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Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition



see styles
Mandarin sān dì / san1 di4
Taiwan san ti
Japanese santai;sandai / さんたい;さんだい
Japanese {Buddh} threefold truth (all things are void; all things are temporary; all things are in the middle state between these two) (in Tendai)
The three dogmas. The "middle" school of Tiantai says 卽空, 卽假. 卽中 i.e. 就是空, 假, 中; (a) by 空śūnya is meant that things causally produced are intheir essential nature unreal (or immaterial) 實空無; (b) 假, though thingsare unreal in their essential nature their derived forms are real; (c) 中;but both are one, being of the one 如 reality. These three dogmas arefounded on a verse of Nāgārjuna's— 因緣所生法, 我說卽是空 亦爲是假名, 亦是中道義 "All causally produced phenomena, I say, areunreal, Are but a passing name, and indicate the 'mean'." There are otherexplanations— the 圓教 interprets the 空 and 假 as 中; the 別教 makes 中 independent. 空 is the all, i.e. the totality of all things, and is spokenof as the 眞 or 實 true, or real; 假 is the differentiation of all thingsand is spoken of as 俗 common, i.e. things as commonly named; 中 is theconnecting idea which makes a unity of both, e.g. "all are but parts of onestupendous whole." The 中 makes all and the all into one whole, unifying thewhole and its parts. 空 may be taken as the immaterial, the undifferentiatedall, the sum of existences, by some as the tathāgatagarbha 如來藏; 假as theunreal, or impermanent, the material or transient form, the temporal thatcan be named, the relative or discrete; 中 as the unifier, which places eachin the other and all in all. The "shallower" 山外 school associated 空 and 中 with the noumenal universe as opposed to the phenomenal and illusoryexistence represented by 假. The "profounder" 山内 school teaches that allthree are aspects of the same; threefold truth


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Mandarin xīn yìn / xin1 yin4
Taiwan hsin yin
Japanese shinnin
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Mental impression, intuitive certainty; the mind is the Buddha-mind in all, which can seal or assure the truth; the term indicates the intuitive method of the 禪 Ch' an (Zen) school, which was independent of the spoken or written word; mind-seal



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Mandarin wú wǒ / wu2 wo3
Taiwan wu wo
Japanese muga / むが
Chinese anatta (Buddhist concept of "non-self")
Japanese (1) selflessness; self-effacement; self-renunciation; (2) {Buddh} anatta; anatman; doctrine that states that humans do not possess souls; (female given name) Muga
anātman; nairātmya; no ego, no soul (of an independent and self-contained character), impersonal, no individual independent existence (of conscious or unconscious beings, anātmaka). The empirical ego is merely an aggregation of various elements, and with their disintegration it ceases to exist; therefore it has nm ultimate reality of its own, but the Nirvāṇa Sūtra asserts the reality of the ego in the transcendental realm. The non-Buddhist definition of ego is that it has permanent individuality 常一之體 and is independent or sovereign 有主宰之用. When applied to men it is 人我, when to things it is 法我. Cf. 常 11; no-self


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Japanese dokuji / どくじ
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Japanese (adj-no,adj-na,n) (1) original; unique; distinctive; characteristic; peculiar; (2) independent; one's own; personal



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Mandarin dú lì / du2 li4
Taiwan tu li
Chinese independent; independence; to stand alone
Japanese See: 独立



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Mandarin dú zì / du2 zi4
Taiwan tu tzu
Japanese dokuji
Chinese alone



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Mandarin kōng wú / kong1 wu2
Taiwan k`ung wu / kung wu
Japanese kūmu
Unreality, or immateriality, of things, which is defined as nothing existing of independent or self-contained nature; emptiness


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Japanese dokuritsushin / どくりつしん
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Japanese independent spirit

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Mandarin xìng / xing4
Taiwan hsing
Japanese narikuse / なりくせ    sei / se / せい    shou / sho / しょう
Chinese nature; character; property; quality; attribute; sexuality; sex; gender; suffix forming adjective from verb; suffix forming noun from adjective, corresponding to -ness or -ity; essence; CL:個|个[ge4]
Japanese (archaism) (obscure) disposition; nature; character; (1) nature (of a person); (2) sex; (3) gender; (suffix) (4) (indicating quality or condition) -ty; -ity; -ness; -cy; (n,n-suf) (1) nature (of a person or thing); (2) {Buddh} that which does not change according to external influences; (surname) Shou
svabhāva, prakṛti, pradhāna. The nature intp. as embodied, causative, unchanging; also as independent or self-dependent; fundamental nature behind the manifestation or expression. Also, the Buddha-nature immanent in all beings, the Buddha heart or mind.

