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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
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Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin shàn // chán / shan4 // chan2
Taiwan shan // ch`an / shan // chan
Japanese zen / ぜん
Chinese to abdicate; dhyana (Sanskrit); Zen; meditation (Buddhism)
Japanese (out-dated kanji) (1) (Buddhist term) dhyana (profound meditation); (2) (abbreviation) Zen (Buddhism); (surname) Yuzuri; (personal name) Zen
To level a place for an altar, to sacrifice to the hills and fountains; to abdicate. Adopted by Buddhists for dhyāna, 禪 or 禪那, i.e. meditation, abstraction, trance. dhyāna is 'meditation, thought, reflection, especially profound and abstract religious contemplation'. M.W. It was intp. as 'getting rid of evil', etc., later as 靜慮 quiet meditation. It is a form of 定, but that word is more closely allied with samādhi, cf. 禪定. The term also connotes Buddhism and Buddhist things in general, but has special application to the 禪宗 q.v. It is one of the six pāramitās, cf. 波. There are numerous methods and subjects of meditation. The eighteen brahmalokas are divided into four dhyāna regions 'corresponding to certain frames of mind where individuals might be reborn in strict accordance with their spiritual state'. The first three are the first dhyāna, the second three the second dhyāna, the third three the third dhyāna, and the remaining nine the fourth dhyāna. See Eitel. According to Childers' Pali Dictionary, 'The four jhānas are four stages of mystic meditation, whereby the believer's mind is purged from all earthly emotions, and detached as it were from his body, which remains plunged in a profound trance.' Seated cross-legged, the practiser 'concentrates his mind upon a single thought. Gradually his soul becomes filled with a supernatural ecstasy and serenity', his mind still reasoning: this is the first jhāna. Concentrating his mind on the same subject, he frees it from reasoning, the ecstasy and serenity remaining, which is the second jhāna. Then he divests himself of ecstasy, reaching the third stage of serenity. Lastly, in the fourth stage the mind becomes indifferent to all emotions, being exalted above them and purified. There are differences in the Mahāyāna methods, but similarity of aim.



see styles
Mandarin dì yù / di4 yu4
Taiwan ti yü
Japanese jigoku / じごく
Chinese hell; infernal; underworld
Japanese hell; (place-name) Jigoku
naraka, 捺落迦 (or 那落迦) ; niraya 泥犂; explained by 不樂 joyless; 可厭 disgusting, hateful; 苦具, 苦器 means of suffering; if 地獄 earth-prison; 冥府 the shades, or departments of darkness. Earth-prison is generally intp. as hell or the hells; it may also be termed purgatory; one of the six gati or ways of transmigration. The hells are divided into three classes: I. Central, or radical, 根本地獄 consisting of (1) The eight hot hells. These were the original hells of primitive Buddhism, and are supposed to be located umder the southern continent Jambudvīpa 瞻部州, 500 yojanas below the surface. (a) 等活 or 更活 Saṃjīva, rebirth, where after many kinds of suffering a cold wind blows over the soul and returns it to this life as it was before, hence the name 等活. (b) 黑繩 Kaslasūtra, where the sufferer is bound with black chains and chopped or sawn asunder. (c) 線合; 衆合; 堆壓 Saṃghāta, where are multitudes of implements of torture, or the falling of mountains upon the sufferer. (d) 號呌; 呼呼; 叫喚 Raurava, hell of wailing. (e) 大呌; 大號呌; 大呼 Mahāraurava, hell of great wailing. (f) 炎熱; 燒炙 Tapana, hell of fames and burning. (g) 大熱; 大燒炙; 大炎熱 Pratāpana, hell of molten lead. (h) 無間; 河鼻旨; 阿惟越致; 阿毗至; 阿鼻; 阿毗 Avīci, unintermitted suffering, where sinners die and are reborn to suffer without interval. (2) The eight cold hells 八寒地獄. (a) 頞浮陀地獄 Arbuda, where the cold causes blisters. (b) 尼刺部陀 Nirarbuda, colder still causing the blisters to burst. (c) 頞哳吒; 阿吒吒 Atata, where this is the only possible sound from frozen lips. (d) 臛臛婆; 阿波波 Hahava or Apapa, where it is so cold that only this sound can be uttered. (e) 虎虎婆 Hāhādhara or Huhuva, where only this sound can be uttered. (f) 嗢鉢羅; 鬱鉢羅 (or 優鉢羅) Utpala, or 尼羅鳥 (or 漚) 鉢羅 Nīlotpala, where the skin is frozen like blue lotus buds. (g) 鉢特摩 Padma, where the skin is frozen and bursts open like red lotus buds. (h) 摩訶鉢特摩 Mahāpadma, ditto like great red lotus buds. Somewhat different names are also given. Cf. 倶舍論 8; 智度論 16; 涅槃經 11. II. The secondary hells are called 近邊地獄 adjacent hells or 十六遊增 each of its four sides, opening from each such door are four adjacent hells, in all sixteen; thus with the original eight there are 136. A list of eighteen hells is given in the 十八泥梨經. III. A third class is called the 孤地獄 (獨地獄) Lokāntarika, or isolated hells in mountains, deserts, below the earth and above it. Eitel says in regard to the eight hot hells that they range 'one beneath the other in tiers which begin at a depth of 11,900 yojanas and reach to a depth of 40,000 yojanas'. The cold hells are under 'the two Tchahavālas and range shaft-like one below the other, but so that this shaft is gradually widening to the fourth hell and then narrowing itself again so that the first and last hell have the shortest, those in the centre the longest diameter'. 'Every universe has the same number of hells, ' but 'the northern continent has no hell whatever, the two continents east and west of Meru have only small Lokāntarika hells... whilst all the other hells are required for the inhabitants of the southern continent '. It may be noted that the purpose of these hells is definitely punitive, as well as purgatorial. Yama is the judge and ruler, assisted by eighteen officers and a host of demons, who order or administer the various degrees of torture. 'His sister performs the same duties with regard to female criminals, ' and it may be mentioned that the Chinese have added the 血盆池 Lake of the bloody bath, or 'placenta tank' for women who die in childbirth. Release from the hells is in the power of the monks by tantric means.


