; understanding; (female given name) Emi


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Mandarin dé jiè / de2 jie4
Taiwan te chieh
Japanese toku kai
To obtain the commandments; to attain to the understanding and performance of the moral law; to receive the precepts


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Mandarin dé jiě / de2 jie3
Taiwan te chieh
Japanese tokuge
attain understanding; attain understanding


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Mandarin xīn xìng / xin1 xing4
Taiwan hsin hsing
Japanese shinsei / shinse / しんせい
Chinese one's nature; temperament
Japanese mind; disposition; nature
Immutable mind-corpus, or mind-nature, the self-existing fundamental pure mind, the all, the Tathāgata-garbha, or 如來藏心; 自性淸淨心; also described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith as immortal 不生不滅. Another definition identifies 心 with 性 saying 性卽是心, 心卽是佛 the nature is the mind, and mind is Buddha; another, that mind and nature are the same when 悟 awake and understanding, but differ when 迷 in illusion; and further, in reply to the statement that the Buddha-nature is eternal but the mind not eternal, it is said, the nature is like water, the mind like ice, illusion turns nature to mental ice form, awakening melts it back to its proper nature.



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Mandarin è jiě / e4 jie3
Taiwan o chieh
Japanese akuge
wrong understanding; wrong understanding


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Japanese kanshu / かんしゅ Japanese (noun/participle) feeling; sensing; understanding intuitively


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Mandarin bǎ wò / ba3 wo4
Taiwan pa wo
Japanese haaku / haku / はあく
Chinese to grasp (also fig.); to seize; to hold; assurance; certainty; sure (of the outcome)
Japanese (noun/participle) grasp; catch; understanding


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Japanese haishou / haisho / はいしょう Japanese (noun/participle) (humble language) hearing; understanding; learning; being informed


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Mandarin bǔ zhuō / bu3 zhuo1
Taiwan pu cho
Japanese hosoku / ほそく
Chinese to catch; to seize; to capture
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) capture; seizure; prehension; (2) apprehension; understanding


see styles
Mandarin mó tí / mo2 ti2
Taiwan mo t`i / mo ti
Japanese madai
mati, understanding; v. 末底; (Skt. mati)



see styles
Mandarin jù wén / ju4 wen2
Taiwan chü wen
Chinese accounts; one's understanding


