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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
Japanese Japanese information.
Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
 Definition may be different outside of Buddhism.

There are 83 total results for your Buddhism Buddha search.

Characters Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin/ fo2
Taiwan fo
Japanese hotoke / ほとけ
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Buddha; Buddhism
Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "conceive", "observe", "wake"; also 佛陀; 浮圖; 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮塔; 勃陀; 勃馱; 沒馱; 母馱; 母陀; 部陀; 休屠. Buddha means "completely conscious, enlightened", and came to mean the enlightener. he Chinese translation is 覺 to perceive, aware, awake; and 智 gnosis, knowledge. There is an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and multitudes of Buddhas, but the personality of a Supreme Buddha, an Ādi-Buddha, is not defined. Buddha is in and through all things, and some schools are definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna 三寳 commonly known as 三寳佛, while Śākyamuni Buddha is the first "person" of the Trinity, his Law the second, and the Order the third, all three by some are accounted as manifestations of the All-Buddha. As Śākyamuni, the title indicates him as the last of the line of Buddhas who have appeared in this world, Maitreya is to be the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlightenment, having discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane existence, others all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations; this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation, the monastic life, and meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one, himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment, or Omniscience, and according to Māhāyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as they seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality (twelve nidānas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the arhat. Four types of the Buddha are referred to: (1) 三藏佛the Buddha of the Tripiṭaka who attained enlightenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) 通佛the Buddha on the deva robe under the bodhi-tree of the seven precious things; (3) 別佛the Buddha on the great precious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and (4) 圓佛the Buddha on the throne of Space in the realm of eternal rest and glory where he is Vairocana. The Hīnayāna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time; Mahāyāna claims the existence of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many Buddhas as there are Buddha-universes, which are infinite in number.

三寶


三宝

see styles
Mandarin sān bǎo / san1 bao3
Taiwan san pao
Japanese sanbou / sanbo / さんぼう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese the Three Precious Treasures of Buddhism, namely: the Buddha 佛, the Dharma 法 (his teaching), and the Sangha 僧 (his monastic order)
three treasures

佛教

see styles
Mandarin fó jiào / fo2 jiao4
Taiwan fo chiao
Japanese bukkyou / bukkyo / ぶっきょう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Buddhism
Japanese (out-dated kanji) Buddhism
Buddha's teaching; Buddhism, v. 釋教.

佛法

see styles
Mandarin fó fǎ / fo2 fa3
Taiwan fo fa
Japanese buppō
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Dharma (the teachings of the Buddha); Buddhist doctrine
buddhadharma; the Dharma or Law preached by the Buddha, the principles underlying these teachings, the truth attained by him, its embodiment in his being. Buddhism; the Buddha-dharma

法輪


法轮

see styles
Mandarin fǎ lún / fa3 lun2
Taiwan fa lun
Japanese hourin / horin / ほうりん
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese the Eternal Wheel of life in Buddhism
Japanese {Buddh} (See 輪宝,転法輪) the teachings of Buddha (as likened to the Dharmachakra, originally a wheel-like weapon used to destroy the evils of mankind); Buddhist doctrine
dharmacakra, the Wheel of the Law, Buddha-truth which is able to crush all evil and all opposition, like Indra's wheel, and which rolls on from man to man, place to place, age to age. 轉法輪To turn, or roll along the Law-wheel, i.e. to preach Buddha-truth.

淨土


净土

see styles
Mandarin jìng tǔ / jing4 tu3
Taiwan ching t`u / ching tu
Japanese jōdo
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese (Buddhism) Pure Land, usually refers to Amitabha Buddha's Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss (Sukhavati in Sanskrit)
Sukhāvatī. The Pure Land, or Paradise of the West, presided over by Amitābha. Other Buddhas have their Pure Lands; seventeen other kinds of pure land are also described, all of them of moral or spiritual conditions of development, e.g. the pure land of patience, zeal, wisdom, etc.

禪宗


禅宗

see styles
Mandarin chán zōng / chan2 zong1
Taiwan ch`an tsung / chan tsung
Japanese Zenshū
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Zen Buddhism
The Chan, meditative or intuitional, sect usually said to have been established in China by Bodhidharma, v. 達, the twenty-eighth patriarch, who brought the tradition of the Buddha-mind from India. Cf. 楞 13 Laṅkāvatāra sūtra. This sect, believing in direct enlightenment, disregarded ritual and sūtras and depended upon the inner light and personal influence for the propagation of its tenets, founding itself on the esoteric tradition supposed to have been imparted to Kāśyapa by the Buddha, who indicated his meaning by plucking a flower without further explanation. Kāśyapa smiled in apprehension and is supposed to have passed on this mystic method to the patriarchs. The successor of Bodhidharma was 慧可 Huike, and he was succeeded by 僧璨 Sengcan; 道信 Daoxin; 弘忍 Hongren; 慧能 Huineng, and 神秀 Shenxiu, the sect dividing under the two latter into the southern and northern schools: the southern school became prominent, producing 南嶽 Nanyue and 靑原 Qingyuan, the former succeeded by 馬祖 Mazu, the latter by 石頭 Shitou. From Mazu's school arose the five later schools, v. 禪門; meditation school

菩薩


菩萨

see styles
Mandarin pú sà / pu2 sa4
Taiwan p`u sa / pu sa
Japanese bosatsu(p);bosachi(ok) / ぼさつ(P);ぼさち(ok)
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Bodhisattva (Buddhism)
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) {Buddh} bodhisattva; one who has reached enlightenment but vows to save all beings before becoming a buddha; (2) High Monk (title bestowed by the imperial court); (3) (See 本地垂迹説) title bestowed to Shinto kami in manifestation theory
bodhisattva, cf. 菩提薩埵. While the idea is not foreign to Hīnayāna, its extension of meaning is one of the chief marks of Mahāyāna. 'The Bodhisattva is indeed the characteristic feature of the Mahāyāna.' Keith. According to Mahāyāna the Hinayanists, i.e. the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha, seek their own salvation, while the bodhisattva's aim is the salvation of others and of all. The earlier intp. of bodhisattva was 大道心衆生 all beings with mind for the truth; later it became 大覺有情 conscious beings of or for the great intelligence, or enlightenment. It is also intp. in terms of leadership, heroism, etc. In general it is a Mahayanist seeking Buddhahood, but seeking it altruistically; whether monk or layman, he seeks enlightenment to enlighten others, and he will sacrifice himself to save others; he is devoid of egoism and devoted to helping others. All conscious beings having the Buddha-nature are natural bodhisattvas, but require to undergo development. The mahāsattva is sufficiently advanced to become a Buddha and enter nirvāṇa, but according to his vow he remains in the realm of incarnation to save all conscious beings. A monk should enter on the arduous course of discipline which leads to Bodhisattvahood and Buddhahood.

悉達多


悉达多

see styles
Mandarin xī dá duō / xi1 da2 duo1
Taiwan hsi ta to
Japanese shiddaruta / しっだるた
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Siddhartha Gautama (563-485 BC), the historical Buddha and founder of Buddhism
(悉達) Siddhārtha, Sarvāthasiddha, also悉多 (悉多頞他); 悉陀 the realization of all aims, prosperous; personal name of Śākyamuni.

