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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
 Definition may be different outside of Buddhism.

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If shown, 2nd row of characters is Simplified Chinese.

Characters Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin shí / shi2
Taiwan shih
Japanese shii / shi / シー
Chinese ten; 10
Japanese (numeric) ten (chi: shí); (personal name) Yokotate; (personal name) Momoki; (personal name) Motegi; (personal name) Mogeki; (personal name) Mogite; (personal name) Mogiki; (personal name) Mokigi; (personal name) Muneshige; (given name) Mitsuru; (female given name) Michiru; (given name) Hisashi; (personal name) Tokachi; (surname, female given name) Tsunashi; (surname) Tsuji; (female given name) Tsuganashi; (personal name) Sousuke; (personal name) Soujun; (place-name) Ju; (u
tridaśa. Thirty; abbreviation for the thirty-three deities, heavens, etc.; Daśa, ten, the perfect number.

see styles
Mandarin shàn / shan4
Taiwan shan
Japanese zen / ぜん
Chinese good (virtuous); benevolent; well-disposed; good at something; to improve or perfect
Japanese (ant: 悪・あく) good; goodness; right; virtue; (personal name) Yoshikatsu; (given name) Yoshiaki; (given name) Yoshi; (personal name) Tadashi; (given name) Zen'you; (personal name) Zenji; (surname, given name) Zen
su; sādhu; bhadra; kuśala. Good, virtuous, well; good at; skilful.

see styles
Mandarin/ fa3
Taiwan fa
Japanese hou / ho / ほう
Chinese law; method; way; Buddhist teaching; Legalist; France; French; abbr. for 法國|法国[Fa3 guo2]; Taiwan pr. [Fa4]
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) law; act; principle; (2) method; (3) {ling} mood; (4) {Buddh} dharma; (female given name) Minori; (given name) Houshou; (surname) Housaki; (given name) Hakaru; (surname) Nori; (given name) Sadamu
Dharma, 達磨; 曇無 (or 曇摩); 達摩 (or 達謨) Law, truth, religion, thing, anything Buddhist. Dharma is 'that which is held fast or kept, ordinance, statute, law, usage, practice, custom'; 'duty'; 'right'; 'proper'; 'morality'; 'character'. M. W. It is used in the sense of 一切 all things, or anything small or great, visible or invisible, real or unreal, affairs, truth, principle, method, concrete things, abstract ideas, etc. Dharma is described as that which has entity and bears its own attributes. It connotes Buddhism as the perfect religion; it also has the second place in the triratna 佛法僧, and in the sense of 法身 dharmakāya it approaches the Western idea of 'spiritual'. It is also one of the six media of sensation, i. e. the thing or object in relation to mind, v. 六塵.


see styles
Mandarin liàn / lian4
Taiwan lien
Japanese ren / れん    neri / ねり    kitau / きたう
Chinese to practice; to train; to drill; to perfect (one's skill); exercise
Japanese (surname) Ren; (surname) Neri; (personal name) Kitau
To train, practise, drill, exercise.

see styles
Mandarin zhì / zhi4
Taiwan chih
Japanese shi / し
Chinese to arrive; most; to; until
Japanese (prefix) (See 自・2) to ...; (female given name) Michi; (given name) Tooru; (surname, female given name) Itaru
Reach, arrive at; utmost, perfect; to reach to

see styles
Mandarin chì / chi4
Taiwan ch`ih / chih
Japanese sekizaki / せきざき    seki / せき    akamine / あかみね    akajio / あかじお    akashio / あかしお    akazaki / あかざき    akasaki / あかさき    aka / あか
Chinese red; scarlet; bare; naked
Japanese (1) red; crimson; scarlet; (2) red-containing colour (e.g. brown, pink, orange); (3) (colloquialism) Red (i.e. communist); (4) (abbreviation) red light; (5) (abbreviation) red ink (i.e. in finance or proof-reading); (in) the red; (adj-no,n-pref) (6) complete; total; perfect; obvious; (7) copper; (surname) Sekizaki; (surname) Seki; (personal name) Ka; (personal name) Akamine; (personal name) Akajio; (personal name) Akashio; (surname) Akazaki; (surname) Akasaki; (place-name) Aka
kaṣāya 袈沙野, red, hot; south; naked.


see styles
Mandarin/ qi2
Taiwan ch`i / chi
Japanese hitoshi / ひとし    takasai / たかさい    sai / さい    itsuki / いつき
Chinese neat; even; level with; identical; simultaneous; all together; to even something out; (name of states and dynasties at several different periods); surname Qi
Japanese Qi (kingdom in China during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Period of the Warring States); Ch'i; (male given name) Hitoshi; (surname) Takasai; (surname) Sai; (personal name) Itsuki
Even, level, equal, uniform; complete, perfect; equalize; tranquillize; alike; all; at the same time, altogether.

十法

see styles
Mandarin shí fǎ / shi2 fa3
Taiwan shih fa
Japanese jippō
The ten 成就 perfect or perfecting Mahāyāna rules; i.e. in (1) right belief; (2) conduct; (3) spirit; (4) the joy of the bodhi mind; (5) joy in the dharma; (6) joy in meditation in it; (7) pursuing the correct dharma; (8) obedience to, or accordance with it; (9) departing from pride, etc.; (10) comprehending the inner teaching of Buddha and taking no pleasure in that of the śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha order; ten completions of the great vehicle standards

和美

see styles
Mandarin hé měi / he2 mei3
Taiwan ho mei
Japanese wami / わみ    masumi / ますみ    nagomi / なごみ    tomomi / ともみ    katsumi / かづみ    kazuyoshi / かつみ    kazumi / かずよし    aimi / かずみ    ai / あいみ
Chinese harmonious; in perfect harmony; Homei town in Changhua county 彰化縣|彰化县[Zhang1 hua4 xian4], Taiwan
Japanese (surname, female given name) Wami; (female given name) Masumi; (female given name) Nagomi; (female given name) Tomomi; (female given name) Kadzumi; (female given name) Katsumi; (male given name) Kazuyoshi; (female given name) Kazumi; (female given name) Ai

完備


完备

see styles
Mandarin wán bèi / wan2 bei4
Taiwan wan pei
Japanese kanbi / かんび
Chinese faultless; complete; perfect; to leave nothing to be desired
Japanese (n,adj-na,vs) (1) (ant: 不備・1) (being) fully equipped; (being) fully furnished; (2) {math} completeness

菩提

see styles
Mandarin pú tí / pu2 ti2
Taiwan p`u t`i / pu ti
Japanese bodai / ぼだい
Chinese bodhi (Sanskrit); enlightenment (Buddhism)
Japanese (1) {Buddh} bodhi; enlightenment; (2) {Buddh} happiness in the next world; (place-name, surname) Bodai
bodhi; from budh; knowledge, understanding; perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightened mind; anciently intp. by 道, later by 覺 to be aware, perceive; for saṃbodhi v. 三; enlightenment

正精進


正精进

see styles
Mandarin zhèng jīng jìn / zheng4 jing1 jin4
Taiwan cheng ching chin
Japanese shō shōjin
samyagvyāyāma, right effort, zeal, or progress, unintermitting perseverance, the sixth of the 八正道; 'right effort, to suppress the rising of evil states, to eradicate those which have arisen, to stimulate good states, and to perfect those which have come into being. ' Keith; correct effort