see styles
Mandarin wén shū / wen2 shu1
Taiwan wen shu
Japanese monju / もんじゅ
Chinese Manjushri, the Bodhisattva of keen awareness
Japanese (Buddhist term) Manjushri; Manjusri; Bodhisattva that represents transcendent wisdom; (p,s,f) Monju
(文殊師利) Mañjuśrī 滿殊尸利 -later 曼殊室利. 文殊 is also used for Mañjunātha, Mañjudeva, Mañjughoṣa, Mañjuṣvara, et al. T., hjamdpal; J., Monju. Origin unknown; presumably, like most Buddhas and bodhisattvas, an idealization of a particular quality, in his case of Wisdom. Mañju is beautiful, Śrī; good fortune, virtue, majesty, lord, an epithet of a god. Six definitions are obtained from various scriptures: 妙首 (or 頭 ) wonderful or beautiful) head; 普首 universal head; 濡首 glossy head (probably a transliteration); 敬首 revered head; 妙德 wonderful virtue (or power); 妙吉祥 wonderfully auspicious; the last is a later translation in the 西域記. As guardian of wisdom 智慧 he is often placed on Śākyamuni's left, with 普顯 on the right as guardian of law 理, the latter holding the Law, the former the wisdom or exposition of it; formerly they held the reverse positions. He is often represented with five curls or waves to his hair indicating the 五智 q. v. or the five peaks; his hand holds the sword of wisdom and he sits on a lion emblematic of its stern majesty: but he has other forms. He is represented as a youth, i. e. eternal youth. His present abode is given as east of the universe, known as 淸涼山 clear and cool mountain, or a region 寶住 precious abode, or Abode of Treasures, or 寶氏 from which he derives one of his titles, 寶相如來. One of his dhāraṇīs prophesies China as his post-nirvāṇa realm. In past incarnations he is described as being the parent of many Buddhas and as having assisted the Buddha into existence; his title was 龍種上佛 the supreme Buddha of the nāgas, also 大身佛 or 神仙佛; now his title is 歡喜藏摩尼寶精佛 The spiritual Buddha who joyfully cares for the jewel: and his future title is to be 普現佛 Buddha universally revealed. In the 序品 Introductory Chapter of the Lotus Sutra he is also described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Śākyamuni. He is looked on as the chief of the Bodhisattvas and represents them, as the chief disciple of the Buddha, or as his son 法王子. Hīnayāna counts Śāriputra as the wisest of the disciples, Mahāyāna gives Mañjuśrī the chief place, hence he is also styled 覺母 mother, or begetter of understanding. He is shown riding on either a lion or a peacock, or sitting on a white lotus; often he holds a book, emblem of wisdom, or a blue lotus; in certain rooms of a monastery he is shown as a monk; and he appears in military array as defender of the faith. His signs, magic words, and so on, are found in various sutras. His most famous centre in China is Wu-tai shan in Shansi. where he is the object of pilgrimages, especially of Mongols. The legends about him are many. He takes the place in Buddhism of Viśvakarman as Vulcan, or architect, of the universe. He is one of the eight Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, and sometimes has the image of Akṣobhya in his crown. He was mentioned in China as early as the fourth century and in the Lotus Sutra he frequently appears, especially as the converter of the daughter of the Dragon-king of the Ocean. He has five messengers 五使者 and eight youths 八童子 attending on him. His hall in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala is the seventh, in which his group numbers twenty-five. His position is northeast. There are numerous sutras and other works with his name as title, e. g. 文殊師利問菩提經 Gayaśīrṣa sūtra, tr. by Kumārajīva 384-417: and its 論 or .Tīkā of Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhiruci 535. see list in B. N.


see styles
Japanese akimekura / あきめくら Japanese (irregular okurigana usage) (sensitive word) illiterate or blind person; person who sees without understanding; amaurosis


see styles
Mandarin míng jiě / ming2 jie3
Taiwan ming chieh
Japanese meikai / mekai / めいかい
Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) clear understanding


see styles
Mandarin zhì jiě / zhi4 jie3
Taiwan chih chieh
Japanese chikai / ちかい
Japanese (obscure) being enlightened by virtue of knowledge
discriminated understanding; discriminated understanding


see styles
Mandarin yǒu jiě / you3 jie3
Taiwan yu chieh
Japanese uge
The intp. of things as real, or material, opposite of 無解 the intp. of them as unreal, or immaterial; understanding phenomena to be existent


see styles
Mandarin mò dǐ / mo4 di3
Taiwan mo ti
Japanese matei
mati 摩提; devotion, discernment, understanding, tr. by 慧 wisdom.


see styles
Mandarin zhèng jiě / zheng4 jie3
Taiwan cheng chieh
Japanese seikai / sekai / せいかい
Japanese (noun/participle) correct; right; correct interpretation (answer, solution)
to correct understanding; to correct understanding


see styles
Japanese kimyaku / きみゃく Japanese (1) (See 気脈を通じる) tacit understanding; connection (of thoughts); collusion; (2) (obscure) (See 血管) blood vessel


see styles
Mandarin fǎ zhì / fa3 zhi4
Taiwan fa chih
Japanese hōchi
Dharma-wisdom, which enables one to understand the four dogmas 四諦; also, the understanding of the law, or of things; cognition of dharmas


see styles
Mandarin xiāo huà / xiao1 hua4
Taiwan hsiao hua
Japanese shouka / shoka / しょうか
Chinese to digest; digestion; digestive
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) digestion (of food); (2) digestion (of information); assimilation; thorough understanding; (3) consumption; absorption; using up; meeting (e.g. a quota); completion; (4) (archaism) (orig. meaning) losing one's form and turning into something else