菩提樹


菩提树

see styles
Mandarin pú tí shù / pu2 ti2 shu4
Taiwan p`u t`i shu / pu ti shu
Japanese bodaiju;bodaiju / ぼだいじゅ;ボダイジュ
Chinese pipal tree (Ficus religiosa); bo fig tree; Bodhi tree (sacred to Buddhism and Hinduism)
Japanese (1) Tilia miqueliana (species of linden tree); (2) (See インドボダイジュ) sacred fig (Ficus religiosa); bodhi tree; bo tree; peepal tree; pipal tree
bodhidruma, bodhitaru, bodhivṛkṣa; the wisdom-tree, i.e. that under which Śākyamuni attained his enlightenment, and became Buddha. The Ficus religiosa is the pippala, or aśvattha, wrongly identified by Faxian as the palm-tree; it is described as an evergreen, to have been 400 feet high, been cut down several times, but in the Tang dynasty still to be 40 or 50 feet high. A branch of it is said to have been sent by Aśoka to Ceylon, from which sprang the celebrated Bo-tree still flourishing there; bodhi-tree

釋迦牟尼


释迦牟尼

see styles
Mandarin shì jiā móu ní / shi4 jia1 mou2 ni2
Taiwan shih chia mou ni
Japanese Shakamuni
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Siddhartha Gautama (563-485 BC), the historical Buddha and founder of Buddhism; Sakyamuni Buddha (Sanskrit: sage of the Sakya)
釋迦文 (釋迦文尼); 釋伽文 Śākyamuni, the saint of the Śākya tribe. muni is saint, holy man, sage, ascetic monk; it is: intp. as 仁 benevolent, charitable, kind, also as 寂默 one who dwells in seclusion. After '500 or 550' previous incarnations, Śākyamuni finally attained to the state of Bodhisattva, was born in the Tuṣita heaven, and descended as a white elephant, through her right side, into the womb of the immaculate Māyā, the purest woman on earth; this was on the 8th day of the 4th month; next year on the 8th day of the 2nd month he was born from her right side painlessly as she stood under a tree in the Lumbinī garden. For the subsequent miraculous events v. Eitel. also the 神通遊戲經 (Lalitavistara), the 釋迦如來成道記, etc. Simpler statements say that he was born the son of Śuddhodana, of the kṣatriya caste, ruler of Kapilavastu, and Māyā his wife; that Māyā died seven days later, leaving him to be brought up by her sister Prājapati; that in due course he was married to Yaśodharā who bore him a son, Rāhula; that in search of truth he left home, became an ascetic, severely disciplined himself, and finally at 35 years of age, under a tree, realized that the way of release from the chain of rebirth and death lay not in asceticism but in moral purity; this he explained first in his four dogmas, v. 四諦 and eightfold noble way 八正道, later amplified and developed in many sermons. He founded his community on the basis of poverty, chastity, and insight or meditation, ad it became known as Buddhism, as he became known as Buddha, the enlightened. His death was probably in or near 487 B.C., a few years before that of Confucius in 479. The sacerdotal name of his family is Gautama, said to be the original name of the whole clan, Śākya being that of his branch, v. 瞿, 喬.; his personal name was Siddhārtha, or Sarvārthasiddha, v. 悉.

see styles
Mandarin wàn / wan4
Taiwan wan
Japanese manji / まんじ
Chinese swastika, a sacred and auspicious symbol in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism
Japanese swastika (esp. a counterclockwise swastika as a Buddhist symbol); fylfot; gammadion
sauvastika, 塞縛悉底迦; also styled 室利靺瑳 śrīvatsa, lucky sign, Viṣṇu's breast-curl or mark, tr. by 海雲 sea-cloud, or cirrhus. Used as a fancy form of 萬 or 萬; and is also written in a form said to resemble a curl. It is the 4th of the auspicious signs in the footprint of Buddha, and is a mystic diagram of great antiquity. To be distinguished from 卐svastika, the crampons of which turn to the right; ten thousand


see styles
Mandarin/ di4
Taiwan ti
Japanese tai / たい
Chinese to examine; truth (Buddhism)
To judge, examine into, investigate, used in Buddhism for satya, a truth, a dogma, an axiom; applied to the āryasatyāni, the four dogmas, or noble truths, of 苦, 集, 滅, and 道 suffering, (the cause of its) assembly, the ( possibility of its cure, or) extinction, and the way (to extinction), i.e. the eightfold noble path, v. 四諦 and 八聖道. There are other categories of 諦, e.g. (2) 眞 and 俗 Reality in contrast with ordinary ideas of things; (3) 空, 假 and 中 q.v. (6) by the 勝論宗; and(8) by the 法相宗.; Two forms of statement: (a) 俗諦 saṃvṛti-satya, also called 世諦, 世俗諦, 覆俗諦, 覆諦, meaning common or ordinary statement, as if phenomena were real; (b) 眞諦 paramartha-satya, also called 第一諦, 勝義諦, meaning the correct dogma or averment of the enlightened. Another definition is 王法 and 佛法, royal law and Buddha law.


see styles
Mandarin shì / shi4
Taiwan shih
Japanese toki / とき
Chinese to explain; to release; Buddha (abbr. for 釋迦牟尼|释迦牟尼[Shi4 jia1 mou2 ni2]); Buddhism
To separate out, set free, unloose, explain; Buddhism, Buddhist; translit. śa, śi; also ḍ, ḍh; to explain

五教

see styles
Mandarin wǔ jiào / wu3 jiao4
Taiwan wu chiao
Japanese gokyō
The five division of Buddhism according to the Huayan School, of which there are two That of 杜順 Dushun down to 賢首 Xianshou is (1) 小乘教 Hīnayāna which interprets nirvana as annihilation; (2) 大乘始教 the primary stage of Mahāyāna, with two sections the 相始教 and 空 始教 or realistic and idealistic, (3) 大乘終教 Mahāyāna in its final stage, teaching the 眞如 and universal Buddhahood; (4) 頓教 the immediate, direct, or intuitive school, e. g. by right concentration of thought, or faith, apart from 'works'; (5) 圓教 the complete or perfect teaching of the Huayan, combining all the rest into one all-embracing vehicle. The five are now differentiated into 十宗 ten schools. The other division, by 圭峯 Guifeng of the same school, is (1) 人天教 rebirth as human beings for those who keep the five commandments and as devas those who keep the 十善 as 相始教 above; (4) 大乘破相教 as 空始教 above; and (5) 一乘顯性教 the one vehicle which reveals the universal Buddha-nature; it includes (3), (4), and (5) of the first group. See also 五時教; five teachings

佛乘

see styles
Mandarin fú chéng / fu2 cheng2
Taiwan fu ch`eng / fu cheng
Japanese butsujō
The Buddha conveyance or vehicle, Buddhism as the vehicle of salvation for all beings; the doctrine of the 華嚴 Huayan (Kegon) School that all may become Buddha, which is called 一乘 the One Vehicle, the followers of this school calling it the 圓教 complete or perfect doctrine; this doctrine is also styled in the Lotus Sutra 一佛乘 the One Buddha-Vehicle.

佛子

see styles
Mandarin fú zi / fu2 zi
Taiwan fu tzu
Japanese busshi / ぶっし
Son of Buddha; a bodhisattva; a believer in Buddhism, for every believer is becoming Buddha; a term also applied to all beings, because all are of Buddha-nature. There is a division of three kinds: 外子 external sons, who have not yet believed; 度子 secondary sons, Hīnayānists; 眞子 true sons, Mahāyānists; children of the Buddha

佛宗

see styles
Mandarin fú zōng / fu2 zong1
Taiwan fu tsung
Japanese busshū
Buddhism; principles of the Buddha Law, or dharma.

