Free Chinese & Japanese Online Dictionary

If you enter English words, search is Boolean mode:
Enter fall to get just entries with fall in them.
Enter fall* to get results including "falling" and "fallen".
Enter +fall -season -autumn to make sure fall is included, but not entries with autumn or season.


Mandarin Chinese information.
Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
Japanese information.
Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
 Definition may be different outside of Buddhism.

There are 197 total results for your Philosophy search. I have created 2 pages of results for you. Each page contains 100 results...

Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition


see styles
wǔ dà
    wu3 da4
wu ta

More info & calligraphy:

Godai / Five Elements
(1) {Buddh} (See 五行・ごぎょう・1) the five elements (in Japanese philosophy: earth, water, fire, wind and void); (2) (abbreviation) {Buddh} (See 五大明王) five great wisdom kings; (surname) Godai
The five elements— earth, water, fire, wind, and space. v. also 五行 the five agents. In the esoteric cult the five are the physical manifestation, or garbhadhātu, v. 胎; as being in all phenomena they are called 五輪 the five evolvers; their phonetic embryos 種子 are those of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas of the five directions, v. 五佛.


see styles
wǔ xíng
    wu3 xing2
wu hsing
 gogyou / gogyo

More info & calligraphy:

Five Elements
five phases of Chinese philosophy: wood 木, fire 火, earth 土, metal 金, water 水
(1) (See 五大・ごだい・1) the five elements (in Chinese philosophy: wood, fire, earth, metal and water); the five phases; wu xing; (2) {Buddh} five practices of the Bodhisattvas; (3) (See 六信五行) the five pillars of Islam; (surname, given name) Gogyou
The five lines of conduct. I. According to the 起信論 Awakening of Faith they are almsgiving; keeping the commandments; patience under insult; zeal or progress; meditation. II. According to the 涅槃經 Nirvana Sutra they are saintly or bodhisattva deeds; arhat, or noble deeds; deva deeds; children's deeds (i. e. normal good deeds of men, devas, and Hinayanists); sickness conditions, e. g. illness, delusion, etc.; — into all these lines of conduct and conditions a Bodhisattva enters. III. The five elements, or tanmātra— wood, fire, earth, metal, and water; or earth, water, ire, air, and ether (or space) as taught by the later Mahāyāna philosophy; idem 五大.



see styles
tài jí
    tai4 ji2
t`ai chi
    tai chi

More info & calligraphy:

Tai Chi / Tai Ji
the Absolute or Supreme Ultimate, the source of all things according to some interpretations of Chinese mythology
taiji (in Chinese philosophy, the principle that embodies all potential things, incl. time and space); (personal name) Taikyoku


see styles
gǎi shàn
    gai3 shan4
kai shan

More info & calligraphy:

Kai Zen / Kaizen
to make better; to improve; CL:個|个[ge4]
(n,vs,vt,vi) (1) betterment; improvement; (2) (kana only) (oft. written カイゼン) kaizen (Japanese business philosophy of continuous improvement)


see styles
lǐ niàn
    li3 nian4
li nien

More info & calligraphy:

Idea / Concept
idea; concept; philosophy; theory
(Platonic) ideal (of how things ought to be, e.g. human rights); foundational principle; idea; conception (e.g. of the university); doctrine; ideology


see styles
 seikatsushinjou / sekatsushinjo
one's philosophy of life


see styles
zhé lǐ
    zhe2 li3
che li
philosophic theory; philosophy
philosophic principles; philosophy


see styles
fǎ jiā
    fa3 jia1
fa chia
 houka / hoka
the Legalist school of political philosophy, which rose to prominence in the Warring States period (475-221 BC) (The Legalists believed that social harmony could only be attained through strong state control, and advocated for a system of rigidly applied punishments and rewards for specific behaviors.); a Legalist
(1) lawyer; (2) legalism (school of Chinese philosophy)
Buddhism; cf. 法門.

see styles
opinion; view; theory; doctrine; to discuss; to talk about; to regard; to consider; per; by the (kilometer, hour etc)
(n,n-suf) (1) argument; discussion; dispute; controversy; discourse; debate; (n,n-suf) (2) theory (e.g. of evolution); doctrine; (n,n-suf) (3) essay; treatise; comment; (surname) Ron
To discourse upon, discuss, reason over; tr. for śāstra, abhidharma, and upadeśa, i.e. discourses, discussions, or treatises on dogma, philosophy, discipline, etc.