see styles
Mandarin wú jiě / wu2 jie3
Taiwan wu chieh
Japanese muge
no understanding; no understanding



see styles
Mandarin zhào huì / zhao4 hui4
Taiwan chao hui
Chinese a diplomatic note; letter of understanding or concern exchanged between governments
Japanese See: 照会


see styles
Mandarin shēng jiě / sheng1 jie3
Taiwan sheng chieh
Japanese shōge
to produce an understanding; to produce an understanding


see styles
Japanese sotsuu / sotsu / そつう Japanese (noun/participle) (1) (mutual) understanding; communication; (2) removal of blockage (esp. medical); drainage


see styles
Mandarin shū tōng / shu1 tong1
Taiwan shu t`ung / shu tung
Japanese sotsuu / sotsu / そつう
Chinese to unblock; to dredge; to clear the way; to get things flowing; to facilitate; to mediate; to lobby; to explicate (a text)
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) (mutual) understanding; communication; (2) removal of blockage (esp. medical); drainage


see styles
Mandarin máng mù / mang2 mu4
Taiwan mang mu
Japanese moumoku / momoku / もうもく
Chinese blind; blindly; ignorant; lacking understanding
Japanese (adj-na,adj-no,n) (sensitive word) blindness


see styles
Mandarin zhí gǎn / zhi2 gan3
Taiwan chih kan
Japanese chokkan / ちょっかん
Chinese intuition; direct feeling or understanding
Japanese (n,vs,adj-no) intuition; instinct; insight; hunch; immediacy


see styles
Mandarin zhēn jiě / zhen1 jie3
Taiwan chen chieh
Japanese shinge
true understanding; true understanding



see styles
Mandarin xiā shuō / xia1 shuo1
Taiwan hsia shuo
Chinese to talk drivel; to assert something without a proper understanding or basis in fact; not to know what one is talking about


see styles
Mandarin zhī yīn / zhi1 yin1
Taiwan chih yin
Japanese chiin
understanding cause(ation); understanding cause(ation)


see styles
Mandarin zhī guǒ / zhi1 guo3
Taiwan chih kuo
Japanese tomomi / ともみ    tomoka / ともか    chika / ちか
Japanese (female given name) Tomomi; (personal name) Tomoka; (female given name) Chika
understanding (karmic) results; understanding (karmic) results


see styles
Mandarin ài jiě / ai4 jie3
Taiwan ai chieh
Japanese gege
understanding-obstruction; understanding-obstruction



see styles
Mandarin ài jiě / ai4 jie3
Taiwan ai chieh
Japanese gege
obstructions to [correct] understanding; obstructions to [correct] understanding


see styles
Mandarin kōng rěn / kong1 ren3
Taiwan k`ung jen / kung jen
Japanese kūnin
Patience attained by regarding suffering as unreal; one of the 十忍; patience through the understanding of emptiness


see styles
Mandarin kōng jiě / kong1 jie3
Taiwan k`ung chieh / kung chieh
Japanese kūge
The interpretation (or doctrine) of ultimate reality; understanding of emptiness



see styles
Mandarin kuī zhī / kui1 zhi1
Taiwan k`uei chih / kuei chih
Japanese kichi / きち
Chinese to find out about; to discover
Japanese (noun/participle) perception; understanding



see styles
Mandarin guǎn jiàn / guan3 jian4
Taiwan kuan chien
Japanese kanken / かんけん
Chinese my limited view (lit. view through a thin tube); my limited understanding; my opinion (humble)
Japanese (1) narrow insight; narrow view; (2) my humble opinion; (surname) Sugami
to look through a tube



see styles
Mandarin yuē dìng / yue1 ding4
Taiwan yüeh ting
Japanese yakujou / yakujo / やくじょう
Chinese to agree on something (after discussion); to conclude a bargain; to arrange; to promise; to stipulate; to make an appointment; stipulated (time, amount, quality etc); an arrangement; a deal; appointment; undertaking; commitment; understanding; engagement; stipulation
Japanese (noun/participle) agreement; stipulation; contract



