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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
 Definition may be different outside of Buddhism.

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If shown, 2nd row of characters is Simplified Chinese.

Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin lái / lai2
Taiwan lai
Japanese rai / らい    takagi / たかぎ    kuru / くる
Chinese to come; to arrive; to come round; ever since; next
Japanese (female given name) Rai; (surname) Takagi; (surname) Kuru
āgama; āgam-; āgata. Come, the coming, future.

see styles
Mandarin/ ye4
Taiwan yeh
Japanese waza / わざ    gou / go / ごう    gyou / gyo / ぎょう
Chinese line of business; industry; occupation; job; employment; school studies; enterprise; property; (Buddhism) karma; deed; to engage in; already; surname Ye
Japanese deed; act; work; performance; {Buddh} (See 果報) karma (i.e. actions committed in a former life); (n,suf) (1) work; business; company; agency; (2) study; (personal name) Hajime; (surname) Gyou
karman, karma, "action, work, deed"; "moral duty"; "product, result, effect." M.W. The doctrine of the act; deeds and their effects on the character, especially in their relation to succeeding forms of transmigration. The 三業 are thought, word, and deed, each as good, bad, or indifferent. Karma from former lives is 宿業, from present conduct 現業. Karma is moral action that causes future retribution, and either good or evil transmigration. It is also that moral kernel in which each being survives death for further rebirth or metempsychosis. There are categories of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10; the 六業 are rebirth in the hells, or as animals, hungry ghosts, men, devas, or asuras: v. 六趣.



see styles
Mandarin lái shì / lai2 shi4
Taiwan lai shih
Japanese raise
Future world, or rebirth; the future


see styles
Mandarin guāng míng / guang1 ming2
Taiwan kuang ming
Japanese koumyou(p);koumei / komyo(p);kome / こうみょう(P);こうめい
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese light; radiance; (fig.) bright (prospects etc); openhearted
Japanese (1) bright light; (2) hope; bright future; (3) {Buddh} light emanating from a buddha or bodhisattva, symbolizing their wisdom and compassion; (personal name) Mitsuharu; (given name) Mitsuaki; (given name) Teruaki; (g,p) Koumei; (p,s,g) Koumyou
v. last entry; radiance


see styles
Mandarin míng rì / ming2 ri4
Taiwan ming jih
Japanese ashita(p);asu(p);myounichi(p) / ashita(p);asu(p);myonichi(p) / あした(P);あす(P);みょうにち(P)
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese tomorrow
Japanese (temporal noun) (1) tomorrow; (2) (あす only) near future; (female given name) Meibi; (female given name) Meika; (female given name) Mirai; (given name) Myounichi; (personal name) Nukuhi; (surname) Nukui; (female given name) Asuka; (female given name) Asu; (surname, female given name) Ashita; (place-name, surname) Akebi; (surname, female given name) Akehi


see styles
Mandarin chāo rén / chao1 ren2
Taiwan ch`ao jen / chao jen
Japanese choujin / chojin / ちょうじん
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese superhuman; exceptional; Superman, comic book superhero
Japanese (1) superman; superwoman; (2) Ubermensch (e.g. Nietzsche's ideal man of the future); overman



see styles
Mandarin wēn gù zhī xīn / wen1 gu4 zhi1 xin1
Taiwan wen ku chih hsin
Chinese to review the old and know the new (idiom, from the Analects); to recall the past to understand the future
Japanese See: 温故知新



see styles
Mandarin péng chéng wàn lǐ / peng2 cheng2 wan4 li3
Taiwan p`eng ch`eng wan li / peng cheng wan li
Chinese the fabled roc flies ten thousand miles (idiom); one's future prospects are brilliant


see styles
Mandarin qián tú / qian2 tu2
Taiwan ch`ien t`u / chien tu
Japanese zento / ぜんと
Chinese prospects; future outlook; journey
Japanese (1) future; prospects; outlook; (2) journey ahead; distance yet to cover



see styles
Mandarin hòu shì / hou4 shi4
Taiwan hou shih
Japanese kouji / koji / こうじ
Chinese future events; and what happened next... (in fiction); funeral arrangements
Japanese future affairs; affairs after one's death


see styles
Mandarin shǐ / shi3
Taiwan shih
Japanese shi / し
Chinese to make; to cause; to enable; to use; to employ; to send; to instruct sb to do something; envoy; messenger
Japanese (1) messenger; (2) (abbreviation) (See 検非違使) police and judicial chief (Heian and Kamakura periods); (3) {Buddh} (See 煩悩・2) klesha (polluting thoughts such as greed, hatred and delusion, which result in suffering); (female given name) Tsukasa
To send; cause; a messenger; a pursuer, molester, lictor, disturber, troubler, intp. as 煩惱 kleśa, affliction, distress, worldly cares, vexations, and as consequent reincarnation. There are categories of 10, 16, 98, 112, and 128 such troublers, e. g. desire, hate, stupor, pride, doubt, erroneous views, etc., leading to painful results in future rebirths, for they are karma-messengers executing its purpose. Also 金剛童子 q. v; affliction, proclivities