佛家

see styles
Mandarin fó jiā / fo2 jia1
Taiwan fo chia
Japanese butsuke
Chinese Buddhism; Buddhist
The school or family of Buddhism; the Pure Land, where is the family of Buddha. Also all Buddhists from the srota-āpanna stage upwards; the Buddha's family

傳法


传法

see styles
Mandarin chuán fǎ / chuan2 fa3
Taiwan ch`uan fa / chuan fa
Japanese denpou / denpo / でんぽう
Chinese to pass on doctrines from master to disciple (Buddhism)
To transmit, or spread abroad the Buddha truth; dharma-transmission

像法

see styles
Mandarin xiàng fǎ / xiang4 fa3
Taiwan hsiang fa
Japanese zōhō
saddharma-pratirūpaka; the formal or image period of Buddhism; the three periods are 正像末, those of the real, the formal, and the final; or correct, semblance, and termination. The first period is of 500 years; the second of 1,000 years; the third 3,000 years, when Maitreya is to appear and restore all things. There are varied statements about periods and dates, e.g. there is a division of four periods, that while the Buddha was alive, the early stage after his death, then the formal and the final periods; semblance dharma

分身

see styles
Mandarin fēn shēn / fen1 shen1
Taiwan fen shen
Japanese bunshin(p);bunjin(ok) / ぶんしん(P);ぶんじん(ok)
Chinese to spare time for a separate task; doppelgänger; sockpuppet (Internet slang)
Japanese (1) other self; alter ego; part of oneself (in someone or something else); representation of oneself; (2) {Buddh} incarnations of Buddha
Parturition: in Buddhism it means a Buddha's power to reproduce himself ad infinitum and anywhere; dividing the body

受持

see styles
Mandarin shòu chí / shou4 chi2
Taiwan shou ch`ih / shou chih
Japanese juji / じゅじ
Chinese to accept and maintain faith (Buddhism)
Japanese remembering (and honoring) the teachings of Buddha
to uphold

名相

see styles
Mandarin míng xiàng / ming2 xiang4
Taiwan ming hsiang
Japanese myōsō
Chinese famous prime minister (in ancient China); names and appearances (Buddhism)
Name and appearance; everything has a name, e. g. sound, or has appearance, i. e. the visible, v. 名色; both are unreal and give rise to delusion. The name under which Subhūti will be reborn as Buddha; name and form

善神

see styles
Mandarin shàn shén / shan4 shen2
Taiwan shan shen
Japanese zenshin / ぜんしん
Japanese (1) (See 正法) good God; good deities; (2) {Buddh} true teachings of Buddha
The good devas, or spirits, who protect Buddhism, 8, 16, or 36 in number; the 8 are also called 善鬼神; good deities

四土

see styles
Mandarin sì tǔ / si4 tu3
Taiwan ssu t`u / ssu tu
Japanese shido / しど
Japanese {Buddh} four realms (in Tendai Buddhism or Yogacara)
The four Buddha-kṣetra, or realms, of Tiantai: (1) 凡聖居同土 Realms where all classes dwell— men, devas, Buddhas, disciples, non-disciples; it has two divisions, the impure, e. g. this world, and the pure, e. g. the 'Western' pure-land. (2) 方便有餘土 Temporary realms, where the occupants have got rid of the evils of 見思 unenlightened views and thoughts, but still have to be reborn. (3) 實報無障礙土 Realms of permanent reward and freedom, for those who have attained bodhisattva rank. (4) 常寂光土 Realm of eternal rest and light (i. e. wisdom) and of eternal spirit (dharmakāya), the abode of Buddhas; but in reality all the others are included in this, and are only separated for convenience, sake; four lands

声聞

see styles
Japanese shoumon / shomon / しょうもん Japanese (1) sravaka (disciple of Buddha); (2) adherent of Hinayana Buddhism

大乘

see styles
Mandarin dà shèng / da4 sheng4
Taiwan ta sheng
Japanese oonori / おおのり
Chinese Mahayana, the Great Vehicle; Buddhism based on the Mayahana sutras, as spread to Central Asia, China and beyond; also pr. [Da4 cheng2]
Mahāyāna; also called 上乘; 妙乘; 勝乘; 無上乘; 無上上乘; 不惡乘; 無等乘, 無等等乘; 摩訶衍 The great yāna, wain, or conveyance, or the greater vehicle in comparison with the 小乘 Hīnayāna. It indicates universalism, or Salvation for all, for all are Buddha and will attain bodhi. It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea, Japan, and in other places in the Far East. It is also called Northern Buddhism. It is interpreted as 大教 the greater teaching as compared with 小教 the smaller, or inferior. Hīnayāna, which is undoubtedly nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha, is unfairly described as an endeavour to seek nirvana through an ash-covered body, an extinguished intellect, and solitariness; its followers are sravakas and pratyekabuddhas (i.e. those who are striving for their own deliverance through ascetic works). Mahāyāna, on the other hand, is described as seeking to find and extend all knowledge, and, in certain schools, to lead all to Buddhahood. It has a conception of an Eternal Buddha, or Buddhahood as Eternal (Adi-Buddha), but its especial doctrines are, inter alia, (a) the bodhisattvas 菩薩 , i.e. beings who deny themselves final Nirvana until, according to their vows, they have first saved all the living; (b) salvation by faith in, or invocation of the Buddhas or bodhisattvas; (c) Paradise as a nirvana of bliss in the company of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, saints, and believers. Hīnayāna is sometimes described as 自利 self-benefiting, and Mahāyāna as 自利利他 self-benefit for the benefit of others, unlimited altruism and pity being the theory of Mahāyāna. There is a further division into one-yana and three-yanas: the trīyāna may be śrāvaka, pratyeka-buddha, and bodhisattva, represented by a goat, deer, or bullock cart; the one-yāna is that represented by the Lotus School as the one doctrine of the Buddha, which had been variously taught by him according to the capacity of his hearers, v. 方便. Though Mahāyāna tendencies are seen in later forms of the older Buddhism, the foundation of Mahāyāna has been attributed to Nāgārjuna 龍樹. "The characteristics of this system are an excess of transcendental speculation tending to abstract nihilism, and the substitution of fanciful degrees of meditation and contemplation (v. Samādhi and Dhyāna) in place of the practical asceticism of the Hīnayāna school."[Eitel 68-9.] Two of its foundation books are the 起信論and the 妙法蓮華經 but a larnge numberof Mahāyāna sutras are ascribed to the Buddha。; great vehicle

大我

see styles
Mandarin dà wǒ / da4 wo3
Taiwan ta wo
Japanese taiga / たいが
Chinese the collective; the whole; (Buddhism) the greater self
The greater self, or the true personality 眞我. Hīnayāna is accused of only knowing and denying the common idea of a self, or soul, whereas there is a greater self, which is a nirvana self. It especially refers to the Great Ego, the Buddha, but also to any Buddha ;v.大目經1, etc., and 涅槃經 23; great self

大日

see styles
Mandarin dà rì / da4 ri4
Taiwan ta jih
Japanese dainichi / だいにち
Japanese Mahavairocana (Tathagata); Great Sun; Supreme Buddha of Sino-Japanese esoteric Buddhism
Vairocana, or Mahāvairocana 大日如來; 遍照如來; 摩訶毘盧遮那; 毘盧遮那; 大日覺王 The sun, "shining everywhere" The chief object of worship of the Shingon sect in Japan, "represented by the gigantic image in the temple at Nara." (Eliot.) There he is known as Dai-nichi-nyorai. He is counted as the first, and according to some, the origin of the five celestial Buddhas (dhyāni-buddhas, or jinas). He dwells quiescent in Arūpa-dhātu, the Heaven beyond form, and is the essence of wisdom (bodhi) and of absolute purity. Samantabhadra 普賢 is his dhyāni-bodhisattva. The 大日經 "teaches that Vairocana is the whole world, which is divided into Garbhadhātu (material) and Vajradhātu (indestructible), the two together forming Dharmadhātu. The manifestations of Vairocana's body to himself―that is, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas ―are represented symbolically by diagrams of several circles ". Eliot. In the 金剛界 or vajradhātu maṇḍala he is the center of the five groups. In the 胎藏界 or Garbhadhātu he is the center of the eight-leaf (lotus) court. His appearance, symbols, esoteric word, differ according to the two above distinctions. Generally he is considered as an embodiment of the Truth 法, both in the sense of dharmakāya 法身 and dharmaratna 法寳. Some hold Vairocana to be the dharmakāya of Śākyamuni 大日與釋迦同一佛 but the esoteric school denies this identity. Also known as 最高顯廣眼藏如來, the Tathagata who, in the highest, reveals the far-reaching treasure of his eye, i.e. the sun. 大日大聖不動明王 is described as one of his transformations. Also, a śramaņa of Kashmir (contemporary of Padma-saṃbhava); he is credited with introducing Buddhism into Khotan and being an incarnation of Mañjuśrī; the king Vijaya Saṃbhava built a monastery for him.