see styles
 ryou / ryo
capacity; quantity; amount; to estimate; abbr. for 量詞|量词[liang4 ci2], classifier (in Chinese grammar); measure word
(n,n-suf) (1) quantity; amount; volume; capacity; portion (of food); (2) (See 度量・1) generosity; magnanimity; tolerance; (3) pramana (means by which one gains accurate and valid knowledge; in Indian philosophy); (surname, female given name) Ryō
pramāṇa. Measure, capacity, length, ability; to measure, deliberate; a syllogism in logic, v. 比量. A syllogism, consisting of 宗 pratijñā, proposition; 因 hetu, reason; 喩 udāharaṇa, example; but the syllogism varies in the number of its avayava, or members. There are other divisions from 2 to 6, e.g. 現量 and 比量 direct or sense inferences, and comparative or logical inferences; to these are added 聖教量 arguments based on authority; 譬喩量 analogy; 義准 postulation, or general assent; and 無體 negation, or non-existence.



see styles
sān xué
    san1 xue2
san hsüeh
The "three studies" or vehicles of learning— discipline, meditation, wisdom: (a) 戒學 learning by the commandments, or prohibitions, so as to guard against the evil consequences of error by mouth, body, or mind, i.e. word, deed, or thought; (b) 定學 learning by dhyāna, or quietist meditation; (c) 慧學 learning by philosophy, i.e. study of principles and solving of doubts. Also the Tripiṭaka; the 戒 being referred to the 律 vinaya, the 定 to the 經 sūtras, and the to the 論 śāstras.



see styles
shàng nóng
    shang4 nong2
shang nung
 jounou / jono
a rich farmer; to stress the importance of agriculture (in ancient philosophy)
(surname) Jōnou


see styles
 chuutetsu / chutetsu
Chinese philosophy


see styles
wǔ cháng
    wu3 chang2
wu ch`ang
    wu chang
 gojou / gojo
five constant virtues of Confucianism, namely: benevolence 仁, righteousness 義|义, propriety 禮|礼, wisdom 智 and fidelity 信; five cardinal relationships of Confucianism (between ruler and subject, father and son, husband and wife, brothers, friends); five phases of Chinese philosophy: water 水, fire 火, wood 木, metal 金, earth 土
the five cardinal Confucian virtues (justice, politeness, wisdom, fidelity and benevolence); (place-name) Gojō
five constant [virtues]


see styles
wǔ míng
    wu3 ming2
wu ming
 gomei / gome
(hist) the five sciences of ancient India (grammar and composition, arts and mathematics, medicine, logic, and philosophy); (surname) Gomei
pañca-vidyā, the five sciences or studies of India: (1) śabda, grammar and composition; śilpakarmasthāna, the arts and mathematics; cikitsā, medicine; hetu, logic; adhyātma, philosophy, which Monier Williams says is the 'knoowledge of the supreme spirit, or of ātman', the basis of the four Vedas; the Buddhists reckon the Tripiṭṭaka and the 十二部教 as their 内明, i. e. their inner or special philosophy.



see styles
wǔ yùn
    wu3 yun4
wu yün
 goun / gon
the Five Aggregates (from Sanskrit "skandha") (Buddhism)
{Buddh} the five skandhas (matter, sensation, perception, mental formations and consciousness); the five aggregates
The five skandhas, pañca-skandha: also 五陰; 五衆; 五塞犍陀 The five cumulations, substances, or aggregates, i. e. the components of an intelligent being, specially a human being: (1) 色 rūpa, form, matter, the physical form related to the five organs of sense; (2) 受 vedana, reception, sensation, feeling, the functioning of the mind or senses in connection with affairs and things; (3) 想 saṃjñā, conception, or discerning; the functioning of mind in distinguishing; (4) 行 saṃskāra, the functioning of mind in its processes regarding like and dislike, good and evil, etc.; (5) 識 vijñāna, mental faculty in regard to perception and cognition, discriminative of affairs and things. The first is said to be physical, the other four mental qualities; (2), (3), and (4) are associated with mental functioning, and therefore with 心所; (5) is associated with the faculty or nature of the mind 心王 manas. Eitel gives— form, perception, consciousness, action, knowledge. See also Keith's Buddhist Philosophy, 85-91.