see styles
Mandarin yǒng shēng / yong3 sheng1
Taiwan yung sheng
Japanese eisei / ese / えいせい
Chinese to live forever; eternal life; all one's life
Japanese eternal life; immortality; (personal name) Hisaki; (given name) Hisao; (surname) Nagasu; (given name) Nagao; (personal name) Eisei
Eternal life; immortality; nirvana is defined as 不生 not being born, i. e. not reborn, and therefore 不滅 not dying; 永生 is also perpetual life; the Amitābha cult says in the Pure Land.


see styles
Mandarin lǎo zi // lǎo zǐ / lao3 zi5 // lao3 zi3
Taiwan lao tzu // lao
Japanese roushi / roshi / ろうし
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese father; daddy; "I, your father" (in anger, or out of contempt); I (used arrogantly or jocularly); Laozi or Lao-tze (c. 500 BC), Chinese philosopher, the founder of Taoism; the sacred book of Daoism, 道德經|道德经 by Laozi
Japanese Laozi; Lao Tzu; Lao Tse; (personal name) Roushi; (surname) Oigo; (surname) Oiko
Laozi, or Laocius, the accepted founder of the Daoists. The theory that his soul went to India and was reborn as the Buddha is found in the 齊書 History of the Qi dynasty 顧歡傳.

see styles
Mandarin jiè / jie4
Taiwan chieh
Japanese kai;ingoto(ok) / かい;いんごと(ok)
Chinese to guard against; to exhort; to admonish or warn; to give up or stop doing something; Buddhist monastic discipline; ring (for a finger)
Japanese (1) (かい only) {Buddh} admonition; commandment; (2) sila (precept)
śīla, 尸羅. Precept, command, prohibition, discipline, rule; morality. It is applied to the five, eight, ten, 250, and other commandments. The five are: (1) not to kill; (2 ) not to steal; (3) not to commit adultery; (4) not to speak falsely; (5) not to drink wine. These are the commands for lay disciples; those who observe them will be reborn in the human realm. The Sarvāstivādins did not sanction the observance of a limited selection from them as did the 成實宗 Satyasiddhi school. Each of the five precepts has five guardian spirits, in all twenty-five, 五戒二十五神. The eight for lay disciples are the above five together with Nos. 7, 8, and 9 of the following; the ten commands for the ordained, monks and nuns, are the above five with the following: (6) not to use adornments of flowers, nor perfumes; (7) not to perform as an actor, juggler, acrobat, or go to watch and hear them; (8) not to sit on elevated, broad, and large divans (or beds); (9) not to eat except in regulation hours; (10) not to possess money, gold or silver, or precious things. The 具足戒full commands for a monk number 250, those for a nun are 348, commonly called 500. Śīla is also the first of the 五分法身, i.e. a condition above all moral error. The Sutra of Brahma's Net has the following after the first five: (6) not to speak of the sins of those in orders; (7) not to vaunt self and depreciate others; (8) not to be avaricious; (9) not to be angry; (10) not to slander the triratna.

see styles
Mandarin/ su1
Taiwan su
Japanese so / そ
Chinese Perilla frutescens (Chinese basil or wild red basil); place name; to revive; used as phonetic in transliteration; surname Su; abbr. for Soviet Union 蘇維埃|苏维埃 or 蘇聯|苏联; abbr. for Jiangsu province 江蘇|江苏; abbr. for Suzhou city 蘇州|苏州
Japanese (1) condensed milk; (n,n-suf,n-pref) (2) (abbreviation) Soviet Union; (personal name) Sohou; (surname) Sou; (surname) So; (surname) Su; (surname) Ikeru
Refreshing thyme; revive, cheer; Suzhou; translit. su, so, sa, s. Most frequently it translit. the Sanskait su, which means good, well excellent, very. Cf. 須, 修; to be reborn


see styles
Mandarin shàng shēng / shang4 sheng1
Taiwan shang sheng
Japanese wabu / わぶ    ueo / うえお
Japanese (place-name) Wabu; (surname) Ueo
be reborn into a superior state of existence; be reborn into a superior state of existence


see styles
Mandarin bù shēng / bu4 sheng1
Taiwan pu sheng
Japanese fushou / fusho / ふしょう
Japanese (place-name) Fushou
anutpatti; anutpāda. Non-birth: not to be reborn, exempt from rebirth; arhan is mistakenly interpreted as 'not born', meaning not born again into mortal worlds. The 'nir' in nirvana is also erroneously said to mean 'not born'; certain schools say that nothing ever has been born, or created, for all is eternal. The Shingon word 'a' is interpreted as symbolizing the uncreated. The unborn or uncreated is a name for the Tathāgata, who is not born, but eternal ; hence by implication the term means "eternal". ādi, which means"at first, " "beginning","primary", is also interpreted as 不生 uncreated.



see styles
Mandarin zhōng yīn / zhong1 yin1
Taiwan chung yin
Japanese chuuin / chuin / ちゅういん
Japanese {Buddh} bardo; state (or period) of intermediate existence between one's death and rebirth (in Japan, 49 days); (place-name) Nakakage
The intermediate existence between death and reincarnation, a stage varying from seven to forty-nine days, when the karma-body will certainly be reborn; v. 中有.