天尊

see styles
Mandarin tiān zūn / tian1 zun1
Taiwan t`ien tsun / tien tsun
Japanese tenson / てんそん
Chinese (honorific appellation of a deity)
The most honoured among devas, a title of a Buddha, i. e. the highest of divine beings; also used for certain maharāja protectors of Buddhism and others in the sense of honoured devas. Title applied by the Daoists to their divinities as a counterpart to the Buddhist 世尊; most honored among devas

天帝

see styles
Mandarin tiān dì / tian1 di4
Taiwan t`ien ti / tien ti
Japanese tentei / tente / てんてい
Chinese God of heaven; Celestial emperor
Japanese (1) Shangdi; supreme deity in ancient Chinese religion; (2) God (in Christianity); (3) {Buddh} (See 帝釈天・たいしゃくてん) Shakra; Indra; king of heaven in Hindu mythology
King, or emperor of Heaven, i. e. 因陀羅 Indra, i. e. 釋 (釋迦); 釋迦婆; 帝 (帝釋); Śakra, king of the devaloka 忉利天, one of the ancient gods of India, the god of the sky who fights the demons with his vajra, or thunderbolt. He is inferior to the trimūrti, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, having taken the place of Varuṇa, or sky. Buddhism adopted him as its defender, though, like all the gods, he is considered inferior to a Buddha or any who have attained bodhi. His wife is Indrāṇī.

寶藏


宝藏

see styles
Mandarin bǎo zàng / bao3 zang4
Taiwan pao tsang
Japanese hōzō
Chinese precious mineral deposits; hidden treasure; (fig.) treasure; (Buddhism) the treasure of Buddha's law
The treasury of precious things, the wonderful religion of Buddha; repository for precious treasures

小乘

see styles
Mandarin xiǎo shèng / xiao3 sheng4
Taiwan hsiao sheng
Japanese shōjō
Chinese Hinayana, the Lesser Vehicle; Buddhism in India before the Mayahana sutras; also pr. [Xiao3 cheng2]
Hīnayāna 希那衍. The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed after Śākyamuni's death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahāyāna doctrines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahāyānism which developed on lines fundamentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith). Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hīnayāna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahāyāna. Hīnayāna remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahāyāna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the general literary language of the surviving form of Hīnayāna, Sanskrit of Mahāyāna. The term Hīnayāna is of Mahāyānist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of Mahāyāna over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahāyāna teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it declares that Hīnayāna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood, seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvāṇa. For arhatship the 四諦Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyekabuddhahood the 十二因緣 twelve-nidānas, and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles 二乘. Tiantai sometimes calls them the (Hīnayāna) Tripiṭaka school. Three of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools were transported to China: 倶舍 (Abhidharma) Kośa; 成實 Satya-siddhi; and the school of Harivarman, the律 Vinaya school. These are described by Mahāyānists as the Buddha's adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahāyāna all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahāyāna view of Hīnayāna, and if the Vaipulya sūtras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiated by Hīnayāna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahāyāna in condemning Hīnayāna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sūtras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authenticity; while those of Hīnayāna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hīnayāna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately after the death of Śākyamuni, when the sthāvira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rājagṛha, to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside; these two are the first 上坐部 and 大衆部 q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk 大天 Mahādeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha's nirvāṇa and during the reign of Aśoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahādeva's sect became the Mahāsāṅghikā, the other the Sthāvira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals are the so-called "twenty sects" of Hīnayāna. Another division of four sects, referred to by Yijing, is that of the 大衆部 (Arya) Mahāsaṅghanikāya, 上座部 Āryasthavirāḥ, 根本說一切有部 Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, and 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ. There is still another division of five sects, 五部律. For the eighteen Hīnayāna sects see 小乘十八部.

彌勒


弥勒

see styles
Mandarin mí lè / mi2 le4
Taiwan mi le
Japanese miroku / みろく
Chinese Mile county in Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefecture, Yunnan; Maitreya, the future Bodhisattva, to come after Shakyamuni Buddha
Maitreya, friendly, benevolent. The Buddhist Messiah, or next Buddha, now in the Tuṣita heaven, who is to come 5,000 years after the nirvāṇa of Śākyamuni, or according to other reckoning after 4,000 heavenly years, i.e. 5,670,000,000 human years. According to tradition he was born in Southern India of a Brahman family. His two epithets are 慈氏 Benevolent, and Ajita 阿逸多 'Invincible'. He presides over the spread of the church, protects its members and will usher in ultimate victory for Buddhism. His image is usually in the hall of the four guardians facing outward, where he is represented as the fat laughing Buddha, but in some places his image is tall, e.g. in Peking in the Yung Ho Kung. Other forms are彌帝M075962; 迷諦隸; 梅低梨; 梅怛麗 (梅怛藥 or 梅怛邪); 每怛哩; 昧怛 M067070曳; 彌羅. There are numerous Maitreya sūtras.

成道

see styles
Mandarin chéng dào / cheng2 dao4
Taiwan ch`eng tao / cheng tao
Japanese joudou / jodo / じょうどう
Chinese to reach illumination (Buddhism)
Japanese (noun/participle) completing the path to becoming a Buddha (by attaining enlightenment)
To attain the Way, or become enlightened, e.g. the Buddha under the bodhi tree; enlightenment

文殊

see styles
Mandarin wén shū / wen2 shu1
Taiwan wen shu
Japanese monju / もんじゅ
Chinese Manjushri, the Bodhisattva of keen awareness
Japanese (Buddhist term) Manjushri; Manjusri; Bodhisattva that represents transcendent wisdom
(文殊師利) Mañjuśrī 滿殊尸利 -later 曼殊室利. 文殊 is also used for Mañjunātha, Mañjudeva, Mañjughoṣa, Mañjuṣvara, et al. T., hjamdpal; J., Monju. Origin unknown; presumably, like most Buddhas and bodhisattvas, an idealization of a particular quality, in his case of Wisdom. Mañju is beautiful, Śrī; good fortune, virtue, majesty, lord, an epithet of a god. Six definitions are obtained from various scriptures: 妙首 (or 頭 ) wonderful or beautiful) head; 普首 universal head; 濡首 glossy head (probably a transliteration); 敬首 revered head; 妙德 wonderful virtue (or power); 妙吉祥 wonderfully auspicious; the last is a later translation in the 西域記. As guardian of wisdom 智慧 he is often placed on Śākyamuni's left, with 普顯 on the right as guardian of law 理, the latter holding the Law, the former the wisdom or exposition of it; formerly they held the reverse positions. He is often represented with five curls or waves to his hair indicating the 五智 q. v. or the five peaks; his hand holds the sword of wisdom and he sits on a lion emblematic of its stern majesty: but he has other forms. He is represented as a youth, i. e. eternal youth. His present abode is given as east of the universe, known as 淸涼山 clear and cool mountain, or a region 寶住 precious abode, or Abode of Treasures, or 寶氏 from which he derives one of his titles, 寶相如來. One of his dhāraṇīs prophesies China as his post-nirvāṇa realm. In past incarnations he is described as being the parent of many Buddhas and as having assisted the Buddha into existence; his title was 龍種上佛 the supreme Buddha of the nāgas, also 大身佛 or 神仙佛; now his title is 歡喜藏摩尼寶精佛 The spiritual Buddha who joyfully cares for the jewel: and his future title is to be 普現佛 Buddha universally revealed. In the 序品 Introductory Chapter of the Lotus Sutra he is also described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Śākyamuni. He is looked on as the chief of the Bodhisattvas and represents them, as the chief disciple of the Buddha, or as his son 法王子. Hīnayāna counts Śāriputra as the wisest of the disciples, Mahāyāna gives Mañjuśrī the chief place, hence he is also styled 覺母 mother, or begetter of understanding. He is shown riding on either a lion or a peacock, or sitting on a white lotus; often he holds a book, emblem of wisdom, or a blue lotus; in certain rooms of a monastery he is shown as a monk; and he appears in military array as defender of the faith. His signs, magic words, and so on, are found in various sutras. His most famous centre in China is Wu-tai shan in Shansi. where he is the object of pilgrimages, especially of Mongols. The legends about him are many. He takes the place in Buddhism of Viśvakarman as Vulcan, or architect, of the universe. He is one of the eight Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, and sometimes has the image of Akṣobhya in his crown. He was mentioned in China as early as the fourth century and in the Lotus Sutra he frequently appears, especially as the converter of the daughter of the Dragon-king of the Ocean. He has five messengers 五使者 and eight youths 八童子 attending on him. His hall in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala is the seventh, in which his group numbers twenty-five. His position is northeast. There are numerous sutras and other works with his name as title, e. g. 文殊師利問菩提經 Gayaśīrṣa sūtra, tr. by Kumārajīva 384-417: and its 論 or .Tīkā of Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhiruci 535. see list in B. N.

