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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
 Definition may be different outside of Buddhism.

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If shown, 2nd row of characters is Simplified Chinese.

Characters Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin xiān / xian1
Taiwan hsien
Japanese sen / せん
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese immortal
Japanese hermit; wizard; (personal name) Hisa; (personal name) Nori; (personal name) Sonhi; (personal name) Senji; (surname, female given name) Sen
僊 ṛṣi, 哩始 an immortal. 仙人; 人仙 the genī, of whom there is a famous group of eight 八仙; an ascetic, a man of the hills, a hermit; the Buddha. The 楞嚴經 gives ten kinds of immortals, walkers on the earth, fliers, wanderers at will, into space, into the deva heavens, transforming themselves into any form, etc. The names of ten ṛṣis, who preceded Śākyamuni, the first being 闍提首那? Jatisena; there is also a list of sixty-eight 大仙 given in the 大孔雀咒經下 A classification of five is 天仙 deva genī, 神仙 spirit genī, 人仙 human genī, 地仙 earth, or cavern genī, and 鬼仙 ghost genī.

see styles
Mandarin/ ba1
Taiwan pa
Japanese paa / pa / パー
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese eight; 8
Japanese (numeric) eight (chi: bā); (surname) Yatsuyanagi; (place-name) Ya; (given name) Hiraku; (surname) Hatsuzaki; (surname) Hatsusaki; (place-name) Ha; (surname) Hachiyanagi; (surname) Hachi; (surname) Takahachi
aṣṭa, eight.

see styles
Mandarin/ tu3
Taiwan t`u / tu
Japanese ni / に    do;to / ど;と
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese earth; dust; clay; local; indigenous; crude opium; unsophisticated; one of the eight ancient musical instruments 八音[ba1 yin1]; Tu (ethnic group); surname Tu
Japanese (archaism) soil (esp. reddish soil); (1) (ど only) (abbreviation) (See 土曜) Saturday; (2) (See 五行・1) earth (third of the five elements); (n,n-pref,n-suf) (3) (と only) (abbreviation) (See 土耳古・1) Turkey; (place-name) Do; (surname) Tsuchitaka; (personal name) Tsuchishio; (surname) Tsuchi
Bhū; bhūmi; pṛthivī. Earth, locality, local, vulgar.

see styles
Mandarin/ mu4
Taiwan mu
Japanese moku / もく
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese tree; wood; coffin; wooden; simple; numb; one of the eight ancient musical instruments 八音[ba1 yin1]; surname Mu
Japanese (1) (abbreviation) (See 木曜) Thursday; (2) (See 五行・1) wood (first of the five elements); (female given name) Moku; (given name) Bokukei; (female given name) Baumu; (surname) Tagaki; (personal name) Sunao; (personal name) Kimoto; (personal name) Kitsugi; (personal name) Kitsuki; (surname) Kidaka; (personal name) Kisuki; (surname) Ki
Wood; a tree; kāṣṭha, a piece of wood, wood, timber.

see styles
Mandarin shí / shi2
Taiwan shih
Japanese ishi / いし
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese rock; stone; stone inscription; one of the eight ancient musical instruments 八音[ba1 yin1]; dry measure for grain equal to ten dou 斗; ten pecks; one hundred liters; surname Shi
Japanese (1) stone; (2) gem; jewel; (surname) Tsuruishi; (surname) Soku; (surname) Seki; (surname) Shi; (place-name) Koku; (surname) Kazu; (given name) Inseki; (surname) Iso; (personal name) Ishibuku; (personal name) Ishifuku; (surname) Ishihama; (personal name) Ishizue; (personal name) Ishisue; (surname) Ishizaki; (surname) Ishisaki; (personal name) Ishiodori; (surname) Ishi; (given name) Atsushi; (personal name) Akira
Stone, rock.

see styles
Mandarin jīn / jin1
Taiwan chin
Japanese kin / きん
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese gold; chemical element Au; generic term for lustrous and ductile metals; money; golden; highly respected; one of the eight ancient musical instruments 八音[ba1 yin1]; surname Jin; surname Kim (Korean); Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115-1234)
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) gold (Au); golden (color); gold (medal, cup); (adj-no,n) (2) valuable; of highest value; (3) money; gold coin (orig. meaning); (4) (abbreviation) (See 金曜) Friday; (5) (See 五行・1) metal (fourth of the five elements); (6) Jin (dynasty of China; 1115-1234 CE); (n,n-suf) (7) (abbreviation) {shogi} (See 金将) gold general; (8) (abbreviation) (colloquialism) (See 金玉・きんたま) testicles; (suf,ctr) (9) karat; carat; (surname) Kimu; Kim; (surname) Yun; (personal name) Dzin; (personal name) Chin; (surname) Chiyon; (personal name) Jin; (surname) Jiyon; (surname) Jun; (surname) Jiyai; (surname) Kon; (surname) Kintaka; (personal name) Kinji; (surname, female given name) Kin; (surname) Kiyon; (personal name) Kaneyuki; (personal name) Kanenori; (surname) Kanetaka; (personal name) Kaneshi; (personal name) Kanekatsu; (surname) Kane
hiraṇya, 伊爛拏 which means cold, any precious metal, semen, etc.; or 蘇伐刺 suvarṇa, which means "of a good or beautiful colour", "golden", "yellow", "gold", "a gold coin", etc. The Chinese means metal, gold, money.

中道

see styles
Mandarin zhōng dào / zhong1 dao4
Taiwan chung tao
Japanese nakamichi / なかみち    chuudou / chudo / ちゅうどう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Japanese road through the middle; middle road; (noun - becomes adjective with の) (1) middle of the road; moderation; golden mean; (2) the middle (of what one is doing); half-way; (3) {Buddh} middle way; middle path; (place-name, surname) Nakamichi; (place-name, surname) Nakadou; (surname) Chuudou
The 'mean' has various interpretations. In general it denotes the mean between two extremes, and has special reference to the mean between realism and nihilism, or eternal substantial existence and annihilation; this 'mean' is found in a third principle between the two, suggesting the idea of a realm of mind or spirit beyond the terminology of 有 or 無, substance or nothing, or, that which has form, and is therefore measurable and ponderable, and its opposite of total non-existence. See 中論. The following four Schools define the term according to their several scriptures: the 法相 School describes it as the 唯識, v. 唯識中道; the 三論 School as the 八不 eight negations, v. 三論; the Tiantai as 實相 the true reality; and the Huayan as the 法界 dharmadhātu. Four forms of the Mean are given by the 三論玄義.