see styles
tā zhě
    ta1 zhe3
t`a che
    ta che
others; (sociology, philosophy) the Other
another person; others


see styles
fó chà
    fo2 cha4
fo ch`a
    fo cha
buddhakṣetra. 佛紇差怛羅 Buddha realm, land or country; see also 佛土, 佛國. The term is absent from Hīnayāna. In Mahāyāna it is the spiritual realm acquired by one who reaches perfect enlightenment, where he instructs all beings born there, preparing them for enlightenment. In the schools where Mahāyāna adopted an Ādi-Buddha, these realms or Buddha-fields interpenetrated each other, since they were coexistent with the universe. There are two classes of Buddhakṣetra: (1) in the Vairocana Schools, regarded as the regions of progress for the righteous after death; (2) in the Amitābha Schools, regarded as the Pure Land; v. McGovern, A Manual of Buddhist Philosophy, pp. 70-2.


see styles
sēng qiā
    seng1 qia1
seng ch`ia
    seng chia
saṅkhyā, 僧企耶; intp. 數 number, reckon, calculate; Saṅkhyā, 'one of the great divisions of Hindu philosophy ascribed to the sage Kapila, and so called as 'reckoning up' or 'enumerating' twenty-five Tattvas or true principles, its object being to effect the final liberation of the twenty-fifth (Purusha, the Soul) from the fetters of the phenomenal creation by conveying the correct knowledge of the twenty-four other Tattvas, and rightly discriminating the soul from them.' M.W. Cf. 迦 and 數.



see styles
yōu lóu
    you1 lou2
yu lou
(優樓迦) Ulūka, the owl; a ṛṣi '800 years' before Śākyamuni, reputed as founder of the Vaiśeṣika philosophy. Also 優婁佉; 憂流迦; 嘔盧伽; 漚樓; 嗢露迦.



see styles
xiān yàn
    xian1 yan4
hsien yen
a priori (philosophy)


see styles
liù jiā
    liu4 jia1
liu chia
Six schools of pre-Han philosophy, as analyzed by 司馬談|司马谈[Si1 ma3 Tan2] (儒家[Ru2 jia1], 道家[Dao4 jia1], 陰陽|阴阳[yin1 yang2], 法家[Fa3 jia1], 名家[Ming2 jia1], and 墨家[Mo4 jia1])
(place-name) Rokke



see styles
liù dì
    liu4 di4
liu ti
The six logical categories of the Vaiśeṣika philosophy: dravya, substance; guṇa, quality; karman, motion or activity; sāmānya, generality; viśeṣa, particularity; samavāya, inherence: Keith, Logic, 179. Eitel has 'substance, quality, action, existence, the unum et diversum, and the aggregate'.


see styles
jié bǐ
    jie2 bi3
chieh pi
(劫比羅) kapila; also 劫畢羅; 迦比羅 (or 迦毗羅) The meaning is 'brown', but it is chiefly used for 'the sage Kapila, founder of the classical Sāṃkhya' philosophy and the school of that name.



see styles
bó lǎn
    bo2 lan3
po lan
to read extensively
to have a broad mastery of philosophy and the arts


see styles
Indian philosophy


see styles
(See アンジッヒ) thing in itself (philosophy)


see styles



see styles
zhé xué
    zhe2 xue2
che hsüeh
philosophy; CL:個|个[ge4]
See: 哲学



see styles
sì kù
    si4 ku4
ssu k`u
    ssu ku
the four book depositories, namely: classics 經|经, history 史, philosophy 子[zi3], belles-lettres 集


see styles
(1) base; substrate; (2) (in philosophy) substratum


see styles
wài dào
    wai4 dao4
wai tao
 gedou / gedo
(1) {Buddh} (See 内道) tirthika; non-Buddhist teachings; non-Buddhist; (2) heterodoxy; unorthodoxy; heresy; heretic; (3) (oft. used as a pejorative) demon; devil; fiend; brute; wretch; (4) type of fish one did not intend to catch; (person) Gedō
Outside doctrines; non-Buddhist; heresy, heretics; the Tīrthyas or Tīrthikas; there are many groups of these: that of the 二天三仙 two devas and three sages, i. e. the Viṣṇuites, the Maheśvarites (or Śivaites), and the followers of Kapila, Ulūka, and Ṛṣabha. Another group of four is given as Kapila, Ulūka, Nirgrantha-putra (Jainas), and Jñātṛ (Jainas). A group of six, known as the外道六師 six heretical masters, is Pūraṇa-Kāśyapa, Maskari-Gośālīputra, Sañjaya-Vairāṭīputra, Ajita-Keśakambala, Kakuda-Kātyāyana, and Nirgrantha-Jñātṛputra; there are also two other groupings of six, one of them indicative of their various forms of asceticism and self-torture. There are also groups of 13, 1, 20, 30, 95, and 96 heretics, or forms of non-Buddhist doctrine, the 95 being divided into 11 classes, beginning with the Saṃkhyā philosophy and ending with that of no-cause, or existence as accidental.