琴瑟和鳴

see styles
Mandarin qín sè hé míng / qin2 se4 he2 ming2
Taiwan ch`in se ho ming / chin se ho ming
Chinese in perfect harmony; in sync; lit. qin and se sing in harmony

十全

see styles
Mandarin shí quán / shi2 quan2
Taiwan shih ch`üan / shih chüan
Japanese juuzen / juzen / じゅうぜん
Chinese perfect; complete
Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) perfection; thoroughness; consummation; (g,p) Juuzen


see styles
Mandarin yuán / yuan2
Taiwan yüan
Japanese maru / まる    madoka / まどか    matome / まとめ    dan / だん    enpuku / えんぷく    enzaki / えんざき    en / えん
Chinese circle; round; circular; spherical; (of the moon) full; unit of Chinese currency (Yuan); tactful; to justify
Japanese (out-dated kanji) (1) yen; Japanese monetary unit; (2) circle; (personal name) Maru; (female given name) Madoka; (surname) Matome; (personal name) Dan; (personal name) Enpuku; (surname) En
Round, all-round, full-orbed, inclusive, all-embracing, whole, perfect, complete.

see styles
Mandarin wán / wan2
Taiwan wan
Japanese kan / かん
Chinese to finish; to be over; whole; complete; entire
Japanese (expression) (1) (at the close of a book, film, etc.) The End; Finis; (n-suf,n) (2) completion; conclusion; end; (3) providing fully; (given name) Yutaka; (given name) Yasushi; (given name) Mamoru; (given name) Matashi; (given name) Masashi; (given name) Hiroshi; (surname, female given name) Tamotsu; (given name) Sadamu; (surname) Sada; (personal name) Kanji; (surname, given name) Kan; (personal name) Ikuya; (personal name) Ikui
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

see styles
Mandarin dìng / ding4
Taiwan ting
Japanese sada / さだ
Chinese to set; to fix; to determine; to decide; to order
Japanese (adverb) (archaism) (kana only) certainly; truly; (given name) Yasushi; (given name) Tetsujou; (surname, given name) Tei; (given name) Jou; (personal name) Sadayuki; (surname) Sadame; (personal name) Sadamune; (surname, given name) Sadamu; (female given name) Sadami; (personal name) Sadanori; (personal name) Sadatsugu; (personal name) Sadazumi; (personal name) Sadaji; (given name) Sadashi; (surname, female given name) Sada
To fix, settle. samādhi. 'Composing the mind'; 'intent contemplation'; 'perfect absorption of thought into the one object of meditation.' M. W. Abstract meditation, the mind fixed in one direction, or field. (1) 散定 scattered or general meditation (in the world of desire). (2) 禪定 abstract meditation (in the realms of form and beyond form). It is also one of the five attributes of the dharmakāya 法身, i. e. an internal state of imperturbability or tranquility, exempt from all external sensations, 超受陰; cf. 三摩提.

see styles
Mandarin chéng / cheng2
Taiwan ch`eng / cheng
Japanese minoru / みのる    michi / みち    binsei / binse / びんせい    hitoshi / ひとし    hakaru / はかる    naru / なる    narisue / なりすえ    narisaki / なりさき    nari / なり    son / そん    soyon / そよん    seiji / seji / せいじ    sei / se / せい    susumu / すすむ    jou / jo / じょう    shin / しん    shigeru / しげる    shige / しげ    sadamu / さだむ    osamu / おさむ    akira / あきら
Chinese to succeed; to finish; to complete; to accomplish; to become; to turn into; to be all right; OK!; one tenth; surname Cheng
Japanese (personal name) Minoru; (female given name) Michi; (given name) Binsei; (male given name) Hitoshi; (personal name) Hakaru; (p,s,f) Naru; (personal name) Narisue; (surname) Narisaki; (f,p) Nari; (surname, given name) Son; (surname) Soyon; (personal name) Seiji; (surname, given name) Sei; (given name) Susumu; (personal name) Jou; (surname) Shin; (given name) Shigeru; (personal name) Shige; (personal name) Sadamu; (given name) Osa
Complete, finish, perfect, become.; See under seven strokes; to accomplish


see styles
Mandarin miè / mie4
Taiwan mieh
Japanese metsu
Chinese to extinguish or put out; to go out (of a fire etc); to exterminate or wipe out; to drown
Extinguish, exterminate, destroy; a tr. of nirodha, suppression, annihilation; of nirvāṇa, blown out, extinguished, dead, perfect rest, highest felicity, etc.; and of nivṛtti, cessation, disappearance. nirodha is the third of the four axioms: 苦, 集, 滅, 道 pain, its focussing, its cessation (or cure), the way of such cure. Various ideas are expressed as to the meaning of 滅, i.e. annihilation or extinction of existence; or of rebirth and mortal existence; or of the passions as the cause of pain; and it is the two latter views which generally prevail; cf. M017574 10 strokes.

see styles
Mandarin fēi / fei1
Taiwan fei
Japanese hi / ひ    akai / あかい    aka / あか
Chinese dark red; purple silk
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) (1) scarlet; red; (2) blood; (out-dated kanji) (1) red; crimson; scarlet; (2) red-containing colour (e.g. brown, pink, orange); (3) (colloquialism) Red (i.e. communist); (4) (abbreviation) red light; (5) (abbreviation) red ink (i.e. in finance or proof-reading); (in) the red; (adj-no,n-pref) (6) complete; total; perfect; obvious; (personal name) Hi; (female given name) Akai; (personal name) Aka

see styles
Mandarin tōng / tong1
Taiwan t`ung / tung
Japanese tsuu / tsu / つう
Chinese classifier for an activity, taken in its entirety (tirade of abuse, stint of music playing, bout of drinking etc); to go through; to know well; (suffix) expert; to connect; to communicate; open; to clear; classifier for letters, telegrams, phone calls etc
Japanese (adj-na,n-suf) (1) connoisseur; authority; (counter) (2) counter for letters, notes, documents, etc.; (given name) Michiaki; (surname, female given name) Michi; (given name) Hiraku; (given name) Tooru; (place-name) Toori; (surname) Tsuuzaki; (female given name) Tsuu; (place-name) Kayoi; (female given name) Kayo; (personal name) Ikariya
Permeate, pass through, pervade; perceive, know thoroughly; communicate; current; free, without hindrance, unimpeded universal; e.g. 神通 supernatural, ubiquitous powers. There are categories of 五通, 六通, and 十通, all referring to supernatural powers; the five are (1) knowledge of the supernatural world; (2) deva vision; (3) deva hearing; (4) knowledge of the minds of all others; (5) knowledge of all the transmigrations of self and all others. The six are the above together with perfect wisdom for ending moral hindrance and delusion. The ten are knowing all previous transmigrations, having deva hearing, knowing the minds of others, having deva vision, showing deva powers, manifesting many bodies or forms, being anywhere instantly, power of bringing glory to one's domain, manifesting a body of transformation, and power to end evil and transmigration.

三乘

see styles
Mandarin sān chéng / san1 cheng2
Taiwan san ch`eng / san cheng
Japanese minori / みのり
Japanese (surname) Minori
Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.