see styles
Mandarin le jiào / le jiao4
Taiwan le chiao
Japanese Ryōkyō
A noted disciple named Ajñāta-Kauṇḍinya, v. 阿, also known as拘鄰鄰,了本際 and 知本際. He is described as "a prince of Magadha, maternal uncle of Śākyamuni, whose first disciple he became". He is "to be reborn as Buddha under the name of Samanṭa-Prabhāsa". Eitel; Ajñāta-Kauṇḍinya



see styles
Mandarin èr yè / er4 ye4
Taiwan erh yeh
Japanese nigyou / nigyo / にぎょう
Japanese (archaism) restaurants and geisha establishments
Two classes of karma. (1) (a) 引業 leads to the 總報, i.e. the award as to the species into which one is to be born, e.g. men, gods, etc.; (6) 滿業 is the 別報 or fulfillment in detail, i.e. the kind or quality of being e.g. clever or stupid, happy or unhappy, etc. (2) (a) 善業 and (b) 惡業 Good and evil karma, resulting in happiness or misery. (3) (a) 助業 Aids to the karma of being reborn in Amitābha's Pure—land e. g. offerings, chantings, etc.; (b) 正業 thought and invocation of Amitābha with undivided mind, as the direct method; two kinds of karmic activity


see styles
Mandarin wǔ xìng / wu3 xing4
Taiwan wu hsing
Japanese goshō
The five different natures as grouped by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect; of these the first and second, while able to attain to non-return to mortality, are unable to reach Buddhahood; of the fourth some may, others may not reach it; the fifth will be reborn as devas or men: (1) śrāvakas for arhats; (2) pratyekabuddhas for pratyekabuddha-hood; (3) bodhisattvas for Buddhahood; (4) indefinite; (5) outsiders who have not the Buddha mind. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圓覺經 has another group, i. e. the natures of (1) ordinary good people; (2) śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas; (3) bodhisattvas; (4) indefinite; (5) heretics; five natures


see styles
Mandarin wǔ guǒ / wu3 guo3
Taiwan wu kuo
Japanese goka / ごか
Japanese (1) five fruits (peach, Japanese plum, apricot, jujube, Japanese chestnut); (2) (Buddhist term) five types of effect in cause-and-effect relationships; (3) (Buddhist term) five effects of ignorance and formations on one's current life
The five fruits, or effects; there are various groups, e. g. I. (1) 異熟果 fruit ripening divergently, e. g. pleasure and goodness are in different categories; present organs accord in pain or pleasure with their past good or evil deeds; (2) 等流果 fruit of the same order, e. g. goodness reborn from previous goodness; (3) 土用果 present position and function fruit, the rewards of moral merit in previous lives; (4) 增上果 superior fruit, or position arising from previous earnest endeavor and superior capacity: (5) 離繋果 fruit of freedom from all bonds, nirvana fruit. II. Fruit, or rebirth: (1) 識 conception (viewed psychologically); (2) 名色 formation mental and physical; (3) 六處 the six organs of perception complete; (4) 觸 their birth and contact with the world; (5) 受 consciousness. III. Five orders of fruit, with stones, pips, shells (as nuts), chaff-like (as pine seeds), and with pods; fivefold aspects of cause and effect


see styles
Mandarin rén yīn / ren2 yin1
Taiwan jen yin
Japanese ninin
The causative influences for being reborn as a human being, i.e. a good life. Those in positions of honour have obtained them by former deeds of benevolence, reverence to Buddhas and monks, patience, humility, devotion to the sutras, charity, morality, zeal and exhortation, obedience, loyalty - hence they have obtained affluence, long life, and are held in high regard. Those in mean condition are thus born because of the opposite characteristics in previous incarnation; causes of human rebirth


see styles
Mandarin zài shēng / zai4 sheng1
Taiwan tsai sheng
Japanese saisei / saise / さいせい
Chinese to be reborn; to regenerate; to be a second so-and-so (famous dead person); recycling; regeneration
Japanese (n,vs,adj-no) (1) resuscitation; regeneration; restoration to life; (2) reformation; rehabilitation; (3) playback; regeneration (sound, etc.); view (of a video clip); (4) reclamation; recovery; (5) rebirth; reincarnation



see styles
Mandarin chū xiàn / chu1 xian4
Taiwan ch`u hsien / chu hsien
Japanese shutsugen / しゅつげん
Chinese to appear; to arise; to emerge; to show up
Japanese (noun/participle) appearance; arrival; make one's appearance
To manifest, reveal, be manifested, appear, e. g. as does a Buddha's temporary body, or nirmāṇakāya. Name of Udāyi 優陀夷 a disciple of Buddha to be reborn as Samantaprabhāsa; also of a son of Ajātaśatru; manifestation of a body in this world by a buddha or high-rank bodhisattva


see styles
Mandarin shòu shēn / shou4 shen1
Taiwan shou shen
Japanese ukemi / うけみ
Japanese (n,adj-no,adj-na) (1) the defensive; (2) passive attitude; passivity; passiveness; (3) (linguistics terminology) the passive; passive voice; (4) (martial arts term) ukemi (the art of falling safely)
to be reborn into a new body; to be reborn into a new body


see styles
Mandarin míng xiàng / ming2 xiang4
Taiwan ming hsiang
Japanese myōsō
Chinese famous prime minister (in ancient China); names and appearances (Buddhism)
Name and appearance; everything has a name, e. g. sound, or has appearance, i. e. the visible, v. 名色; both are unreal and give rise to delusion. The name under which Subhūti will be reborn as Buddha; name and form


see styles
Mandarin sì tǔ / si4 tu3
Taiwan ssu t`u / ssu tu
Japanese shido / しど
Japanese {Buddh} four realms (in Tendai Buddhism or Yogacara)
The four Buddha-kṣetra, or realms, of Tiantai: (1) 凡聖居同土 Realms where all classes dwell— men, devas, Buddhas, disciples, non-disciples; it has two divisions, the impure, e. g. this world, and the pure, e. g. the 'Western' pure-land. (2) 方便有餘土 Temporary realms, where the occupants have got rid of the evils of 見思 unenlightened views and thoughts, but still have to be reborn. (3) 實報無障礙土 Realms of permanent reward and freedom, for those who have attained bodhisattva rank. (4) 常寂光土 Realm of eternal rest and light (i. e. wisdom) and of eternal spirit (dharmakāya), the abode of Buddhas; but in reality all the others are included in this, and are only separated for convenience, sake; four lands



see styles
Mandarin bǎo xiāng / bao3 xiang1
Taiwan pao hsiang
Japanese hōsō
The precious likeness, or image (of Buddha). ratnaketu, one of the seven tathāgatas; a name of Ānanda as a future buddha; the name under which 2,000 of Śākyamuni's disciples are to be reborn as buddhas; excellent marks of the Buddha