see styles
(1) the sky; the universe; (2) taixu (the great vacuity, in Chinese philosophy, the primordial substance that gives rise to qi); (given name) Taikyo


see styles
(1) the sky; the universe; (2) taixu (the great vacuity, in Chinese philosophy, the primordial substance that gives rise to qi)



see styles
kè tǐ
    ke4 ti3
k`o t`i
    ko ti
object (philosophy)
See: 客体



see styles
shí zài
    shi2 zai4
shih tsai
really; actually; indeed; true; real; honest; dependable; (philosophy) reality
to truly exist



see styles
duì fǎ
    dui4 fa3
tui fa
The corresponding law, the philosophy in the Buddha's teaching, the Abhidharma; comparison of cause and effect.


see styles
xiǎo shèng
    xiao3 sheng4
hsiao sheng
Hinayana, the Lesser Vehicle; Buddhism in India before the Mayahana sutras; also pr. [Xiao3 cheng2]
Hīnayāna 希那衍. The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed after Śākyamuni's death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahāyāna doctrines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahāyānism which developed on lines fundamentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith). Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hīnayāna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahāyāna. Hīnayāna remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahāyāna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the general literary language of the surviving form of Hīnayāna, Sanskrit of Mahāyāna. The term Hīnayāna is of Mahāyānist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of Mahāyāna over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahāyāna teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it declares that Hīnayāna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood, seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvāṇa. For arhatship the 四諦Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyekabuddhahood the 十二因緣 twelve-nidānas, and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles 二乘. Tiantai sometimes calls them the (Hīnayāna) Tripiṭaka school. Three of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools were transported to China: 倶舍 (Abhidharma) Kośa; 成實 Satya-siddhi; and the school of Harivarman, the律 Vinaya school. These are described by Mahāyānists as the Buddha's adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahāyāna all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahāyāna view of Hīnayāna, and if the Vaipulya sūtras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiated by Hīnayāna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahāyāna in condemning Hīnayāna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sūtras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authenticity; while those of Hīnayāna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hīnayāna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately after the death of Śākyamuni, when the sthāvira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rājagṛha, to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside; these two are the first 上坐部 and 大衆部 q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk 大天 Mahādeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha's nirvāṇa and during the reign of Aśoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahādeva's sect became the Mahāsāṅghikā, the other the Sthāvira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals are the so-called "twenty sects" of Hīnayāna. Another division of four sects, referred to by Yijing, is that of the 大衆部 (Arya) Mahāsaṅghanikāya, 上座部 Āryasthavirāḥ, 根本說一切有部 Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, and 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ. There is still another division of five sects, 五部律. For the eighteen Hīnayāna sects see 小乘十八部.


see styles
(1) study of the mind (in neo-Confucianism); (2) (hist) Shingaku; Edo-period moral philosophy that blended Buddhist, Shinto and Confucian ethical teachings


see styles
sī biàn
    si1 bian4
ssu pien
to think critically; (philosophy) to reason; to speculate



see styles
gǎn zhì
    gan3 zhi4
kan chih
qualia (philosophy)



see styles
jiè xué
    jie4 xue2
chieh hsüeh
The study of the rules or discipline; one of the three departments 三學, the other two being meditation and philosophy.


see styles
 suuron / suron
(1) {math} number theory; (2) (See サーンキヤ学派) Samkhya (school of Indian philosophy)



see styles
shù lùn
    shu4 lun4
shu lun
number theory (math.)
The śāstras of the Sarvāstivādins; also Kaplila, called數論外道; 數論師 founder of the Sāṅkhyā philosophy; v. 僧伽, 劫, and 迦. It is an attempt to place all concepts in twenty-five categories, with puruṣa at the head and the others in ordered progress. Inter alia it also teaches 'the eternity and multiplicity of souls' (Eitel). Vasubandhu wrote in criticism of the system.


see styles
zhèng míng
    zheng4 ming2
cheng ming
to replace the current name or title of something with a new one that reflects its true nature; rectification of names (a tenet of Confucian philosophy)
(g,p) Masana



see styles
pí dì
    pi2 di4
p`i ti
    pi ti
vidyā, 毘底牙 knowledge, learning, philosophy, science; incantation; intp. 明呪 an incantation to get rid of all delusion. The Vidyādharapiṭaka is a section of incantations, etc., added to the Tripiṭaka.