三大

see styles
Mandarin sān dà / san1 da4
Taiwan san ta
Japanese sandai / さんだい
Japanese (prefix) (See 三大疾病) the big three ...; (surname) Miou
The three great characteristics of the 眞如 in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (1) 體大 The greatness of the bhūtatathatā in its essence or substance; it is 衆生心之體性 the embodied nature of the mind of all the living, universal, immortal, immutable, eternal; (2) 相大 the greatness of its attributes or manifestations, perfect in wisdom and mercy, and every achievement; (3) 用大 the greatness of its functions and operations within and without, perfectly transforming all the living to good works and good karma now and hereafter. There are other groups, e.g. 體, 宗, and 用; three kinds of greatness

三德

see styles
Mandarin sān dé / san1 de2
Taiwan san te
Japanese santoku
The three virtues or powers, of which three groups are given below. (1) (a) 法身德 The virtue or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, the dharmakāya; (b) 般若德 of his prājñā, or wisdom, knowing all things in their reality; (c) 解脫德 of his freedom from all bonds and his sovereign Iiberty. Each of these has the four qualities of 常, 樂我, 淨eternity, joy, personality, and purity; v. 漫涅槃經 (2) (a) 智德 The potency of his perfect knowledge; (b) 斷德 of his cutting off all illusion and perfecting of supreme nirvāṇa; the above two are 自利 for his own advantage; (c) 恩德 of his universal grace and salvation, which 利他 bestows the benefits he has acquired on others. (3) (a) 因圓德 The perfection of his causative or karmic works during his three great kalpas of preparation; (b) 果圓德 the perfection of the fruit, or results in his own character and wisdom; (c) 恩圓德 the perfection of his grace in the salvation of others.

三心

see styles
Mandarin sān xīn / san1 xin1
Taiwan san hsin
Japanese sanshin / さんしん
Japanese (given name) Sanshin
The three minds, or hearts; various groups are given: (1) Three assured ways of reaching the Pure Land, by (a) 至誠心 perfect sincerity; (b) 深 profound resolve for it; (c) 廻向接發願心 resolve on demitting one's merits to others. (2) (a) 根本心 The 8th or ālaya-vijñāna mind, the storehouse, or source of all seeds of good or evil; (b) 依本 the 7th or mano-vijñāna mind, the mediating cause of all taint; (c) 起事心 the ṣaḍāyatana-vijñāna mind, the immediate influence of the six senses. (3) (a) 入心 (b) 住心 (c) 出心 The mind entering into a condition, staying there, departing. (4) A pure, a single, and an undistracted mind. There are other groups; three kinds of mind

三性

see styles
Mandarin sān xìng / san1 xing4
Taiwan san hsing
Japanese sanshō
The three types of character 善, 惡, 無記 good, bad and undefinable, or neutral; v. 唯識論 5. Also, 徧依圓三性 the three aspects of the nature of a thing— partial, as when a rope is mistaken for a snake; only partly reliable, i.e. incomplete inference, as when it is considered as mere hemp; all around, or perfect, when content, form, etc., are all considered.

三教

see styles
Mandarin sān jiào / san1 jiao4
Taiwan san chiao
Japanese sankyou / sankyo / さんきょう
Chinese the Three Doctrines (Daoism, Confucianism, Buddhism)
Japanese Shinto, Buddhism and Confucianism; (given name) Mitsunori
The three teachings, i.e. 儒, 佛 (or 釋), and 道Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism; or, 孔, 老, 釋 Confucianism, Taoism (aIso known as 神敎), and Buddhism. In Japan they are Shinto, Confucianism, and Buddhism. In Buddhism the term is applied to the three periods of Śākyamuni's own teaching, of which there are several definitions: (1) The Jiangnan 南中 School describe his teaching as (a) 漸progressive or gradual; (b) 頓 immediate, i.e. as one whole, especially in the 華嚴經; and (c) 不定 or indeterminate. (2) 光統 Guangtong, a writer of the Iater Wei dynasty, describes the three as (a) 漸 progressive for beginners, i.e. from impermanence to permanence, from the void to reality, etc.; (b) 頓 immediate for the more advanced; and (c) 圓complete, to the most advanced, i.e. the Huayan as above. (3) The 三時敎q.v. (4) The 南山 Southern school deals with (a) the 性空of Hīnayāna; (b) 相空of Mahāyāna; and (c) 唯識圓 the perfect idealism. v. 行事鈔中 4. Tiantai accepts the division of 漸, 頓, and 不定 for pre-Lotus teaching, but adopts 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 perfect, with the Lotus as the perfect teaching; it also has the division of 三藏敎 , 通敎 , and 別敎 q.v.

三斷


三断

see styles
Mandarin sān duàn / san1 duan4
Taiwan san tuan
Japanese sandan
The three cuttings off or excisions (of 惑 beguiling delusions, or perplexities). (1) (a) 見所斷 to cut off delusions of view, of which Hīnayāna has eighty-eight kinds; (b) 修所斷in practice, eighty-one kinds; (c) 非所斷nothing left to cut off, perfect. v. 倶舍論 2. (2) (a) 自性斷 to cut off the nature or root (of delusion); (b) 緣縛斷 to cut off the external bonds, or objective causes (of delusions); (c) 不生斷 (delusion) no longer arising, therefore nothing produced to cut off. The third stage in both groups is that of an arhat; three eliminations

三昧

see styles
Mandarin sān mèi / san1 mei4
Taiwan san mei
Japanese sanmai;zanmai / さんまい;ざんまい
Chinese Samadhi (Buddhist term)
Japanese (1) (さんまい only) {Buddh} samadhi (state of intense concentration achieved through meditation) (san:); (suffix noun) (2) (usu. ざんまい) concentrating on something; absorbing oneself in something; indulging in something; (given name) Sanmai
(三昧地) Samādhi, "putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect absorption, union of the meditator with the object of meditation." (M. W.) Also 三摩地 (三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底). Interpreted by 定 or 正定, the mind fixed and undisturbed; by 正受 correct sensation of the object contemplated; by 調直定 ordering and fixing the mind; by 正心行處 the condition when the motions of the mind are steadied and harmonized with the object; by 息慮凝心 the cessation of distraction and the fixation of the mind; by 等持 the mind held in equilibrium; by 奢摩他, i.e. 止息 to stay the breathing. It is described as concentration of the mind (upon an object). The aim is 解脫, mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions and reincarnations. It may pass from abstraction to ecstasy, or rapture, or trance. Dhyāna 定 represents a simpler form of contemplation; samāpatti 三摩鉢底 a stage further advanced; and samādhi the highest stage of the Buddhist equivalent for Yoga, though Yoga is considered by some as a Buddhist development differing from samādhi. The 翻譯名義 says: 思專 when the mind has been concentrated, then 志一不分 the will is undivided; when 想寂 active thought has been put to rest, then 氣虛神朗 the material becomes etherealized and the spirit liberated, on which 智 knowledge, or the power to know, has free course, and there is no mystery into which it cannot probe. Cf. 智度論 5, 20, 23, 28; 止觀 2; 大乘義章 2, 9, 1 3, 20, etc. There are numerous kinds and degrees of samādhi.

三智

see styles
Mandarin sān zhì / san1 zhi4
Taiwan san chih
Japanese michi / みち    misato / みさと    sanchi / さんち
Japanese (female given name) Michi; (female given name) Misato; (given name) Sanchi
The three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) 一切智 śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that all the dharma or laws are 空 void and unreal; (b) 道種智 bodhisattva-knowledge. of all things in their proper discrimination; (c) 一切種智 Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Tiantai associates the above with 室, 候, 中. (2) (a) 世間智 earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) 出世間智 supra-mundane, or spiritual (śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) 出世間上上智 supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas. v. 智度論 27, 止觀 3, and 概伽經 3. Cf. — 心三智.