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Mandarin/ du2
Taiwan tu
Japanese doku
Chinese alone; independent; single; sole; only
Only, alone, solitary.

see styles
Mandarin shǎi // sè / shai3 // se4
Taiwan shai // se
Japanese shoku / しょく    shiki / しき    iro / いろ
Chinese color; dice; color; CL:種|种[zhong3]; look; appearance; sex
Japanese (counter) counter for colours; (1) {Buddh} (See 五蘊) rupa (form); (2) visible objects (i.e. color and form); (1) colour; color; hue; tint; tinge; shade; (2) complexion; skin colour; skin color; (3) look (on one's face); expression; (4) appearance; air; feeling; (5) personality; character; (6) tone (of one's voice, etc.); tune; sound; ring; (7) (See 色仕掛け) love; lust; sensuality; love affair; (8) lover; paramour; (9) beauty; sexiness; physical appeal; (10) (also written 種) kind; type; variety; (female given name) Shiki; (surname) Iro
rūpa, outward appearance, form, colour, matter, thing; the desirable, especially feminine attraction. It is defined as that which has resistance; or which changes and disappears, i. e. the phenomenal; also as 顯, 形 and 表色 colour and quality, form or the measurable, and mode or action. There are divisions of two, i. e. inner and outer, as the organs and objects of sense; also colour and form; of three, i. e. the visible object, e. g. colour, the invisible object, e. g. sound, the invisible and immaterial; of eleven, i. e. the five organs and five objects of sense and the immaterial object; of fourteen, the five organs and five objects of sense and the four elements, earth, water, fire, air. rūpa is one of the six bāhya-āyatana, the 六塵; also one of the five skandhas, 五蘊, i. e. the 色身. Keith refers to rūpa as 'material form or matter which is underived (no-utpādā) and which is derived (utpādā)', the underived or independent being the tangible; the derived or dependent being the senses, e. g. of hearing; most of their objects, e. g. sound; the qualities or faculties of feminity, masculinity, vitality; intimation by act and speech, space; qualities of matter, e. g. buoyancy and physical nutriment.

see styles
Mandarin/ ci2
Taiwan tz`u / tzu
Japanese shi / し
Chinese word; statement; speech; lyrics; CL:組|组[zu3],個|个[ge4]; a form of lyric poetry, flourishing in the Song dynasty 宋朝|宋朝[Song4 chao2]; CL:首[shou3]
Japanese (1) words; writing; lyrics; (2) (See 填詞) ci (form of Chinese poetry); (3) (See 辞・3) independent word; (female given name) Kotoba
An expression, phrase, word; speech

see styles
Mandarin/ li2
Taiwan li
Japanese ri / り
Chinese to leave; to part from; to be away from; (in giving distances) from; without (something); independent of; one of the Eight Trigrams 八卦[ba1 gua4], symbolizing fire; ☲; surname Li
Japanese li (one of the trigrams of the I Ching: fire, south); (surname) Mato; (place-name) Hanare
To leave, part from, apart from. abandon; translit. li, le, r, re, rai; to separate



see styles
Mandarin sān yè / san1 ye4
Taiwan san yeh
Japanese sangou / sango / さんごう    sangyou / sangyo / さんぎょう
Japanese {Buddh} (See 身口意) three activities (action, speech and thought); the three entertainment district enterprises: eating houses, geisha houses, meeting places for assignations, etc.
trividha-dvāra. The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, 身, 口, 意. (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) 漏業 Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma of neither, independent of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are other groups of three; three activities


see styles
Mandarin èr wǒ / er4 wo3
Taiwan erh wo
Japanese niga
(二我見) The two erroneous views of individualism: (a) 人我見 The erroneous view that there is an independent human personality or soul, and (b) 法我見 the like view that anything exists with an independent nature.