智門


智门

see styles
Mandarin zhì mén / zhi4 men2
Taiwan chih men
Japanese chimon
Wisdom gate; Buddha-wisdom and Buddha-pity are the two gates or ways through which Buddhism expresses itself: the way of enlightenment directed to the self, and the way of pity directed to others; approach of knowing

智顗

see styles
Mandarin zhì yǐ / zhi4 yi3
Taiwan chih i
Japanese Chigi
Chinese Zhiyi (538-597), founder of the Tiantai sect of Buddhism
Zhiyi, founder of the Tiantai school, also known as 智者 and 天台 (天台大師); his surname was 陳 Chen; his 字 was 德安, De-an; born about A. D. 538, he died in 597 at 60 years of age. He was a native of 頴川 Ying-chuan in Anhui, became a neophyte at 7, was fully ordained at 20. At first a follower of 慧思, Huisi, in 575 he went to the Tiantai mountain in Chekiang, where he founded his famous school on the Lotus Sūtra as containing the complete gospel of the Buddha.

梵唄


梵呗

see styles
Mandarin fàn bài / fan4 bai4
Taiwan fan pai
Japanese bonbai / ぼんばい
Chinese chanting of prayers (Buddhism)
Japanese song in praise of Buddhas virtues
Buddhist hymns, cf. 唄. They are sung to repress externals and calm the mind within for religious service; also in praise of Buddha; song or verse praising the virtues of the Buddha

梵王

see styles
Mandarin fàn wáng / fan4 wang2
Taiwan fan wang
Japanese Bonō
Brahmā, cf. 梵天. The father of all living beings; the first person of the Brahminical trimūrti, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, recognized by Buddhism as devas but as inferior to a Buddha, or enlightened man; King of the Brahma Heaven

毀釋


毁释

see styles
Mandarin huǐ shì / hui3 shi4
Taiwan hui shih
Japanese kishaku
To slander the Buddha or Buddhism; denigrate the buddha or the dharma

法力

see styles
Mandarin fǎ lì / fa3 li4
Taiwan fa li
Japanese houriki / horiki / ほうりき
Chinese magic power
Japanese power of Buddhism
The power of Buddha-truth to do away with calamity and subdue evil; strength of suchness within

法身

see styles
Mandarin fǎ shēn / fa3 shen1
Taiwan fa shen
Japanese hosshin;houshin / hosshin;hoshin / ほっしん;ほうしん
Japanese {Buddh} (See 三身) dharmakaya (dharma body, Buddhism's highest form of existence)
dharmakāya, embodiment of Truth and Law, the "spiritual" or true body; essential Buddhahood; the essence of being; the absolute, the norm of the universe; the first of the trikāya, v.三身. The dharmakāya is divided into 總 unity and 別 diversity; as in the noumenal absolute and phenomenal activities, or potential and dynamic; but there are differences of interpretation, e.g. as between the 法相 and 法性 schools. Cf. 法身體性. There are many categories of the dharmakāya. In the 2 group 二法身 are five kinds: (1) 理 "substance" and 智 wisdom or expression; (2) 法性法身 essential nature and 應化法身 manifestation; the other three couples are similar. In the 3 group 三法身 are (1) the manifested Buddha, i.e. Śākyamuni; (2) the power of his teaching, etc.; (3) the absolute or ultimate reality. There are other categories.

法門


法门

see styles
Mandarin fǎ mén / fa3 men2
Taiwan fa men
Japanese hōmon
Chinese gate to enlightment (Buddhism); Buddhism; way; method; (old) south gate of a palace
dharmaparyāya. The doctrines, or wisdom of Buddha regarded as the door to enlightenment. A method. Any sect. As the living have 84,000 delusions, so the Buddha provides 84,000 methods法門of dealing with them. Hence the法門海 ocean of Buddha's methods.

法雨

see styles
Mandarin fǎ yǔ / fa3 yu3
Taiwan fa yü
Japanese houu / hou / ほうう
Japanese shower of dharma; Buddhism flowing forth
The rain of Buddha-truth which fertilizes all beings; dharma rain

涅槃

see styles
Mandarin niè pán / nie4 pan2
Taiwan nieh p`an / nieh pan
Japanese nehan / ねはん
Chinese nirvana (Buddhism)
Japanese (1) {Buddh} Nirvana; supreme enlightenment; (2) {Buddh} death; death of Buddha
nirvāṇa, 'blown out, gone out, put out, extinguished'; 'liberated-from existence'; 'dead, deceased, defunct.' 'Liberation, eternal bliss'; '(with Buddhists and Jainas) absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual existence.' M.W. Other forms are 涅槃那; 泥日; 泥洹; 泥畔 Originally translated 滅 to extinguish, extinction, put out (as a lamp or fire), it was also described as 解脫 release, 寂滅 tranquil extinction; 無爲 inaction, without effort, passiveness; 不生 no (re)birth; 安樂 calm joy; 滅度transmigration to 'extinction'. The meaning given to 'extinction' varies, e.g. individual extinction; cessation of rebirth; annihilation of passion; extinction of all misery and entry into bliss. While the meaning of individual extinction is not without advocates, the general acceptation is the extinction or end of all return to reincarnation with its concomitant suffering, and the entry into bliss. Nirvāṇa may be enjoyed in the present life as an attainable state, with entry into parinirvāṇa, or perfect bliss to follow. It may be (a) with a 'remainder', i.e. the cause but not all the effect (karma), of reincarnation having been destroyed; (b) without 'remainder', both cause and effect having been extinguished. The answer of the Buddha as to the continued personal existence of the Tathāgata in nirvāṇa is, in the Hīnayāna canon, relegated 'to the sphere of the indeterminates' (Keith), as one of the questions which are not essential to salvation. One argument is that flame when blown out does not perish but returns to the totality of Fire. The Nirvāṇa Sutra claims for nirvāṇa the ancient ideas of 常樂我淨 permanence, bliss, personality purity in the transcendental realm. Mahāyāna declares that Hīnayāna by denying personality in the transcendental realm denies the existence of the Buddha. In Mahāyāna final nirvāṇa is transcendental, and is also used as a term for the absolute. The place where the Buddha entered his earthly nirvāṇa is given as Kuśinagara, cf. 拘.