三覺


三觉

see styles
Mandarin sān jué / san1 jue2
Taiwan san chüeh
Japanese sankaku
The three kinds of enlightenment: (1) (a) 自覺 Enlightenment for self; (b) 覺他 for others; (c) 覺行圓 (or 窮) 滿 perfect enlightenment and accomplishment; the first is an arhat's, the first and second a bodhisattva's, all three a Buddha's. (2) From the Awakening of Faith 起信論 (a) 本覺 inherent, potential enlightenment or intelligence of every being; (b) 始覺 , initial, or early stages of such enlightenment, brought about through the external perfuming or influence of teaching, working on the internal perfuming of subconscious intelligence; (c) 究竟覺 completion of enlightenment, the subjective mind in perfect accord with the subconscious (or superconscious) mind, or the inherent intelligence.

三輩


三辈

see styles
Mandarin sān bèi / san1 bei4
Taiwan san pei
Japanese sanpai
The three ranks of those who reach the Pure Land of Amitābha: superior i.e. monks and nuns who become enlightened and devote themselves to invocation of the Buddha of boundless age; medium, i.e. laymen of similar character who do pious deeds; inferior, i.e. laymen less perfect than the last; three kinds of disciples (of Amitâbha)

上士

see styles
Mandarin shàng shì / shang4 shi4
Taiwan shang shih
Japanese joushi / joshi / じょうし
Japanese high-ranking retainer of a daimyo (Edo Period)
The superior disciple, who becomes perfect in (spiritually) profiting himself and others. The 中士 profits self but not others; the 下士 neither.

二圓


二圆

see styles
Mandarin èr yuán / er4 yuan2
Taiwan erh yüan
Japanese nien
The two perfect doctrines, a term of the Tiantai School, called 今圓 (also 開顯圓 and 絶待圓) and 昔圓 (also 相待圓 ). 今圓 is the present really perfect 一實 doctrine arising from the Lotus Sūtra; 昔圓 is the older, or 相待 comparatively speaking perfect doctrine of the pre-Lotus teaching, that of the 藏, 通, and 別 schools; but the older was for limited salvation and not universal like the 今圓; these two are also termed 部圓 and 教圓 . The Huayan school has a division of the two perfections into 漸圓 gradual perfection and 頓圓 immediate perfection.

二教

see styles
Mandarin èr jiào / er4 jiao4
Taiwan erh chiao
Japanese nikyō
Dual division of the Buddha's teaching. There are various definitions: (1) Tiantai has (a) 顯教 exoteric or public teaching to the visible audience, and (b) 密教 at the same time esoteric teaching to an audience invisible to the other assembly. (2) The 眞言 Shingon School by "exoteric" means all the Buddha's preaching, save that of the 大日經 which it counts esoteric. (3) (a) 漸教 and (b) 頓教 graduated and immediate teaching, terms with various uses, e.g. salvation by works Hīnayāna, and by faith, Mahāyāna, etc.; they are applied to the Buddha's method, to the receptivity of hearers and to the teaching itself. (4) Tiantai has (a) 界内教 and (b) 界外教 teachings relating to the 三界 or realms of mortality and teachings relating to immortal realms. (5) (a) 半字教 and (b) 滿字教 Terms used in the Nirvāṇa sūtra, meaning incomplete word, or letter, teaching and complete word teaching, i.e. partial and complete, likened to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. (6) (a) 捃收教 and (b) 扶律談常教 of the Nirvāṇa sūtra, (a) completing those who failed to hear the Lotus; (b) "supporting the law, while discoursing on immortality," i.e. that the keeping of the law is also necessary to salvation. (7) Tiantai's division of (a) 偏教 and (b) 圓教 the partial teaching of the 藏, 通, and schools as contrasted with the perfect teaching of the 圓 school. (8) Tiantai's division of (a) 構教 and (6) 實教 temporary and permanent, similar to the last two. (9) (a) 世間教 The ordinary teaching of a moral life here; (b) 出世間教 the teaching of Buddha-truth of other-worldly happiness in escape from mortality. (10) (a) 了義教 the Mahāyāna perfect or complete teaching, and (b) 不了義教 Hīnayāna incompleteness. (11) The Huayan division of (a) 屈曲教 indirect or uneven teaching as in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, and (b) 平道教 direct or levelled up teaching as in the Huayan sūtra. (12) The Huayan division of (a) 化教 all the Buddha's teaching for conversion and general instruction, and (b) 制教 his rules and commandments for the control and development of his order; two kinds of teaching

五性

see styles
Mandarin wǔ xìng / wu3 xing4
Taiwan wu hsing
Japanese goshō
The five different natures as grouped by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect; of these the first and second, while able to attain to non-return to mortality, are unable to reach Buddhahood; of the fourth some may, others may not reach it; the fifth will be reborn as devas or men: (1) śrāvakas for arhats; (2) pratyekabuddhas for pratyekabuddha-hood; (3) bodhisattvas for Buddhahood; (4) indefinite; (5) outsiders who have not the Buddha mind. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圓覺經 has another group, i. e. the natures of (1) ordinary good people; (2) śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas; (3) bodhisattvas; (4) indefinite; (5) heretics; five natures

五教

see styles
Mandarin wǔ jiào / wu3 jiao4
Taiwan wu chiao
Japanese gokyō
The five division of Buddhism according to the Huayan School, of which there are two That of 杜順 Dushun down to 賢首 Xianshou is (1) 小乘教 Hīnayāna which interprets nirvana as annihilation; (2) 大乘始教 the primary stage of Mahāyāna, with two sections the 相始教 and 空 始教 or realistic and idealistic, (3) 大乘終教 Mahāyāna in its final stage, teaching the 眞如 and universal Buddhahood; (4) 頓教 the immediate, direct, or intuitive school, e. g. by right concentration of thought, or faith, apart from 'works'; (5) 圓教 the complete or perfect teaching of the Huayan, combining all the rest into one all-embracing vehicle. The five are now differentiated into 十宗 ten schools. The other division, by 圭峯 Guifeng of the same school, is (1) 人天教 rebirth as human beings for those who keep the five commandments and as devas those who keep the 十善 as 相始教 above; (4) 大乘破相教 as 空始教 above; and (5) 一乘顯性教 the one vehicle which reveals the universal Buddha-nature; it includes (3), (4), and (5) of the first group. See also 五時教; five teachings

五法

see styles
Mandarin wǔ fǎ / wu3 fa3
Taiwan wu fa
Japanese gohō
pañcadharma. The five laws or categories, of which four groups are as follows: I. 相名五法 The five categories of form and name: (1) 相 appearances, or phenomena; (2) 名 their names; (3) 分別 sometimes called 妄想 ordinary mental discrimination of them— (1) and (2) are objective, (3) subjective; (4) 正智 corrective wisdom, which corrects the deficiencies and errors of the last: (5) 如如 the 眞如 Bhutatathata or absolute wisdom, reached through the 如理智 understanding of the law of the absolute, or ultimate truth. II. 事理五法 The five categories into which things and their principles are divided: (1) 心法 mind; (2) 心所法 mental conditions or activities; (3) 色法 the actual states or categories as conceived; (4) 不相應法 hypothetic categories, 唯識 has twenty-four, the Abhidharma fourteen; (5) 無爲法 the state of rest, or the inactive principle pervading all things; the first four are the 事 and the last the 理. III. 理智五法 cf. 五智; the five categories of essential wisdom: (1) 眞如 the absolute; (2) 大圓鏡智 wisdom as the great perfect mirror reflecting all things; (3) 平等性智 wisdom of the equal Buddha nature of all beings; (4) 妙觀察智 wisdom of mystic insight into all things and removal of ignorance and doubt; (5) 成所作智 wisdom perfect in action and bringing blessing to self and others. IV. 提婆五法 The five obnoxious rules of Devadatta: not to take milk in any form, nor meat, nor salt; to wear unshaped garments, and to live apart. Another set is: to wear cast-off rags, beg food, have only one set meal a day, dwell in the open, and abstain from all kinds of flesh, milk, etc.