see styles
Mandarin rén zhí / ren2 zhi2
Taiwan jen chih
Japanese ninshū
The (false) tenet of a soul, or ego, or permanent individual, i.e. that the individual is real, the ego an independent unit and not a mere combination of the five skandhas produced by cause and in effect disintegrating; v. 我執; attachment to selfhood


see styles
Japanese bussho / ぶっしょ Japanese (1) place containing a Buddhist image; (2) (See 極楽・1,浄土) place containing a buddha (e.g. the pure land); (3) (See 造仏所) independent workshop of Buddhist sculptors (from the Heian period onward); (place-name) Bussho


see styles
Japanese oreryuu / oreryu / おれりゅう Japanese (masculine speech) one's own way of thinking; one's independent approach


see styles
Mandarin fēn lì / fen1 li4
Taiwan fen li
Japanese bunritsu / ぶんりつ
Chinese to establish as separate entities; to divide (a company etc) into independent entities; discrete; separate; separation (of powers etc)
Japanese (noun/participle) segregation; separation; independence



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Mandarin gē jù / ge1 ju4
Taiwan ko chü
Chinese to set up an independent regime; to secede; segmentation; division; fragmentation


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Mandarin shí zhàng / shi2 zhang4
Taiwan shih chang
Japanese jisshō
Ten hindrances; bodhisattvas in the stage of 十地 overcome these ten hindrances and realize the十眞如 q.v. The hindrances are: (1) 異生性障 the hindrance of the common illusions of the unenlightened, taking the seeming for real; (2) 邪行障 the hindrance of common unenlightened conduct; (3) 暗鈍障 the hindrance of ignorant and dull ideas; (4) 細惑現行障 the hindrance of the illusion that things are real and have independent existence; (5)下乘涅槃障 the hindrance of the lower ideals in Hīnayāna of nirvāṇa; (6) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the ordinary ideas of the pure and impure; (7) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the idea of reincarnation; (8) 無相加行障 the hindrance of the continuance of activity even in the formless world; (9) 不欲行障 the hindrance of no desire to act for the salvation of others; (10) 法未自在障 the hindrance of non- attainment of complete mastery of all things. v. 唯識論 10.


see styles
Mandarin sì lì / si4 li4
Taiwan ssu li
Japanese shiriki
The four powers for attaining enlightenment: independent personal power; power derived from others; power of past good karma; and power arising from environment.



see styles
Mandarin sì zhí / si4 zhi2
Taiwan ssu chih
Japanese shishū
The four erroneous tenets; also 四邪; 四迷; 四術; there are two groups: I. The four of the 外道 outsiders, or non-Buddhists, i. e. of Brahminism, concerning the law of cause and effect: (1) 邪因邪果 heretical theory of causation, e. g. creation by Mahesvara; (2) 無因有果 or 自然, effect independent of cause, e. g. creation without a cause, or spontaneous generation; (3) 有因無果 cause without effect, e. g. no future life as the result of this. (4) 無因無果 neither cause nor effect, e. g. that rewards and punishments are independent of morals. II. The four erroneous tenets of 內外道 insiders and outsiders, Buddhist and Brahman, also styled 四宗 the four schools, as negated in the 中論 Mādhyamika śāstra: (1) outsiders, who do not accept either the 人 ren or 法 fa ideas of 空 kong; (2) insiders who hold the Abhidharma or Sarvāstivādāḥ tenet, which recognizes 人空 human impersonality, but not 法空 the unreality of things; (3) also those who hold the 成實 Satyasiddhi tenet which discriminates the two meanings of 空 kong but not clearly; and also (4) those in Mahāyāna who hold the tenet of the realists; four mistaken attachments



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Mandarin sì jìng / si4 jing4
Taiwan ssu ching
Japanese yotsukagami / よつかがみ
Japanese (surname) Yotsukagami
The four resemblances between a mirror and the bhūtatathatā in the Awakening of Faith 起信論. The bhūtatathatā, like the mirror, is independent of all beings, reveals all objects, is not hindered by objects, and serves all beings; four mirror metaphors


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Mandarin tǔ bāng / tu3 bang1
Taiwan t`u pang / tu pang
Chinese native state (term used by British Colonial power to refer to independent states of India or Africa)