八仙

see styles
Mandarin bā xiān / ba1 xian1
Taiwan pa hsien
Japanese hassen / はっせん
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese the Eight Immortals (Daoist mythology)
Japanese (given name) Hassen

八卦

see styles
Mandarin bā guà / ba1 gua4
Taiwan pa kua
Japanese hakke / はっけ
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese the eight divinatory trigrams of the Book of Changes 易經|易经[Yi4 jing1]; gossip; gossipy
Japanese eight trigrams; divination signs; (place-name) Hatsuke; (place-name) Hakke
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

四諦


四谛

see styles
Mandarin sì dì / si4 di4
Taiwan ssu ti
Japanese shitai / したい
Chinese the Four Noble Truths (Budd.), covered by the acronym 苦集滅道: all life is suffering 苦, the cause of suffering is desire 集, emancipation comes only by eliminating passions 滅|灭, the way 道 to emancipation is the Eight-fold Noble Way 八正道
Japanese {Buddh} (See 苦集滅道) The Four Noble Truths (of Buddhism)
catvāri-ārya-satyāni; 四聖諦; 四眞諦. The four dogmas, or noble truths, the primary and fundamental doctrines of Śākyamuni, said to approximate to the form of medical diagnosis. They are pain or 'suffering, its cause, its ending, the way thereto; that existence is suffering, that human passion (taṇhā, 欲 desire) is the cause of continued suffering, that by the destruction of human passion existence may be brought to an end; that by a life of holiness the destruction of human passion may be attained'. Childers. The four are 苦, 聚 (or 集), 滅, and 道諦, i. e. duḥkha 豆佉, samudaya 三牟提耶, nirodha 尼棲陀, and mārga 末加. Eitel interprets them (1) 'that 'misery' is a necessary attribute of sentient existence'; (2) that 'the 'accumulation' of misery is caused by the passions'; (3) that 'the 'extinction' of passion is possible; (4) mārga is 'the doctrine of the 'path' that leads to the extinction of passion'. (1) 苦 suffering is the lot of the 六趣 six states of existence; (2) 集 is the aggregation (or exacerbation) of suffering by reason of the passions; (3) 滅 is nirvana, the extinction of desire and its consequences, and the leaving of the sufferings of mortality as void and extinct; (4) 道 is the way of such extinction, i. e. the 八正道 eightfold correct way. The first two are considered to be related to this life, the last two to 出世間 a life outside or apart from the world. The four are described as the fundamental doctrines first preached to his five former ascetic companions. Those who accepted these truths were in the stage of śrāvaka. There is much dispute as to the meaning of 滅 'extinction' as to whether it means extinction of suffering, of passion, or of existence. The Nirvana Sutra 18 says that whoever accepts the four dogmas will put an end to births and deaths 若能見四諦則得斷生死 which does not of necessity mean the termination of existence but that of continued transmigration. v. 滅.

地獄


地狱

see styles
Mandarin dì yù / di4 yu4
Taiwan ti yü
Japanese jigoku / じごく
Chinese hell; infernal; underworld
Japanese hell; (place-name) Jigoku
naraka, 捺落迦 (or 那落迦) ; niraya 泥犂; explained by 不樂 joyless; 可厭 disgusting, hateful; 苦具, 苦器 means of suffering; if 地獄 earth-prison; 冥府 the shades, or departments of darkness. Earth-prison is generally intp. as hell or the hells; it may also be termed purgatory; one of the six gati or ways of transmigration. The hells are divided into three classes: I. Central, or radical, 根本地獄 consisting of (1) The eight hot hells. These were the original hells of primitive Buddhism, and are supposed to be located umder the southern continent Jambudvīpa 瞻部州, 500 yojanas below the surface. (a) 等活 or 更活 Saṃjīva, rebirth, where after many kinds of suffering a cold wind blows over the soul and returns it to this life as it was before, hence the name 等活. (b) 黑繩 Kaslasūtra, where the sufferer is bound with black chains and chopped or sawn asunder. (c) 線合; 衆合; 堆壓 Saṃghāta, where are multitudes of implements of torture, or the falling of mountains upon the sufferer. (d) 號呌; 呼呼; 叫喚 Raurava, hell of wailing. (e) 大呌; 大號呌; 大呼 Mahāraurava, hell of great wailing. (f) 炎熱; 燒炙 Tapana, hell of fames and burning. (g) 大熱; 大燒炙; 大炎熱 Pratāpana, hell of molten lead. (h) 無間; 河鼻旨; 阿惟越致; 阿毗至; 阿鼻; 阿毗 Avīci, unintermitted suffering, where sinners die and are reborn to suffer without interval. (2) The eight cold hells 八寒地獄. (a) 頞浮陀地獄 Arbuda, where the cold causes blisters. (b) 尼刺部陀 Nirarbuda, colder still causing the blisters to burst. (c) 頞哳吒; 阿吒吒 Atata, where this is the only possible sound from frozen lips. (d) 臛臛婆; 阿波波 Hahava or Apapa, where it is so cold that only this sound can be uttered. (e) 虎虎婆 Hāhādhara or Huhuva, where only this sound can be uttered. (f) 嗢鉢羅; 鬱鉢羅 (or 優鉢羅) Utpala, or 尼羅鳥 (or 漚) 鉢羅 Nīlotpala, where the skin is frozen like blue lotus buds. (g) 鉢特摩 Padma, where the skin is frozen and bursts open like red lotus buds. (h) 摩訶鉢特摩 Mahāpadma, ditto like great red lotus buds. Somewhat different names are also given. Cf. 倶舍論 8; 智度論 16; 涅槃經 11. II. The secondary hells are called 近邊地獄 adjacent hells or 十六遊增 each of its four sides, opening from each such door are four adjacent hells, in all sixteen; thus with the original eight there are 136. A list of eighteen hells is given in the 十八泥梨經. III. A third class is called the 孤地獄 (獨地獄) Lokāntarika, or isolated hells in mountains, deserts, below the earth and above it. Eitel says in regard to the eight hot hells that they range 'one beneath the other in tiers which begin at a depth of 11,900 yojanas and reach to a depth of 40,000 yojanas'. The cold hells are under 'the two Tchahavālas and range shaft-like one below the other, but so that this shaft is gradually widening to the fourth hell and then narrowing itself again so that the first and last hell have the shortest, those in the centre the longest diameter'. 'Every universe has the same number of hells, ' but 'the northern continent has no hell whatever, the two continents east and west of Meru have only small Lokāntarika hells... whilst all the other hells are required for the inhabitants of the southern continent '. It may be noted that the purpose of these hells is definitely punitive, as well as purgatorial. Yama is the judge and ruler, assisted by eighteen officers and a host of demons, who order or administer the various degrees of torture. 'His sister performs the same duties with regard to female criminals, ' and it may be mentioned that the Chinese have added the 血盆池 Lake of the bloody bath, or 'placenta tank' for women who die in childbirth. Release from the hells is in the power of the monks by tantric means.