五覺


五觉

see styles
Mandarin wǔ jué / wu3 jue2
Taiwan wu chüeh
Japanese gokaku
The five bodhi, or states of enlightenment, as described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith; see also 五菩提 for a different group. (1) 本覺 Absolute eternal wisdom, or bodhi; (2) 始覺 bodhi in its initial stages, or in action, arising from right observances; (3) 相似覺 bodhisattva. attainment of bodhi in action, in the 十信; (4) 隨分覺 further bodhisattva-enlightenment according to capacity, i. e. the stages 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (5) 究竟覺 final or complete enlightenment, i. e. the stage of 妙覺, which is one with the first, i. e. 本覺. The 本覺 is bodhi in the potential, 始覺 is bodhi in the active state, hence (2), (3), (4), and (5) are all the latter, but the fifth has reached the perfect quiescent stage of original bodhi; five kinds of enlightenment

今圓


今圆

see styles
Mandarin jīn yuán / jin1 yuan2
Taiwan chin yüan
Japanese kon'en
A Tiantai term indicating the present 'perfect' teaching, i. e. that of the Lotus, as compared with the 昔圓 older 'perfect ' teaching which preceded it; presently perfect

佛乘

see styles
Mandarin fú chéng / fu2 cheng2
Taiwan fu ch`eng / fu cheng
Japanese butsujō
The Buddha conveyance or vehicle, Buddhism as the vehicle of salvation for all beings; the doctrine of the 華嚴 Huayan (Kegon) School that all may become Buddha, which is called 一乘 the One Vehicle, the followers of this school calling it the 圓教 complete or perfect doctrine; this doctrine is also styled in the Lotus Sutra 一佛乘 the One Buddha-Vehicle.

佛刹

see styles
Mandarin fú shā / fu2 sha1
Taiwan fu sha
Japanese bussetsu
buddhakṣetra. 佛紇差怛羅 Buddha realm, land or country; see also 佛土, 佛國. The term is absent from Hīnayāna. In Mahāyāna it is the spiritual realm acquired by one who reaches perfect enlightenment, where he instructs all beings born there, preparing them for enlightenment. In the schools where Mahāyāna adopted an Ādi-Buddha, these realms or Buddha-fields interpenetrated each other, since they were coexistent with the universe. There are two classes of Buddhakṣetra: (1) in the Vairocana Schools, regarded as the regions of progress for the righteous after death; (2) in the Amitābha Schools, regarded as the Pure Land; v. McGovern, A Manual of Buddhist Philosophy, pp. 70-2; buddha field

佛德

see styles
Mandarin fú dé / fu2 de2
Taiwan fu te
Japanese buttoku
Buddha-virtue, his perfect life, perfect fruit, and perfect mercy in releasing all beings from misery.

依圓


依圆

see styles
Mandarin yī yuán / yi1 yuan2
Taiwan i yüan
Japanese een
Dependent and perfect, i. e. the dependent or conditioned nature, and the perfect nature of the unconditioned bhūtatathatā.

偏圓


偏圆

see styles
Mandarin piān yuán / pian1 yuan2
Taiwan p`ien yüan / pien yüan
Japanese hen en
Partial and all-embracing, relative and complete, e. g. Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna, also the intermediate schools (between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna) and the perfect school of Tiantai; partial and complete

全い

see styles
Japanese mattai;matai(ok) / まったい;またい(ok) Japanese (adjective) (1) complete; whole; perfect; entire; (2) safe

全形

see styles
Japanese zenkei / zenke / ぜんけい Japanese the whole form; perfect form

八位

see styles
Mandarin bā wèi / ba1 wei4
Taiwan pa wei
Japanese hachī
The classification or grades of disciples according to the Tiantai 圓教 perfect teaching, i.e. (1) 觀行卽 grade of the five classes, or stages, of lay disciples; (2) 相似卽 grade of the ten classes of or ordinary monks and nuns; above these are the 分眞卽bodhisattva stages of those progressing towards Buddhahood i.e. (3) 十住, (4) 十行, (5) 十廻向, (6) 十地, (7) 等覺, and (8) the perfect or Buddha stage 究竟卽, i.e. 妙覺. Cf. 六卽; eight ranks

八圓


八圆

see styles
Mandarin bā yuán / ba1 yuan2
Taiwan pa yüan
Japanese hachien
Eight fundamental characteristics of a 圓教 complete or perfect school of teaching, which must perfectly express 教, 理, 智, 斷, 行, 位, 因, and 果; eight aspects of completion

八教

see styles
Mandarin bā jiào / ba1 jiao4
Taiwan pa chiao
Japanese hakkyō
The eight Tiantai classifications of Śākyamuni's teaching, from the Avataṁsaka to the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, divided into the two sections (1) 化法四教 his four kinds of teaching of the content of the Truth accommodated to the capacity of his disciples; (2) 化儀四教 his four modes of instruction. (1) The four 化法教 are: (a) 三藏教 The Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching, for śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattva doctrine being subordinate; it also included the primitive śūnya doctrine as developed in the Satyasiddhi śāstra. (b) 教通His later "intermediate" teaching which contained Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna doctrine for śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, to which are attributed the doctrines of the Dharmalakṣaṇa or Yogācārya and Mādhyamika schools. (c) 別教 His differentiated , or separated, bodhisattva teaching, definitely Mahāyāna. (d) 圓教 His final, perfect, bodhisattva, universal teaching as preached, e.g. in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras. (2) The four methods of instruction 化儀 are: (a) 頓教 Direct teaching without reserve of the whole truth, e.g. the 華嚴 sūtra. (b) 漸教 Gradual or graded, e.g. the 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; all the four 化法 are also included under this heading. (c) 祕密教 Esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly. (d) 不定教 General or indeterminate teaching, from which each hearer would derive benefit according to his interpretation; eight teaching categories

八辯


八辩

see styles
Mandarin bā biàn / ba1 bian4
Taiwan pa pien
Japanese hachiben
Eight characteristics of a Buddha's speaking: never hectoring; never misleading or confused; fearless; never haughty; perfect in meaning; and in flavour; free from harshness; seasonable (or, suited to the occasion); eight kinds of eloquence

