Free Chinese & Japanese Online Dictionary

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Mandarin Chinese information.
Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
Japanese information.
Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
 Definition may be different outside of Buddhism.

There are 28 total results for your Sangha search.

Characters Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
sēng / seng1
seng
 sou / so / そう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
monk; Sangha, the Buddhist monastic order
(1) monk; priest; (2) (abbreviation) (See 僧伽・そうぎゃ) sangha (the Buddhist community); (surname) Sou
僧伽 saṅgha, an assembly, collection, company, society. The corporate assembly of at least three (formerly four) monks under a chairman, empowered to hear confession, grant absolution, and ordain. The church or monastic order, the third member of the triratna. The term 僧 used alone has come to mean a monk, or monks in general. Also僧佉, 僧加, 僧企耶.; A fully ordained monk, i.e. a bhikṣu as contrasted with the śramaņa; community of monks and nuns

三宝

see styles
 sanbou;sanpou / sanbo;sanpo / さんぼう;さんぽう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
{Buddh} The Three Jewels; The Triple Gem; Triratna; The Three Treasures; Buddha, Dharma, Sangha; Buddha, the teachings of Buddha, and the community of monks and nuns; (surname) Sanpou

三寶


三宝

see styles
sān bǎo / san1 bao3
san pao
 sanbō / さんぼう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
the Three Precious Treasures of Buddhism, namely: the Buddha 佛, the Dharma 法 (his teaching), and the Sangha 僧 (his monastic order)
(surname) Sanbou
three treasures

僧伽

see styles
sēng qié / seng1 qie2
seng ch`ieh / seng chieh
 sougya / sogya / そうぎゃ
 Vertical Wall Scroll
(Buddhism) sangha; the monastic community; monk
sangha (the Buddhist community) (san: samgha)
(Skt. saṃgha)

三寳


三宝

see styles
sān bǎo / san1 bao3
san pao
 sanbō
Triratna, or Ratnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones: 佛 Buddha, 法 Dharma, 儈 Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel suggests this trinity may be adapted from the Trimūrti, i.e, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Sīva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikāya 三身 q.v. There is also the Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Buddha as a Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Dhyāni-Buddha, and Mānuṣi-Buddha; also the Tantric trinity of Vairocana as Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel "existing in reflex in the world of forms", and the human Buddha, Śākyamuni. There are other elaborated details known as the four and the six kinds of triratna 四 and 六種三寳, e.g. that the Triratna exists in each member of the trinity. The term has also been applied to the 三仙 q.v. Popularly the 三寳 are referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre one is Śākyamuni, on his left Bhaiṣajya 藥師 and on his right Amitābha. There are other explanations, e.g. in some temples Amitābha is in the centre, Avalokiteśvara on his left, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta or Mañjuśrī on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikāya, and Trailokya: — DHARMASAṄGHABUDDHAEssential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical BodhiDhyāni BuddhaDhyāni BodhisattvaMānuṣī BuddhaDharmakāyaSambhogakāyaNirmāṇakāyaPurityCompletenessTransformations4th Buddha-kṣetra3rd Buddha-kṣetra1st and 2nd Buddha kṣetraArūpadhātuRūpadhātuKāmadhātu; three treasures

三歸


三归

see styles
sān guī / san1 gui1
san kuei
 sanki
Triśaraṇa, or Śaraṇa-gamana. The three surrenders to, or "formulas of refuge" in, the Three Precious Ones 三賓, i.e. to the Buddha 佛, the Dharma 法, the Saṅgha 僧. The three formulas are 歸依佛 Buddham śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依法 Dharmaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依僧 Saṅghaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi. It is "the most primitive formula fidei of the early Buddhists". The surrender is to the Buddha as teacher 師, the Law as medicine 藥, the Ecclesia as friends 友. These are known as the 三歸依; three refuges

三身

see styles
sān shēn / san1 shen1
san shen
 sanjin;sanshin / さんじん;さんしん
{Buddh} trikaya (three bodies of the Buddha); (surname) Sanmi
trikāya. 三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men; three bodies [of the Buddha]

