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Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
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Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition


see styles
zhōng zōng / zhong1 zong1
chung tsung
 chū shū / なかむね
(surname) Nakamune
The school or principle of the mean, represented by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, which divides the Buddha's teaching into three periods, the first in which he preached 有 existence, the second 空 non-existence, the third 中 neither, something 'between' or above them, e. g. a realm of pure spirit, vide the 深密經 Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra and the Lotus Sutra; school of the mean


see styles
wǔ xìng / wu3 xing4
wu hsing
The five different natures as grouped by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect; of these the first and second, while able to attain to non-return to mortality, are unable to reach Buddhahood; of the fourth some may, others may not reach it; the fifth will be reborn as devas or men: (1) śrāvakas for arhats; (2) pratyekabuddhas for pratyekabuddha-hood; (3) bodhisattvas for Buddhahood; (4) indefinite; (5) outsiders who have not the Buddha mind. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圓覺經 has another group, i. e. the natures of (1) ordinary good people; (2) śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas; (3) bodhisattvas; (4) indefinite; (5) heretics; five natures


see styles
bā jiào / ba1 jiao4
pa chiao
The eight Tiantai classifications of Śākyamuni's teaching, from the Avataṁsaka to the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, divided into the two sections (1) 化法四教 his four kinds of teaching of the content of the Truth accommodated to the capacity of his disciples; (2) 化儀四教 his four modes of instruction. (1) The four 化法教 are: (a) 三藏教 The Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching, for śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattva doctrine being subordinate; it also included the primitive śūnya doctrine as developed in the Satyasiddhi śāstra. (b) 教通His later "intermediate" teaching which contained Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna doctrine for śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, to which are attributed the doctrines of the Dharmalakṣaṇa or Yogācārya and Mādhyamika schools. (c) 別教 His differentiated , or separated, bodhisattva teaching, definitely Mahāyāna. (d) 圓教 His final, perfect, bodhisattva, universal teaching as preached, e.g. in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras. (2) The four methods of instruction 化儀 are: (a) 頓教 Direct teaching without reserve of the whole truth, e.g. the 華嚴 sūtra. (b) 漸教 Gradual or graded, e.g. the 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; all the four 化法 are also included under this heading. (c) 祕密教 Esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly. (d) 不定教 General or indeterminate teaching, from which each hearer would derive benefit according to his interpretation; eight teaching categories



see styles
bā dì / ba1 di4
pa ti
The eight truths, postulates, or judgments of the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school, i.e. four common or mundane, and four of higher meaning. The first four are (1) common postulates on reality, considering the nominal as real, e.g. a pot; (2) common doctrinal postulates, e.g. the five skandhas; (3) abstract postulates, e.g. the four noble truths 四諦; and (4) temporal postulates in regard to the spiritual in the material. The second abstract or philosophical four are (5) postulates on constitution and function, e.g. of the skandhas; (6) on cause and effect, e.g. the 四諦; (7) on the void, the immaterial, or reality; and (8) on the pure inexpressible ultimate or absolute; eight noble truths