see styles
Mandarin wǎng shēng / wang3 sheng1
Taiwan wang sheng
Japanese oujou / ojo / おうじょう
Chinese to be reborn; to live in paradise (Buddhism); to die; (after) one's death
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) {Buddh} passing on to the next life; (2) death; (3) giving up a struggle; submission; (4) being at one's wits' end; being flummoxed; (5) coercion
The future life, the life to which anyone is going; to go to be born in the Pure Land of Amitābha. (1) 往相囘向 To transfer one's merits to all beings that they may attain the Pure Land of Amitābha. (2) 還相囘向 Having been born in the Pure Land to return to mortality and by one's merits to bring mortals to the Pure Land; be reborn [in another world]



see styles
Mandarin fù shēng / fu4 sheng1
Taiwan fu sheng
Japanese matao / またお    fukusei / fukuse / ふくせい
Chinese to be reborn; to recover; to come back to life; to regenerate
Japanese (given name) Matao; (given name) Fukusei
renewed appearance


see styles
Mandarin jiè lì / jie4 li4
Taiwan chieh li
Japanese kairiki
The power derived from observing the commandments, enabling one who observes the five commandments to be reborn among men, and one who observes the ten positive commands 十善 to be born among devas, or as a king; power of the precepts


see styles
Mandarin jiè shàn / jie4 shan4
Taiwan chieh shan
Japanese kaizen
The good root of keeping the commandments, from which springs the power for one who keeps the five to be reborn as a man; or for one who keeps the ten to be reborn in the heavens, or as a king; wholesomeness of morality


see styles
Mandarin tóu shēng / tou2 sheng1
Taiwan t`ou sheng / tou sheng
Chinese reborn (of departed spirit); to be reincarnated; to leave home for a new life


see styles
Mandarin chí shuǐ / chi2 shui3
Taiwan ch`ih shui / chih shui
Japanese Jisui
Jātiṃdhara, a physician who adjusted prescriptions and diet to the seasons; reborn as Śuddhodana.


see styles
Mandarin yù shēng / yu4 sheng1
Taiwan yü sheng
Japanese yokushō
reborn into desire; reborn into desire



see styles
Mandarin shuǐ mǎn / shui3 man3
Taiwan shui man
Japanese Suiman
Jalāmbara (third son of 流水 Jalavāhana) reborn as Śākyamuni's son Rāhula.



see styles
Mandarin mò shēng / mo4 sheng1
Taiwan mo sheng
Japanese mochishō
perish and be reborn; perish and be reborn


see styles
Mandarin zhǎo tǔ / zhao3 tu3
Taiwan chao t`u / chao tu
Japanese sōdo
(爪上土) The quantity of earth one can put on a toe-nail, i. e. in proportion to the whole earth in the world, such is the rareness of being reborn as a human being; or, according to the Nirvana Sutra 33, of attaining nirvana; a toenail's amount of dirt


see styles
Mandarin shēng shàng / sheng1 shang4
Taiwan sheng shang
Japanese shōjō
to be reborn into a higher level of existence; to be reborn into a higher level of existence


see styles
Mandarin shēng tiān / sheng1 tian1
Taiwan sheng t`ien / sheng tien
Japanese shōten
The heavens where those living in this world can be reborn, i. e. from that of the 四天王 to the 非想天; v. 福生天.


see styles
Mandarin chù sheng / chu4 sheng5
Taiwan ch`u sheng / chu sheng
Japanese chikushou(p);chikishou / chikusho(p);chikisho / ちくしょう(P);ちきしょう
Chinese domestic animal; brute; bastard
Japanese (1) beast (i.e. any animal other than man); (2) {Buddh} (See 畜生道) person reborn into the animal realm; (3) brute (i.e. a contemptible human being); (interjection) (4) (kana only) damn it; damn; Christ; for Christ's sake
tiryagyoni, 底栗車; 傍生 'Born of or as an animal, ' rebirth as an animal; animals in general; especially domestic animals.



see styles
Mandarin máng guī / mang2 gui1
Taiwan mang kuei
Japanese mōki
It is as easy for a blind turtle to find a floating long as it is for a man to be reborn as a man, or to meet with a buddha and his teaching.



see styles
Mandarin fú bào / fu2 bao4
Taiwan fu pao
Japanese fukuhō
Chinese karmic reward (Buddhism)
A blessed reward, e.g. to be reborn as a man or a deva; advantageous rewards


see styles
Mandarin fú xíng / fu2 xing2
Taiwan fu hsing
Japanese fukugyō
The life or conduct which results in blessing e.g. being reborn as a man or a deva; meritorious actions



see styles
Mandarin chán tiān / chan2 tian1
Taiwan ch`an t`ien / chan tien
Japanese zenten
dhyāna heavens, four in number, where those who practise meditation may be reborn, v. 禪; meditation heaven(s)



see styles
Mandarin tuō tāi / tuo1 tai1
Taiwan t`o t`ai / to tai
Chinese to be born; (fig.) to develop out of something else (of ideas, stories, political systems etc); (fig.) to shed one's body (to be reborn); bodiless (e.g. lacquerware)



see styles
Mandarin zhuǎn huí / zhuan3 hui2
Taiwan chuan hui
Japanese ten'e
To return, revolve, be reborn; idem 輪廻; to circulate



see styles
Mandarin tuì méi / tui4 mei2
Taiwan t`ui mei / tui mei
Japanese taimotsu
To be reborn in a lower stage of existence; to fall down



see styles
Mandarin hái shēng / hai2 sheng1
Taiwan hai sheng
Japanese genshō
To return to life; to be reborn in this world; to be reborn from the Hīnayāna nirvana in order to be able to attain to Mahāyāna buddhahood; also, restoration to the order, after repentance for sin.