八卦掌

see styles
Mandarin bā guà zhǎng / ba1 gua4 zhang3
Taiwan pa kua chang
Japanese hakkeshou / hakkesho / はっけしょう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese baguazhang (a form of Chinese boxing)
Japanese {MA} eight trigrams palm; Ba Gua Zhang or Pa Kua Chang

八極拳


八极拳

see styles
Mandarin bā jí quán / ba1 ji2 quan2
Taiwan pa chi ch`üan / pa chi chüan
Japanese hakkyokuken / はっきょくけん
Chinese Ba Ji Quan "Eight Extremes Fist" - Martial Art
Japanese {MA} Eight Extremities Fist

八正道

see styles
Mandarin bā zhèng dào / ba1 zheng4 dao4
Taiwan pa cheng tao
Japanese hasshōdō / はっしょうどう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese the Eight-fold Noble Way (Buddhism)
Japanese (Buddhist term) noble eightfold path
(八正道分) Āryamārga. The eight right or correct ways, the "eightfold noble path" for the arhat to nirvāṇa; also styled 八道船, 八正門, 八由行, 八游行, 八聖道支, 八道行, 八直行, 八直道. The eight are: (1) 正見Samyag-dṛṣṭi, correct views in regard to the Four Axioms, and freedom from the common delusion. (2) 正思 Samyak-saṁkalpa, correct thought and purpose. (3) 正語 Samyag-vāc, correct speech, avoidance of false and idle talk. (4) 正業 Samyak-karmānta, correct deed, or conduct, getting rid of all improper action so as to dwell in purity. (5) 正命 Smnyag-ājīva, correct livelihood or occupation, avoiding the five immoral occupations. (6) 正精進 Samyag-vyāyāma, correct zeal, or energy in uninterrupted progress in the way of nirvāṇa. (7) 正念 Samyak-smṛti, correct remembrance, or memory, which retains the true and excludes the false. (8) 正定 Samyak-samadhi, correct meditation, absorption, or abstraction. The 正 means of course Buddhist orthodoxy, anything contrary to this being 邪 or heterodox, and wrong.

愛別離苦


爱别离苦

see styles
Mandarin ài bié lí kǔ / ai4 bie2 li2 ku3
Taiwan ai pieh li k`u / ai pieh li ku
Japanese aibetsuriku / あいべつりく
Chinese (Buddhism) the pain of parting with what (or whom) one loves, one of the eight distresses 八苦[ba1 ku3]
Japanese (yoji) {Buddh} the pain of separation from loved ones
The suffering of being separated from those whom one loves. v. 八苦; suffering experienced when we are separated from the persons and things that we love

see styles
Mandarin/ ba1
Taiwan pa
Japanese ya / や    hachi / はち
Chinese eight (banker's anti-fraud numeral); split
Japanese (numeric) eight

八戒

see styles
Mandarin bā jiè / ba1 jie4
Taiwan pa chieh
Japanese hakkai;hachikai / はっかい;はちかい
Chinese the eight precepts (Buddhism)
Japanese {Buddh} (See 五戒) the eight precepts (in addition to the five precepts, prohibitions against: lying in a luxurious bed; self-decoration, song & dance; and eating after noon)
(八戒齋) The first eight of the ten commandments, see 戒; not to kill; not to take things not given; no ignoble (i.e. sexual) conduct; not to speak falsely; not to drink wine; not to indulge in cosmetics, personal adornments, dancing, or music; not to sleep on fine beds, but on a mat on the ground; and not to eat out of regulation hours, i.e. after noon. Another group divides the sixth into two―against cosmetics and adornments and against dancing and music; the first eight are then called the eight prohibitory commands and the last the 齋 or fasting commandment. Also 八齋戒; 八關齋 (八支齋) ; cf. 八種勝法.

八股

see styles
Mandarin bā gǔ / ba1 gu3
Taiwan pa ku
Japanese hakko / はっこ
Chinese an essay in eight parts; stereotyped writing
Japanese (abbreviation) (See 八股文) eight-legged essay (classical Chinese style of essay writing)

八苦

see styles
Mandarin bā kǔ / ba1 ku3
Taiwan pa k`u / pa ku
Japanese hakku / はっく
Chinese the eight distresses - birth, age, sickness, death, parting with what we love, meeting with what we hate, unattained aims, and all the ills of the five skandhas (Buddhism)
Japanese {Buddh} the eight kinds of suffering (birth, old age, disease, death, parting from loved ones, meeting disliked ones, not getting what one seeks, pains of the five skandha)
The eight distresses―birth, age, sickness, death, parting with what we love, meeting with what we hate, unattained aims, and all the ills of the five skandhas; eight kinds of suffering

辛未

see styles
Mandarin xīn wèi / xin1 wei4
Taiwan hsin wei
Japanese kanotohitsuji;shinbi / かのとひつじ;しんび
Chinese eight year H8 of the 60 year cycle, e.g. 1991 or 2051
Japanese (See 干支・1) eighth of the sexagenary cycle; (given name) Shinmi

八股文

see styles
Mandarin bā gǔ wén / ba1 gu3 wen2
Taiwan pa ku wen
Japanese hakkobun / はっこぶん
Chinese eight-part essay one had to master to pass the imperial exams in Ming and Qing dynasties
Japanese eight-legged essay (classical Chinese style of essay writing)

二十八宿

see styles
Mandarin èr shí bā sù / er4 shi2 ba1 su4
Taiwan erh shih pa su
Japanese nijuuhasshuku / nijuhasshuku / にじゅうはっしゅく
Chinese the twenty-eight constellations
Japanese twenty-eight mansions of Chinese astronomy (constellations dividing the ecliptic into 28 positions)
The twenty-eight nakṣatras or constellations, divided into four mansions of seven each, referred to East, or Spring; South, Summer; West, Autumn; and North, Winter. The month-names derived from them differ slightly in form. E.: 角 Citrā, 亢 Niṣṭyā (or Svāti), 氏 Viśākhā, 房 Anurādhā, 心Rohiṇī, Jyeṣṭhaghnī (or Jyesthā), 尾 Mūlabarhaṇī (or Mūla), 箕 Pūrva-Aṣādha. N.: 斗 Uttara-Aṣāḍhā, 牛 Abhijit, 女Śravaṇā, 盧Śraviṣṭha (or Dhaniṣṭhā) 危Śatabhiṣā, 室 Pūrva-Proṣṭhapada, 壁 Uttara-Proṣṭhapada. W.: 奎 Revatī, 婁 Aśvayuj (or Aśvinī), 胃 Apabharaṇī (or Bharaṇī), 昴 Kṛttikā, 畢 Rohiṇī, 觜 Invakā (or Mṛgaśiras), 參 Bāhu (or Ārdrā). S.: 井 Punarvasu, 鬼 Tiṣya (or Puṣya), 柳 Aśleṣā, 星 Maghā, 張 Pūrva-Phalgunī, 翼 Uttara-Phalgunī, 軫 Hastā; twenty-eight constellations

八岐大蛇

see styles
Mandarin bā qí dà shé / ba1 qi2 da4 she2
Taiwan pa ch`i ta she / pa chi ta she
Japanese yamatanoorochi / やまたのおろち
Chinese Yamata no Orochi, serpent with eight heads and eight tails from mythological section of Nihon Shoki (Chronicles of Japan)
Japanese eight-headed, eight-tailed serpent (in Japanese mythology)

see styles
Mandarin xx // bā / xx5 // ba1
Taiwan xx // pa
Chinese one of the characters used in kwukyel, an ancient Korean writing system; "eight" component in Chinese characters; archaic variant of 八[ba1]


see styles
Mandarin gàn / gan4
Taiwan kan
Japanese ken / けん
Chinese dry; clean; in vain; dried food; foster; adoptive; to ignore; surname Gan; one of the Eight Trigrams 八卦[ba1 gua4], symbolizing heaven; male principle; ☰; ancient Chinese compass point: 315° (northwest); surname Qian
Japanese qian (one of the trigrams of the I Ching: heaven, northwest); (surname) Nukui; (male given name) Tsutomu; (personal name) Takeshi; (given name) Susumu; (surname, given name) Ken; (surname, given name) Kan; (surname) Kawaki; (surname) Kawai; (surname) Inute; (surname, female given name) Inui
Dry, dried up, clean; heaven, male, masculine, enduring, continual. Translit. gan and h.