眞言

see styles
Mandarin zhēn yán / zhen1 yan2
Taiwan chen yen
Japanese shingon / しんごん
Japanese (out-dated kanji) (1) (Buddhist term) mantra; (2) (abbreviation) Shingon sect (of Buddhism)
True words, words of Truth, the words of the Tathāgata, Buddha-truth. The term is used for mantra, and dhāraṇī, indicating magical formulae, spells, charms, esoteric words. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas have each an esoteric sound represented by a Sanskrit letter, the primary Vairocana letter, the alpha of all sounds being 'a' 阿, which is also styled 眞言救世者 the True World that saves the world.

神仏

see styles
Japanese shinbutsu;kamihotoke / しんぶつ;かみほとけ Japanese (1) gods and Buddha; (2) (しんぶつ only) Shinto and Buddhism

華厳


华厳

see styles
Mandarin huā yán / hua1 yan2
Taiwan hua yen
Japanese kegon / けごん
Japanese (1) {Buddh} avatamsa (flower adornment, as a metaphor for becoming a buddha); (2) (abbreviation) (See 華厳経) Avatamska sutra; (3) (abbreviation) (See 華厳宗) Kegon (sect of Buddhism)
Huayan

解脫


解脱

see styles
Mandarin jiě tuō / jie3 tuo1
Taiwan chieh t`o / chieh to
Japanese gedatsu
Chinese to untie; to free; to absolve of; to get free of; to extirpate oneself; (Buddhism) to free oneself of worldly worries
mukti, 'loosing, release, deliverance, liberation, setting free,... emancipation.' M.W. mokṣa, 'emancipation, deliverance, freedom, liberation, escape, release.' M.W. Escape from bonds and the obtaining of freedom, freedom from transmigration, from karma, from illusion, from suffering; it denotes nirvāṇa and also the freedom obtained in dhyāna-meditation; it is one of the five characteristics of Buddha; v. 五分法身. It is also vimukti and vimokṣa, especially in the sense of final emancipation. There are several categories of two kinds of emancipation, also categories of three and eight. Cf. 毘; and 八解脫.; v. 解.

轉輪


转轮

see styles
Mandarin zhuàn lún / zhuan4 lun2
Taiwan chuan lun
Japanese tenrin
Chinese rotating disk; wheel; rotor; cycle of reincarnation in Buddhism
cakravartī, "a ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without hindrance." M.W. Revolving wheels; to turn a wheel: also 轉輪王 (轉輪聖王); 輪王; 轉輪聖帝, cf. 斫. The symbol is the cakra or disc, which is of four kinds indicating the rank, i.e. gold, silver, copper, or iron, the iron cakravartī ruling over one continent, the south; the copper, over two, east and south: the silver, over three, east, west, and south; the golden being supreme over all the four continents. The term is also applied to the gods over a universe, and to a buddha as universal spiritual king, and as preacher of the supreme doctrine. Only a cakravartī possesses the 七寳 saptaratna and 1, 000 sons. The cakra, or discus, is also a missile used by a cakravartī for overthrowing his enemies. Its origin is probably the sun with its myriad rays.

道樹


道树

see styles
Mandarin dào shù / dao4 shu4
Taiwan tao shu
Japanese michiki / みちき
The bodhi-tree, under which Buddha attained enlightenment; also as a synonym of Buddhism with its powers of growth and fruitfulness.

醍醐

see styles
Mandarin tí hú / ti2 hu2
Taiwan t`i hu / ti hu
Japanese daigo / だいご
Chinese refined cream cheese; fig. crème de la crème; nirvana; Buddha nature; Buddhist truth; broth; flawless personal character
Japanese {Buddh} (See 五味・2) ghee (held to be the greatest of all flavours); the ultimate truth of Buddhism; nirvana
A rich liquor skimmed from boiled butter; clarified butter; ghee; used for the perfect Buddha-truth as found, according to Tiantai, in the Nirvāṇa and Lotus Sūtras.

開法


开法

see styles
Mandarin kāi fǎ / kai1 fa3
Taiwan k`ai fa / kai fa
Japanese kaihou / kaiho / かいほう
Japanese (mathematics term) extraction of roots; evolution
To found a sect or teaching, e.g. as Buddha founded Buddhism; the method of opening, or beginning; to begin to expound the dharma

非器

see styles
Mandarin fēi qì / fei1 qi4
Taiwan fei ch`i / fei chi
A vessel unfit for Buddha or Buddhism, e.g. a woman's body, which is unclean, v. Lotus Sutra 提襲 chapter 12.

鴈王

see styles
Mandarin yàn wáng / yan4 wang2
Taiwan yen wang
King or leader of the flight, or flock; Buddha, hence 鴈門 Buddhism.

三昧耶

see styles
Mandarin sān mèi yé / san1 mei4 ye2
Taiwan san mei yeh
Japanese sanmaya / さんまや    sanmaiya / さんまいや    samaya / さまや
Japanese (1) (Buddhist term) time (san: samaya); (2) (Buddhist term) meeting; coming together; (3) (Buddhist term) equality, warning, or riddance of hindrances (esp. in esoteric Buddhism as vows of the buddhas and bodhisattvas)
samaya is variously defined as 會 coming together, meeting, convention; 時 timely; 宗 in agreement, of the same class; 平等 equal, equalized; 驚覺 aroused, warned; 除垢障 riddance of unclean hindrances. Especially it is used as indicating the vows made by Buddhas and bodhisattvas, hence as a tally, symbol, or emblem of the spiritual quality of a Buddha or bodhisattva; (Skt. samaya)

五臺山


五台山

see styles
Mandarin wǔ tái shān / wu3 tai2 shan1
Taiwan wu t`ai shan / wu tai shan
Japanese Godai Zan
Chinese Mt Wutai in Shanxi 山西[Shan1 xi1], one of the Four Sacred Mountains and home of the Bodhimanda of Manjushri 文殊[Wen2 shu1]
Pañcaśirsha, Pancaśikha. Wutai Shan, near the northeastern border of Shanxi, one of the four mountains sacred to Buddhism in China. The principal temple was built A. D. 471-500. There are about 150 monasteries, of which 24 are lamaseries. The chief director is known as Changjia Fo (the ever-renewing Buddha). Mañjuśrī is its patron saint. It is also styled 淸涼山.

仏頂尊

see styles
Japanese bucchouson / bucchoson / ぶっちょうそん Japanese {Buddh} (See 密教) Butchōson (type of Buddha representing omniscience in Mikkyō Buddhism); Butchō

伐折羅


伐折罗

see styles
Mandarin fá zhé luō / fa2 zhe2 luo1
Taiwan fa che lo
Japanese basara
vajra. 伐闍羅; 縛日羅 (or 嚩日羅 or 跋日羅) (or 跋日囉); 嚩馹囉; 跋折羅 (or 跋闍羅); 跋折多; 波闍羅 (or 髮闍羅), tr. by 金剛 (金剛杵) Diamond club; the thunderbolt, svastika; recently defined by Western scholars as a sun symbol. It is one of the saptaratna, seven precious things; the sceptre of Indra as god of thunder and lightning, with which he slays the enemies of Buddhism; the sceptre of the exorcist; the symbol of the all conquering power of Buddha; (Skt. vajra)

佛支提

see styles
Mandarin fú zhī tí / fu2 zhi1 ti2
Taiwan fu chih t`i / fu chih ti
Japanese butsushidai
Buddha's caitya, or stūpa, v. 支提. A Buddhist reliquary, or pagoda, where relics of the Buddha, 舍利 śarīra, were kept; a stūpa 塔婆 was a tower for relics; such towers are of varying shape; originally sepulchres, then mere cenotaphs, they have become symbols of Buddhism.