see styles
Mandarin qián / qian2
Taiwan ch`ien / chien
Japanese mae / まえ    zen / ぜん
Chinese front; forward; ahead; first; top (followed by a number); future; ago; before; BC (e.g. 前293年); former; formerly
Japanese (n-adv,n-t,suf) (1) (See 前・ぜん・3) ago; before (some event); previously; (minutes) to (the hour); (2) in front (of); before (e.g. the house); (3) head (of a line); front (e.g. of a bus); fore part; (4) in the presence of; (5) (See 人前・にんまえ) helping; portion; (6) privates; private parts; (prefix noun) (1) the last (i.e. immediately preceding) (e.g. "the last mayor"); previous; one-time; former; (2) (before the name of an era) pre- (e.g. "premodern"); (adj-no,n) (3) (See 前・まえ・1) before; earlier; (personal name) Misaki; (surname) Maehama; (surname) Maezaki; (surname) Maesaki; (surname) Mae; (surname) Zen; (surname) Sen; (surname) Susume; (surname) Susumu; (surname, given name) Saki
pūrva. Before; former, previous; in front.

see styles
Mandarin jié / jie2
Taiwan chieh
Japanese kou;gou;kou / ko;go;ko / こう;ごう;コウ
Chinese to rob; to plunder; to seize by force; to coerce; calamity; abbr. for kalpa 劫波[jie2 bo1]
Japanese (1) (こう, ごう only) {Buddh} kalpa (eon, aeon); (2) (kana only) (usu. コウ) ko (in go); position that allows for eternal capture and recapture of the same stones
刧 A kalpa, aeon, age; also translit. ka; 'a fabulous period of time, a day of Brahmā or 1, 000 Yugas, a period of four hundred and thirty-two million years of mortals, measuring the duration of the world; (a month of Brahmā is supposed to contain thirty such kalpas; according to the Mahābhārata twelve months of Brahmā constitute his year, and one hundred such years his lifetime; fifty years of Brahmā are supposed to have elapsed... ).' M. W. An aeon of incalculable time, therefore called a 大時節 great time-node. v. 劫波.; The three asaṃkhyeya kalpas, the three countless aeons, the period of a bodhisattva's development; also the past 莊嚴劫, the present 賢劫, and the future 星宿劫 kalpas. There are other groups. 三劫三千佛 The thousand Buddhas in each of the three kalpas.

see styles
Mandarin tuàn / tuan4
Taiwan t`uan / tuan
Chinese to foretell the future using the trigrams of the Book of Changes 易經|易经

see styles
Mandarin wǎng / wang3
Taiwan wang
Japanese nobori / のぼり    ou / o / おう
Chinese to go (in a direction); to; towards; (of a train) bound for; past; previous
Japanese (personal name) Nobori; (personal name) Ou
To go; gone, past; to be going to, future.

see styles
Mandarin hòu / hou4
Taiwan hou
Japanese nochi / のち    ato / あと
Chinese back; behind; rear; afterwards; after; later
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) (1) (kana only) later; afterwards; since; (2) (kana only) future; (3) after one's death; (4) (archaism) descendant; (noun - becomes adjective with の) (1) (See 後ずさり) behind; rear; (2) (See その後) after; later; (3) after one's death; (4) remainder; the rest; (5) descendant; successor; heir; (adverbial noun) (6) more (e.g. five more minutes); left; (7) also; in addition; (noun - becomes adjective with の) (8) (archaism) past; previous; (surname) Nochi; (surname) Takago; (surname) Shitori; (surname) Go; (surname) Kou; (surname) Ushiro; (surname) Ato
After, behind, 1ater, posterior.

see styles
Mandarin yǒu / you3
Taiwan yu
Japanese yuu / yu / ゆう    u / う
Chinese to have; there is; there are; to exist; to be
Japanese (1) existence; (n,n-pref) (2) possession; having; (3) (abbreviation) (See 有限会社) limited company; {Buddh} bhava (becoming, existence); (personal name) Yumi; (personal name) Yutaka; (female given name) Yuuri; (personal name) Yuumi; (given name) Yuushun; (given name) Yuu; (female given name) Nao; (surname, female given name) Tamotsu; (given name) Kuniaki; (female given name) Aru; (personal name) Arifuku; (surname) Arisaki; (surname, female given name) Ari; (female given name) Adzusa
bhāva: that which exists, the existing, existence; to have, possess, be. It is defined as (1) the opposite of 無 wu and 空 kong the non-existent; (2) one of the twelve nidānas, existence; the condition which, considered as cause, produces effect; (3) effect, the consequence of cause; (4) anything that can be relied upon in the visible or invisible realm. It means any state which lies between birth and death, or beginning and end. There are numerous categories— 3, 4, 7, 9, 18, 25, and 29. The 三有 are the 三界 trailokya, i. e. 欲, 色 and 無色界 the realms of desire, of form, and of non-form, all of them realms of mortality; another three are 本有 the present body and mind, or existence, 當有 the future ditto, 中有 the intermediate ditto. Other definitions give the different forms or modes of existence.

see styles
Mandarin wèi / wei4
Taiwan wei
Japanese mi / み    hitsuji / ひつじ
Chinese not yet; did not; have not; not; 8th earthly branch: 1-3 p.m., 6th solar month (7th July-6th August), year of the Sheep; ancient Chinese compass point: 210°
Japanese (prefix) not yet; un-; eighth sign of the Chinese zodiac (The Ram, 1pm-3pm, south-southwest, June); (female given name) Mirei; (personal name) Mia; (female given name) Hidemi; (female given name) Hitsuji; (female given name) Saki
Not yet; the future; 1-3 p. m.