see styles
shí zōng / shi2 zong1
shih tsung
The ten schools of Chinese Buddhism: I. The (1) 律宗 Vinaya-discipline, or 南山|; (2) 倶舍 Kośa, Abhidharma, or Reality (Sarvāstivādin) 有宗; (3) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect founded on this śāstra by Harivarman; (4) 三論宗 Mādhyamika or 性空宗; (5) 法華宗 Lotus, "Law-flower" or Tiantai 天台宗; (6) 華嚴Huayan or法性 or賢首宗; ( 7) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana or 慈恩宗 founded on the唯識論 (8) 心宗 Ch'an or Zen, mind-only or intuitive, v. 禪宗 ; (9) 眞言宗 (Jap. Shingon) or esoteric 密宗 ; (10) 蓮宗 Amitābha-lotus or Pure Land (Jap. Jōdo) 淨士宗. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 9th are found in Japan rather than in China, where they have ceased to be of importance. II. The Hua-yen has also ten divisions into ten schools of thought: (1) 我法倶有 the reality of self (or soul) and things, e.g. mind and matter; (2) 法有我無 the reality of things but not of soul; (3) 法無去來 things have neither creation nor destruction; (4) 現通假實 present things are both apparent and real; (5) 俗妄眞實 common or phenomenal ideas are wrong, fundamental reality is the only truth; (6) things are merely names; (7) all things are unreal 空; (8) the bhūtatathatā is not unreal; (9) phenomena and their perception are to be got rid of; (10) the perfect, all-inclusive, and complete teaching of the One Vehicle. III. There are two old Japanese divisions: 大乘律宗, 倶舎宗 , 成實 宗 , 法和宗 , 三論宗 , 天台宗 , 華嚴宗 , 眞言宗 , 小乘律宗 , and 淨土宗 ; the second list adds 禪宗 and omits 大乘律宗. They are the Ritsu, Kusha, Jōjitsu, Hossō, Sanron, Tendai, Kegon, Shingon, (Hīnayāna) Ritsu, and Jōdo; the addition being Zen.


see styles
sì fēn / si4 fen1
ssu fen
 shibun / しぶん
(noun/participle) divide into four pieces; one fourth; (place-name) Shibu
The 法相 Dharmalakṣana school divides the function of 識 cognition into four, i. e. 相分 mental phenomena, 見分 discriminating such phenomena, 自證分 the power that discriminates, and 證自證 the proof or assurance of that power. Another group is: 信 faith, 解 liberty, 行 action, and 證 assurance or realization; four parts


see styles
sì zhì / si4 zhi4
ssu chih
The four forms of wisdom of a Buddha according to the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school: (1) 大圓鏡智 the great mirror wisdom of Akṣobhya; (2) 平等性智 the universal wisdom of Ratnaketu; (3) 妙觀察智 the profound observing wisdom of Amitābha; (4) 成所作智 the perfecting wisdom of Amoghasiddhi. There are various other groups; four kinds of cognition



see styles
dà xián / da4 xian2
ta hsien
 taiken / たいけん
great sage; (given name) Daiken
Daxian (Jap. Daiken), a Korean monk who lived in China during the Tang dynasty, of the 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, noted for his annotations on the sūtras and styled 古迹記 the archaeologist; great worthy