加持身

see styles
Mandarin jiā chí shēn / jia1 chi2 shen1
Taiwan chia ch`ih shen / chia chih shen
Japanese kajishin / かじしん
Japanese (1) {Buddh} buddha-body within a practitioner (esoteric Buddhism); (2) (See 本地身) altruistic manifested form of Mahavairocana (New Shingon)
The body which the Buddha depends upon or his manifestation, i. e. the nirmāṇakāya; body of the Buddha that responds to sentient beings

大方廣


大方广

see styles
Mandarin dà fāng guǎng / da4 fang1 guang3
Taiwan ta fang kuang
Japanese daihōkō
mahāvaipulya ; cf. 大方等 The great Vaipulyas, or sutras of Mahāyāna. 方廣 and 方等 are similar in meaning. Vaipulya is extension, spaciousness, widespread, and this is the idea expressed both in 廣 broad, widespread, as opposed to narrow, restricted, and in 等 levelled up, equal everywhere, universal. These terms suggest the broadening of the basis of Buddhism, as is found in Mahāyāna. The Vaipulya works are styled sutras, for the broad doctrine of universalism, very different from the traditional account of his discourses, is put into the mouth of the Buddha in wider, or universal aspect. These sutras are those of universalism, of which the Lotus 法華 is an outstanding example. The form Vaitulya instead of Vaipulya is found in some Kashgar MSS. of the Lotus, suggesting that in the Vetulla sect lies the origin of the Vaipulyas, and with them of Mahāyāna, but the evidence is inadequate; (Skt. vaipulya)

大梵天

see styles
Mandarin dà fàn tiān / da4 fan4 tian1
Taiwan ta fan t`ien / ta fan tien
Japanese Daibon ten
Mahābrahman; Brahma; 跋羅吸摩; 波羅賀磨; 梵覽摩; 梵天王; 梵王; 梵. Eitel says: "The first person of the Brahminical Trimūrti, adopted by Buddhism, but placed in an inferior position, being looked upon not as Creator, but as a transitory devatā whom every Buddhistic saint surpasses on obtaining bodhi. Notwithstanding this, the Saddharma-puṇḍarīka calls Brahma 'the father of all living beings'" 一切衆生之父. Mahābrahman is the unborn or uncreated ruler over all, especially according to Buddhism over all the heavens of form, i.e. of mortality. He rules over these heavens, which are of threefold form: (a) Brahma (lord), (b) Brahma-purohitas (ministers), and (c) Brahma-pāriṣadyāh (people). His heavens are also known as the middle dhyāna heavens, i.e. between the first and second dhyānas. He is often represented on the right of the Buddha. According to Chinese accounts the Hindus speak of him (1) as born of Nārāyaṇa, from Brahma's mouth sprang the brahmans, from his arms the kṣatriyas, from his thighs the vaiśyas, and from his feet the śūdras; (2) as born from Viṣṇu; (3) as a trimūrti, evidently that of Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, but Buddhists define Mahābrahma's dharmakāya as Maheśvara (Śiva), his saṃbhogakāya as Nārāyaṇa, and his nirmāṇakāya as Brahmā. He is depicted as riding on a swan, or drawn by swans; great brahma heaven

大黑天

see styles
Mandarin dà hēi tiān / da4 hei1 tian1
Taiwan ta hei t`ien / ta hei tien
Japanese Daikoku ten
Mahākāla 摩訶迦 (or 謌) 羅 the great black deva 大黑神. Two interpretations are given. The esoteric cult describes the deva as the masculine form of Kālī, i.e. Durgā, the wife of Śiva; with one face and eight arms, or three faces and six arms, a necklace of skulls, etc. He is worshipped as giving warlike power, and fierceness; said also to be an incarnation of Vairocana for the purpose of destroying the demons; and is described as 大時 the "great time" (-keeper) which seems to indicate Vairocana, the sun. The exoteric cult interprets him as a beneficent deva, a Pluto, or god of wealth. Consequently he is represented in two forms, by the one school as a fierce deva, by the other as a kindly happy deva. He is shown as one of the eight fierce guardians with trident, generally blue-black but sometimes white; he may have two elephants underfoot. Six arms and hands hold jewel, skull cup, chopper, drum, trident, elephant-goad. He is the tutelary god of Mongolian Buddhism. Six forms of Mahākāla are noted: (1) 比丘大黑 A black-faced disciple of the Buddha, said to be the Buddha as Mahādeva in a previous incarnation, now guardian of the refectory. (2) 摩訶迦羅大黑女 Kālī, the wife of Śiva. (3) 王子迦羅大黑 The son of Śiva. (4) 眞陀大黑 Cintāmaṇi, with the talismanic pearl, symbol of bestowing fortune. (5) 夜叉大黑 Subduer of demons. (6) 摩迦羅大黑 Mahākāla, who carries a bag on his back and holds a hammer in his right hand. J., Daikoku; M., Yeke-gara; T., Nag-po c'en-po.

如来禅

see styles
Japanese nyoraizen / にょらいぜん Japanese (See 祖師禅) Zen Buddhism based on the original teachings of Buddha

明月珠

see styles
Mandarin míng yuè zhū / ming2 yue4 zhu1
Taiwan ming yüeh chu
Japanese myōgetsushu
明珠; 摩尼 The bright-moon maṇi or pearl, emblem of Buddha, Buddhism, the Buddhist Scriptures, purity, etc; bright-moon pearl

曼荼羅


曼荼罗

see styles
Mandarin màn tú luó / man4 tu2 luo2
Taiwan man t`u lo / man tu lo
Japanese mandara / まんだら
Chinese mandala (loan, Buddhism)
Japanese mandala; Buddhist visual schema of the enlightened mind
曼怛羅; 曼特羅; 曼陀羅; 曼拏羅; 蔓陀囉; 滿荼邏 maṇḍala, a circle, globe, wheel ring; "any circular figure or diagram" (M.W.); a magic circle; a plot or place of enlightenment; a round or square altar on which buddhas and bodhisattvas are placed; a group of such, especially the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu groups of the Shingon sect; these were arranged by Kōbō Daishi to express the mystic doctrine of the two dhātu by way of illustration, the garbhadhātu representing the 理 and the 因 principle and cause, the vajradhātu the 智 and the 果 intelligence (or reason) and the effect, i.e. the fundamental realm of being, and mind as inherent in it; v. 胎 and 金剛. The two realms are fundamentally one, as are the absolute and phenomenal, e.g. water and wave. There are many kinds of maṇḍalas, e.g. the group of the Lotus Sutra; of the 觀經; of the nine luminaries; of the Buddha's entering into nirvana, etc. The real purpose of a maṇḍala is to gather the spiritual powers together, in order to promote the operation of the dharma or law. The term is commonly applied to a magic circle, subdivided into circles or squares in which are painted Buddhist divinities and symbols. Maṇḍalas also reveal the direct retribution of each of the ten worlds of beings (purgatory, pretas, animals, asuras, men, devas, the heavens of form, formless heavens, bodhisattvas, and buddhas). Each world has its maṇḍala which represents the originating principle that brings it to completion. The maṇḍala of the tenth world indicates the fulfilment and completion of the nine worlds.

比丘尼

see styles
Mandarin bǐ qiū ní / bi3 qiu1 ni2
Taiwan pi ch`iu ni / pi chiu ni
Japanese bikuni / びくに
Chinese Buddhist nun (loanword from Sanskrit "bhiksuni")
Japanese bhikkhuni (fully ordained Buddhist nun) (san: bhiksuni)
苾芻尼; 尼姑 bhikṣuṇī. A nun, or almswoman. The first woman to be ordained was the Buddha's aunt Mahāprajāpatī, who had nursed him. In the fourteenth year after his enlightenment the Buddha yielded to persuasion and admitted his aunt and women to his order of religious mendicants, but said that the admission of women would shorten the period of Buddhism by 500 years. The nun, however old, must acknowledge the superiority of every monk; must never scold him or tell his faults; must never accuse him, though he may accuse her; and must in all respects obey the rules as commanded by him. She accepts all the rules for the monks with additional rules for her own order. Such is the theory rather than the practice. The title by which Mahāprajāpatī was addressed was applied to nuns, i. e. ārya, or noble, 阿姨, though some consider the Chinese term entirely native.