see styles
Mandarin nà dé / na4 de2
Taiwan na te
Japanese nattoku / なっとく
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) consent; assent; agreement; (2) understanding; comprehension; grasp
to internalize


see styles
Mandarin zì dé / zi4 de2
Taiwan tzu te
Japanese jitoku / じとく
Chinese contented; pleased with one's position
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) self-satisfaction; self-complacency; complacency; (2) understanding (on one's own); realizing (through one's own ability); (3) (See 自業自得・じごうじとく) being paid back for one's deeds; (given name) Jitoku


see styles
Mandarin zì wù / zi4 wu4
Taiwan tzu wu
Japanese jigo
a new insight or understanding one reaches oneself; a new insight or understanding one reaches oneself


see styles
Mandarin zì jiě / zi4 jie3
Taiwan tzu chieh
Japanese jige
one's own understanding; one's own understanding


see styles
Mandarin bō rě / bo1 re3
Taiwan po je
Japanese hannya / はんにゃ
Chinese Sanskrit prajña: wisdom; great wisdom; wondrous knowledge
Japanese (1) {Buddh} prajna (san: prajñā); wisdom required to attain enlightenment; (2) (See 般若面・はんにゃめん・1) noh mask of a grinning, horned demoness (represents a woman's rage and jealousy); (3) family crest designed after the Hannya noh mask; (4) (abbreviation) (See 般若面・はんにゃづら・2) dreadful face (esp. of a woman driven mad by jealousy); terrifying facial expression; (surname) Hanniya; (place-name) Hannya
(般賴若) Prajñā is also the name of a monk from Kabul, A.D. 810, styled 三藏法師; tr. four works and author of an alphabet.; prajñā, 'to know, understand'; 'Wisdom. ' M. W. Intp. 慧 wisdom; 智慧 understanding, or wisdom; 明 clear, intelligent, the sixth pāramitā. The Prajñā-pāramitā Sutra describes it as supreme, highest, incomparable, unequalled, unsurpassed. It is spoken of as the principal means, by its enlightenment, of attaining to nirvana, through its revelation of the unreality of all things. Other forms 般羅若; 般諄若; 鉢若; 鉢剌若; 鉢羅枳孃; 鉢腎禳; 波若, 波賴若; 波羅孃; 班若; prajñā


see styles
Mandarin ruò nà / ruo4 na4
Taiwan jo na
Japanese wakana / わかな
Japanese (female given name) Wakana
(or 若南); 惹那那 jñāna, tr. by 智knowledge, understanding, intellectual judgments, as compared with 慧 wisdom, moral judgments; prajñā is supposed to cover both meanings; jñāna


see styles
Mandarin kǔ zhì / ku3 zhi4
Taiwan k`u chih / ku chih
Japanese kuchi
The knowledge or understanding of the axiom of suffering; cognition of suffering


see styles
Mandarin xíng jiě / xing2 jie3
Taiwan hsing chieh
Japanese gyō ge
practice and understanding; practice and understanding



see styles
Mandarin jiàn fāng / jian4 fang1
Taiwan chien fang
Japanese mikata / みかた
Chinese a (10 meter) square; a square of given side
Japanese (1) viewpoint; point of view; (2) (esp. 〜の見方) way of understanding; way of appreciating; how to look at something (e.g. noh, train schedule); (surname) Mikata



see styles
Mandarin jiàn jiě / jian4 jie3
Taiwan chien chieh
Japanese kenkai / けんかい
Chinese opinion; view; understanding
Japanese opinion; point of view

Entries with 2nd row of characters: The 2nd row is Simplified Chinese.


This page contains 100 results for "understanding" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

The following titles are just to help people who are searching for an Asian dictionary to find this page.

Japanese Kanji Dictionary

Free Asian Dictionary

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