see styles
Mandarin/ mo4
Taiwan mo
Japanese matsu / まつ    sue / すえ    ure / うれ    ura / うら
Chinese tip; end; final stage; latter part; inessential detail; powder; dust; opera role of old man
Japanese (n-adv,n) (1) the end of; (2) powder; (1) (See 末・うら) tip; top; (temporal noun) (2) end; close (e.g. close of the month); (noun - becomes adjective with の) (3) (See 末っ子) youngest child; (4) (esp. 〜の末) descendants; offspring; posterity; (temporal noun) (5) future; (6) finally; (noun - becomes adjective with の) (7) trivialities; (archaism) new shoots; new growth (of a tree); (archaism) top end; tip; (surname, given name) Matsu; (given name) Hiroshi; (personal name) Tome; (surname) Suezaki; (surname) Suesaki; (surname, female given name) Sue
Branch, twig; end; dust; not; translit, ma, va, ba; cf. 摩.

see styles
Mandarin dàng // dāng / dang4 // dang1
Taiwan tang
Japanese atari / あたり
Chinese at or in the very same...; suitable; adequate; fitting; proper; to replace; to regard as; to think; to pawn; (coll.) to fail (a student); to be; to act as; manage; withstand; when; during; ought; should; match equally; equal; same; obstruct; just at (a time or place); on the spot; right; just at
Japanese (surname) Atari
Suitable, adequate, equal to; to bear, undertake; ought; proper; to regard as, as; to pawn, put in place of; at, in the future; should be

see styles
Mandarin bēi / bei1
Taiwan pei
Japanese ishibumi / いしぶみ
Chinese a monument; an upright stone tablet; stele; CL:塊|块[kuai4],面[mian4]
Japanese stone monument bearing an inscription (esp. memorial for future generations); stele; stela; (surname) Ishibumi
A stone tablet, or monument.

see styles
Mandarin yào // yāo / yao4 // yao1
Taiwan yao
Japanese you / yo / よう    kaname / かなめ
Chinese important; vital; to want; to ask for; will; going to (as future auxiliary); may; must; (used in a comparison) must be; probably; if; to demand; to request; to coerce
Japanese (1) cornerstone; main point; keystone; (2) requirement; need; (can act as adjective) (3) necessary; required; (1) (kana only) pivot; (2) (kana only) vital point; cornerstone; keystone; (3) (kana only) (See 要黐) Japanese photinia; (surname) Yoshi; (surname, given name) Youkichi; (surname, given name) You; (surname, given name) Motomu; (surname, female given name) Kaname
Important, essential, necessary, strategic; want, need; about to; intercept; coerce; agree, etc.


see styles
Japanese osaki / おさき Japanese going before; the future


see styles
Mandarin yī shì / yi1 shi4
Taiwan i shih
Japanese issei / isse / いっせい    isse / いっせ
Chinese generation; period of 30 years; one's whole lifetime; lifelong; age; era; times; the whole world; the First (of numbered European kings)
Japanese (1) generation; lifetime; (2) the age; the day; (n,n-suf) (3) (after the name of a king, etc.) the First; (4) issei; first-generation Japanese (or Korean, etc.); (1) {Buddh} one generation (past, present, or future); (2) a lifetime; (female given name) Hitoyo; (female given name) Hitose; (female given name) Kazuyo; (male given name) Kazutoshi; (personal name) Kazuse; (female given name) Iyo; (personal name) Itsutoshi; (personal name) Itsuse; (given name) Issei; (given name) Isse; (surname, female given name) Ichiyo; (personal name) Ichinose; (surname) Ichise
one life


see styles
Mandarin sān shì / san1 shi4
Taiwan san shih
Japanese sanze;miyo(ok) / さんぜ;みよ(ok)    sansei / sanse / さんせい
Chinese the Third (of numbered kings)
Japanese (1) {Buddh} past, present and future existences; (2) (さんぜ only) three generations; (1) three generations; (2) third generation (immigrant, monarch, etc.); sansei; (female given name) Miyo; (surname, female given name) Mitsuyo; (personal name) Mitsuse; (personal name) Mise; (given name) Sansei; (personal name) Sanse
The three periods, 過去, 現在, 未來or 過, 現, 未, past, present, and future. The universe is described as eternally in motion, like flowing stream. Also 未生, 巳生,後滅, or 未, 現, 過 unborn, born, dead The 華嚴經 Hua-yen sūtra has a division of ten kinds of past, present, and future i.e. the past spoken of as past, present, and future, the present spoken of in like manner, the future also, with the addition of the present as the three periods in one instant. Also 三際; three times


see styles
Mandarin sān míng / san1 ming2
Taiwan san ming
Japanese sanmyou / sanmyo / さんみょう
Chinese Sanming prefecture level city in Fujian
Japanese {Buddh} (See 宿命通,天眼通,漏尽通) three kinds of awareness; (surname, given name) Mitsuaki; (surname) Miake; (surname) Miaki; (place-name) Sanmei; (place-name) Sanmyou; (surname) Kazuaki
The three insights; also 三達. Applied to Buddhas they are called 三達, to arhats 三明. (a) 宿命明 Insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives; (b) 天眼明 supernatural insight into future mortal conditions; (c) 漏盡明 nirvāṇa insight, i.e. into present mortal sufferings so as to overcome aIl passions or temptations. In the 倶舍論 27 the three are termed 住智識證明; 死生識證明 and 漏盡識證明. For 三明經 v. 長阿含16.