see styles
Mandarin zhēn kǒng / zhen1 kong3
Taiwan chen k`ung / chen kung
Japanese mizo / みぞ    mizu / みず    harimedo / はりめど    shinkou / shinko / しんこう
Chinese pinhole
Japanese (out-dated or obsolete kana usage) (1) eye of a needle; (2) hole
A needle's eye: it is as difficult to be reborn as a man as it is to thread a needle on earth by throwing the thread at it from the sky; eye of a needle



see styles
Mandarin yán mó / yan2 mo2
Taiwan yen mo
Japanese enma / えんま
Chinese variant of 閻羅|阎罗[Yan2 luo2]; Yama, King of Hell; translation of Sanskrit: Yama Raja
Japanese {Buddh} Yama (king of the world of the dead, who judges the dead); Emma; Yan; Yomna; (surname) Enma
閻王 閻羅; (閻魔王); 閻摩羅; 閻老 Yama, also v. 夜; 閻羅王 Yama. (1) In the Vedas the god of the dead, with whom the spirits of the departed dwell. He was son of the Sun and had a twin sister Yamī or Yamuna. By some they were looked upon as the first human pair. (2) In later Brahmanic mythology, one of the eight Lokapālas, guardian of the South and ruler of the Yamadevaloka and judge of the dead. (3) In Buddhist mythology, the regent of the Nārakas, residing south of Jambudvīpa, outside of the Cakravālas, in a palace of copper and iron. Originally he is described as a king of Vaiśālī, who, when engaged in a bloody war, wished he were master of hell, and was accordingly reborn as Yama in hell together with his eighteen generals and his army of 80,000 men, who now serve him in purgatory. His sister Yamī deals with female culprits. Three times in every twenty-four hours demon pours into Yama's mouth boiling copper (by way of punishment), his subordinates receiving the same dose at the same time, until their sins are expiated, when he will be reborn as Samantarāja 普王. In China he rules the fifth court of purgatory. In some sources he is spoken of as ruling the eighteen judges of purgatory.


see styles
Mandarin ā bí / a1 bi2
Taiwan a pi
Japanese abi / あび
Chinese Ceaseless pain (Sanskrit: Avici), one of the Buddhist hells; fig. hell; hell on earth
Japanese {Buddh} Avici (lowest level of hell)
Avīci, 阿鼻旨; 阿鼻脂; 阿鼻至; the last and deepest of the eight hot hells, where the culprits suffer, die, and are instantly reborn to suffering, without interruption 無間. It is the 阿鼻地獄 (阿鼻旨地獄) or the 阿鼻焦熱地獄hell of unintermitted scorching; or the阿鼻喚地獄 hell of unintermitted wailing; its wall, out of which there is no escape, is the 阿鼻大城.



see styles
Mandarin suí qiú / sui2 qiu2
Taiwan sui ch`iu / sui chiu
Japanese Zuigu
According to prayer. Name of a deva who was formerly a wicked monk who died and went to hell, but when dying repented, prayed, and was reborn the deva 隨求天子 or 隨求卽得天子. Also, a bodhisattva in the Guanyin group of the Garbhadhātu, a metamorphosis of Guanyin, who sees that all prayers are answered, 隨求菩薩.


see styles
Mandarin bù wǎng shēng / bu4 wang3 sheng1
Taiwan pu wang sheng
Japanese fuōshō
not reborn [into the Pure Land]; not reborn [into the Pure Land]


see styles
Mandarin bù gēng shēng / bu4 geng1 sheng1
Taiwan pu keng sheng
Japanese fukyōshō
not reborn; not reborn



see styles
Mandarin bù shēng duàn / bu4 sheng1 duan4
Taiwan pu sheng tuan
Japanese fushō dan
One of the 三斷, when illusion no longer arises the sufferings of being reborn in the evil paths are ended; cessation through non-arising



see styles
Mandarin wǔ niàn mén / wu3 nian4 men2
Taiwan wu nien men
Japanese gonenmon / ごねんもん
Japanese {Buddh} five gates of mindfulness: worship, praise, vows, observation, prayers for the dead
The five devotional gates of the Pure-land sect: (1) worship of Amitābha with the 身 body; (2) invocation with the 口 mouth; (3) resolve with the 意 mind to be reborn in the Pure-land; (4) meditation on the glories of that land, etc.; (5) resolve to bestow one's merits, e. g. works of supererogation, on all creatures; five gates of mindfulness



see styles
Mandarin zuò yuàn mén / zuo4 yuan4 men2
Taiwan tso yüan men
Japanese sagan mon
To make a vow to benefit self and others, and to fulfil the vow so as to be born in the Pure Land of Amitābha. The third of the five doors or ways of entering the Pure Land; vowing to be reborn in the Pure Land



see styles
Mandarin sēng bǎo guǒ / seng1 bao3 guo3
Taiwan seng pao kuo
Japanese sōhō ka
The perfect arhat who has not to be reborn.



see styles
Mandarin guāng dé guó / guang1 de2 guo2
Taiwan kuang te kuo
Japanese Kōtoku koku
Avabhāsa, the kingdom of light and virtue, or glorious virtue, in which Mahākāśyapa is to be reborn as a Buddha under the name of 光明 Raśmiprabhāsa.


see styles
Mandarin guāng yīn tiān / guang1 yin1 tian1
Taiwan kuang yin t`ien / kuang yin tien
Japanese kōon ten
Ābhāsvara, light and sound, or light-sound heavens, also styled 極光淨天, the heavens of utmost light and purity, i. e. the third of the second dhyāna heavens, in which the inhabitants converse by light instead of words; they recreate the universe from the hells up to and including the first dhyāna heavens after it has been destroyed by fire during he final series of cataclysms; but they gradually diminish in power and are reborn in lower states. The three heavens of the second dhyāna are 少光, 無量光, and 光音; heaven of radiant sound


see styles
Mandarin dōu lǜ tuó / dou1 lv4 tuo2
Taiwan tou lü t`o / tou lü to
Japanese Tosotsuda
(兜率 or 兜率哆); 兜術; 珊都史多, 珊覩史多; 鬭瑟多 Tuṣita, from tuṣ, contented, satisfied, gratified; name of the Tuṣita heaven, the fourth devaloka in the 欲界 passion realm, or desire realm between the Yama and Nirmāṇarati heavens. Its inner department is the Pure Land of Maitreya who, like Śākyamuni and all Buddhas, is reborn there before descending to earth as the next Buddha; his life there is 4,000 Tuṣita years (each day there being equal to 4000 earth-years) 584 million such years; (Skt. Tuṣita)


see styles
Mandarin lì bō bō / li4 bo1 bo1
Taiwan li po po
Japanese Ribaba
離波多; 黎婆多; 頡隸伐多 Revata; Raivata. (1) A Brahman hermit; one of the disciples of Śākyamuni, to be reborn as Samanta-prabhāsa. (2) President of the second synod, a native of Sāṅkāśya. (3) A contemporary of Aśoka, mentioned in connection with the third synod. Cf. Eitel.