see styles
zōng pài / zong1 pai4
tsung p`ai / tsung pai
 shuuha / shuha / しゅうは
(1) sect; denomination; (2) school (e.g. of poetry)
Sects (of Buddhism). In India, according to Chinese accounts, the two schools of Hīnayāna became divided into twentysects. Mahāyāna had two main schools, the Mādhyamika, ascribed to Nāgārjunaand Āryadeva about the second century A. D., and the Yogācārya, ascribed toAsaṅga and Vasubandhu in the fourth century A. D. In China thirteen sectswere founded: (1) 倶舍宗 Abhidharma or Kośa sect, representing Hīnayāna,based upon the Abhidharma-kosa-śāstra or 倶舍論. (2) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect, based on the 成實論 Satyasiddhi-śāstra,tr. by Kumārajīva; no sect corresponds to it in India; in China and Japan itbecame incorporated in the 三論宗. (3) 律宗 Vinaya or Discipline sect, basedon 十誦律, 四分律, 僧祗律, etc. (4) 三論宗 The three śāstra sect, based on theMādhyamika-śāstra 中觀論 of Nāgārjuna, theSata-śāstra 百論 of Āryadeva, and theDvādasa-nikāya-śāstra 十二門論 of Nāgārjuna; this schooldates back to the translation of the three śāstras by Kumārajīva in A. D. 409. (5) 涅槃宗 Nirvāṇasect, based upon the Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra 涅槃經 tr. byDharmaraksa in 423; later incorporated in Tiantai, with which it had much incommon. (6) 地論宗 Daśabhūmikā sect, based on Vasubandhu's work on the tenstages of the bodhisattva's path to Buddhahood, tr. by Bodhiruci 508,absorbed by the Avataṃsaka school, infra. (7) 淨土宗 Pure-land or Sukhāvatīsect, founded in China by Bodhiruci; its doctrine was salvation throughfaith in Amitābha into the Western Paradise. (8) 禪宗 dhyāna, meditative or intuitional sect, attributed toBodhidharma about A. D. 527, but it existed before he came to China. (9) 攝論宗, based upon the 攝大乘論 Mahāyāna-saṃparigraha-śāstra byAsaṅga, tr. by Paramārtha in 563, subsequently absorbed by the Avataṃsakasect. (10) 天台宗 Tiantai, based on the 法華經 SaddharmapuṇḍarīkaSūtra, or the Lotus of the Good Law; it is aconsummation of the Mādhyamika tradition. (11) 華嚴宗 Avataṃsaka sect, basedon the Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra, or Gandha-vyūha 華嚴經 tr. in 418. (12) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect, established after thereturn of Xuanzang from India and his trans. of the important Yogācāryaworks. (13) 眞言宗 Mantra sect, A. D. 716. In Japan twelve sects are named:Sanron, Hossō, Kegon, Kusha, Jōjitsu, Ritsu, Tendai, Shingon; these areknown as the ancient sects, the two last being styled mediaeval; therefollow the Zen and Jōdo; the remaining two are Shin and Nichiren; at presentthere are the Hossō, Kegon, Tendai, Shingon, Zen, Jōdo, Shin, and Nichirensects.


see styles
fāng zhang / fang1 zhang5
fang chang
 houjou / hojo / ほうじょう
square zhang (i.e. unit of area 10 feet square); monastic room 10 feet square; Buddhist or Daoist abbot; abbot's chamber
(1) (See 丈・じょう・1) square jō (approx. 10 sq feet); (2) {Buddh} abbot's chamber; (3) chief priest; (p,s,g) Houjou
An abbot, 寺主 head of a monastery; the term is said to arise from the ten-foot cubic dwelling in which 維摩 Vimalakirti lived, but here seems to be no Sanskrit equivalent; front room of a monastery



see styles
qǔ chǐ / qu3 chi3
ch`ü ch`ih / chü chih
矩吒檀底 Kūṭadantī, or Mālākūṭadantī, name of a rākṣasī.



see styles
yuè gài / yue4 gai4
yüeh kai
An elder of Vaiśālī, who at the Buddha's bidding sought the aid of Amitābha, 勢至 (Mahāsthamaprāpta) and Guanyin, especially the last, to rid his people of a pestilence. See Vimalakīrti Sutra; Somachattra


see styles
fǎ xiàng / fa3 xiang4
fa hsiang
 hossou / hosso / ほっそう
(1) {Buddh} (See 法性) dharmalaksana (dharma characteristics, the specific characteristics of all manifest phenomena); (2) (abbreviation) (See 法相宗) Hosso sect of Buddhism
The aspects of characteristics of things-all things are of monad nature but differ in form. A name of the 法相宗 Faxiang or Dharmalakṣaṇa sect (Jap. Hossō), called also 慈恩宗 Cien sect from the Tang temple, in which lived 窺基 Kuiji, known also as 慈恩. It "aims at discovering the ultimate entity of cosmic existence n contemplation, through investigation into the specific characteristics (the marks or criteria) of all existence, and through the realization of the fundamental nature of the soul in mystic illumination". "An inexhaustible number" of "seeds" are "stored up in the Ālaya-soul; they manifest themselves in innumerable varieties of existence, both physical and mental". "Though there are infinite varieties. . . they all participate in the prime nature of the ālaya." Anesaki. The Faxiang School is one of the "eight schools", and was established in China on the return of Xuanzang, consequent on his translation of the Yogācārya works. Its aim is to understand the principle underlying the 萬法性相 or nature and characteristics of all things. Its foundation works are the 解深密經, the 唯識論, and the 瑜伽論. It is one of the Mahāyāna realistic schools, opposed by the idealistic schools, e.g. the 三論 school; yet it was a "combination of realism and idealism, and its religion a profoundly mystic one". Anesaki; characteristics of phenomena