see styles
Mandarin sān zhì / san1 zhi4
Taiwan san chih
Japanese michi / みち    misato / みさと    sanchi / さんち
Japanese (female given name) Michi; (female given name) Misato; (given name) Sanchi
The three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) 一切智 śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that all the dharma or laws are 空 void and unreal; (b) 道種智 bodhisattva-knowledge. of all things in their proper discrimination; (c) 一切種智 Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Tiantai associates the above with 室, 候, 中. (2) (a) 世間智 earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) 出世間智 supra-mundane, or spiritual (śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) 出世間上上智 supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas. v. 智度論 27, 止觀 3, and 概伽經 3. Cf. — 心三智.


see styles
Mandarin sān yǒu / san1 you3
Taiwan san yu
Japanese san'u
The three kinds of bhava, or existence; idem 三界 q. v. The three states of mortal existence in the trailokya, i. e. in the realms of desire, of form, and beyond form. Another definition is 現有 present existence, or the present body and mind; 當有 in a future state; 中有 antara-bhava, in the intermediate state. 三有對 The three sets of limitation on freedom: (a) direct resistance or opposition; (b) environment or condition; (c) attachment. 三有爲法 The three active) functioning dharmas: (1) pratigha, matter or form, i. e. that which has ' substantial resistance'; (2) mind; and (3) 非色非心 entities neither of matter nor mind; cf. 七十五法. 三有爲相 The three forms of all phenomena, birth, stay (i. e. 1ife), death; utpāda, sthiti, and nirvana.


see styles
Mandarin sān shēng / san1 sheng1
Taiwan san sheng
Japanese mitsuo / みつお    miki / みき    sanshou / sansho / さんしょう
Japanese (surname, given name) Mitsuo; (female given name) Miki; (given name) Sanshou
The three births, or reincarnations, past, present, future. Tiantai has (a) 種 planting the seed; (b) 熟 ripening; (c) 脫 liberating, stripping, or harvesting, i.e. beginning, development, and reward of bodhi, a process either gradual or instantaneous. Huayan has (a) 見聞生 a past life of seeing and hearing Buddha-truth; (b) 解行生 liberation in the present life; (c) 證入生 realization of life in Buddhahood. This is also called 三生成佛, Buddhahood in the course of three lives. There is also a definition of three rebirths as the shortest term for arhatship, sixty kalpas being the longest. There are other definitions.


see styles
Mandarin sān jiè / san1 jie4
Taiwan san chieh
Japanese sangai / さんがい
Japanese (1) {Buddh} (See 欲界,色界,無色界) the three realms of existence; (2) (abbreviation) {Buddh} (See 三千大千世界) the whole universe (of a billion worlds) that Buddha enlightened; (3) {Buddh} (See 三世・さんぜ・1) past, present and future existences; (suffix) (4) far-off ...; distant ...; (surname) Mikai
Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are 欲, 色, and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of sensuous desire, of 婬 and 食 sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful一a semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天, or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界 Arūpadhātu, or ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. v. 倶舍論世間品.



see styles
Mandarin sān jié / san1 jie2
Taiwan san chieh
Japanese sansetsu
The three divisions of the 十二因緣 twelve nidānas, q.v.: (a) past, i.e. the first two; (b) present— the next eight; (c) future— the last two.



see styles
Mandarin sān dá / san1 da2
Taiwan san ta
Japanese mitatsu / みたつ
Japanese (surname) Mitatsu
Three aspects of the omniscience of Buddha: knowledge of future karma, of past karma, of present illusion and liberation; v. 三明; three kinds of penetrating insight



see styles
Mandarin sān jì / san1 ji4
Taiwan san chi
Japanese sanzai
Past, present, future, idem 三世; three time periods


see styles
Mandarin xià shì / xia4 shi4
Taiwan hsia shih
Japanese shimoyo / しもよ    shimose / しもせ
Chinese to die; future incarnation; next life; to be born; to come into the world; future generation
Japanese (surname) Shimoyo; (personal name) Shimose



see styles
Mandarin xià bèi / xia4 bei4
Taiwan hsia pei
Japanese kahai;gehai / かはい;げはい
Chinese offspring; future generations; younger generation of a family; junior members of a group
Japanese inferior; low-class person
inferior group


see styles
Mandarin bù shàn / bu4 shan4
Taiwan pu shan
Japanese fuzen / ふぜん
Chinese bad; ill; not good at; not to be pooh-poohed; quite impressive
Japanese evil; sin; vice; mischief
Not good; contrary to the right and harmful to present and future life, e. g. 五逆十惡; unwholesome



see styles
Mandarin jiǔ hòu / jiu3 hou4
Taiwan chiu hou
Japanese hisago / ひさご    kugo / くご    kiyuugo / kiyugo / きゆうご    kyuugo / kyugo / きゅうご
Japanese (surname) Hisago; (surname) Kugo; (surname) Kiyuugo; (surname) Kyuugo
in the future; in the future