六卽

see styles
Mandarin liù jí / liu4 ji2
Taiwan liu chi
Japanese rokusoku
The six stages of Bodhisattva developments as defined in the Tiant 'ai 圓教, i. e. Perfect, or Final Teaching, in contrast with the previous, or ordinary six developments of 十信, 十住, 十行, etc., as found in the 別教 Differentiated or Separate school. The Tiantai six are: (1) 理卽 realization that all beings are of Buddha-nature; (2) 名字卽 the apprehension of terms, that those who only hear and believe are in the Buddha. law and potentially Buddha; (3) 觀行卽 advance beyond terminology to meditation, or study and accordant action; it is known as 五品觀行 or 五品弟子位; (4) 相似卽 semblance stage, or approximation to perfection in purity, the 六根淸淨位, i. e. the 十信位; (5) 分證卽 discrimination of truth and its progressive experiential proof, i. e. the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地, and 等覺位 of the 別教 known also as the 聖因 cause or root of holiness. (6) 究竟卽 perfect enlightenment, i. e. the 妙覺位 or 聖果 fruition of holiness. (1) and (2) are known as 外凡 external for, or common to, all. (1) is theoretical; (2) is the first step in practical advance, followed by (3) and (4) styled 内凡 internal for all, and (3), (4), (5), and (6) are known as the 八位 the eight grades; six identicals

六難


六难

see styles
Mandarin liù nán / liu4 nan2
Taiwan liu nan
Japanese rokunan
The six difficult things— to be born in a Buddha-age, to hear the true Buddha-law, to beget a good heart, to be born in the central kingdom (India), to be born in human form, and to be perfect; see, Nirvana Sutra 23; six difficult attainments

具饍

see styles
Mandarin jù shàn / ju4 shan4
Taiwan chü shan
Japanese guzen
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

初地

see styles
Mandarin chū de / chu1 de
Taiwan ch`u te / chu te
Japanese shoji
The first of the 十地 ten bodhisattva stages to perfect enlightenment and nirvāṇa; first ground

別圓


别圆

see styles
Mandarin bié yuán / bie2 yuan2
Taiwan pieh yüan
Japanese bechien
The 別教 and 圓教 schools, q. v. and 四教; specialized and perfect

到家

see styles
Mandarin dào jiā / dao4 jia1
Taiwan tao chia
Chinese perfect; excellent; brought to the utmost degree

十住

see styles
Mandarin shí zhù / shi2 zhu4
Taiwan shih chu
Japanese jū jū
The ten stages, or periods, in bodhisattva-wisdom, prajñā 般若, are the 十住; the merits or character attained are the 十地 q.v. Two interpretations may be given. In the first of these, the first four stages are likened to entry into the holy womb, the next four to the period of gestation, the ninth to birth, and the tenth to the washing or baptism with the water of wisdom, e.g. the baptism of a Kṣatriya prince. The ten stages are (1) 發心住 the purposive stage, the mind set upon Buddhahood; (2) 治地住 clear understanding and mental control; (3) 修行住 unhampered liberty in every direction; (4) 生貴住 acquiring the Tathāgata nature or seed; (5) 方便具足住 perfect adaptability and resemblance in self-development and development of others; (6) 正心住 the whole mind becoming Buddha-like; (7) 不退住 no retrogression, perfect unity and constant progress; (8) 童眞住 as a Buddha-son now complete; (9) 法王子住 as prince of the law; (10) 灌頂住 baptism as such, e.g. the consecration of kings. Another interpretation of the above is: (1) spiritual resolve, stage of śrota-āpanna; (2) submission to rule, preparation for Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (3) cultivation of virtue, attainment of Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (4) noble birth, preparation for the anāgāmin stage; (5) perfect means, attainment of anāgāmin stage; (6) right mind, preparation for arhatship; (7) no-retrogradation, the attainment of arhatship; (8) immortal youth, pratyekabuddhahood; (9) son of the law-king, the conception of bodhisattvahood; (10) baptism as the summit of attainment, the conception of Buddhahood.

十六

see styles
Mandarin shí liù / shi2 liu4
Taiwan shih liu
Japanese juuroku / juroku / じゅうろく
Chinese sixteen; 16
Japanese 16; sixteen; (given name) Tomu; (given name) Soroku; (place-name) Soro; (personal name) Souroku; (given name) Juuroku
ṣoḍaśa Sixteen is the esoteric (Shingon) perfect number, just as ten is the perfect number in the Huayan sūtra and generally, see 大日經疏 5.

十地

see styles
Mandarin shí de / shi2 de
Taiwan shih te
Japanese juuji / juji / じゅうじ
Japanese {Buddh} dasabhumi (forty-first to fiftieth stages in the development of a bodhisattva); (place-name) Juuji
daśabhūmi; v. 十住. The "ten stages" in the fifty-two sections of the development of a bodhisattva into a Buddha. After completing the十四向 he proceeds to the 十地. There are several groups. I. The ten stages common to the Three Vehicles 三乘 are: (1) 乾慧地 dry wisdom stage, i. e. unfertilized by Buddha-truth, worldly wisdom; (2) 性地 the embryo-stage of the nature of Buddha-truth, the 四善根; (3) 八人地 (八忍地), the stage of the eight patient endurances; (4) 見地 of freedom from wrong views; (5) 薄地 of freedom from the first six of the nine delusions in practice; (6) 離欲地 of freedom from the remaining three; (7) 巳辨地 complete discrimination in regard to wrong views and thoughts, the stage of an arhat; (8) 辟支佛地 pratyeka-buddhahood, only the dead ashes of the past left to sift; (9) 菩薩地 bodhisattvahood; (10) 佛地 Buddhahood. v. 智度論 78. II. 大乘菩薩十地 The ten stages of Mahāyāna bodhisattva development are: (1) 歡喜地 Pramuditā, joy at having overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood; (2) 離垢地 Vimalā, freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity; (3) 發光地 Prabhākarī, stage of further enlightenment; (4) 焰慧地 Arciṣmatī, of glowing wisdom; (5) 極難勝地 Sudurjayā, mastery of utmost or final difficulties; (6) 現前地 Abhimukhī, the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity; (7) 遠行地 Dūraṁgamā, proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in order to save others; (8) 不動地 Acalā, attainment of calm unperturbedness; (9) 善慧地 Sādhumatī, of the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the 十力 ten powers; (10) 法雲地 Dharmamegha, attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the ten pāramitās, v. 波. Each of the 四乘 or four vehicles has a division of ten. III. The 聲聞乘十地 ten Śrāvaka stages are: (1) 受三歸地 initiation as a disciple by receiving the three refuges, in the Buddha, Dharma, and Saṅgha; (2) 信地 belief, or the faith-root; (3) 信法地 belief in the four truths; (4) 内凡夫地 ordinary disciples who observe the 五停心觀, etc.; (5) 學信戒 those who pursue the 三學 three studies; (6) 八人忍地 the stage of 見道 seeing the true Way; (7) 須陀洹地 śrota-āpanna, now definitely in the stream and assured of nirvāṇa; (8) 斯陀含地 sakrdāgāmin, only one more rebirth; (9) 阿那含地 anāgāmin, no rebirth; and (10) 阿羅漢地 arhatship. IV. The ten stages of the pratyekabuddha 緣覺乘十地 are (1) perfect asceticism; (2) mastery of the twelve links of causation; (3) of the four noble truths; (4) of the deeper knowledge; (5) of the eightfold noble path; (6) of the three realms 三法界; (7) of the nirvāṇa state; (8) of the six supernatural powers; (9) arrival at the intuitive stage; (10) mastery of the remaining influence of former habits. V. 佛乘十地 The ten stages, or characteristics of a Buddha, are those of the sovereign or perfect attainment of wisdom, exposition, discrimination, māra-subjugation, suppression of evil, the six transcendent faculties, manifestation of all bodhisattva enlightenment, powers of prediction, of adaptability, of powers to reveal the bodhisattva Truth. VI. The Shingon has its own elaborate ten stages, and also a group 十地十心, see 十心; and there are other groups.