see styles
huǒ biàn / huo3 bian4
huo pien
Citrabhānu, 質呾羅婆拏 described as one of the ten great writers of the Indian 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, a contemporary and colleague of Vasubandhu; but the description is doubtful; Citrabhāna


see styles
xuán yī / xuan2 yi1
hsüan i
 Genichi / げんいち
(given name) Gen'ichi
Xuanyi, a commentator of the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school during the Tang dynasty.


see styles
kōng jiào / kong1 jiao4
k`ung chiao / kung chiao
 kūkyō / くうきょう
(given name) Kuukyou
The teaching that all is unreal. The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa School divided Buddha's teaching into three periods: (1) the Hīnayāna period, teaching that 法有 things are real; (2) the 般若 prajñā period, that 法 空things are unreal; (3) the Huayan and Lotus period of the middle or transcendental doctrine 中道教; teaching of emptiness



see styles
wéi mó / wei2 mo2
wei mo
 Yuima / ゆいま
(surname, female given name) Yuima
Vimalakīrti, 維摩詰 (維摩羅詰); 毘摩羅詰 undefiled or spotless reputation, 'a native of Vaiśālī, said to have been a contemporary of Śākyamuni, and to have visited China.' Eitel. The Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa sūtra 維摩詰所說經 is an apocryphal account of 'conversations between Śākyamuni and some residents of Vaiśālī', tr. by Kumārajīva; an earlier tr. was the維摩詰經, a later was by Xuanzang, and there are numerous treatises; Vimalakīrti



see styles
biǎo quán / biao3 quan2
piao ch`üan / piao chüan
Positive or open exposition, contrasted with 遮銓 negative or hidden exposition; a term of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school; positive or open exposition



see styles
bǔ tuó / bu3 tuo2
pu t`o / pu to
 Hoda / ほだ
(surname) Hoda
補陁; 補陀落 (補陀落迦) Potala; Potalaka. (1) A sea-port on the Indus, the παταλα of the ancients, identified by some with Thaṭtha, said to be the ancient home of Śākyamuni's ancestors. (2) A mountain south-east of Malakūṭa, reputed as the home of Avalokiteśvara. (3) The island of Pootoo, east of Ningpo, the Guanyin centre. (4) The Lhasa Potala in Tibet; the seat of the Dalai Lama, an incarnation of Avalokiteśvara; cf. 普; also written補怛落迦 (or 補但落迦); 逋多 (逋多羅); 布呾洛加.


see styles
pì yù / pi4 yu4
p`i yü / pi yü
 hiyu / ひゆ
(ik) simile; metaphor; allegory; parable
A parable, metaphor; the avadāna section of the canon, v. 阿波; there are numerous categories, e.g. the seven parables of the Lotus Sūtra, the ten of the Prajñā and Vimalakīrti sūtras, etc.


see styles
mò lǐ / mo4 li3
mo li
The principle of silence, that the absolute is indefinable, the doctrine of Vimalakīrti; the principle of silence


see styles
sān shèng jiā / san1 sheng4 jia1
san sheng chia
The Dharmalakṣaṇa School of the Three Vehicles, led by the 法相宗; adherents of the three-vehicle teaching