see styles
Mandarin jiǔ shì / jiu3 shi4
Taiwan chiu shih
Japanese guse
In past, present, and future worlds, each has its own past, present, and future, hence nine worlds or ages; nine time periods


see styles
Mandarin èr shì / er4 shi4
Taiwan erh shih
Japanese nisei / nise / にせい    nise / にせ
Chinese the Second (of numbered kings); second generation (e.g. Chinese Americans)
Japanese (1) nisei; second-generation Japanese (or Korean, etc.); foreigner of Japanese parentage; (n,n-suf,n-pref) (2) the Second (king, etc. of the same name); second generation; junior; (3) (colloquialism) son; {Buddh} two existences; the present and the future; (female given name) Futase; (given name) Nisei
This life and the hereafter; two worlds


see styles
Mandarin wǔ huǐ / wu3 hui3
Taiwan wu hui
Japanese gokai
The five stages in a penitential service. Tiantai gives: (1) confession of past sins and forbidding them for the future; (2) appeal to the universal Buddhas to keep the law-wheel rolling; (3) rejoicing over the good in self and others; (4) 廻向 offering all one's goodness to all the living and to the Buddha-way; (5) resolve, or vows, i. e. the 四弘誓. The Shingon sect 眞言宗 divides the ten great vows of Samantabhadra 普賢 into five 悔, the first three vows being included under 歸命 or submission; the fourth is repentance; the fifth rejoicing; the sixth, seventh, and eighth appeal to the Buddhas; the ninth and tenth, bestowal of acquired merit; five kinds of repentance


see styles
Mandarin wǔ hǎi / wu3 hai3
Taiwan wu hai
Japanese goumi / gomi / ごうみ
Japanese (surname) Goumi
The five 'seas' or infinities seen in a vision by Puxian, v. 舊華嚴經 3, viz., (1) all worlds, (2) all the living, (3) universal karma, (4) the roots of desire and pleasure of all the living, (5) all the Buddhas, past, present, and future; five seas



see styles
Mandarin jīn hòu / jin1 hou4
Taiwan chin hou
Japanese kongo / こんご
Chinese hereafter; henceforth; in the future; from now on
Japanese (n-adv,n-t) from now on; hereafter; (surname) Imago


see styles
Mandarin tā rì / ta1 ri4
Taiwan t`a jih / ta jih
Japanese tajitsu / たじつ
Japanese (n-adv,n-t) some day; hereafter; at some future time
other days


see styles
Japanese tashou / tasho / たしょう Japanese previous existence; future existence; transmigration


see styles
Mandarin yǐ wǎng / yi3 wang3
Taiwan i wang
Japanese iou / io / いおう
Chinese in the past; formerly
Japanese (n-adv,n-t) hereafter; the future; formerly; in ancient times



see styles
Mandarin yǐ hòu / yi3 hou4
Taiwan i hou
Japanese igo / いご
Chinese after; later; afterwards; following; later on; in the future
Japanese (n-adv,n-t) (1) after this; from now on; hereafter; (2) thereafter; since (verb) (after -te form of verb); after (time); since (then); (surname) Igozaki; (surname) Igosaki; (surname) Igo; (surname) Ikosaki



see styles
Mandarin fú jì / fu2 ji4
Taiwan fu chi
Japanese butsu ki
Buddha's prediction, his foretelling of the future of his disciples.



see styles
Mandarin lái rì / lai2 ri4
Taiwan lai jih
Japanese rainichi
Chinese future days; (literary) the next day; (old) past days
next day



see styles
Mandarin lái shēng / lai2 sheng1
Taiwan lai sheng
Japanese rai / らい    kisugi / きすぎ
Chinese next life
Japanese (female given name) Rai; (surname) Kisugi
Future rebirth; the future life; [one's] next lifetime



see styles
Mandarin bèi chá / bei4 cha2
Taiwan pei ch`a / pei cha
Chinese for future reference



see styles
Mandarin chuán chéng / chuan2 cheng2
Taiwan ch`uan ch`eng / chuan cheng
Chinese to pass on (to future generations); passed on (from former times); a continued tradition; an inheritance


see styles
Japanese sakizaki / さきざき Japanese (n-adv,n-t) (1) distant future; inevitable future; (2) places one goes to


see styles
Japanese saki / さき Japanese (irregular okurigana usage) (n,adj-no,n-suf,pref) (1) previous; prior; former; first; earlier; some time ago; preceding; (2) point (e.g. pencil); tip; end; nozzle; (3) head (of a line); front; (4) ahead; the other side; (5) the future; hereafter; (6) destination; (7) the other party


see styles
Japanese sakizaki / さきざき Japanese (n-adv,n-t) (1) distant future; inevitable future; (2) places one goes to


see styles
Japanese sakiyasu / さきやす Japanese lower future quotations


see styles
Japanese sakidaka / さきだか Japanese higher future quotations


see styles
Mandarin bā mí / ba1 mi2
Taiwan pa mi
Japanese hachimei
The eight misleading terms, which form the basis of the logic of the 中論, i.e. 生 birth, 滅 death, 去 past, 來 future, 一 identity, 異 difference, 斷 annihilation, 常 perpetuity (or eternity). The 三論宗 regards these as unreal; v. 八不中道; eight misleading concepts