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Mandarin duō luō / duo1 luo1
Taiwan to lo
Japanese tara / たら
Japanese (1) (abbreviation) (See 多羅樹) palmyra; (2) (abbreviation) (See 多羅葉) lusterleaf holly; (3) patra (silver incense dish placed in front of a Buddhist statue); (surname, female given name) Tara
tārā, in the sense of starry, or scintillation; Tāla, for the fan-palm; Tara, from 'to pass over', a ferry, etc. Tārā, starry, piercing, the eye, the pupil; the last two are both Sanskrit and Chinese definitions; it is a term applied to certain female deities and has been adopted especially by Tibetan Buddhism for certain devīs of the Tantric school. The origin of the term is also ascribed to tar meaning 'to cross', i. e. she who aids to cross the sea of mortality. Getty, 19-27. The Chinese derivation is the eye; the tara devīs; either as śakti or independent, are little known outside Lamaism. Tāla is the palmyra, or fan-palm, whose leaves are used for writing and known as 具多 Pei-to, pattra. The tree is described as 70 or 80 feet high, with fruit like yellow rice-seeds; the borassus eabelliformis; a measure of 70 feet. Taras, from to cross over, also means a ferry, and a bank, or the other shore. Also 呾囉; a palm [leaf ; tree]


see styles
Mandarin gū gāo / gu1 gao1
Taiwan ku kao
Japanese kokou / koko / ここう
Chinese arrogant
Japanese (adj-no,n,adj-na) aloof; proudly independent; standing apart; solitary


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Mandarin jì mò / ji4 mo4
Taiwan chi mo
Japanese sekibaku / せきばく    jakumaku / じゃくまく
Chinese lonely; lonesome; (of a place) quiet; silent
Japanese (1) loneliness; desolation; (adj-t,adv-to,adj-no) (2) lonely; lonesome; dreary; desolate; deserted; (3) harsh (words); cutting (criticism); (noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru) (4) to separate in thought; to consider as independent


see styles
Japanese sekibaku / せきばく    jakumaku / じゃくまく Japanese (irregular kanji usage) (1) loneliness; desolation; (adj-t,adv-to,adj-no) (2) lonely; lonesome; dreary; desolate; deserted; (3) harsh (words); cutting (criticism); (noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru) (4) to separate in thought; to consider as independent


see styles
Mandarin lián shǔ / lian2 shu3
Taiwan lien shu
Chinese ICAC Independent Commission Against Corruption, Hong Kong


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Mandarin sǎn kè / san3 ke4
Taiwan san k`o / san ko
Chinese FIT (free independent traveler); individual traveler (as opposed to traveling with a group)



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Mandarin wén lái / wen2 lai2
Taiwan wen lai
Chinese Brunei Darussalam, independent sultanate in northwest Borneo



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Mandarin wèn lái / wen4 lai2
Taiwan wen lai
Chinese Brunei Darussalam, independent sultanate in northwest Borneo; also written 文萊|文莱


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Mandarin fǎ wǒ / fa3 wo3
Taiwan fa wo
Japanese hōga
A thing per se, i. e. the false notion of anything being a thing in itself, individual, independent, and not merely composed of elements to be disintegrated. 法我見 The false view as above, cf. 我見.



see styles
Mandarin wú zhù / wu2 zhu4
Taiwan wu chu
Japanese mujuu / muju / むじゅう
Japanese temple lacking a priest; (personal name) Mujuu
Not abiding; impermanence; things having no independent nature of their own, they have no real existence as separate entities; non-abiding



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Mandarin wú zuò / wu2 zuo4
Taiwan wu tso
Japanese musa
Not creating; uncreated; not doing; inactive, physically or mentally; independent of action, word, or will i.e. natural, intuitive.



see styles
Mandarin wú xìng / wu2 xing4
Taiwan wu hsing
Japanese musei / muse / むせい
Chinese sexless; asexual (reproduction)
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) asexual
Without a nature, nothing has an independent nature of its own; cf. 三無性.