see styles
sān shí jiào / san1 shi2 jiao4
san shih chiao
 sanji kyō
(三時教判) The three periods and characteristics of Buddha's teaching, as defined by the Dharmalakṣana school 法相宗. They are: (1) 有, when he taught the 實有 reality of the skandhas and elements, but denied the common belief in 實我 real personality or a permanent soul; this period is represented by the four 阿含經 āgamas and other Hīnayāna sūtras. (2) 空 Śūnya, when he negatived the idea of 實法 the reality of things and advocated that all was 空 unreal; the period of the 般若經 prajñā sūtras. (3) 中 Madhyama, the mean, that mind or spirit is real, while things are unreal; the period of this school's specific sūtra the 解深密經, also the 法華 and later sūtras. In the two earlier periods he is said to have 方便 adapted his teaching to the development of his hearers; in the third to have delivered his complete and perfect doctrine. Another division by the 空宗 is (1) as above; (2) the early period of the Mahāyāna represented, by the 深密經; (3) the higher Mahāyāna as in the 般若經. v. also 三敎; three periods of the teaching


see styles
bù dìng xìng / bu4 ding4 xing4
pu ting hsing
 fujō shō
(不定種性) Of indeterminate nature. The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school divides all beings into five classes according to their potentialities. This is one of the divisions and contains four combinations: (1) Bodhisattva-cum-śrāvaka, with uncertain result depending on the more dominant of the two; (2) bodhisattva-cum-pratyekabuddha; (3) śrāvaka-cum-pratyekabuddha; (4) the characteristcs of all three vehicles intermingled with uncertain results; the third cannot attain Buddhahood, the rest may; indeterminate nature; inconclusiveness



see styles
chū shí jiào / chu1 shi2 jiao4
ch`u shih chiao / chu shih chiao
A term of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, the first of the three periods of the Buddha's teaching, in which he overcame the ideas of heterodox teachers that the ego is real, and preached the four noble truths and the five skandhas, etc; first teaching period



see styles
wéi shí zōng / wei2 shi2 zong1
wei shih tsung
 yuishikishuu / yuishikishu / ゆいしきしゅう
Yogachara school of Buddhism ("consciousness only" school of Buddhism)
(See 法相宗) Hosso sect (of Buddhism)
The Dharmalakṣana sect 法相宗, which holds that all is mind in its ultimate nature; Consciousness-only school


see styles
sì bù tuì / si4 bu4 tui4
ssu pu t`ui / ssu pu tui
 shi futai
The four kinds of non-backsliding, which includes three kinds of non-backsliding 三不退, on top of which the Pure Land sect adds another 處 place or abode, i. e. that those who reach the Pure Land never fall away, for which five reasons are given termed 五種不退. The 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect makes their four 信, 位, 證, and 行, faith, position attained, realization, and accordant procedure; four kinds of non-retrogression


see styles
dà shèng zōng / da4 sheng4 zong1
ta sheng tsung
 daijō shū
The school of Mahāyāna, attributed to the rise in India of the Mādhyamika, i.e. the 中觀 or 三論 school ascribed to Nāgārjuna, and the Yoga 瑜伽 or Dharmalakṣaṇa 法相 school, the other schools being Hīnayāna. In China and Japan the 倶舍 and 成實 are classed as Hīnayāna, the rest being Mahāyāna , of which the principal schools are 律, 法相 , 三論, 華嚴, 天台, 眞言 , 淨土 , 禪 q.v; Great Vehicle School



see styles
yìng lǐ zōng / ying4 li3 zong1
ying li tsung
 Ōri shū
(應理圓實宗) A name of the Dharmalakṣana school, 法相宗 q.v; school that responds rationally



see styles
mò luó yóu / mo4 luo2 you2
mo lo yu
Malaya, 'the western Ghats in the Deccan (these mountains abound in sandal trees); the country that lies to the east of the Malaya range, Malabar. ' M, W. Eitel gives 秣羅矩吒 Malakūṭa, i. e. Malaya, as 'an ancient kingdom of Southern India, the coast of Malabar, about A. D. 600 a noted haunt of the Nirgrantha sect'. It is also identified with 尸利佛逝 Śrībhoja, which is given as 馬來半嶋 the Malay peninsula; but v. 摩羅耶 Malaya; Malayu