see styles
Mandarin duì / dui4
Taiwan tui
Japanese da / だ
Chinese to cash; to exchange; to add (liquid); to blend; one of the Eight Trigrams 八卦[ba1 gua4], symbolizing swamp; ☱; surname Dui
Japanese dui (one of the trigrams of the I Ching: swamp, west); (given name) Tooru

see styles
Mandarin huà / hua4
Taiwan hua
Japanese ka / か
Chinese to make into; to change into; -ization; to ... -ize; to transform; abbr. for 化學|化学[hua4 xue2]; variant of 花[hua1]
Japanese (suffix) (See 化する) action of making something; -ification; (personal name) Fua
To transform, metamorphose: (1) conversion by instruction, salvation into Buddhism; (2) magic powers 通力 of transformation, of which there are said to be fourteen mental and eight formal kinds. It also has the meaning of immediate appearance out of the void, or creation 無而忽起; and of giving alms, spending, digesting, melting, etc; to teach

see styles
Mandarin guà / gua4
Taiwan kua
Japanese ke / け
Chinese divinatory diagram; one of the eight divinatory trigrams of the Book of Changes 易經|易经[Yi4 jing1]; one of the sixty-four divinatory hexagrams of the Book of Changes 易經|易经[Yi4 jing1]
Japanese divination sign

see styles
Mandarin yīn / yin1
Taiwan yin
Japanese in / いん
Chinese cause; reason; because
Japanese (1) cause; factor; (2) {Buddh} (See 縁・えん・5) hetu (direct cause, esp. as opposed to indirect conditions); (3) (See 因明) the basis of one's argument (in hetuvidya); (personal name) Yukari; (surname, female given name) Chinami; (surname) In
hetu: a cause: because: a reason: to follow, it follows, that which produces a 果 result or effect. 因 is a primary cause in comparison with 緣 pratyaya which is an environmental or secondary cause. In the 十因十果 ten causes and ten effects, adultery results in the iron bed, the copper pillar, and the eight hot hells; covetousness in the cold hells; and so on, as shown in the 楞嚴經. Translit. in, yin. Cf. 印.

see styles
Mandarin kǎn / kan3
Taiwan k`an / kan
Japanese kan / かん
Chinese pit; threshold; one of the Eight Trigrams 八卦[ba1 gua4], symbolizing water; ☵
Japanese (1) (archaism) pit; hole; (2) kan (one of the trigrams of the I Ching: water, north); (surname) Kita

see styles
Mandarin kūn / kun1
Taiwan k`un / kun
Japanese kon / こん
Chinese one of the Eight Trigrams 八卦[ba1 gua4], symbolizing earth; female principle; ☷; ancient Chinese compass point: 225° (southwest)
Japanese kun (one of the trigrams of the I Ching: earth, southwest); (given name) Mamoru
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

see styles
Mandarin xùn / xun4
Taiwan hsün
Japanese son / そん
Chinese to obey; one of the Eight Trigrams 八卦[ba1 gua4], symbolizing wood and wind; ☴; ancient Chinese compass point: 135° (southeast)
Japanese xun (one of the trigrams of the I Ching: wind, southeast); (given name) Yuzuru; (surname, female given name) Tatsumi; (surname) Takumi; (surname) Sen; (surname) Suburu

see styles
Mandarin gōng / gong1
Taiwan kung
Japanese yumi(p);yu / ゆみ(P);ゆ    kyuu / kyu / きゅう
Chinese a bow (weapon); CL:張|张[zhang1]; to bend; to arch (one's back etc); surname Gong
Japanese (1) (ゆ is usu. a prefix) bow (and arrow); (2) archery; (3) bow (for a violin, etc.); (1) bow (and arrow); (2) unit of distance to an archery target (approx. six feet); (3) unit of distance for land surveying (approx. eight feet); (surname, female given name) Yumi; (personal name) Yuge; (personal name) Hiroshi; (personal name) Kyuu
Dhanus. A bow; a bow's length, i. e. the 4, 000th part of a yojana. Seven grains of wheat 麥 make 1 finger-joint 指節; 24 finger-joints make 1 elbow or cubit 肘; 4 cubits make 1 bow; or 1 foot 5 inches make 1 elbow or cubit: 4 cubits make 1 bow; 300 bows make 1 li; but the measures are variously given.

see styles
Mandarin jiè / jie4
Taiwan chieh
Japanese kai;ingoto(ok) / かい;いんごと(ok)
Chinese to guard against; to exhort; to admonish or warn; to give up or stop doing something; Buddhist monastic discipline; ring (for a finger)
Japanese (1) (かい only) {Buddh} admonition; commandment; (2) sila (precept)
śīla, 尸羅. Precept, command, prohibition, discipline, rule; morality. It is applied to the five, eight, ten, 250, and other commandments. The five are: (1) not to kill; (2 ) not to steal; (3) not to commit adultery; (4) not to speak falsely; (5) not to drink wine. These are the commands for lay disciples; those who observe them will be reborn in the human realm. The Sarvāstivādins did not sanction the observance of a limited selection from them as did the 成實宗 Satyasiddhi school. Each of the five precepts has five guardian spirits, in all twenty-five, 五戒二十五神. The eight for lay disciples are the above five together with Nos. 7, 8, and 9 of the following; the ten commands for the ordained, monks and nuns, are the above five with the following: (6) not to use adornments of flowers, nor perfumes; (7) not to perform as an actor, juggler, acrobat, or go to watch and hear them; (8) not to sit on elevated, broad, and large divans (or beds); (9) not to eat except in regulation hours; (10) not to possess money, gold or silver, or precious things. The 具足戒full commands for a monk number 250, those for a nun are 348, commonly called 500. Śīla is also the first of the 五分法身, i.e. a condition above all moral error. The Sutra of Brahma's Net has the following after the first five: (6) not to speak of the sins of those in orders; (7) not to vaunt self and depreciate others; (8) not to be avaricious; (9) not to be angry; (10) not to slander the triratna.