see styles
Mandarin wú zhī / wu2 zhi1
Taiwan wu chih
Japanese muchi / むち
Chinese ignorant; ignorance
Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) ignorance; innocence; stupidity
Ignorant; ignorance; absence of perception. Also, ultimate wisdom considered as static, and independent of differentiation; not knowing



see styles
Mandarin wú yuán / wu2 yuan2
Taiwan wu yüan
Japanese muen
Chinese to have no opportunity; no way (of doing something); no chance; no connection; not placed (in a competition); (in pop lyrics) no chance of love, no place to be together etc
Causeless, without immediate causal connection, uncaused, underived, independent; unconditioned



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Mandarin dú tóu / du2 tou2
Taiwan tu t`ou / tu tou
Japanese dokuzu



see styles
Mandarin dú tǐ / du2 ti3
Taiwan tu t`i / tu ti
Chinese autonomous body; independent system



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Mandarin zhēn shí / zhen1 shi2
Taiwan chen shih
Japanese shinshiki
Buddha-wisdom; the original unadulterated, or innocent mind in all, which is independent of birth and death; cf. 楞伽經 and 起信論. Real knowledge free from illusion, the sixth vijñāna; true consciousness; real consciousness



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Mandarin yuán qǐ / yuan2 qi3
Taiwan yüan ch`i / yüan chi
Japanese engi
Chinese origin
Arising from conditional causation; everything arises from conditions, and not being spontaneous and self-contained has no separate and independent nature; cf. 緣生. It is a fundamental doctrine of the Huayan school, which defines four principal uses of the term: (1) 業感緣起 that of the Hīnayāna, i.e. under the influence of karma the conditions of reincarnation arise; (2) 賴耶緣起 that of the primitive Mahāyāna school, i.e. that all things arise from the ālaya, or 藏 fundamental store; (3) 如來藏緣起 that of the advancing Mahāyāna, that all things arise from the tathāgatagarbha, or bhūtatathatā; (4) 法界緣起 that of complete Mahāyāna, in which one is all and all are one, each being a universal cause.


see styles
Mandarin zì zhǔ / zi4 zhu3
Taiwan tzu chu
Japanese jishu / じしゅ
Chinese independent; to act for oneself; autonomous
Japanese (noun/participle) independence; autonomy; self-reliance


see styles
Japanese jiei / jie / じえい Japanese (n,vs,adj-no) independent; self-employed; self-supporting; operating own business


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Mandarin zì zai / zi4 zai5
Taiwan tzu tsai
Japanese jizai / じざい
Chinese free; unrestrained; comfortable; at ease
Japanese (adj-na,n,adj-no) freely; at will; (surname) Shizai
Īśvara , 伊濕伐邏; can, king, master, sovereign, independent, royal; intp. as free from resistance; also, the mind free from delusion; in the Avataṃsaka Sūtra it translates vasitā. There are several groups of this independence, or sovereignty— 2, 4, 5, 8, and 10, e. g. the 2 are that a bodhisattva has sovereign knowledge and sovereign power; the others are categories of a bodhisattva's sovereign powers. For the eight powers v. 八大自在我.


see styles
Mandarin zì lì / zi4 li4
Taiwan tzu li
Japanese jiritsu / じりつ
Chinese independent; self-reliant; self-sustaining; to stand on one's own feet; to support oneself
Japanese (n,vs,adj-no) independence; self-reliance



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Mandarin zì yǎng / zi4 yang3
Taiwan tzu yang
Chinese self-sustaining; economically independent (of state aid, foreign subsidy etc)


see styles
Japanese fukubun / ふくぶん Japanese {ling} complex sentence; sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause



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Mandarin dá mó / da2 mo2
Taiwan ta mo
Japanese daruma(p);daruma / だるま(P);ダルマ
Japanese (1) (kana only) daruma; tumbling doll; round, red-painted good-luck doll in the shape of Bodhidharma, with a blank eye to be completed when a person's wish is granted; (2) (kana only) Bodhidharma; (3) prostitute; (personal name) Daruma; (given name) Tatsumaro; (surname) Tatsuma
dharma; also 達摩; 達麼; 達而麻耶; 曇摩; 馱摩 tr. by 法. dharma is from dhara, holding, bearing, possessing, etc.; and means 'that which is to be held fast or kept, ordinance, statute, law, usage, practice'; 'anything right.' M.W. It may be variously intp. as (1) characteristic, attribute, predicate; (2) the bearer, the transcendent substratum of single elements of conscious life; (3) element, i.e. a part of conscious life; (4) nirvāṇa, i.e. the Dharma par excellence, the object of Buddhist teaching; (5) the absolute, the real; (6) the teaching or religion of Buddha; (7) thing, object, appearance. Also, Damo, or Bodhidharma, the twenty-eighth Indian and first Chinese patriarch, who arrived in China A.D. 520, the reputed founder of the Chan or Intuitional School in China. He is described as son of a king in southern India; originally called Bodhitara. He arrived at Guangdong, bringing it is said the sacred begging-bowl, and settled in Luoyang, where he engaged in silent meditation for nine years, whence he received the title of wall-gazing Brahman 壁觀婆羅門, though he was a kṣatriya. His doctrine and practice were those of the 'inner light', independent of the written word, but to 慧可 Huike, his successor, he commended the Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra as nearest to his views. There are many names with Dharma as initial: Dharmapāla, Dharmagupta, Dharmayaśas, Dharmaruci, Dharmarakṣa, Dharmatrāta, Dharmavardhana, etc.


see styles
Mandarin chóng wén / chong2 wen2
Taiwan ch`ung wen / chung wen
Japanese juubun / jubun / じゅうぶん
Chinese repetitious passage; multiple variants of Chinese characters
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) (1) {ling} compound sentence; sentenced formed of two independent clauses; (2) (abbreviation) (See 重要文化財) important cultural property; important cultural asset; (given name) Shigebumi; (given name) Shigefumi


see styles
Japanese oreryuu / oreryu / オレりゅう Japanese (masculine speech) one's own way of thinking; one's independent approach


see styles
Mandarin bù gòng dé / bu4 gong4 de2
Taiwan pu kung te
Japanese fugū toku
independent attributes; independent attributes


see styles
Mandarin bù zì zai / bu4 zi4 zai5
Taiwan pu tzu tsai
Japanese fu jizai
Chinese uneasiness; feel uncomfortable
Not independent, not one's own master, under governance; insovereign


see styles
Japanese shutaiteki / しゅたいてき Japanese (adjectival noun) (1) independent; responsible; active; proactive; (2) (See 主観的) subjective


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Mandarin yī tā xìng / yi1 ta1 xing4
Taiwan i t`a hsing / i ta hsing
Japanese eta shō
(依他起性) Not having an independent nature, not a nature of its own, but constituted of elements; other-dependent in nature



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Mandarin fù shěng jí / fu4 sheng3 ji2
Taiwan fu sheng chi
Chinese sub-provincial (not provincial status, but independent)


see styles
Japanese handokuritsu / はんどくりつ Japanese semi-independent



see styles
Mandarin sì jù zhí / si4 ju4 zhi2
Taiwan ssu chü chih
Japanese shikushū
The four tenets held by various non-Buddhist schools: (1) the permanence of the ego, i. e. that the ego of past lives is the ego of the present; (2) its impermanence, i. e. that the present ego is of independent birth; (3) both permanent and impermanent, that the ego is permanent, the body impermanent; (4) neither permanent nor impermanent; that the body is impermanent but the ego not impermanent; four statements of attachment


see styles
Mandarin dà zì zài / da4 zi4 zai4
Taiwan ta tzu tsai
Japanese daijizai / だいじざい
Japanese {Buddh} complete freedom; great freedom; great unhinderedness
Īśvara, self-existent, sovereign, independent, absolute, used of Buddhas and bodhisattvas; great freedom



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Mandarin dà jí jīng / da4 ji2 jing1
Taiwan ta chi ching
Japanese Daijikkyō
Mahāsaṃghata-sūtra 大方等大集經 The sūtra of the great assembly of Bodhisattvas from 十方 every direction, and of the apocalpytic sermons delivered to them by the Buddha; 60 juan, tr. in parts at various times by various translators. There are several works connected with it and others independent, e.g. 大集須彌藏經, 大集日藏經 (and 大集月藏經) , 大集經賢 護, 大集會正法經, 大集譬喩王經, etc.