see styles
běn yǒu jiā / ben3 you3 jia1
pen yu chia
 hon'u ke
A division of the Dharmalakṣana school 法相宗; adherents to philosophical position of original existence (of seeds)


see styles
 yuimakyou / yuimakyo / ゆいまきょう Vimalakirti Sutra



see styles
ā mò luó / a1 mo4 luo2
a mo lo
āmra, āmalaka, āmrāta; amala



see styles
shèng jí jiè huǎn / sheng4 ji2 jie4 huan3
sheng chi chieh huan
 jōkyū kaigan
One who is zealous for knowledge rather than the discipline, e.g. Vimalakīrti 維摩; zealous for wisdom and loose regarding morality



see styles
wǔ zhǒng wéi shì / wu3 zhong3 wei2 shi4
wu chung wei shih
 goshu yuishiki
The five kinds of weishi, or idealistic representation in the sutras and śāstras as summed up by Cien 慈恩 of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school: (1) 境唯識 wisdom or insight in objective conditions; (2) 教唯識 in interpretation; (3) 理唯識 in principles; (4) 行唯識 in meditation and practice; (5) 果唯識 in the fruits or results of Buddhahood. The first four are objective, the fifth subject; five kinds of consciousness-only


see styles
bā wǔ sān èr / ba1 wu3 san1 er4
pa wu san erh
 hachi go san ni
The four special characteristics of the 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect, i.e. 八識, 五法, 三性, and 二無我 q.v; eight, five, three and two



see styles
bēi mó luó chā / bei1 mo2 luo2 cha1
pei mo lo ch`a / pei mo lo cha
Vimalākṣa, the pure-eyed, described as of Kabul, expositor of the 十誦律, teacher of Kumārajīva at Karashahr; came to China A. D. 406, tr. two works.



see styles
wéi shì zhōng dào / wei2 shi4 zhong1 dao4
wei shih chung tao
 yuishiki chūdō
The madhya, or medial doctrine of idealism as held by the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school, that all things are of mind, evolution, and are neither in themselves real nor unreal; the middle path of consciousness-only



see styles
sì xún sī guān / si4 xun2 si1 guan1
ssu hsün ssu kuan
 shi jinshi kan
A study or contemplation of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect, on 名 the terms used, 義 the meanings of the things or phenomena, 自性 the nature of the things, 差別 their differentiation; four kinds of investigation


see styles
miào xǐ shì jiè / miao4 xi3 shi4 jie4
miao hsi shih chieh
 myōki sekai
The realm of profound joy, the country of Vimalakīrti 維摩居士, who is stated to have been a contemporary of Śākyamuni; v. 維摩詰經 12; the world of the abhirati



see styles
pí mó luó jié / pi2 mo2 luo2 jie2
p`i mo lo chieh / pi mo lo chieh
鼻磨羅雞利帝; 維磨詰; Vimalakīrti, name of a disciple at Vaiśālī, whom Śākyamuni is said to have instructed, see the sūtra of this name; Vimalakīrti



see styles
wú xìng yǒu qíng / wu2 xing4 you3 qing2
wu hsing yu ch`ing / wu hsing yu ching
 mushō ujō
Men and devas with passions and devoid of natures for enlightenment, hence destined to remain in the six paths of transmigration; a doctrine of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school; sentient beings who lack the nature of buddhahood



see styles
mò luó jǔ zhà / mo4 luo2 ju3 zha4
mo lo chü cha
Malakūṭa. 'An ancient kingdom of Southern India, the coast of Malabar, about A.D. 600 a noted haunt of the Nirgrantha sect.' Eitel; Malakūṭa



see styles
jiě shēn mì jīng / jie3 shen1 mi4 jing1
chieh shen mi ching
 Gejn mikkyō
Sandhi-nirmocana-sūtra, tr. by Xuanzang, the chief text of the Dharmalakṣana school, 法相宗. Four tr. have been made, three preceding that of Xuanzang, the first in the fifth century A. D; Sūtra Explaining the Underlying Meaning



see styles
jīn sù rú lái / jin1 su4 ru2 lai2
chin su ju lai
 Konzoku nyorai
The golden grain tathāgata, a title of Vimalakīrti 維摩 in a previous incarnation.