see styles
Mandarin yáo / yao2
Taiwan yao
Japanese kou / ko / こう
Chinese the solid and broken lines of the eight trigrams 八卦[ba1 gua4], e.g. ☶
Japanese (See 卦) yao (line representing yin or yang that comprises one third of a trigram)

see styles
Mandarin chén / chen2
Taiwan ch`en / chen
Japanese omi;shin / おみ;しん
Chinese state official or subject in dynastic China; I, your servant (used in addressing the sovereign); Kangxi radical 131; surname Chen
Japanese (1) (archaism) retainer; attendant; (2) (おみ only) (See 八色の姓) Omi (hereditary title; orig. one of the two highest such titles, later demoted to sixth highest of eight); (3) (しん only) (humble language) I (used by a servant when speaking to his master); me; (surname) Tomi; (given name) Shin; (surname, female given name) Omi; (surname) Onoko
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

see styles
Mandarin gèn // gěn / gen4 // gen3
Taiwan ken
Japanese gon / ごん
Chinese one of the Eight Trigrams 八卦[ba1 gua4], symbolizing mountain; ☶; ancient Chinese compass point: 45° (northeast); blunt; tough; chewy
Japanese gen (one of the trigrams of the I Ching: mountain, northeast); (given name) Gon; (personal name) Kononaga; (given name) Katashi; (surname) Ushitora

see styles
Mandarin/ ku3
Taiwan k`u / ku
Japanese ku / く
Chinese bitter; hardship; pain; to suffer; to bring suffering to; painstakingly
Japanese (1) pain; anguish; suffering; distress; anxiety; worry; trouble; difficulty; hardship; (2) {Buddh} (See 八苦) duhkha (suffering)
duḥkha, 豆佉 bitterness; unhappiness, suffering, pain, distress, misery; difficulty. There are lists of two, three, four, five, eight, and ten categories; the two are internal, i. e. physical and mental, and external, i. e. attacks from without. The four are birth, growing old, illness, and death. The eight are these four along with the pain of parting from the loved, of meeting with the hated, of failure in one's aims, and that caused by the five skandhas; cf. 四諦.


see styles
Mandarin shí / shi2
Taiwan shih
Japanese shiki / しき
Chinese to record; to write a footnote; to know; knowledge; Taiwan pr. [shi4]
Japanese (1) acquaintanceship; (2) {Buddh} vijnana; consciousness; (3) (after a signature) written by...; (personal name) Tsuguhide; (female given name) Shiki; (given name) Satoru; (female given name) Sato
vijñāna, "the art of distinguishing, or perceiving, or recognizing, discerning, understanding, comprehending, distinction, intelligence, knowledge, science, learning . . . wisdom." M.W. parijñāna, "perception, thorough knowledge," etc. M.W. It is intp. by 心 the mind, mental discernment, perception, in contrast with the object discerned; also by 了別 understanding and discrimination. There are classifications of 一識 that all things are the one mind, or are metaphysical; 二識 q. v. discriminating the ālaya-vijñāna or primal undivided condition from the mano-vijñāna or that of discrimination; 三識 in the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra, fundamental, manifested and discriminate; 五識 q.v. in the 起信論, i.e. 業, 轉, 現, 知, and 相續識; 六識 the perceptions and discernings of the six organs of sense; also of 8, 9, 10, and 11 識. The most important is the eight of the 起信論, i.e. the perceptions of the six organs of sense, eye, ear, nose, tongue, body (or touch), and mind, together with manas, intp. as 意識 the consciousness of the previous moment, on which the other six depend; the eighth is the ālaya-vijñāna, v. 阿賴耶, in which is contained the seed or stock of all phenomena and which 無沒 loses none, or nothing, is indestructible; a substitute for the seventh is ādāna 'receiving' of the 唯識, which is intp. as 無解 undiscriminated, or indefinite perception; there is a difference of view between the 相 and the 性 schools in regard to the seventh and eight 識; and the latter school add a ninth called the amala, or pure vijñāna, i.e. the non-phenomenal 眞如識. The esoterics add that all phenomena are mental and all things are the one mind, hence the one mind is 無量識 unlimited mind or knowledge, every kind of knowledge, or omniscience. vijñāna is one of the twelve nidānas.; Ālaya-vijñāna and mano-vijñāna; i. e. 阿梨耶 | and 分別事 |; v. 識.


see styles
Mandarin lián / lian2
Taiwan lien
Japanese ren / れん    muraji / むらじ
Chinese to link; to join; to connect; continuously; in succession; including; (used with 也, 都 etc) even; company (military); surname Lian
Japanese (1) (ateji for "ream"; also written as 嗹) two reams (of paper); 1000 sheets of paper; (2) (also written as 聯) stanza; verse; (3) {biol} tribe (in taxonomy); (4) (abbreviation) (See 連勝式) quinella; quiniela; (suffix noun) (5) party; company; group; set; (counter) (6) (also written as 聯) counter for things strung in a line, e.g. pearls, dried fish, spans of a bridge, etc.; (7) (obsolete) counter for falcons; (archaism) Muraji (hereditary title; orig. one of the two highest such titles, later demoted to seventh highest of eight); (surname, given name) Ren; (personal name) Yasu; (surname, female given name) Muraji; (given name) Tsuranu; (surname, given name) Tsura; (personal name) Tsugi
To connect, continue; contiguous; and, even; link


see styles
Mandarin/ li2
Taiwan li
Japanese ri / り
Chinese to leave; to part from; to be away from; (in giving distances) from; without (something); independent of; one of the Eight Trigrams 八卦[ba1 gua4], symbolizing fire; ☲; surname Li
Japanese li (one of the trigrams of the I Ching: fire, south); (surname) Mato; (place-name) Hanare
To leave, part from, apart from. abandon; translit. li, le, r, re, rai; to separate

see styles
Mandarin zhèn / zhen4
Taiwan chen
Japanese shin / しん
Chinese to shake; to vibrate; to jolt; to quake; excited; shocked; one of the Eight Trigrams 八卦[ba1 gua4], symbolizing thunder; ☳
Japanese zhen (one of the trigrams of the I Ching: thunder, east); (surname) Tatsumi; (given name) Shin
To shake, thunder, tremble, awe, quicken; translit. cin, ci.

see styles
Japanese ya / や    hachi / はち Japanese (numeric) eight

七衆


七众

see styles
Mandarin qī zhòng / qi1 zhong4
Taiwan ch`i chung / chi chung
Japanese shichishu / しちしゅ
Japanese seven orders of Buddhist disciples (monks, nuns, probationary nuns, male novices, female novices, male lay devotees, female lay devotees)
The seven classes of disciples:―(1)比丘 bhikṣu,monk;(2) bhikṣuṇī a female observer of all commandments; (3) 式叉摩那śikṣamāṇa, a novice, or observer of the six commandments; (4) 沙彌 śrāmaṇera, and (5) 沙彌尼 śrāmaṇerika, male and female observers of the minor commandments; (6) 優婆塞 upāsaka, male observers of the five commandments; and (7) 優婆夷upāsikā, female ditto. The first five have left home, the last two remain at home. Tiantai makes nine groups by dividing the last two into four, two remaining at home, two leaving home and keeping the eight commandments. Others make four groups, i.e. (1), (2), (6), and (7) of the above. Tiantai also has a four-group; seven groups (of Buddhist disciples)

三八

see styles
Mandarin sān bā / san1 ba1
Taiwan san pa
Japanese sanpachi / さんぱち
Chinese International Women's Day 婦女節|妇女节[Fu4 nu:3 jie2], 8th March; foolish; stupid
Japanese (1) three and eight; (2) (abbreviation) (See 三八式歩兵銃) Arisaka Type 38 rifle; (personal name) Miya; (given name) Mihachi; (given name) Mitsuya; (given name) Mitsuhachi; (given name) Sanpachi
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

三戒

see styles
Mandarin sān jiè / san1 jie4
Taiwan san chieh
Japanese sankai
The three sets of commandments, i.e. the ten for the ordained who have left home, the eight for the devout at home, and the five for the ordinary laity; three categories of precepts