see styles
Mandarin jié bǐ tā / jie2 bi3 ta1
Taiwan chieh pi t`a / chieh pi ta
Japanese Kōhita
Kapittha. (1) An ancient kingdom of Central India, also called 僧佉尸 Saṃkāśya. (2) A Brahman of Vṛji who ill-treated the Buddhists of his time, was reborn as a fish, and was finally converted, by Śākyamuni, Eitel.



see styles
Mandarin jié bīn nà / jie2 bin1 na4
Taiwan chieh pin na
Japanese Kōhinna
Kapphiṇa; also 劫比拏王; 劫庀那 (or 劫比那, or 劫譬那); or Kampilla, 金毗羅; whose monastic name was Mahā-kapphiṇa; intp. as 房宿 (born) under the constellation Scorpio; he is said to have understood astronomy and been king of Southern Kośala; he became a disciple of Śākyamuni and is to be reborn as Samantaprabhāsa Buddha.


see styles
Mandarin shòu shēng yǐ / shou4 sheng1 yi3
Taiwan shou sheng i
Japanese jushōi
having been reborn; having been reborn


see styles
Mandarin dà shēng zhǔ / da4 sheng1 zhu3
Taiwan ta sheng chu
Japanese Daishōshu
Mahāprajāpatī 摩訶波闍婆提, great "lady of the living", the older translation being 大愛道 the great way (or exemplar) of love; also 衆主 head of the community (of nuns), i.e. Gautami the aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni, the first nun. She is to be reborn as a Buddha named Sarvasattvapriyadarśanā.


see styles
Mandarin dà gāo wáng / da4 gao1 wang2
Taiwan ta kao wang
Japanese Daikō Ō
Abhyudgata-rāja. Great august monarch, name of the kalpa in which Śubha-vyūha 妙莊嚴王, who is not known in the older literature, is to be reborn as a Buddha.



see styles
Mandarin xiè màn guó / xie4 man4 guo2
Taiwan hsieh man kuo
Japanese keman koku
懈慢界 A country that lies between this world and the Western Paradise, in which those who are reborn become slothful and proud, and have no desire to be reborn in Paradise; land of laziness and pride


see styles
Mandarin sǐ shēng zhì / si3 sheng1 zhi4
Taiwan ssu sheng chih
Japanese shishō chi
knowledge of where beings will die and be reborn; knowledge of where beings will die and be reborn


see styles
Mandarin hé bí zhǐ / he2 bi2 zhi3
Taiwan ho pi chih
Japanese Kabishi
Avīci, the hell of uninterrupted suffering, where the sufferers die and are reborn to torture without intermission.


see styles
Mandarin shēng shàng dì / sheng1 shang4 di4
Taiwan sheng shang ti
Japanese shō jōchi
to be reborn into a higher realm of existence; to be reborn into a higher realm of existence



see styles
Mandarin dāng wǎng shēng / dang1 wang3 sheng1
Taiwan tang wang sheng
Japanese tō ōshō
will be reborn; will be reborn



see styles
Mandarin mù jiān lián / mu4 jian1 lian2
Taiwan mu chien lien
Japanese Mokkenren
目連; 摩訶目犍連 (or 摩訶羅夜那); 大目犍連 (or 大目乾連) ; 沒特伽羅子 (or 沒力伽羅子); 目伽略 (Mahā-) Maudgalyāyana, or Maudgalaputra; explained by Mudga 胡豆 lentil, kidney-bean. One of the ten chief disciples of Śākyamuni, specially noted for miraculous powers; formerly an ascetic, he agreed with Śāriputra that whichever first found the truth would reveal it to the other. Śāriputra found the Buddha and brought Maudgalyāyana to him; the former is placed on the Buddha's right, the latter on his left. He is also known as 拘栗 Kolita, and when reborn as Buddha his title is to be Tamāla-patra-candana-gandha. In China Mahāsthāmaprapta is accounted a canonization of Maudgalyāyana. Several centuries afterwards there were two other great leaders of the Buddhist church bearing the same name, v. Eitel.


see styles
Mandarin zhī zú tiān / zhi1 zu2 tian1
Taiwan chih tsu t`ien / chih tsu tien
Japanese Chisoku Ten
(知足) Tuṣita, the fourth devaloka, Maitreya's heaven of full knowledge, where all bodhisattvas are reborn before rebirth as buddhas; the inner court is知足院; Tuṣita Heaven



see styles
Mandarin luó hóu luō / luo2 hou2 luo1
Taiwan lo hou lo
Japanese Ragora
Rāhula, the eldest son of Śākyamuni and Yaśodharā; also羅睺; 羅吼; 羅云; 羅雲; 曷怙羅 or 何怙羅 or 羅怙羅. He is supposed to have been in the womb for six years and born when his father attained buddhahood; also said to have been born during an eclipse, and thus acquired his name, though it is defined in other ways; his father did not see him till he was six years old. He became a disciple of the Hīnayāna, but is said to have become a Mahāyānist when his father preached this final perfect doctrine, a statement gainsaid by his being recognized as founder of the Vaibhāṣika school. He is to be reborn as the eldest son of every buddha, hence is sometimes called the son of Ānanda.



see styles
Mandarin ā luó hàn / a1 luo2 han4
Taiwan a lo han
Japanese arakan / あらかん
Chinese arhat (Sanskrit); a holy man who has left behind all earthly desires and concerns and attained nirvana (Buddhism)
Japanese Arhat; Buddhist monk who has attained Nirvana
arhan, arhat, lohan; worthy, venerable; an enlightened, saintly man; the highest type or ideal saint in Hīnayāna in contrast with the bodhisattva as the saint in Mahāyāna; intp. as 應供worthy of worship, or respect; intp. as 殺賊 arihat, arihan, slayer of the enemy, i.e. of mortality; for the arhat enters nirvana 不生 not to be reborn, having destroyed the karma of reincarnation; he is also in the stage of 不學 no longer learning, having attained. Also 羅漢; 阿盧漢; 阿羅訶 or 阿羅呵; 阿梨呵 (or 阿黎呵); 羅呵, etc.; cf. 阿夷; 阿畧.