二和

see styles
èr hé / er4 he2
erh ho
 niwa / ふたわ
(place-name) Futawa
The double harmony or unity, i. e. 理 and 事, indicating those who are united in doctrine and practice, or the saṅgha; two kinds of harmony

五逆

see styles
wǔ nì / wu3 ni4
wu ni
 gogyaku
pañcānantarya; 五無間業 The five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, killing an arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity. The above definition is common both to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. The lightest of these sins is the first; the heaviest the last. II. Another group is: (1) sacrilege, such as destroying temples, burning sutras, stealing a Buddha's or a monk's things, inducing others to do so, or taking pleasure therein; (2) slander, or abuse of the teaching of śrāvaka s, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas; (3) ill-treatment or killing of a monk; (4) any one of the five deadly sins given above; (5) denial of the karma consequences of ill deeds, acting or teaching others accordingly, and unceasing evil life. III. There are also five deadly sins, each of which is equal to each of the first set of five: (1) violation of a mother, or a fully ordained nun; (2) killing a bodhisattva in a sangha; (5) destroying a Buddha's stūpa. IV. The five unpardonable sin of Devadatta who (1) destroyed the harmony of the community; (2) injured Śākyamuni with a stone, shedding his blood; (3) induced the king to let loose a rutting elephant to trample down Śākyamuni; (4) killed a nun; (5) put poison on his finger-nails and saluted Śākyamuni intending to destroy him thereby; five heinous crimes

佛寶


佛宝

see styles
fó bǎo / fo2 bao3
fo pao
 buppō
法寳, 僧寳 Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Order; these are the three Jewels, or precious ones, the Buddhist Trinity; v. 三寳; buddha treasure

僧寶


僧宝

see styles
sēng bǎo / seng1 bao3
seng pao
 sōbō
saṅgha, the idealized church, the third member of the triratna; saṃgha treasure

僧祇

see styles
sēng qí / seng1 qi2
seng ch`i / seng chi
 sōgi
sāṅghika, relating to a saṅgha; a complete set of land and buildings for a monastery; incalculable

十地

see styles
shí dì / shi2 di4
shih ti
 juuji / juji / じゅうじ
{Buddh} dasabhumi (forty-first to fiftieth stages in the development of a bodhisattva); (place-name) Juuji
daśabhūmi; v. 十住. The "ten stages" in the fifty-two sections of the development of a bodhisattva into a Buddha. After completing the十四向 he proceeds to the 十地. There are several groups. I. The ten stages common to the Three Vehicles 三乘 are: (1) 乾慧地 dry wisdom stage, i. e. unfertilized by Buddha-truth, worldly wisdom; (2) 性地 the embryo-stage of the nature of Buddha-truth, the 四善根; (3) 八人地 (八忍地), the stage of the eight patient endurances; (4) 見地 of freedom from wrong views; (5) 薄地 of freedom from the first six of the nine delusions in practice; (6) 離欲地 of freedom from the remaining three; (7) 巳辨地 complete discrimination in regard to wrong views and thoughts, the stage of an arhat; (8) 辟支佛地 pratyeka-buddhahood, only the dead ashes of the past left to sift; (9) 菩薩地 bodhisattvahood; (10) 佛地 Buddhahood. v. 智度論 78. II. 大乘菩薩十地 The ten stages of Mahāyāna bodhisattva development are: (1) 歡喜地 Pramuditā, joy at having overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood; (2) 離垢地 Vimalā, freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity; (3) 發光地 Prabhākarī, stage of further enlightenment; (4) 焰慧地 Arciṣmatī, of glowing wisdom; (5) 極難勝地 Sudurjayā, mastery of utmost or final difficulties; (6) 現前地 Abhimukhī, the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity; (7) 遠行地 Dūraṁgamā, proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in order to save others; (8) 不動地 Acalā, attainment of calm unperturbedness; (9) 善慧地 Sādhumatī, of the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the 十力 ten powers; (10) 法雲地 Dharmamegha, attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the ten pāramitās, v. 波. Each of the 四乘 or four vehicles has a division of ten. III. The 聲聞乘十地 ten Śrāvaka stages are: (1) 受三歸地 initiation as a disciple by receiving the three refuges, in the Buddha, Dharma, and Saṅgha; (2) 信地 belief, or the faith-root; (3) 信法地 belief in the four truths; (4) 内凡夫地 ordinary disciples who observe the 五停心觀, etc.; (5) 學信戒 those who pursue the 三學 three studies; (6) 八人忍地 the stage of 見道 seeing the true Way; (7) 須陀洹地 śrota-āpanna, now definitely in the stream and assured of nirvāṇa; (8) 斯陀含地 sakrdāgāmin, only one more rebirth; (9) 阿那含地 anāgāmin, no rebirth; and (10) 阿羅漢地 arhatship. IV. The ten stages of the pratyekabuddha 緣覺乘十地 are (1) perfect asceticism; (2) mastery of the twelve links of causation; (3) of the four noble truths; (4) of the deeper knowledge; (5) of the eightfold noble path; (6) of the three realms 三法界; (7) of the nirvāṇa state; (8) of the six supernatural powers; (9) arrival at the intuitive stage; (10) mastery of the remaining influence of former habits. V. 佛乘十地 The ten stages, or characteristics of a Buddha, are those of the sovereign or perfect attainment of wisdom, exposition, discrimination, māra-subjugation, suppression of evil, the six transcendent faculties, manifestation of all bodhisattva enlightenment, powers of prediction, of adaptability, of powers to reveal the bodhisattva Truth. VI. The Shingon has its own elaborate ten stages, and also a group 十地十心, see 十心; and there are other groups.