三斷


三断

see styles
Mandarin sān duàn / san1 duan4
Taiwan san tuan
Japanese sandan
The three cuttings off or excisions (of 惑 beguiling delusions, or perplexities). (1) (a) 見所斷 to cut off delusions of view, of which Hīnayāna has eighty-eight kinds; (b) 修所斷in practice, eighty-one kinds; (c) 非所斷nothing left to cut off, perfect. v. 倶舍論 2. (2) (a) 自性斷 to cut off the nature or root (of delusion); (b) 緣縛斷 to cut off the external bonds, or objective causes (of delusions); (c) 不生斷 (delusion) no longer arising, therefore nothing produced to cut off. The third stage in both groups is that of an arhat; three eliminations

三漸


三渐

see styles
Mandarin sān jiàn / san1 jian4
Taiwan san chien
Japanese sanzen
The three progressive developments of the Buddha's teaching according to the Prajñā school: (a) the 鹿苑 initial stage in the Lumbinī deer park; (b) the 方等 period of the eight succeeding years; (c) the 般若 Prajñā or wisdom period which succeeded; three gradual teachings

三節


三节

see styles
Mandarin sān jié / san1 jie2
Taiwan san chieh
Japanese sansetsu
The three divisions of the 十二因緣 twelve nidānas, q.v.: (a) past, i.e. the first two; (b) present— the next eight; (c) future— the last two.

三自

see styles
Mandarin sān zì / san1 zi4
Taiwan san tzu
Japanese sanji
Chinese abbr. for 三自愛國教會|三自爱国教会[San1 zi4 Ai4 guo2 Jiao4 hui4], Three-Self Patriotic Movement
Three divisions of the eight-fold noble path, the first to the third 自調 self-control, the fourth and fifth 自淨 self-purification, the last three 自度 self-development in the religious life and in wisdom. Also 自體, 自相, 自用 substance, form, and function.

中胎

see styles
Mandarin zhōng tāi / zhong1 tai1
Taiwan chung t`ai / chung tai
Japanese chūtai
(中胎藏) The central figure of the eight-petalled group of the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala; i. e. the phenomenal Vairocana who has around him four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas, each on a petal. From this maṇḍala spring the four other great maṇḍalas.

九宗

see styles
Mandarin jiǔ zōng / jiu3 zong1
Taiwan chiu tsung
Japanese ku shū
The eight sects 八宗 (q.v.) plus the 禪宗 Chan or Zen, or the Pure-land or Jōdo sect; nine schools

九尊

see styles
Mandarin jiǔ zūn / jiu3 zun1
Taiwan chiu tsun
Japanese kuson
The nine honoured ones in the eight-petalled hall of the Garbhadhātu, i.e. Vairocana in the centre of the lotus, with four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the petals, the lotus representing the human heart; v. 五佛; nine honored ones

九衆


九众

see styles
Mandarin jiǔ zhòng / jiu3 zhong4
Taiwan chiu chung
Japanese ku shu
The 七衆 q.v. plus junior monks and nuns, i.e. novices who have received the eight commandments; nine groups (of disciples)

九輪


九轮

see styles
Mandarin jiǔ lún / jiu3 lun2
Taiwan chiu lun
Japanese kurin / くりん
Japanese kurin (nine vertically stacked rings of a pagoda finial); pagoda finial; (given name) Kurin
The nine wheels or circles on the top of a pagoda, also called 空輪the wheels of space; the nine should only be on the stūpa of a Buddha, others are entitled to as many as eight and a few as one.

二八

see styles
Mandarin èr bā / er4 ba1
Taiwan erh pa
Japanese nihachi / にはち    nippachi / にっぱち
Chinese 16; sixteen
Japanese (archaism) sixteen; February and August (times of slow business, sluggish sales, etc.)
The sixteen meditations. V. 十六觀; two sets of eight

二衆


二众

see styles
Mandarin èr zhòng / er4 zhong4
Taiwan erh chung
Japanese nishu
The two groups: the monks, or clergy; the laity who observe the five and the eight commands.

五位

see styles
Mandarin wǔ wèi / wu3 wei4
Taiwan wu wei
Japanese goi / ごい
Japanese (1) fifth court rank; (2) (abbreviation) (See 五位鷺) black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax); night heron; (3) {Buddh} five ranks; five stages; (place-name, surname) Goi
The five categories, or divisions; there are several groups, e. g. (1) Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna have groupings of all phenomena under five heads, i. e. Hīnayāna has 75 法 which are 11 色法, 1 心法, 46 心所法, 14 不相離法, and 3 無爲法; Mahāyāna has 100 法 which are 8 心, 51 心所, 11 色, 24 不相因, and 6 無爲法. (2) The five divisions of 唯識 are 資糧位, 加行位, 通達位, 修習位, and 究竟 or 佛位. (3) The five evolutions in the womb are: kalalaṃ, embryo-initiation; arbudaṃ, after 27 days; peśī, 37; ghana, 47; praśākha, 57 days when form and organs are all complete. (4) Certain combinations of the 八卦 Eight Diagrams are sometimes styled 五位君臣 five positions of prince and minister.

五時


五时

see styles
Mandarin wǔ shí / wu3 shi2
Taiwan wu shih
Japanese goji
(五時教) The five periods or divisions of Śākyamuni's teaching. According to Tiantai they are (1) 華嚴時 the Avataṃsaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment, when he preached the content, of this sutra; (2) 鹿苑時 the twelve years of his preaching the Āgamas 阿含 in the Deer Park; (3) 方等時 the eight years of preaching Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna doctrines, the vaipulya period; (4) 般若時 the twenty-two years of his preaching the prajñā or wisdom sutras; (5) 法華涅槃時 the eight years of his preaching the Lotus Sutra and, in a day and a night, the Nirvana Sutra. According to the Nirvana School (now part of the Tiantai) they are (1) 三乘別教 the period when the differentiated teaching began and the distinction of the three vehicles, as represented by the 四諦 Four Noble Truths for śrāvakas, the 十二因緣 Twelve Nidānas for pratyekabuddhas, and the 六度 Six Pāramitās for bodhisattvas; (2) 三乘通教 the teaching common to all three vehicles, as seen in the 般若經; (3) 抑揚教 the teaching of the 維摩經, the 思益梵天所問經, and other sutras olling the bodhisattva teaching at the expense of that for śrāvakas; (4) 同歸教 the common objective teaching calling all three vehicles, through the Lotus, to union in the one vehicle; (5) 常住教 the teaehmg of eternal life i. e. the revelation through the Nirvana sutra of the eternity of Buddhahood; these five are also called 有相; 無相; 抑揚; 曾三歸—; and 圓常. According to 劉虬 Liu Chiu of the 晉 Chin dynasty, the teaching is divided into 頓 immediate and 漸 gradual attainment, the latter having five divisions called 五時教 similar to those of the Tiantai group. According to 法寶 Fabao of the Tang dynasty the five are (1) 小乘; (2) 般着 or 大乘; (3) 深密 or 三乘; (4) 法華 or 一乘; (5) 涅槃 or 佛性教.