see styles
(1) physical science; natural science; (2) (See 物理学) physics; (3) lixue (Song-era Chinese philosophy); (4) (archaism) (See 哲学) philosophy


see styles
(See 野狐禅) self-styled Zen philosophy; sciolism; dabbling in Zen



see styles
yì huà
    yi4 hua4
i hua
alienation (philosophy); (of speech) dissimilation
(noun, transitive verb) (1) (ant: 同化・1) dissimilation; (noun, transitive verb) (2) {biol} (ant: 同化・3) catabolism; (n,vs,vi) (3) {ling} (ant: 同化・4) dissimilation (phonology); (noun, transitive verb) (4) {art} defamiliarization (artistic technique); ostranenie; alienation


see styles
zhēn rú
    zhen1 ru2
chen ju
(surname) Shinnyo
bhūtatathatā, 部多多他多. The眞 is intp. as 眞實 the real, 如 as 如常 thus always or eternally so; i.e. reality as contrasted with 虛妄 unreality, or appearance, and 不變不改 unchanging or immutable as contrasted with form and phenomena. It resembles the ocean in contrast with the waves. It is the eternal, impersonal, unchangeable reality behind all phenomena. bhūta is substance, that which exists; tathatā is suchness, thusness, i.e. such is its nature. The word is fundamental to Mahāyāna philosophy, implying the absolute, the ultimate source and character of all phenomena, it is the All. It is also called 自性淸淨心 self-existent pure Mind; 佛性 Buddha-nature; 法身 dharmakāya; 如來藏 tathāgata-garbha, or Buddha-treasury; 實相 reality; 法界 Dharma-realm; 法性Dharma-nature; 圓成實性 The complete and perfect real nature, or reality. There are categories of 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 12 in number: (1) The undifferentiated whole. (2) There are several antithetical classes, e.g. the unconditioned and the conditioned; the 空 void, static, abstract, noumenal, and the 不 空 not-void, dynamic, phenomenal; pure, and affected (or infected); undefiled (or innocent), i.e. that of Buddhas, defiled, that of all beings; in bonds and free; inexpressible, and expressible in words. (3) 無相 Formless; 無生 uncreated; 無性 without nature, i.e. without characteristics or qualities, absolute in itself. Also, as relative, i.e. good, bad, and indeterminate. (7, 10, 12) The 7 are given in the 唯識論 8; the 10 are in two classes, one of the 別教 cf. 唯識論 8; the other of the 圓教, cf. 菩提心義 4; the 12 are given in the Nirvana Sutra.


see styles
guiding precepts of a company; company credo; corporate philosophy


see styles
zì xìng
    zi4 xing4
tzu hsing
 jishou / jisho
{Buddh} intrinsic nature; one’s own distinct nature
Own nature; of (its) own nature. As an intp. of pradhāna (and resembling 冥性) in the Sāṅkhya philosophy it is 'prakṛti, the Originant, primary or original matter or rather the primary germ out of which all material appearances are evolved, the first evolver or source of the material world (hence in a general acceptation 'nature' or rather 'matter' as opposed to purusha, or 'spirit')'. M. W. As 莎發斡 svabhāva, it is 'own state, essential or inherent property, innate or peculiar disposition, natural state or constitution, nature'. M. W. The self-substance, self-nature, or unchanging character of anything.


see styles
biǎo xiàng
    biao3 xiang4
piao hsiang
 hyoushou / hyosho
outward appearance; superficial; (philosophy, psychology) representation; idea; (math.) representation
(noun, transitive verb) (1) symbol (of); emblem; (noun, transitive verb) (2) {psych;phil} (mental) image; representation; idea


see styles
 seitetsu / setetsu
(1) distinguished Western philosopher; great Western thinker; (2) (abbreviation) (See 西洋哲学) Western philosophy



see styles
lùn zàng
    lun4 zang4
lun tsang
Thesaurus of discussions or discourses, the Abhidharma Piṭaka, one of the three divisions of the Tripiṭaka. It comprises the philosophical works. The first compilation is accredited to Mahā-Kāśyapa, disciple of Buddha, but the work is of a later period. The Chinese version is in three sections: 大乘論 the Mahāyāna philosophy; 小乘論 the Hīnayāna philosophy; 宋元續入藏諸論 The Song and Yuan Addenda, A.D. 960-1368.