see styles
Mandarin ā nà hán / a1 na4 han2
Taiwan a na han
Japanese anagon
(or 阿那鋡); 阿那伽迷 (or 阿那伽彌) anāgāmin, the 不來 non-coming, or 不還 non-returning arhat or saint, who will not be reborn in this world, but in the rūpa and arūpa heavens, where he will attain to nirvana; non-returner


see styles
Mandarin pín lái guǒ / pin2 lai2 guo3
Taiwan p`in lai kuo / pin lai kuo
Once more to be reborn, v. 斯 sakṛdāgāmin.


see styles
Mandarin guǐ zǐ mǔ / gui3 zi3 mu3
Taiwan kuei tzu mu
Hāritī, 訶梨帝 intp. as pleased, or pleasing. A 'woman who having vowed to devour all the babies at Rādjagriha was reborn as a rākshasī, and gave birth to 500 children, one of which she was to devour every day. Converted by Śākyamuni she entered a convent. Her image is to be seen in all nunneries'. Eitel. Another account is that she is the mother of 500 demons, and that from being an evil goddess or spirit she was converted to become a protectress of Buddhism.



see styles
Mandarin yī yǎn zhī guī / yi1 yan3 zhi1 gui1
Taiwan i yen chih kuei
Japanese ichigen no kame
A sea turtle with only one eye, and that underneath, entered a hollow in a floating log; the log, tossed by the waves, happened to roll over, whereupon the turtle momentarily saw the sun and moon; an illustration of the rareness of the appearance of a Buddha; also of the difficulty of being reborn as a man; one-eyed tortoise



see styles
Mandarin sān zhǒng qīng jìng / san1 zhong3 qing1 jing4
Taiwan san chung ch`ing ching / san chung ching ching
Japanese sanshu shōjō
The three purities of a bodhisattva— a mind free from all impurity, a body pure because never to be reborn save by transformation, an appearance 相 perfectly pure and adorned; three kinds of purity



see styles
Mandarin bù gēn gè qù / bu4 gen1 ge4 qu4
Taiwan pu ken ko ch`ü / pu ken ko chü
Japanese fukyō akushu
not reborn into evil destinies; not reborn into evil destinies



see styles
Mandarin bù miè bù shēng / bu4 mie4 bu4 sheng1
Taiwan pu mieh pu sheng
Japanese fumetsu fushō
anirodhānupāda, neither dying nor being reborn, immortal, v. 不生; neither annihilated nor arisen



see styles
Mandarin wǔ chǎn tí luō / wu3 chan3 ti2 luo1
Taiwan wu ch`an t`i lo / wu chan ti lo
Japanese go sendaira
The five ṣaṇḍhilās, i. e. five bad monks who died, went to the hells, and were reborn as ṣaṇḍhilās or imperfect males; also 五扇提羅; five neutered beings



see styles
Mandarin bā fú shēng chù / ba1 fu2 sheng1 chu4
Taiwan pa fu sheng ch`u / pa fu sheng chu
Japanese hachifuku shōsho
The eight happy conditions in which he may be reborn who keeps the five commands and the ten good ways and bestows alms: (1) rich and honourable among men; (2) in the heavens of the four deva kings; (3) the Indra heavens; (4) Suyāma heavens; (5) Tuṣita heaven; (6) 化樂nirmāṇarati heaven, i.e. the fifth devaloka; (7) 他化 Paranirmita-vaśavartin, i.e. the sixth devaloka heaven; (8) the brahma-heavens. 八福田 The eight fields for cultivating blessedness: Buddhas; arhats (or saints); preaching monks (upādhyāya); teachers (ācārya); friars; father; mother; the sick. Buddhas, arhats, and friars (or monks in general) are termed 敬田 reverence-fields; the sick are 悲田 compassion-fields; the rest are 恩田grace- or gratitude- fields. Another group is: to make roads and wells; canals and bridges; repair dangerous roads; be dutiful to parents; support monks; tend the sick; save from disaster or distress; provide for a quinquennial assembly. Another: serving the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha; the Law; the Order; parents; the monks as teachers; the poor; the sick; animals; eight fortunate rebirths


see styles
Mandarin jí biàn wǎng shēng / ji2 bian4 wang3 sheng1
Taiwan chi pien wang sheng
Japanese sokuben ōjō
to be directly reborn; to be directly reborn


see styles
Mandarin jí dé wǎng shēng / ji2 de2 wang3 sheng1
Taiwan chi te wang sheng
Japanese sokudoku ōjō
to be reborn; to be reborn



see styles
Mandarin sì zhǒng sǐ shēng / si4 zhong3 si3 sheng1
Taiwan ssu chung ssu sheng
Japanese shi shu shishō
Four kinds of rebirth dependent on present deeds: from obscurity and poverty to be reborn in the same condition; from obscurity and poverty to be reborn in light and honour; from light and honour to be reborn in obscurity and poverty; from light and honour to be reborn in the heavens.



see styles
Mandarin zhí jīn gāng shén / zhi2 jin1 gang1 shen2
Taiwan chih chin kang shen
Japanese shukongoujin;shuukongoujin;shikkongoujin / shukongojin;shukongojin;shikkongojin / しゅこんごうじん;しゅうこんごうじん;しっこんごうじん
Japanese {Buddh} (See 金剛杵,仁王) Vajradhara (vajra-wielding gods)
vajrapāṇi, vajradhara. Any deva-holder of the vajra. (1) Indra, who in a former incarnation took an oath to defend Buddhism, was reborn as king of the yakṣas, hence he and his yakṣas carry vajras. (2) Mañjuśrī as the spiritual reflex of the Dhyāni Buddha Akṣobhya. (3) A popular deity, the terror of all enemies of Buddhist believers, specially worshipped in exorcisms and sorcery by the Yoga school; vajra-wielding gods