see styles
Mandarin chū xi // chū xī / chu1 xi5 // chu1 xi1
Taiwan ch`u hsi // ch`u / chu hsi // chu
Japanese shussoku
Chinese future prospects; profit; to mature; to grow up; to yield interest, profit etc; to exhale (Buddhism)
To breathe out; to exhale



see styles
Mandarin lì lè / li4 le4
Taiwan li le
Japanese riraku
Blessing and joy; the blessing being for the future life, the joy for the present; or aid (for salvation) and the joy of it; benefit and joy [given to sentient beings by bodhisattvas]



see styles
Mandarin dào shí / dao4 shi2
Taiwan tao shih
Chinese at that (future) time


see styles
Mandarin qián jǐng / qian2 jing3
Taiwan ch`ien ching / chien ching
Japanese zenkei / zenke / ぜんけい
Chinese foreground; vista; (future) prospects; perspective
Japanese foreground; front view


see styles
Mandarin qián chéng / qian2 cheng2
Taiwan ch`ien ch`eng / chien cheng
Japanese zentei / zente / ぜんてい
Chinese future (career etc) prospects
Japanese the journey before one; distance one has to travel


see styles
Mandarin shí lì / shi2 li4
Taiwan shih li
Japanese jūriki
Daśabala. The ten powers of Buddha, giving complete knowledge of: (1) what is right or wrong in every condition; (2) what is the karma of every being, past, present, and future; (3) all stages of dhyāna liberation, and samādhi; (4) the powers and faculties of all beings; (5) the desires, or moral direction of every being; (6) the actual condition of every individual; (7) the direction and consequence of all laws; (8) all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality; (9) the end of all beings and nirvāṇa; (10) the destruction of all illusion of every kind. See the 智度論 25 and the 倶舍論 29.


see styles
Mandarin shí zhì / shi2 zhi4
Taiwan shih chih
Japanese jū chi
The ten forms of understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto, applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智; (8) 他心智 understanding of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10) 無生智 nirvāṇa wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26. II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界無礙智 unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6) 普照一切世間智 understanding of universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) 知一切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) 知一切法智 understanding of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) 知無邊諸佛智 understanding of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings, karma, passions, and Buddhas; ten kinds of cognition


see styles
Mandarin qiān fú / qian1 fu2
Taiwan ch`ien fu / chien fu
Japanese senbutsu
The thousand Buddhas. Each of the past, present, and future kalpas has a thousand Buddhas; Śākyamuni is the "fourth" Buddha in the present kalpa.


see styles
Mandarin bǔ zhān / bu3 zhan1
Taiwan pu chan
Japanese bokusen / ぼくせん
Chinese to divine; to prophecy; to foretell the future
Japanese augury; fortune-telling; divination



see styles
Mandarin bǔ wèn / bu3 wen4
Taiwan pu wen
Chinese to predict by divining; to look into the future



see styles
Mandarin shòu jué / shou4 jue2
Taiwan shou chüeh
Japanese juketsu
assurance of future buddhahood; assurance of future buddhahood


see styles
Mandarin shòu zhě / shou4 zhe3
Taiwan shou che
Japanese jusha
A recipient (e. g. of the rules). The illusory view that the ego will receive reward or punishment in a future life, one of the sixteen false views; an experiencer



see styles
Mandarin shòu jì / shou4 ji4
Taiwan shou chi
Japanese juki / じゅき
Japanese (Buddhist term) vyakarana (assurance of future enlightenment)
受決; 受別 To receive from a Buddha predestination (to become a Buddha); the prophecy of a bodhisattva's future Buddhahood; to receive assurance



see styles
Mandarin shàn hòu / shan4 hou4
Taiwan shan hou
Japanese zengo / ぜんご
Chinese to deal with the aftermath (arising from an accident); funeral arrangements; reparations
Japanese (n-adv,n-t) giving careful thought to the future; finishing up carefully



see styles
Mandarin sì zhí / si4 zhi2
Taiwan ssu chih
Japanese shishū
The four erroneous tenets; also 四邪; 四迷; 四術; there are two groups: I. The four of the 外道 outsiders, or non-Buddhists, i. e. of Brahminism, concerning the law of cause and effect: (1) 邪因邪果 heretical theory of causation, e. g. creation by Mahesvara; (2) 無因有果 or 自然, effect independent of cause, e. g. creation without a cause, or spontaneous generation; (3) 有因無果 cause without effect, e. g. no future life as the result of this. (4) 無因無果 neither cause nor effect, e. g. that rewards and punishments are independent of morals. II. The four erroneous tenets of 內外道 insiders and outsiders, Buddhist and Brahman, also styled 四宗 the four schools, as negated in the 中論 Mādhyamika śāstra: (1) outsiders, who do not accept either the 人 ren or 法 fa ideas of 空 kong; (2) insiders who hold the Abhidharma or Sarvāstivādāḥ tenet, which recognizes 人空 human impersonality, but not 法空 the unreality of things; (3) also those who hold the 成實 Satyasiddhi tenet which discriminates the two meanings of 空 kong but not clearly; and also (4) those in Mahāyāna who hold the tenet of the realists; four mistaken attachments