see styles
ā mó luò jiā / a1 mo2 luo4 jia1
a mo lo chia
菴摩洛迦 (or 菴摩羅迦 or 菴摩勒迦) āmra, mango, Mangifera indica; āmalaka, Emblic myrobalan, or Phyllanthus ernhlica, whose nuts are valued medicinally; āmrāta, hog-plum, Spondias mangifera. Also used for discernment of mental ideas, the ninth of the nine kinds of 心識. 菴沒羅 (or 菴摩羅or 菴婆羅) should apply to āmra the mango, but the forms are used indiscriminately. Cf. 阿摩羅; āmalaka



see styles
bù kě sī yì jīng / bu4 ke3 si1 yi4 jing1
pu k`o ssu i ching / pu ko ssu i ching
 Fukashigi kyō
A name for the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra. The full title is also a name for the 維摩經 Vimalakīrti-sūtra; Unfathomable Sūtra



see styles
liù bù dà shèng jīng / liu4 bu4 da4 sheng4 jing1
liu pu ta sheng ching
 rokubu daijō kyō
The six works chosen by Cien 慈恩 as authoritative in the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, i. e. 大方廣佛華嚴經 of which there are three translations; 解深密經4 tr.; 如來出現功德莊嚴經 untranslated; 阿毘達磨經 untranslated; 楞伽經 3 tr.; 厚嚴經 (also called 大乘密嚴經); six great Mahāyāna scriptures



see styles
dà shèng dǐng wáng jīng / da4 sheng4 ding3 wang2 jing1
ta sheng ting wang ching
 Daijō chōō kyō
Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra, (維摩經) is the Sanskrit title of a work of which there exist six translations, one made by Upaśūnya A.D. 502-557; Sūtra of the Utmost King of the Great Vehicle



see styles
yǒu kōng zhōng sān shí / you3 kong1 zhong1 san1 shi2
yu k`ung chung san shih / yu kung chung san shih
 u kū chū sanji
The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school divides the Buddha's teaching into three periods, in which he taught (1) the unreality of the ego, as shown in the 阿含 Āgamas, etc.; (2) the unreality of the dharmas, as in the 船若 Prajñāpāramitā, etc.; and (3) the middle or uniting way, as in the 解深密經 Sandhinimocana-sūtra, etc., the last being the foundation text of this school; three periods of the teaching of existence, emptiness, and the mean



see styles
yù quán yù huā liǎng zōng / yu4 quan2 yu4 hua1 liang3 zong1
yü ch`üan yü hua liang tsung / yü chüan yü hua liang tsung
 Gyokusen gyokka ryōshū
The two schools of the Jade-fountain and Jade-flower. i. e. 天台 Tiantai and 法相 Dharmalakṣana, the latter with Hsüan-tsang as founder in China. 玉泉 Yü-ch'üan was the name of the monastery in Tang-yang 當陽 Hsien, An-lu Fu, Hupeh, where Chih-i, the founder of the T'ien-t'ai School, lived; 玉花 Yü-hua, where Hsüan-tsang lived; two schools of the Jade Fountain and Jade Flower


see styles
dà fāng děng dǐng wáng shuō jīng / da4 fang1 deng3 ding3 wang2 shuo1 jing1
ta fang teng ting wang shuo ching
Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra, tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D.265―316.

Entries with 2nd row of characters: The 2nd row is Simplified Chinese.

This page contains 52 results for "Malak" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Japanese Bath House

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 1,007,753 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, names, placenames, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

The following titles are just to help people who are searching for an Asian dictionary to find this page.

Japanese Kanji Dictionary

Free Asian Dictionary

Chinese Kanji Dictionary

Chinese Words Dictionary

Chinese Language Dictionary

Japanese Chinese Dictionary