五輪


五轮

see styles
Mandarin wǔ lún / wu3 lun2
Taiwan wu lun
Japanese gorin / ごりん
Japanese Olympic rings; Olympics; (p,s,f) Gorin; (surname, female given name) Itsuwa
The five wheels, or things that turn: I. The 五體 or five members, i. e. the knees, the elbows, and the head; when all are placed on the ground it implies the utmost respect. II. The five foundations of the world. first and lowest the wheel or circle of space; above are those of wind; of water; the diamond, or earth; on these rest the nine concentric circles and eight seas. III. The esoteric sect uses the term for the 五大 five elements, earth, water, fire, wind, and space; also for the 五解脫輪 q. v. IV. The five fingers (of a Buddha).

亡八

see styles
Mandarin wáng bā / wang2 ba1
Taiwan wang pa
Japanese bouhachi / bohachi / ぼうはち
Chinese variant of 王八[wang2 ba1]
Japanese (1) customer at a brothel; john; someone who has forgotten the eight virtues; (2) brothel; owner of a brothel

佛頂


佛顶

see styles
Mandarin fú dǐng / fu2 ding3
Taiwan fu ting
Japanese butchō
Śākyamuni in the third court of the Garbhadhātu is represented as the佛頂尊 in meditation as Universal Wise Sovereign. The 五佛頂q.v. Five Buddhas are on his left representing his Wisdom. The three 佛頂 on his right are called 廣大佛頂, 極廣大佛頂, and 無邊音聲佛頂; in all they are the eight 佛頂.; A title of the esoteric sect for their form of Buddha, or Buddhas, especially of Vairocana of the Vajradhātu and Śākyamuni of the Garbhadhātu groups. Also, an abbreviation of a dhāraṇī as is | | | 經 of a sutra, and there are other | | | scriptures.

內胎


内胎

see styles
Mandarin nèi tāi / nei4 tai1
Taiwan nei t`ai / nei tai
Japanese naitai
The inner garbhadhātu, i. e. the eight objects in the eight leaves in the central group of the maṇḍala.

八々

see styles
Japanese happa / はっぱ Japanese (expression) eight times eight

八つ

see styles
Japanese yatsu / やつ    yattsu / やっつ Japanese (numeric) eight

八不

see styles
Mandarin bā bù / ba1 bu4
Taiwan pa pu
Japanese hachifu
The eight negations of Nagarjuna, founder of the Mādhyamika or Middle School 三論宗. The four pairs are "neither birth nor death, neither end nor permanence, neither identity nor difference, neither coming nor going." These are the eight negations; add "neither cause nor effect"and there are the 十不 ten negations; v. 八迷.

八乾


八干

see styles
Mandarin bā gàn / ba1 gan4
Taiwan pa kan
Japanese hakken
The eight skandhas, or sections of the Abhidharma, v. 八犍度; eight sections

八人

see styles
Mandarin bā rén / ba1 ren2
Taiwan pa jen
Japanese hachinin / はちにん
Japanese (place-name) Hachinin
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

八位

see styles
Mandarin bā wèi / ba1 wei4
Taiwan pa wei
Japanese hachī
The classification or grades of disciples according to the Tiantai 圓教 perfect teaching, i.e. (1) 觀行卽 grade of the five classes, or stages, of lay disciples; (2) 相似卽 grade of the ten classes of or ordinary monks and nuns; above these are the 分眞卽bodhisattva stages of those progressing towards Buddhahood i.e. (3) 十住, (4) 十行, (5) 十廻向, (6) 十地, (7) 等覺, and (8) the perfect or Buddha stage 究竟卽, i.e. 妙覺. Cf. 六卽; eight ranks

八佛

see styles
Mandarin bā fú / ba1 fu2
Taiwan pa fu
Japanese hachibutsu
Eight Buddhas of the eastern quarter.

八倒

see styles
Mandarin bā dào / ba1 dao4
Taiwan pa tao
Japanese hattō
v. 八顚倒; eight errors

八分

see styles
Japanese happun / はっぷん    hachibu / はちぶ Japanese (temporal noun) (1) eight minutes; (2) (See 六体) triangular-swept clerical script (clerical script whose horizontal lines end in a noticeable triangular tail); (1) eight-tenths; (2) casting someone out; (3) (See 鳶ズボン) type of baggy tobi trousers with the baggy part taking up eight-tenths of the full length of the trouser leg

八友

see styles
Mandarin bā yǒu / ba1 you3
Taiwan pa yu
Japanese hachitomo / はちとも
Japanese (surname) Hachitomo
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

八味

see styles
Mandarin bā wèi / ba1 wei4
Taiwan pa wei
Japanese hachimi
The eight savours (or pleasures) of the Buddha's nirvāṇa: 常住 perpetual abode, 寂滅extinction (of distress, etc.), 不老 eternal youth, 不死 immortality, 淸淨 purity, 虛通 absolute freedom (as space), 不動 imperturbility, and 快樂 joy; eight flavors

八咫

see styles
Japanese yaata;yata / yata;yata / やあた;やた Japanese (1) (archaism) (See 咫) eight ata (approx. 144 cm); (2) (usu. やた) large; long; (personal name) Yata

八囀


八啭

see styles
Mandarin bā zhuǎn / ba1 zhuan3
Taiwan pa chuan
Japanese hatten
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

八圓


八圆

see styles
Mandarin bā yuán / ba1 yuan2
Taiwan pa yüan
Japanese hachien
Eight fundamental characteristics of a 圓教 complete or perfect school of teaching, which must perfectly express 教, 理, 智, 斷, 行, 位, 因, and 果; eight aspects of completion

八塔

see styles
Mandarin bā tǎ / ba1 ta3
Taiwan pa t`a / pa ta
Japanese hattou / hatto / はっとう
Japanese (surname) Hattou
idem 八大靈塔; eight stūpas

八墮


八堕

see styles
Mandarin bā duò / ba1 duo4
Taiwan pa to
Japanese hachida
idem 八波羅夷; eight falls

八大

see styles
Mandarin bā dà / ba1 da4
Taiwan pa ta
Japanese yahiro / やひろ    hatsuta / はつた    hachidai / はちだい
Japanese (given name) Yahiro; (surname) Hatsuta; (given name) Hachidai
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

八天

see styles
Mandarin bā tiān / ba1 tian1
Taiwan pa t`ien / pa tien
Japanese hatten / はってん
Japanese (given name) Hatten
The eight devalokas, i.e. four dhyāna devalokas of the region of form, and four arūpalokas; 四禪天 and 四空處.