see styles
Mandarin sì zhòng / si4 zhong4
Taiwan ssu chung
Japanese shishu;shishuu / shishu;shishu / ししゅ;ししゅう
Japanese (1) four orders of Buddhist followers (monks, nuns, male lay devotees and female lay devotees); (2) four monastic communities (ordained monks, ordained nuns, male novices and female novices); (3) (in Tendai) the four assemblies
The four varga (groups, or orders), i. e. bhikṣu, bhikṣuṇī, upāsaka and upāsikā, monks, nuns, male and female devotees. Another group, according to Tiantai's commentary on the Lotus, is 發起衆 the assembly which, through Śāriputra, stirred the Buddha to begin his Lotus Sutra sermons; 當機衆 the pivotal assembly, those who were responsive to him; 影向衆 the reflection assembly, those like Mañjuśrī, etc., who reflected on, or drew out the Buddha's teaching; and 結緣衆 those who only profited in having seen and heard a Buddha, and therefore whose enlightenment is delayed to a future life; four types of monastic community


see styles
Mandarin tiān yǎn / tian1 yan3
Taiwan t`ien yen / tien yen
Japanese tengen;tengan / てんげん;てんがん
Japanese (1) {Buddh} (See 五眼) the heavenly eye; (2) (てんがん only) (obscure) rolling back one's eyes during convulsions; (given name) Tengan
divyacakṣṣus. The deva-eye; the first abhijñā, v. 六通; one of the five classes of eyes; divine sight, unlimited vision; all things are open to it, large and small, near and distant, the destiny of all beings in future rebirths. It may be obtained among men by their human eyes through the practice of meditation 修得: and as a reward or natural possession by those born in the deva heavens 報得. Cf 天耳, etc; divine vision


see styles
Japanese koubou / kobo / こうぼう Japanese promising future


see styles
Japanese izure / いづれ Japanese (adv,pn,adj-no) (1) (kana only) where; which; who; (2) (kana only) anyway; anyhow; at any rate; (adv,adj-no) (3) (kana only) sooner or later; eventually; one of these days; at some future date or time; (pn,adj-no) (4) (kana only) both; either; any; all; whichever



see styles
Mandarin bǎo xiāng / bao3 xiang1
Taiwan pao hsiang
Japanese hōsō
The precious likeness, or image (of Buddha). ratnaketu, one of the seven tathāgatas; a name of Ānanda as a future buddha; the name under which 2,000 of Śākyamuni's disciples are to be reborn as buddhas; excellent marks of the Buddha


see styles
Japanese tsuisu / ついす    taisu / たいす Japanese (v5s,vi) (archaism) to form a pair; to correspond; (v5s,vi) (1) (See 対する) to face (each other); to be facing; (2) to be directed toward (the future, etc.); to be in response to; to be related to; (3) to receive (a client, etc.); (4) to compare with; to contrast with; to be in opposition with; to be opposed to; (5) to confront; to oppose; to compete with


see styles
Japanese shourai / shorai / しょうらい Japanese (n-adv,n-t) future (usually near); prospects; (personal name) Masaki; (female given name) Shouko; (female given name) Saki



see styles
Mandarin jiāng lái / jiang1 lai2
Taiwan chiang lai
Japanese shōrai
Chinese in the future; future; the future; CL:個|个[ge4]



see styles
Mandarin jiāng huì / jiang1 hui4
Taiwan chiang hui
Chinese auxiliary verb introducing future action: may (be able to); will (cause); should (enable); going to


see styles
Mandarin xiǎo shèng / xiao3 sheng4
Taiwan hsiao sheng
Japanese shōjō
Chinese Hinayana, the Lesser Vehicle; Buddhism in India before the Mayahana sutras; also pr. [Xiao3 cheng2]
Hīnayāna 希那衍. The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed after Śākyamuni's death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahāyāna doctrines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahāyānism which developed on lines fundamentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith). Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hīnayāna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahāyāna. Hīnayāna remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahāyāna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the general literary language of the surviving form of Hīnayāna, Sanskrit of Mahāyāna. The term Hīnayāna is of Mahāyānist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of Mahāyāna over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahāyāna teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it declares that Hīnayāna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood, seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvāṇa. For arhatship the 四諦Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyekabuddhahood the 十二因緣 twelve-nidānas, and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles 二乘. Tiantai sometimes calls them the (Hīnayāna) Tripiṭaka school. Three of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools were transported to China: 倶舍 (Abhidharma) Kośa; 成實 Satya-siddhi; and the school of Harivarman, the律 Vinaya school. These are described by Mahāyānists as the Buddha's adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahāyāna all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahāyāna view of Hīnayāna, and if the Vaipulya sūtras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiated by Hīnayāna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahāyāna in condemning Hīnayāna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sūtras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authenticity; while those of Hīnayāna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hīnayāna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately after the death of Śākyamuni, when the sthāvira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rājagṛha, to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside; these two are the first 上坐部 and 大衆部 q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk 大天 Mahādeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha's nirvāṇa and during the reign of Aśoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahādeva's sect became the Mahāsāṅghikā, the other the Sthāvira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals are the so-called "twenty sects" of Hīnayāna. Another division of four sects, referred to by Yijing, is that of the 大衆部 (Arya) Mahāsaṅghanikāya, 上座部 Āryasthavirāḥ, 根本說一切有部 Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, and 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ. There is still another division of five sects, 五部律. For the eighteen Hīnayāna sects see 小乘十八部.