十宗

see styles
Mandarin shí zōng / shi2 zong1
Taiwan shih tsung
Japanese jūshū
The ten schools of Chinese Buddhism: I. The (1) 律宗 Vinaya-discipline, or 南山|; (2) 倶舍 Kośa, Abhidharma, or Reality (Sarvāstivādin) 有宗; (3) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect founded on this śāstra by Harivarman; (4) 三論宗 Mādhyamika or 性空宗; (5) 法華宗 Lotus, "Law-flower" or Tiantai 天台宗; (6) 華嚴Huayan or法性 or賢首宗; ( 7) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana or 慈恩宗 founded on the唯識論 (8) 心宗 Ch'an or Zen, mind-only or intuitive, v. 禪宗 ; (9) 眞言宗 (Jap. Shingon) or esoteric 密宗 ; (10) 蓮宗 Amitābha-lotus or Pure Land (Jap. Jōdo) 淨士宗. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 9th are found in Japan rather than in China, where they have ceased to be of importance. II. The Hua-yen has also ten divisions into ten schools of thought: (1) 我法倶有 the reality of self (or soul) and things, e.g. mind and matter; (2) 法有我無 the reality of things but not of soul; (3) 法無去來 things have neither creation nor destruction; (4) 現通假實 present things are both apparent and real; (5) 俗妄眞實 common or phenomenal ideas are wrong, fundamental reality is the only truth; (6) things are merely names; (7) all things are unreal 空; (8) the bhūtatathatā is not unreal; (9) phenomena and their perception are to be got rid of; (10) the perfect, all-inclusive, and complete teaching of the One Vehicle. III. There are two old Japanese divisions: 大乘律宗, 倶舎宗 , 成實 宗 , 法和宗 , 三論宗 , 天台宗 , 華嚴宗 , 眞言宗 , 小乘律宗 , and 淨土宗 ; the second list adds 禪宗 and omits 大乘律宗. They are the Ritsu, Kusha, Jōjitsu, Hossō, Sanron, Tendai, Kegon, Shingon, (Hīnayāna) Ritsu, and Jōdo; the addition being Zen.

十成

see styles
Mandarin shí chéng / shi2 cheng2
Taiwan shih ch`eng / shih cheng
Japanese jūjō
Chinese completely
Entirely completed, perfect.

十智

see styles
Mandarin shí zhì / shi2 zhi4
Taiwan shih chih
Japanese jū chi
The ten forms of understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto, applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智; (8) 他心智 understanding of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10) 無生智 nirvāṇa wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26. II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界無礙智 unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6) 普照一切世間智 understanding of universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) 知一切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) 知一切法智 understanding of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) 知無邊諸佛智 understanding of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings, karma, passions, and Buddhas; ten kinds of cognition

同圓


同圆

see styles
Mandarin tóng yuán / tong2 yuan2
Taiwan t`ung yüan / tung yüan
Japanese dōen
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

善寂

see styles
Mandarin shàn jí / shan4 ji2
Taiwan shan chi
Japanese zenjaku
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

四依

see styles
Mandarin sì yī / si4 yi1
Taiwan ssu i
Japanese shi e
The four necessaries, or things on which the religious rely. (1) 行四依 The four of ascetic practitioners— rag clothing; begging for food; sitting under trees; purgatives and diuretics as moral and spiritual means; these are also termed 四聖種. (2) 法四依 The four of the dharma: i. e. the truth, which is eternal, rather than man, even its propagator; the sutras of perfect meaning i. e. of the 道實相 the truth of the 'middle' way; the meaning, or spirit, not the letter; wisdom 智, i.e. Buddha-wisdom rather than mere knowledge 識. There are other groups. Cf. 四事.

圓乘


圆乘

see styles
Mandarin yuán chéng / yuan2 cheng2
Taiwan yüan ch`eng / yüan cheng
Japanese enjō
The all-complete vehicle, the final teaching of Buddha; perfect vehicle

圓人


圆人

see styles
Mandarin yuán rén / yuan2 ren2
Taiwan yüan jen
Japanese en nin
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

圓伏


圆伏

see styles
Mandarin yuán fú / yuan2 fu2
Taiwan yüan fu
Japanese enbuku
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

圓位


圆位

see styles
Mandarin yuán wèi / yuan2 wei4
Taiwan yüan wei
Japanese Eni
The perfect status, the position of the 'perfect' school, perfect unity which embraces all diversity; En'i

圓佛


圆佛

see styles
Mandarin yuán fú / yuan2 fu2
Taiwan yüan fu
Japanese enbutsu / えんぶつ
Japanese (surname) Enbutsu
The Buddha of the 'perfect' school, the perfect pan-Buddha embracing all things in every direction; the dharmakāya; Vairocana, identified with Śākyamuni; perfect buddhahood

圓信


圆信

see styles
Mandarin yuán xìn / yuan2 xin4
Taiwan yüan hsin
Japanese enshin
Complete faith; the faith of the 'perfect' school. A Tiantai doctrine that a moment's faith embraces the universe; perfect faith

圓凝


圆凝

see styles
Mandarin yuán níng / yuan2 ning2
Taiwan yüan ning
Japanese engyō
Complete crystallization, or formation, i.e. perfect nirvāṇa; complete formation

圓妙


圆妙

see styles
Mandarin yuán miào / yuan2 miao4
Taiwan yüan miao
Japanese enmyō
The mystery of the 'perfect' school, i.e. the complete harmony of 空假中 noumenon, phenomenon, and the middle way; perfectly sublime

圓宗


圆宗

see styles
Mandarin yuán zōng / yuan2 zong1
Taiwan yüan tsung
Japanese enshū
The sect of the complete or final Buddha-truth, i.e. Tiantai; cf. 圓教; perfect school

圓寂


圆寂

see styles
Mandarin yuán jì / yuan2 ji4
Taiwan yüan chi
Japanese enjaku
Chinese death; to pass away (of Buddhist monks, nuns etc)
Perfect rest, i.e. parinirvāṇa; the perfection of all virtue and the elimination of all evil, release from the miseries of transmigration and entrance into the fullest joy; perfect extinction

圓實


圆实

see styles
Mandarin yuán shí / yuan2 shi2
Taiwan yüan shih
Japanese enjitsu / えんじつ
Japanese (surname) Enjitsu
Perfect reality; the Tiantai perfect doctrine which enables one to attain reality or Buddhahood at once; perfect and real

圓心


圆心

see styles
Mandarin yuán xīn / yuan2 xin1
Taiwan yüan hsin
Japanese enshin
Chinese center of circle
The perfect mind, the mind that seeks perfection, i.e. nirvāṇa.