三寶物


三宝物

see styles
sān bǎo wù / san1 bao3 wu4
san pao wu
 san bōmotsu
The things appertaining to the triratna, i.e. to the Buddha— temples and images, etc.; to the dharma— the scriptures; to the saṅgha— cassock, bowl, etc; three things associated with the three treasures

三歸依


三归依

see styles
sān guī yī / san1 gui1 yi1
san kuei i
 san kie
the Three Pillars of Faith (Buddha, dharma, sangha); see also 三寶|三宝[san1 bao3]
three refuges

仏法僧

see styles
 buppousou;buppousou / bupposo;bupposo / ぶっぽうそう;ブッポウソウ (1) (ぶっぽうそう only) {Buddh} (See 三宝・さんぼう) Buddha, Dharma, Sangha; The Three Jewels; Buddha, the teachings of Buddha, and the community of monks and nuns; (2) (kana only) Oriental dollarbird (Eurystomus orientalis); (3) (kana only) roller (any bird of family Coraciidae); (4) (See コノハズク) Eurasian scops owl (Otus scops)

佛法僧

see styles
fó fǎ sēng / fo2 fa3 seng1
fo fa seng
 buppō sō
Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha, i.e. the Buddhist Trinity; the buddha, the dharma, and the saṃgha

大海衆


大海众

see styles
dà hǎi zhòng / da4 hai3 zhong4
ta hai chung
 dai kaishu
The great ocean congregation; as all waters flowing into the sea become salty, so all ranks flowing into the sangha become of one flavour and lose old differentiations.

桑渴耶

see styles
sāng kě yé / sang1 ke3 ye2
sang k`o yeh / sang ko yeh
 sōkatsuya
v. 僧 saṅgha; community of monks and nuns

歸依佛


归依佛

see styles
guī yī fó / gui1 yi1 fo2
kuei i fo
 kie butsu
歸依法; 歸依僧 To commit oneself to the triratna, i.e. Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha; Buddha, his Truth and his Church; taking the Buddha as refuge

波羅夷


波罗夷

see styles
bō luó yí / bo1 luo2 yi2
po lo i
 harai / はらい
{Buddh} parajika (rules entailing expulsion from the sangha for life)
pārājika. The first section of the Vinaya piṭaka containing rules of expulsion from the order, for unpardonable sin. Also 波羅闍巳迦; 波羅市迦. Cf. 四波羅夷. There are in Hīnayāna eight sins for expulsion of nuns, and in Mahāyāna ten. The esoteric sects have their own rules.