see styles
Mandarin yǐ wǎng / yi3 wang3
Taiwan i wang
Japanese iou / io / いおう
Chinese the past
Japanese (out-dated kanji) (n-adv,n-t) hereafter; the future; formerly; in ancient times



see styles
Mandarin mí lè / mi2 le4
Taiwan mi le
Japanese miroku / みろく
Chinese Mile county in Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefecture, Yunnan; Maitreya, the future Bodhisattva, to come after Shakyamuni Buddha
Japanese (surname) Miroku
Maitreya, friendly, benevolent. The Buddhist Messiah, or next Buddha, now in the Tuṣita heaven, who is to come 5,000 years after the nirvāṇa of Śākyamuni, or according to other reckoning after 4,000 heavenly years, i.e. 5,670,000,000 human years. According to tradition he was born in Southern India of a Brahman family. His two epithets are 慈氏 Benevolent, and Ajita 阿逸多 'Invincible'. He presides over the spread of the church, protects its members and will usher in ultimate victory for Buddhism. His image is usually in the hall of the four guardians facing outward, where he is represented as the fat laughing Buddha, but in some places his image is tall, e.g. in Peking in the Yung Ho Kung. Other forms are彌帝M075962; 迷諦隸; 梅低梨; 梅怛麗 (梅怛藥 or 梅怛邪); 每怛哩; 昧怛 M067070曳; 彌羅. There are numerous Maitreya sūtras.



see styles
Mandarin wǎng hòu / wang3 hou4
Taiwan wang hou
Chinese from now on; in the future; time to come


see styles
Mandarin wǎng shēng / wang3 sheng1
Taiwan wang sheng
Japanese oujou / ojo / おうじょう
Chinese to be reborn; to live in paradise (Buddhism); to die; (after) one's death
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) {Buddh} passing on to the next life; (2) death; (3) giving up a struggle; submission; (4) being at one's wits' end; being flummoxed; (5) coercion
The future life, the life to which anyone is going; to go to be born in the Pure Land of Amitābha. (1) 往相囘向 To transfer one's merits to all beings that they may attain the Pure Land of Amitābha. (2) 還相囘向 Having been born in the Pure Land to return to mortality and by one's merits to bring mortals to the Pure Land; be reborn [in another world]


see styles
Japanese nochinochi / のちのち    atoato / あとあと Japanese (n-adv,n-t) distant future; (surname) Gogo



see styles
Mandarin hòu shì / hou4 shi4
Taiwan hou shih
Japanese gose / ごせ    kousei / kose / こうせい
Chinese later generations
Japanese {Buddh} the next world; afterlife; life after death; (n-adv,n) posterity; future life; life to come
The 1ife after this; later generations or ages; subsequent age



see styles
Mandarin hòu rén / hou4 ren2
Taiwan hou jen
Japanese koujin / kojin / こうじん
Chinese later generation
Japanese posterity; future generations



see styles
Mandarin hòu dài / hou4 dai4
Taiwan hou tai
Japanese koudai / kodai / こうだい
Chinese descendant; progeny; posterity; later ages; later generations
Japanese posterity; future generations; (place-name) Ushirodai



see styles
Mandarin hòu rèn / hou4 ren4
Taiwan hou jen
Japanese kounin / konin / こうにん
Chinese successor; (attributive) future
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) successor


see styles
Japanese kougaku / kogaku / こうがく Japanese (1) (See 先学) younger scholar; (2) future reference



see styles
Mandarin hòu nián / hou4 nian2
Taiwan hou nien
Japanese kounen / konen / こうねん
Chinese the year after next
Japanese (n-adv,n-t) future years; in (one's) later years



see styles
Mandarin hòu hòu / hou4 hou4
Taiwan hou hou
Japanese nochinochi / のちのち    atoato / あとあと
Japanese (n-adv,n-t) distant future
the following


see styles
Japanese koukan / kokan / こうかん Japanese future trouble; future problems



see styles
Mandarin hòu rì / hou4 ri4
Taiwan hou jih
Japanese gojitsu(p);gonichi / ごじつ(P);ごにち
Chinese the day after tomorrow; from hence; from now; from now on; henceforth
Japanese (n-adv,n-t) in the future; another day; later; (surname) Gohi; (surname) Gojitsu; (surname) Goka



see styles
Mandarin hòu yǒu / hou4 you3
Taiwan hou yu
Japanese gū
Future karma; the person in the subsequent incarnation; also, the final incarnation of the arhat, or bodhisattva; that which is later existent



see styles
Mandarin hòu shēng / hou4 sheng1
Taiwan hou sheng
Japanese goshou / gosho / ごしょう    kousei / kose / こうせい
Chinese young generation; youth; young man
Japanese afterlife; (noun - becomes adjective with の) younger people; future generations
The after condition of rebirth; later born; youth; later birth


see styles
Japanese kouyou / koyo / こうよう Japanese (1) posterity; future generations; descendant; (2) posterior pituitary; neurohypophysis



see styles
Mandarin hòu jì / hou4 ji4
Taiwan hou chi
Japanese go sai
future time; future time


This page contains 100 results for "future" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

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Japanese Kanji Dictionary

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