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Japanese sudachi / すだち Japanese (1) leaving the nest; (2) going out into the world; becoming independent


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Japanese subanare / すばなれ Japanese (noun/participle) (See 巣立つ・すだつ) leaving the nest; becoming independent of one's parents


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Mandarin yì chéng tiān / yi4 cheng2 tian1
Taiwan i ch`eng t`ien / i cheng tien
Japanese ijō ten
Devas independent of the nourishment of the realms of form and formlessness, who live only in the realm of mind; mind-made celestials



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Mandarin zhé zi xì / zhe2 zi5 xi4
Taiwan che tzu hsi
Chinese opera highlights performed as independent pieces


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Mandarin mó lì zhī / mo2 li4 zhi1
Taiwan mo li chih
Japanese marishi / まりし
Japanese {Buddh} Marici
(or 摩梨支, or 摩里支); 末利支 Marīci. Rays of light, the sun's rays, said to go before the sun; mirage; also intp. as a wreath. A goddess, independent and sovereign, protectress against all violence and peril. 'In Brahmanic mythology, the personification of light, offspring of Brahmā, parent of Sūrya.' 'Among Chinese Buddhists Maritchi is represented as a female with eight arms, two of which are holding aloft emblems of sun and moon, and worshipped as goddess of light and as the guardian of all nations, whom she protects from the fury of war. She is addressed as 天后 queen of heaven, or as 斗姥 lit. mother of the Southern measure (μλρστζ Sagittarī), and identified with Tchundi' and 'with Mahēśvarī, the wife of Maheśvara, and has therefore the attribute Mātrikā', mother of Buddhas. Eitel. Taoists address her as Queen of Heaven.


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Mandarin kē wén zhé / ke1 wen2 zhe2
Taiwan k`o wen che / ko wen che
Chinese Ko Wen-je (1959-), Taiwanese independent politician, Mayor of Taipei City from 2014



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Mandarin fǎ wú wǒ / fa3 wu2 wo3
Taiwan fa wu wo
Japanese hō muga
dharmanairātmya. Things are without independent individuality, i.e. the tenet that things have no independent reality, no reality in themselves. 法無我智 The knowledge or wisdom of the above.


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Japanese mushozoku / むしょぞく Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) independent (esp. in politics); non-partisan



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Mandarin wú zì xìng / wu2 zi4 xing4
Taiwan wu tzu hsing
Japanese mu jishō
asvabhāva; without self-nature, without a nature of its own, no individual nature; all things are without 自然性 individual nature or independent existence, being composed of elements which disintegrate; lacking self-nature



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Mandarin wú dǎng pài / wu2 dang3 pai4
Taiwan wu tang p`ai / wu tang pai
Chinese politically unaffiliated; independent (candidate)


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Japanese dokuritsukoku / どくりつこく Japanese independent state or nation


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Japanese dokuritsushi / どくりつし Japanese independent city; city that is not part of another local government entity


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Japanese dokuritsugo / どくりつご Japanese an independent word


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Japanese dokkousen / dokkosen / どっこうせん Japanese independent fishing boat



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Mandarin dú lì bào / du2 li4 bao4
Taiwan tu li pao
Chinese The Independent



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Mandarin dú lián tǐ / du2 lian2 ti3
Taiwan tu lien t`i / tu lien ti
Chinese Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union); abbr. for 獨立國家聯合體|独立国家联合体



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Mandarin jī jiāng nà / ji1 jiang1 na4
Taiwan chi chiang na
Japanese Keikyōna
Kikana. 'A people in Afghanistan (east of Kandahar, south of Ghazna) ruled A.D. 630 by independent chieftains, perhaps identical with the Kykānān of Arabic chroniclers.' Eitel.