see styles
jiā zhān
    jia1 zhan1
chia chan
(迦旃延子) Kātyāyana; Mahākātyāyana; Mahākātyāyanīputra; one of the ten noted disciples of Śākyamuni. The foundation work of the Abhidharma philosophy; viz. the Abhidharma-jñāna-prasthāna-śāstra, has been attributed to him, but it is by an author of the same name 300 to 500 years later. Other forms are 迦多桁那; 迦多桁尼子(or 迦多演尼子); 迦底耶夜那; 迦氈延 (尼子). There are others of the same name; e. g. the seventh of the ten non-Buddhist philosophers, perhaps Kakuda Kātyāyana, associated with mathematics, but spoken of as 'a violent adversary of Śākyamuni.' M. W.


see styles
 dougaku / dogaku
(1) ethics; moral philosophy; (2) (study of) Confucianism (esp. neo-Confucianism); (3) (study of) Taoism; (4) (hist) (See 石門心学) Shingaku (Edo-period moral philosophy); (given name) Dōgaku



see styles
zhòng nóng
    zhong4 nong2
chung nung
to stress the importance of agriculture (in ancient philosophy)


see styles
(hist) syncretism (in ancient Chinese philosophy); syncretist


see styles
idol (esp. in the philosophy of Francis Bacon: idols of the tribe, cave, market, and theater) (lat: idola)



see styles
sān mí chā
    san1 mi2 cha1
san mi ch`a
    san mi cha
Samīkṣā, 觀察 investigation, i.e. the Sāṃkhya, a system of philosophy, wrongly ascribed by Buddhists to 闍提首那 Jātisena, or 闍耶犀那 Jayasena, who debated the twenty-five Sāṃkhya principles (tattvas) with Śākyamuni but succumbed, shaved his head and became a disciple, according to the 涅槃經 39.



see styles
shàng shèng chán
    shang4 sheng4 chan2
shang sheng ch`an
    shang sheng chan
 jōjō zen
The Mahāyāna Ch'an (Zen) School, which considers that it alone attains the highest realization of Mahāyāna truth. Hīnayāna philosophy is said only to realize the unreality of the ego and not the unreality of all things. The Mahāyāna realizes the unreality of the ego and of all things. But the Ch'an school is pure idealism, all being mind. This mind is Buddha, and is the universal fundamental mind.


see styles
shàng zuò bù
    shang4 zuo4 bu4
shang tso pu
 jouzabu / jozabu
Theravada school of Buddhism
Sthaviravada (early Buddhist movement)
他毘梨典部; 他鞞羅部 Sthavirāḥ; Sthaviranikāya; or Āryasthāvirāḥ. The school of the presiding elder, or elders. The two earliest sections of Buddhism were this (which developed into the Mahāsthavirāḥ) and the Mahāsānghikāḥ or 大衆部. At first they were not considered to be different schools, the 上座部 merely representing the intimate and older disciples of Śākyamuni and the 大衆 being the rest. It is said that a century later under Mahādeva 大天 a difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions are named as resulting, viz. Mahāvihāravāsinaḥ, Jetavanīyāḥ, and Abhayagiri-vāsinaḥ. These were in Ceylon. In course of time the eighteen Hīnayāna sects were developed. From the time of Aśoka four principal schools are counted as prevailing: Mahāsāṅghika, Sthavira, Mūlasarvāstivda, and Saṁmitīya. The following is a list of the eleven sects reckoned as of the 上座部: 說一切有部; 雪山; 犢子; 法上; 賢冑; 正量; 密林山; 化地; 法藏; 飮光; and 經量部. The Sthaviravādin is reputed as nearest to early Buddhism in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from an agnostic system to a realistic philosophy.


see styles
ethics; moral philosophy



see styles
gōng qiǎo lùn
    gong1 qiao3 lun4
kung ch`iao lun
    kung chiao lun
 Kukō ron
功明論 (or 巧明論) Śilpasthāna-vidyā-śāstra; 'the śāstra of arts and sciences, ' i. e. of 術 and 數, one of the 五明 five works on knowledge; it treats of 'arts, mechanics, dual philosophy, and calendaric calculations'. Eitel.



see styles
shèng lùn zōng
    sheng4 lun4 zong1
sheng lun tsung
 Shōron shū
The Vaiśeṣika school of Indian philosophy, whose foundation is ascribed to Kaṇāda (Ulūka); he and his successors are respectfully styled 論師 or slightingly 論外道; the school, when combined with the Nyāya, is also known as Nyāya-vaiśeṣika .