八姓

see styles
Japanese hassei / hasse / はっせい Japanese (archaism) (obscure) (See 八色の姓) eight hereditary titles (designated by Emperor Tenmu in 684 CE: Mahito, Asomi, Sukune, Imiki, Michinoshi, Omi, Muraji, Inagi)

八字

see styles
Mandarin bā zì / ba1 zi4
Taiwan pa tzu
Japanese yaji / やじ
Chinese the character 8 or 八; birthdate characters used in fortune-telling
Japanese (surname) Yaji
The eight leading characters of the 聖行 chapter in the Nirvāṇa sūtra 生滅滅巳寂滅爲樂, the teaching of the sūtra is death, or nirvāṇa, as entry into joy; eight words

八宗

see styles
Mandarin bā zōng / ba1 zong1
Taiwan pa tsung
Japanese hasshuu / hasshu / はっしゅう
Japanese (See 南都六宗) the two sects of Buddhism introduced to Japan during the Heian period (Tiantai and Shingon) and the six sects introduced during the Nara period
or 八家 Eight of the early Japanese sects: 倶舍 Kusha, 成實 Jōjitsu, 律 Ritsu, 法相Hossō, 三論 Sanron, 華嚴 Kegon, 天台 Tendai, 眞言 Shingon; eight schools

八定

see styles
Mandarin bā dìng / ba1 ding4
Taiwan pa ting
Japanese hachi jō
The eight degrees of fixed abstraction, i.e. the four dhyānas corresponding to the four divisions in the heavens of form, and the four degrees of absolute fixed abstraction on the 空 or immaterial, corresponding to the arūpadhātu, i.e. heavens of formlessness; eight meditations

八家

see styles
Mandarin bā jiā / ba1 jia1
Taiwan pa chia
Japanese hakke / はっけ
Japanese (1) (abbreviation) (See 八宗) the eight early Japanese Buddhist sects; (2) (See 入唐八家) eight Japanese monks who visited China during the early Heian; (place-name) Yaya; (place-name) Yatsuya; (place-name) Yaka; (surname) Hatsuka; (surname) Hachiie
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

八寸

see styles
Japanese hassun / はっすん Japanese (1) distance of eight sun (approx. 24 cm); (2) dish or tray of this size (esp. used in kaiseki cuisine to serve several kinds of delicacies); food served in such a dish; (3) var. of thick, traditional Japanese paper; (place-name) Hachisu

八州

see styles
Japanese hasshuu / hasshu / はっしゅう Japanese (1) (archaism) (See 八洲) Japan; (2) (See 関八州) eight Edo-period provinces of Kanto (Sagami, Musashi, Awa, Kazusa, Shimousa, Hitachi, Kouzuke & Shimotsuke); (personal name) Yasu; (surname) Yashima; (given name) Hasshuu

八師


八师

see styles
Mandarin bā shī / ba1 shi1
Taiwan pa shih
Japanese hasshi
The eight teachers―murder, robbery, adultery, lying, drinking, age, sickness, and death; v. 八師經.

八徳

see styles
Japanese hattoku / はっとく Japanese (See 仁・1,義・1,礼・1,智・1,忠・1,信・1,孝,悌・1) the eight virtues; (place-name) Yatsutoku

八德

see styles
Mandarin bā dé / ba1 de2
Taiwan pa te
Japanese hattoku
Chinese Bade or Pate city in Taoyuan county 桃園縣|桃园县[Tao2 yuan2 xian4], north Taiwan
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

八忍

see styles
Mandarin bā rěn / ba1 ren3
Taiwan pa jen
Japanese hachinin
The eight kṣānti, or powers of patient endurance, in the desire-realm and the two realms above it, necessary to acquire the full realization of the truth of the Four Axioms, 四諦; these four give rise to the 四法忍, i.e. 苦, 集, 滅, 道法忍, the endurance or patient pursuit that results in their realization. In the realm of form and the formless, they are called the 四類忍. By patient meditation the 見惑 false or perplexed views will cease, and the八智 eight kinds of jñāna or gnosis be acquired; therefore 智 results from忍 and the sixteen, 八忍八智 (or 觀), are called the 十六心, i.e. the sixteen mental conditions during the stage of 見道, when 惑 illusions or perplexities of view are destroyed. Such is the teaching of the 唯識宗. The 八智 are 苦, 集, 滅,道法智 and 苦, etc. 類智.

八念

see styles
Mandarin bā niàn / ba1 nian4
Taiwan pa nien
Japanese hachinen
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

八惡


八恶

see styles
Mandarin bā è / ba1 e4
Taiwan pa o
Japanese hachi aku
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

八慢

see styles
Mandarin bā màn / ba1 man4
Taiwan pa man
Japanese hachiman
The eight kinds of pride, māna, arrogance, or self-conceit, 如慢 though inferior, to think oneself equal to others (in religion); 慢慢 to think oneself superior among manifest superiors; 不如慢 to think oneself not so much inferior among manifest superiors; 增上慢 to think one has attained more than is the fact, or when it is not the fact; 我慢 self-superiority, or self-sufficiency; 邪慢 pride in false views, or doings; 憍慢 arrogance; 大慢 extreme arrogance.

八憍

see styles
Mandarin bā jiāo / ba1 jiao1
Taiwan pa chiao
Japanese hakkyō
The eight kinds of pride, or arrogance, resulting in domineering: because of strength; of clan, or name; of wealth; of independence, or position; of years, or age; of cleverness, or wisdom; of good or charitable deeds; of good looks. Of these, eight birds are named as types: 鴟梟 two kinds of owl, eagle, vulture, crow, magpie, pigeon, wagtail.

八成

see styles
Mandarin bā chéng / ba1 cheng2
Taiwan pa ch`eng / pa cheng
Japanese hachi jō
Chinese eighty percent; most probably; most likely
idem 八相成道. 八成立因 The eight factors of a Buddhist syllogism.

八支

see styles
Mandarin bā zhī / ba1 zhi1
Taiwan pa chih
Japanese hasshi
idem 八正道 also the eight sections of the 八支 śāstra; also a term for the first eight commandments.

八教

see styles
Mandarin bā jiào / ba1 jiao4
Taiwan pa chiao
Japanese hakkyō
The eight Tiantai classifications of Śākyamuni's teaching, from the Avataṁsaka to the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, divided into the two sections (1) 化法四教 his four kinds of teaching of the content of the Truth accommodated to the capacity of his disciples; (2) 化儀四教 his four modes of instruction. (1) The four 化法教 are: (a) 三藏教 The Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching, for śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattva doctrine being subordinate; it also included the primitive śūnya doctrine as developed in the Satyasiddhi śāstra. (b) 教通His later "intermediate" teaching which contained Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna doctrine for śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, to which are attributed the doctrines of the Dharmalakṣaṇa or Yogācārya and Mādhyamika schools. (c) 別教 His differentiated , or separated, bodhisattva teaching, definitely Mahāyāna. (d) 圓教 His final, perfect, bodhisattva, universal teaching as preached, e.g. in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras. (2) The four methods of instruction 化儀 are: (a) 頓教 Direct teaching without reserve of the whole truth, e.g. the 華嚴 sūtra. (b) 漸教 Gradual or graded, e.g. the 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; all the four 化法 are also included under this heading. (c) 祕密教 Esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly. (d) 不定教 General or indeterminate teaching, from which each hearer would derive benefit according to his interpretation; eight teaching categories

八方

see styles
Mandarin bā fāng / ba1 fang1
Taiwan pa fang
Japanese happou / happo / はっぽう
Chinese the eight points of the compass; all directions
Japanese (1) all sides; the four cardinal directions and the four ordinal directions; (2) (See 八方行灯) large hanging lantern; (surname) Yakata; (surname) Hatsupou; (surname) Happou; (surname) Hachikata
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

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This page contains 100 results for "eight" in Chinese and/or Japanese.



Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).



Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

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Japanese Kanji Dictionary

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