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Japanese ketsugouhan / ketsugohan / けつごうはん Japanese single crime consisting of multiple independent crimes (i.e. robbery, which consists of theft and threats or use of violence)


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Japanese datsusara;dassara / だつサラ;だっサラ Japanese (noun/participle) (See サラ・2) setting oneself free from the life of a white-collar worker; quitting a job as a salaryman and launching an independent business


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Japanese jishuteki / じしゅてき Japanese (adjectival noun) independent; autonomous; voluntary; of one's own initiative


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Japanese jieigyou / jiegyo / じえいぎょう Japanese independent business; self-employment


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Japanese jiritsugo / じりつご Japanese {ling} independent word; free-standing Japanese language elements (not auxiliaries or particles)



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Mandarin zì biàn liàng / zi4 bian4 liang4
Taiwan tzu pien liang
Chinese independent variable



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Mandarin ā pí yà / a1 pi2 ya4
Taiwan a p`i ya / a pi ya
Chinese Apia, capital of the Independent State of Samoa


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Japanese hijiritsu / ひじりつ Japanese (can act as adjective) not independent


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Japanese shiiaiesu / shiaiesu / シーアイエス Japanese (1) (See 独立国家共同体) Commonwealth of Independent States; CIS; (2) critical incident stress; CIS


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Japanese aitiishii / aitishi / アイティーシー Japanese (1) International Trade Commission; ITC; (2) Independent Television Commission; ITC; (3) International Trade Center; ITC; (4) integrated traffic control; ITC; (5) inclusive tour charter; (6) IT coordinator


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Japanese hachikin / はちきん Japanese (tsb:) strong independent Japanese woman from the Kochi area


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Japanese hitoridachi / ひとりだち Japanese (noun/participle) being independent; standing on one's own; becoming independent


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Japanese ichijidokuritsu / いちじどくりつ Japanese (adjectival noun) {math} linearly independent


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Mandarin sān shí ér lì / san1 shi2 er2 li4
Taiwan san shih erh li
Chinese thirty years old and therefore independent (idiom, from Confucius)


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Japanese fukidokuritsu / ふきどくりつ Japanese (yoji) free and independent



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Mandarin èr nǎi zhuān jiā / er4 nai3 zhuan1 jia1
Taiwan erh nai chuan chia
Chinese "mercenary expert", a person who is supposedly an independent expert, but receives payment for making comments favorable to a particular entity



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Mandarin yī yè bō luō / yi1 ye4 bo1 luo1
Taiwan i yeh po lo
Japanese Ishōhara
Iśvara 伊溼伐羅 (1) King, sovereign; Siva and others; intp. by 自在 self-existing, independent; applied to Guanyin and other popular deities. (2) A śramaṇa of the West, learned in the Tripiṭaka, who inter alia translated A. D. 426 Samyuktābhidharma-hṛdaya-śāstra, lost since A. D. 730. (3) A bhikṣu of India, commentator on 菩提資糧論 attributed to Nāgārjuna, tr. by Dharmagupta, A. D. 590-616.


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Japanese kirihanatsu / きりはなつ Japanese (transitive verb) (1) to cut loose; to let loose; to cut off; to detach; to dismember; to cut in two; (2) to separate in thought; to consider as independent


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Japanese tandokukoudou / tandokukodo / たんどくこうどう Japanese independent action


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Mandarin sì rú yì zú / si4 ru2 yi4 zu2
Taiwan ssu ju i tsu
Japanese shi nyoi soku
四神足 ṛddhi-pāda; the third group of the 三十七科道品 bodhi-pakṣikadharma; the four steps to supernatural powers, making the body independent of ordinary or natural law. The four steps are said to be the 四種禪定 four kinds of dhyāna, but there are several definitions, e. g. 欲神足 chanda-ṛddhi-pāda, desire (or intensive longing, or concentration); 勤神足 virya-ṛddhi-pāda, energy (or intensified effort); 心神足 citta-ṛddhi-pāda, memory (or intense holding on to the position reached); 觀神足 mīmāṃsa-ṛddhi-pāda., meditation (or survey, the state of dhyāna); the four supernatural powers


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Mandarin lián zhèng gōng shǔ / lian2 zheng4 gong1 shu3
Taiwan lien cheng kung shu
Chinese Independent Commission Against Corruption, Hong Kong (ICAC)



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Mandarin běn bù shēng jì / ben3 bu4 sheng1 ji4
Taiwan pen pu sheng chi
Japanese hon pushō zai
The original status of no rebirth, i. e. every man has a naturally pure heart, which 不生不滅 is independent of the bonds of mortality; ultimate truth of non-production

Entries with 2nd row of characters: The 2nd row is Simplified Chinese.


This page contains 100 results for "independent" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

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Japanese Kanji Dictionary

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