see styles
shí bā jīng
    shi2 ba1 jing1
shih pa ching
 jūhachi kyō
(十八大經); 十八明處 The eighteen Indian non-Buddhist classics, i.e. the four vedas, six śāstras, and eight śāstras.


see styles
history of philosophy


see styles
philosophy book



see styles
zhé xué shǐ
    zhe2 xue2 shi3
che hsüeh shih
history of philosophy
See: 哲学史



see styles
wéi xīn lùn
    wei2 xin1 lun4
wei hsin lun
philosophy of idealism, the doctrine that external reality is a product of consciousness
{phil} spiritualism; idealism; mentalism



see styles
wéi wù lùn
    wei2 wu4 lun4
wei wu lun
(philosophy) materialism
{phil} materialism



see styles
wéi lǐ lùn
    wei2 li3 lun4
wei li lun
(philosophy) rationalism


see styles
mǐ màn chā
    mi3 man4 cha1
mi man ch`a
    mi man cha
The Mīmāṃsa system of Indian philosophy founded by Jaimini, especially the Pūrva-mīmāṃsa. It was 'one of the three great divisions of orthodox Hindu Philosophy ,' M. W. Cf, the Nyāya and Saṃkhyā.



see styles
xìng xiàng xué
    xing4 xiang4 xue2
hsing hsiang hsüeh
 shōsō gaku
The philosophy of the above (性相), i. e. of the noumenal and phenomenal. There are ten points of difference between the 性相二宗, i. e. between the 性 and 相 schools, v. 二宗.


see styles
one's view on love; one's philosophy of love


see styles
xīn rú jiā
    xin1 ru2 jia1
hsin ju chia
New Confucianism, a social and political movement founded in 1920s China that combines aspects of Western and Eastern philosophy; see also 當代新儒家|当代新儒家[Dang1 dai4 Xin1 Ru2 jia1]



see styles
guǒ wéi shì
    guo3 wei2 shi4
kuo wei shih
 ka yuishiki
The wisdom attained from investigating and thinking philosophy, or Buddha-truth, i. e. of the sūtras and abhidharmas; this includes the first four under 五種唯識.



see styles
lèng qié jīng
    leng4 qie2 jing1
leng ch`ieh ching
    leng chieh ching
 Ryōga kyō
The Laṅkāvatāra sūtra, a philosophical discourse attributed to Śākyamuni as delivered on the Laṅka mountain in Ceylon. It may have been composed in the fourth or fifth century A.D.; it "represents a mature phase of speculation and not only criticizes the Sāṅkhya, Pāśupata and other Hindu schools, but is conscious of the growing resemblance of Mahāyānism to Brahmanic philosophy and tries to explain it". Eliot. There have been four translations into Chinese, the first by Dharmarakṣa between 412-433, which no longer exists; the second was by Guṇabhadra in 443, ca11ed 楞伽 阿跋多羅寶經 4 juan; the third by Bodhiruci in 513, called 入楞伽經 10 juan; the fourth by Śikṣānanda in 700-704, called 大乘入楞伽經 7 juan. There are many treatises and commentaries on it, by Faxian and others. See Studies in the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra by Suzuki and his translation of it. This was the sūtra allowed by Bodhidharma, and is the recognized text of the Chan (Zen) School. There are numerous treatises on it.



see styles
pí shī shā
    pi2 shi1 sha1
p`i shih sha
    pi shih sha
viśeṣa, the doctrine of 'particularity or individual essence', i. e. the sui generis nature of the nine fundamental substances; it is the doctrine of the Vaiśeṣika school of philosophy founded by Kaṇāda.



see styles
pí yé shā
    pi2 ye2 sha1
p`i yeh sha
    pi yeh sha
Vyāsa, arranger, compiler; to distribute, diffuse, arrange; a sage reputed to be the compiler of the Vedas and founder of the Vedānta philosophy.


see styles
 houtetsugaku / hotetsugaku
philosophy of law


see styles
 seikiron / sekiron
vitalism (philosophy, biology)



see styles
jien á pú
    jien2 a2 pu2
jien a p`u
    jien a pu
Kaṇabhuj; Kaṇāda 蹇尼陀, founder of the Vaiśeṣika school of Indian philosophy.