see styles
Mandarin yǐ lí yù zhě / yi3 li2 yu4 zhe3
Taiwan i li yü che
Japanese i riyoku sha
Those who have abandoned the desire-realm; divided into two classes, 異生 ordinary people who have left desire, but will be born into the six gati; 聖者 the saints, who will not be reborn into the desire-realm; e. g. non-Buddhists and Buddhists; one who is free from desire


see styles
Japanese nenbutsuoujou / nenbutsuojo / ねんぶつおうじょう Japanese (noun/participle) (yoji) passing away peacefully to be reborn in Paradise through invocation of Amitabha


see styles
Mandarin niàn fú wǎng shēng / nian4 fu2 wang3 sheng1
Taiwan nien fu wang sheng
Japanese nenbutsu ōjō
This is the basis or primary cause of such salvation (念佛三昧); mindfulness of the buddhas and to be reborn



see styles
Mandarin xī jì jiā mí / xi1 ji4 jia1 mi2
Taiwan hsi chi chia mi
Japanese sokukigyami
息忌陀伽迷 sakṛdāgāmin, he who is to be reborn only once before entering nirvana; once-returner


see styles
Mandarin wǎng shēng / wang3 sheng1
Taiwan wang sheng
Japanese inen ōjō
By thought and remembrance or invocation of Amitābha to enter into his Pure Land; reborn from mindfulness



see styles
Mandarin yìng bù gēng shēng / ying4 bu4 geng1 sheng1
Taiwan ying pu keng sheng
Japanese ō fu kyōshō
should not be reborn; should not be reborn



see styles
Mandarin bài huài pú sà / bai4 huai4 pu2 sa4
Taiwan pai huai p`u sa / pai huai pu sa
Japanese baie bosatsu
Bodhisattvas who defeat their proper end of becoming buddha, and who are reborn in lower positions, e.g. as kings or princes, of as dragon-kings, etc; decadent bodhisattva


see styles
Japanese shinikawaru / しにかわる Japanese (v5r,vi) to die and be reborn as something else


see styles
Mandarin shēng pán niè pán / sheng1 pan2 nie4 pan2
Taiwan sheng p`an nieh p`an / sheng pan nieh pan
Japanese shō hannehan
one who attains final nirvāṇa when being reborn in the form realm; one who attains final nirvāṇa when being reborn in the form realm



see styles
Mandarin tuō tāi chéng xiān / tuo1 tai1 cheng2 xian1
Taiwan t`o t`ai ch`eng hsien / to tai cheng hsien
Chinese reborn as immortal


see styles
Mandarin yàn shēng rén zhōng / yan4 sheng1 ren2 zhong1
Taiwan yen sheng jen chung
An inquiry into the mode of a person's death, to judge whether he will be reborn as a man, and so on with the other possible destinies, e.g. 驗生地獄 whether he will be reborn in the hells.



see styles
Mandarin wǔ bǎi shì wú shǒu / wu3 bai3 shi4 wu2 shou3
Taiwan wu pai shih wu shou
Japanese gohyakuse mushu
A disciple who even passes the wine decanter to another person will be reborn without hands for 500 generations; v. 梵網經下; five hundred generations without hands



see styles
Mandarin yī luō bō lóng wáng / yi1 luo1 bo1 long2 wang2
Taiwan i lo po lung wang
Japanese irahatsuryū ō
(伊羅鉢多羅龍王); 伊羅多羅 (or 伊羅跋羅); 伊羅婆那; 伊那槃婆龍 and many other forms, v. supra. Elāpattra, Erāpattra, Eḍavarṇa, Ersavarṇa. A nāga, or elephant, which is also a meaning of Airāvaṇa and Airāvata. A nāga-guardian of a sea or lake, who had plucked a herb wrongfully in a previous incarnation, been made into a naga and now begged the Buddha that he might be reborn in a higher sphere. Another version is that he pulled up a tree, which stuck to his head and grew there, hence his name. One form is 伊羅婆那龍象王, which may have an association with Indra's elephant.



see styles
Mandarin xiū zhū gōng dé yuàn / xiu1 zhu1 gong1 de2 yuan4
Taiwan hsiu chu kung te yüan
Japanese shusho kudoku gan
cultivate merit and vow [to ber reborn in the Pure Land]; cultivate merit and vow [to ber reborn in the Pure Land]


see styles
Mandarin tiān dì shēng lǘ tāi / tian1 di4 sheng1 lv2 tai1
Taiwan t`ien ti sheng lü t`ai / tien ti sheng lü tai
Lord of devas, born in the womb of an ass, a Buddhist fable, that Indra knowing he was to be reborn from the womb of an ass, in sorrow sought to escape his fate, and was told that trust in Buddha was the only way. Before he reached Buddha his life came to an end and he found himself in the ass. His resolve, however, had proved effective, for the master of the ass beat her so hard that she dropped her foal dead. Thus Indra returned to his former existence and began his ascent to Buddha.



see styles
Mandarin wǎng shēng yuàn / wang3 sheng1 yuan4
Taiwan wang sheng yüan
Japanese nyonin ōjō gan
The thirty-fifth vow of Amitābha that he will refuse to enter into his final joy until every woman who calls on his name rejoices in enlightenment and who, hating her woman's body, has ceased to be reborn as a woman; also 女人成佛願; vow regarding women's rebirth



see styles
Mandarin niàn fú wǎng shēng yuàn / nian4 fu2 wang3 sheng1 yuan4
Taiwan nien fu wang sheng yüan
Japanese nenbutsu ōjō gan
The eighteenth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows; vow that those who remember the Buddha's name will be reborn in the Pure Land



see styles
Mandarin nà de jiā yè bō / na4 de jia1 ye4 bo1
Taiwan na te chia yeh po
Japanese Natchi Kashōpa
Nadī-Kāśyapa, also 那提 a brother of Mahā-Kāśyapa, to be reborn as Buddha Samanta-prabhāsa.


This page contains 100 results for "reborn" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

The following titles are just to help people who are searching for an Asian dictionary to find this page.

Japanese Kanji Dictionary

Free Asian Dictionary

Chinese Kanji Dictionary

Chinese Words Dictionary

Chinese Language Dictionary

Japanese Chinese Dictionary