圓戒


圆戒

see styles
Mandarin yuán jiè / yuan2 jie4
Taiwan yüan chieh
Japanese enkai
v. 圓頓戒; perfect precepts

圓教


圆教

see styles
Mandarin yuán jiào / yuan2 jiao4
Taiwan yüan chiao
Japanese engyō
The complete, perfect, or comprehensive doctrine; the school or sect of Mahāyāna which represents it. The term has had three references. The first was by 光統 Guangtong of the Later Wei, sixth century, who defined three schools, 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 inclusive or complete. The Tiantai called its fourth section the inclusive, complete, or perfect teaching 圓, the other three being 三藏 Hīnayāna, 通 Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna, 別 Mahāyāna. The Huayan so called its fifth section, i.e. 小乘; 大乘始; 大乘終; 頓 and 圓. It is the Tiantai version that is in general acceptance, defined as a perfect whole and as complete in its parts; for the whole is the absolute and its parts are therefore the absolute; the two may be called noumenon and phenomenon, or 空 and 假 (or 俗), but in reality they are one, i.e. the 中 medial condition. To conceive these three as a whole is the Tiantai inclusive or 'perfect' doctrine. The Huayan 'perfect' doctrine also taught that unity and differentiation, or absolute and relative, were one, a similar doctrine to that of the identity of contraries. In Tiantai teaching the harmony is due to its underlying unity; its completeness to the permeation of this unity in all phenomena; these two are united in the medial 中 principle; to comprehend these three principles at one and the same time is the complete, all-containing, or 'perfect' doctrine of Tiantai. There are other definitions of the all-inclusive doctrine, e.g. the eight complete things, complete in teaching, principles, knowledge, etc. 圓教四門 v. 四門.

圓智


圆智

see styles
Mandarin yuán zhì / yuan2 zhi4
Taiwan yüan chih
Japanese enchi
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

圓果


圆果

see styles
Mandarin yuán guǒ / yuan2 guo3
Taiwan yüan kuo
Japanese enka
Perfect fruit, nirvāṇa; perfection

圓機


圆机

see styles
Mandarin yuán jī / yuan2 ji1
Taiwan yüan chi
Japanese enki
The potentiality of becoming fully enlightened at once; capacity for perfect realization

圓滿


圆满

see styles
Mandarin yuán mǎn / yuan2 man3
Taiwan yüan man
Japanese enman
Chinese satisfactory; consummate; perfect
Completely full; wholly complete; the fulfilling of the whole, i.e. that the part contains the whole, the absolute in the relative; to complete

圓理


圆理

see styles
Mandarin yuán lǐ / yuan2 li3
Taiwan yüan li
Japanese enri
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

圓融


圆融

see styles
Mandarin yuán róng / yuan2 rong2
Taiwan yüan jung
Japanese enyū
Chinese accommodating; (Buddhism) completely integrated
Complete combination; the absolute in the relative and vice versa; the identity of apparent contraries; perfect harmony among all differences, as in water and waves, passion and enlightenment, transmigration and nirvāṇa, or life and death, etc.; all are of the same fundamental nature, all are bhūtatathatā, and bhūtatathatā is all; waves are one with waves, and water is one with water, and water and wave are one; completely interpenetrated

圓行


圆行

see styles
Mandarin yuán xíng / yuan2 xing2
Taiwan yüan hsing
Japanese engyou / engyo / えんぎょう
Japanese (surname) Engyou
The conduct or discipline of the Tiantai 'perfect' school; practices in the perfect teaching

圓覺


圆觉

see styles
Mandarin yuán jué / yuan2 jue2
Taiwan yüan chüeh
Japanese engaku
Complete enlightenment potentially present in each being, for all have 本覺 primal awareness, or 眞心 the true heart (e. g. conscience), which has always remained pure and shining; considered as essence it is the 一心 one mind, considered causally it is the Tathāgata-garbha, considered it is|| perfect enlightenment, cf. 圓覺經.

圓觀


圆观

see styles
Mandarin yuán guān / yuan2 guan1
Taiwan yüan kuan
Japanese enkan / えんかん
Japanese (personal name) Enkan
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

圓詮


圆诠

see styles
Mandarin yuán quán / yuan2 quan2
Taiwan yüan ch`üan / yüan chüan
Japanese ensen
Exposition of the perfect or all-embracing doctrine, as found in the Huayan and Lotus Sūtras; exposition of the perfect teaching

圓足


圆足

see styles
Mandarin yuán zú / yuan2 zu2
Taiwan yüan tsu
Japanese en soku
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

圓道


圆道

see styles
Mandarin yuán dào / yuan2 dao4
Taiwan yüan tao
Japanese endou / endo / えんどう
Japanese (surname) Endou
The perfect way (of the three principles of Tiantai, v. above); perfect path

圓音


圆音

see styles
Mandarin yuán yīn / yuan2 yin1
Taiwan yüan yin
Japanese en'on
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

圓頓


圆顿

see styles
Mandarin yuán dùn / yuan2 dun4
Taiwan yüan tun
Japanese enton
Complete and immediate, i.e. to comprehend the three principles 空假中 at one and the same time, cf. 圓教; perfect and sudden

如來


如来

see styles
Mandarin rú lái / ru2 lai2
Taiwan ju lai
Japanese nyorai / にょらい
Chinese tathagata (Buddha's name for himself, having many layers of meaning - Sanskrit: thus gone, having been Brahman, gone to the absolute etc)
Japanese (out-dated kanji) Tathagata; perfected one (suffix of high-ranking Buddhist deities)
tathāgata, 多陀阿伽陀 q. v.; 怛他揭多 defined as he who comes as do all other Buddhas; or as he who took the 眞如 zhenru or absolute way of cause and effect, and attained to perfect wisdom; or as the absolute come; one of the highest titles of a Buddha. It is the Buddha in his nirmāṇakāya, i. e. his 'transformation' or corporeal manifestation descended on earth. The two kinds of Tathāgata are (1) 在纏 the Tathāgata in bonds, i. e. limited and subject to the delusions and sufferings of life, and (2) 出纏 unlimited and free from them. There are numerous sutras and śāstras bearing this title of 如來 rulai.

娑度

see styles
Mandarin suō dù / suo1 du4
Taiwan so tu
Japanese shado
sādhu, good, virtuous, perfect, a sage, saint, tr. 善 good; (Skt. sādhu)

完了

see styles
Mandarin wán le / wan2 le5
Taiwan wan le
Japanese wanra / ワンラ    kanryou / kanryo / かんりょう
Chinese to be finished; to be done for; ruined; gone to the dogs; oh no
Japanese end (chi: wánliǎo); completion; (n,vs,adj-no) (1) (See 完了形,完了相) completion; conclusion; (2) {ling} perfect (tense, form, aspect)

完人

see styles
Mandarin wán rén / wan2 ren2
Taiwan wan jen
Japanese matahito / またひと    kanto / かんと
Chinese perfect person
Japanese (personal name) Matahito; (personal name) Kanto

完善

see styles
Mandarin wán shàn / wan2 shan4
Taiwan wan shan
Chinese perfect; to make perfect; to improve

完壁

see styles
Japanese kanpeki / かんぺき    kanbeki / かんべき Japanese (irregular kanji usage) (adjectival noun) perfect; complete; flawless; (irregular kanji usage) (ik) (adjectival noun) perfect; complete; flawless

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This page contains 100 results for "perfect" in Chinese and/or Japanese.



Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).



Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

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Japanese Kanji Dictionary

Free Asian Dictionary

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