see styles
(See 自然哲学) physics (study of natural science in ancient Greek philosophy)



see styles
wèi shì shī
    wei4 shi4 shi1
wei shih shih
Vaiśeṣika; derived from viśeṣa, characteristic, individuality, particularity or individual essence. M.W. Also 鞞世師 (or 鞞思迦); 吠世史迦; 勝論宗 An atomistic school founded by Kaṇāda. Like the Saṅkhya philosophy it taught a dualism and an endless number of souls, also by its doctrine of particularity or individual essence maintained 'the eternally distinct or sui generis nature of the nine substances' (see below), 'of which the first five including mind are held to be atomic.' M.W. The interaction of these with the six mentioned below produces cosmic evolution. It chiefly occupied itself, like the orthodox Nyāya philosophy, with the theory of knowledge, but it differed by distinguishing only six categories of cognition 六諦, viz. substance, quality, activity, species, distinction, and correlation, also a seventh of non-existence, and nine substances possessed of qualities, these 九陰 being: the five elements, air, fire, water, earth, ether, together with time, space, spirit (manas), and soul (ātman). Cf. Keith, Indian Logic and Atomism, and Dasgupta, History of Indian Philosophy.



see styles
rèn shi lùn
    ren4 shi5 lun4
jen shih lun
epistemology (in philosophy, the theory of how we know things)



see styles
jiā bǐ luó
    jia1 bi3 luo2
chia pi lo
(or 迦毘羅) Kapila, author of the Sāṅkhya philosophy, v. 却; also Kapilavastu, v. 却.



see styles
jiā pí luó
    jia1 pi2 luo2
chia p`i lo
    chia pi lo
Kapila; tawny, brown, red; intp. as red head, or yellow head; name of the founder of the Sāṅkhya philosophy; also 迦毘梨; 迦比羅; 劫毘羅; cf. 僧劫 and 數. Kapilavastu, v. 劫; also written in a dozen varieties, e. g. 迦毘羅婆 (or 迦毘比, 迦毘比婆); 迦毘羅皤窣都; 迦維 (or 迦維羅閲, 迦維羅越).



see styles
yóu xì shuō
    you2 xi4 shuo1
yu hsi shuo
theory of free play (in Kant's philosophy)


see styles
 doutokugaku / dotokugaku
moral philosophy


see styles
(See 生禅) self-styled Zen philosophy; sciolism; dabbling in Zen; (person) Yakozen



see styles
tuó luó biāo
    tuo2 luo2 biao1
t`o lo piao
    to lo piao
dravya, the nine 'substances' in the nyāya philosophy, earth, water, fire, air, ether 空, time, space 方, soul 神, and mind 意.



see styles
bǐ shì shī
    bi3 shi4 shi1
pi shih shih
鞞崽迦 The Vaiśesika school of philosophy, cf. 衞.



see styles
hán fēi zǐ
    han2 fei1 zi3
han fei tzu
another name for Han Fei 韓非|韩非[Han2 Fei1], Legalist philosopher (c. 280-233 BC); Han Feizi, book of Legalist Philosophy authored by Han Fei 韓非|韩非[Han2 Fei1] during the Warring States Period (475-220 BC)
(work) Han Feizi (ancient Chinese text attributed to Han Fei); (wk) Han Feizi (ancient Chinese text attributed to Han Fei)


see styles
sān xiān èr tiān
    san1 xian1 er4 tian1
san hsien erh t`ien
    san hsien erh tien
 sansen niten
The three ṛṣis or wise men and the two devas, i.e. 迦毘羅 Kapila, founder of the Sāṁkhya philosophy; 鵂鶹 or 優樓佉 Ulūka or Kaṇāda, founder of the 勝論宗 or Vaiśeṣika philosophy; and 勒沙婆 Ṛṣabha, founder of the Nirgranthas; with Śiva and Viṣṇu as the two deities.


see styles
 chuugokutetsugaku / chugokutetsugaku
Chinese philosophy


see styles
 jinseitetsugaku / jinsetetsugaku
(yoji) philosophy of life


see styles
 kigyoutaishitsu / kigyotaishitsu
corporate character; corporate culture; corporate philosophy


see styles
 kigyourinen / kigyorinen
corporate vision; corporate philosophy; philosophy of business; corporate ethos; corporate mission

Entries with 2nd row of characters: The 2nd row is Simplified Chinese.


This page contains 100 results for "Philosophy" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Japanese Bath House

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 1,007,753 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, names, placenames, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

The following titles are just to help people who are searching for an Asian dictionary to find this page.

Japanese Kanji Dictionary

Free Asian Dictionary

Chinese Kanji Dictionary

Chinese Words Dictionary

Chinese Language Dictionary

Japanese Chinese Dictionary