一體三寶


一体三宝

see styles
yī tǐ sān bǎo / yi1 ti3 san1 bao3
i t`i san pao / i ti san pao
 ittai no sanbō
In the one body of the saṅgha is the whole triratna, Buddha, Dharma, and saṅgha. Also, Mind, Buddha, and the living, these three are without differentiation, 心佛與衆生是三無差別, i.e. are all one; one essence for three treasures

三宝荒神

see styles
 sanboukoujin / sanbokojin / さんぼうこうじん (1) {Buddh} (See 三宝) guardian deity of the three jewels (Buddha, Dharma and Sangha); (2) three-person saddle

上行菩薩


上行菩萨

see styles
shàng xíng pú sà / shang4 xing2 pu2 sa4
shang hsing p`u sa / shang hsing pu sa
 Jōgyō bosatsu
Viśiṣṭa-cāritra Bodhisattva, who suddenly rose out of the earth as Buddha was concluding one of his Lotus sermons; v. Lotus sūtra 15 and 21. He is supposed to have been a convert of the Buddha in long past ages and to come to the world in its days of evil. Nichiren in Japan believed himself to be this Bodhisattva's reincarnation, and the Nichiren trinity is the Buddha, i.e. the eternal Śākyamuni Buddha; the Law, i.e. the Lotus Truth; and the Saṅgha, i.e. this Bodhisattva, in other words Nichiren himself as the head of all living beings, or eldest son of the Buddha.

八大靈塔


八大灵塔

see styles
bā dà líng tǎ / ba1 da4 ling2 ta3
pa ta ling t`a / pa ta ling ta
 hachi dai ryōtō
The eight great "spirit", or sacred stūpas erected at (1) Kapilavastu, Buddha's birthplace; (2) Magadha, where he was first enlightened; (3) the deer-park Benares, where he first preached; (4) Jetavana, where he revealed his supernatural powers; (5) Kanyākubja (Kanauj), where he descended from Indra's heavens; (6) Rājagṛha, where Devadatta was destroyed and the Saṅgha purifed; (7) Vaiśāli, where he announced his speedy nirvana; (8) Kuśinagara, where he entered nirvāṇa. There is another slightly variant list; eight great sacred stūpas

化相三寶


化相三宝

see styles
huà xiàng sān bǎo / hua4 xiang4 san1 bao3
hua hsiang san pao
 kesō sanbō
The nirmāṇakāya Buddha in the triratna forms; in Hīnayāna these are the human 16-foot Buddha, his dharma as revealed in the four axioms and twelve nidānas, and his sangha, or disciples, i. e. arhats and pratyekabuddhas; three jewels of the transformation aspect

十發趣心


十发趣心

see styles
shí fā qù xīn / shi2 fa1 qu4 xin1
shih fa ch`ü hsin / shih fa chü hsin
 jū hosshu shin
The ten directional decisions: (1) renouncement of the world; (2) observance of the commandments; (3) patience or endurance; (4) zealous progress; (5) meditation; (6) wisdom or understanding; (7) 願心 the will for good for oneself and others; (8) 護心 protection (of Buddha, Dharma, Sangha); (9) 喜心 joy; (10) 頂心 highest wisdom. v. 梵綱經, 心地品; ten decisions of inclination

南無三宝

see styles
 namusanbou / namusanbo / なむさんぼう (exp,int) {Buddh} (See 三宝・さんぼう) Homage to the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma and Sangha)

Entries with 2nd row of characters: The 2nd row is Simplified Chinese.

This page contains 28 results for "Sangha" in Chinese and/or Japanese.



Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Japanese Bath House

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).



Combined, these cover 1,007,753 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, names, placenames, and short phrases.

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