無等等


无等等

see styles
Mandarin wú děng děng / wu2 deng3 deng3
Taiwan wu teng teng
Japanese mu tōdō
asamasama; of rank unequalled, or equal with the unequalled, Buddha and Buddhism.

礼讃舞

see styles
Japanese raisanmai / らいさんまい Japanese (See 偈) dance recital praising Buddha, which accompanies the recital of a gatha (in the Pure Land Sect of Buddhism)

緣起法


缘起法

see styles
Mandarin yuán qǐ fǎ / yuan2 qi3 fa3
Taiwan yüan ch`i fa / yüan chi fa
Japanese engi hō
pratītya-samutpāda; idem 十二緣起, i.e. the twelve nidānas, cf. 十二因緣, 緣起偈; 緣起頌 (緣起法頌) The gāthā of three of the four fundamental dogmas of Buddhism; than all is suffering, that suffering is intensified by desire, and that extinction of desire is practicable. This is found in 智度論. It is also called 緣起法頌. It is placed in the foundations of pagodas and inside of images of Buddha and so is called 法身偈 dharmakāyagāthā.

縛日羅


缚日罗

see styles
Mandarin fù rì luō / fu4 ri4 luo1
Taiwan fu jih lo
Japanese bajira
vajra, 嚩日囉 (or 嚩馹囉); 跋日囉 (or 跋折囉, or 跋闍囉); 跋折囉; 波闍羅; 伐折羅 (or 伐闍羅); intp. as 金剛 (金剛杵), a diamond (club). Adamantine, hard. The sceptre of Indra as god of thunder and lightning with which he slays the enemies of Buddhism. Used by monks to indicate spiritual authority, and the all-subduing power of Buddha; (Skt. vajra)

釋迦佛


释迦佛

see styles
Mandarin shì jiā fó / shi4 jia1 fo2
Taiwan shih chia fo
Chinese Sakyamuni Buddha (Sanskrit: sage of the Sakya); Siddhartha Gautama (563-485 BC), the historical Buddha and founder of Buddhism

阿彌陀


阿弥陀

see styles
Mandarin ē mí tuó / e1 mi2 tuo2
Taiwan o mi t`o / o mi to
Japanese amida / あみだ
Japanese (out-dated kanji) (1) (Buddhist term) Amitabha (Buddha); Amida; (2) (kana only) (abbreviation) ghostleg lottery; ladder lottery; lottery in which participants trace a line across a lattice pattern to determine the winner; (3) (kana only) (abbreviation) wearing a hat pushed back on one's head
(阿彌) amita, boundless, infinite; tr. by 無量 immeasurable. The Buddha of infinite qualities, known as 阿彌陀婆 (or 阿彌陀佛) Amitābha, tr. 無量光 boundless light; 阿彌陀廋斯Amitāyus, tr. 無量壽 boundless age, or life; and among the esoteric sects Amṛta 甘露 (甘露王) sweet-dew (king). An imaginary being unknown to ancient Buddhism, possibly of Persian or Iranian origin, who has eclipsed the historical Buddha in becoming the most popular divinity in the Mahāyāna pantheon. His name indicates an idealization rather than an historic personality, the idea of eternal light and life. The origin and date of the concept are unknown, but he has always been associated with the west, where in his Paradise, Suikhāvatī, the Western Pure Land, he receives to unbounded happiness all who call upon his name (cf. the Pure Lands 淨土 of Maitreya and Akṣobhya). This is consequent on his forty-eight vows, especially the eighteenth, in which he vows to refuse Buddhahood until he has saved all living beings to his Paradise, except those who had committed the five unpardonable sins, or were guilty of blasphemy against the Faith. While his Paradise is theoretically only a stage on the way to rebirth in the final joys of nirvana, it is popularly considered as the final resting-place of those who cry na-mo a-mi-to-fo, or blessed be, or adoration to, Amita Buddha. The 淨土 Pure-land (Jap. Jōdo) sect is especially devoted to this cult, which arises chiefly out of the Sukhāvatīvyūha, but Amita is referred to in many other texts and recognized, with differing interpretations and emphasis, by the other sects. Eitel attributes the first preaching of the dogma to 'a priest from Tokhara' in A. D.147, and says that Faxian and Xuanzang make no mention of the cult. But the Chinese pilgrim 慧日Huiri says he found it prevalent in India 702-719. The first translation of the Amitāyus Sutra, circa A.D. 223-253, had disappeared when the Kaiyuan catalogue was compiled A.D. 730. The eighteenth vow occurs in the tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D. 308. With Amita is closely associated Avalokiteśvara, who is also considered as his incarnation, and appears crowned with, or bearing the image of Amita. In the trinity of Amita, Avalokiteśvara appears on his left and Mahāsthāmaprāpta on his right. Another group, of five, includes Kṣitigarbha and Nāgārjuna, the latter counted as the second patriarch of the Pure Land sect. One who calls on the name of Amitābha is styled 阿彌陀聖 a saint of Amitābha. Amitābha is one of the Five 'dhyāni buddhas' 五佛, q.v. He has many titles, amongst which are the following twelve relating to him as Buddha of light, also his title of eternal life: 無量光佛Buddha of boundless light; 無邊光佛 Buddha of unlimited light; 無礙光佛 Buddha of irresistible light; 無對光佛 Buddha of incomparable light; 燄王光佛 Buddha of yama or flame-king light; 淸淨光佛 Buddha of pure light; 歡喜光佛 Buddha of joyous light; 智慧光佛 Buddha of wisdom light; 不斷光佛 Buddha of unending light; 難思光佛 Buddha of inconceivable light; 無稱光佛Buddha of indescribable light; 超日月光佛 Buddha of light surpassing that of sun and moon; 無量壽 Buddha of boundless age. As buddha he has, of course, all the attributes of a buddha, including the trikāya, or 法報化身, about which in re Amita there are differences of opinion in the various schools. His esoteric germ-letter is hrīḥ, and he has specific manual-signs. Cf. 阿彌陀經, of which with commentaries there are numerous editions.

五種說人


五种说人

see styles
Mandarin wǔ zhǒng shuō rén / wu3 zhong3 shuo1 ren2
Taiwan wu chung shuo jen
Japanese goshu setsunin
The five kinds of those who have testified to Buddhism; also 五人說經; 五說; i. e. the Buddha,. his disciples, the ṛṣis, devas, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, sages, devas, supernatural beings, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, men, and things. See 五類說法; five kinds of people who testify for Buddhism

八相成道

see styles
Mandarin bā xiàng chéng dào / ba1 xiang4 cheng2 dao4
Taiwan pa hsiang ch`eng tao / pa hsiang cheng tao
Japanese hassō jōdō
Chinese the eight stages of the Buddha's life (Buddhism)
(八相) also 八相示現 Eight aspects of the Buddha's life, which the 起信論 gives as: (1) descent into and abode in the Tuṣita heaven; (2) entry into his mother's womb; (3) abode there visibly preaching to the devas; (4) birth from mother's side in Lumbinī; (5) leaving home at 19 (or 25) as a hermit; (6) after six years' suffering attaining enlightenment; (7) rolling the Law-wheel, or preaching; (8) at 80 entering nirvāṇa. The 四教義 group of Tiantai is slightly different — descent from Tuṣita, entry into womb, birth, leaving home, subjection of Māra, attaining perfect wisdom, preaching, nirvana. See also the two 四相, i.e. 四本相 and 四隨相; eight phases of the Buddha's life

執金剛神


执金刚神

see styles
Mandarin zhí jīn gāng shén / zhi2 jin1 gang1 shen2
Taiwan chih chin kang shen
Japanese shukongoujin;shuukongoujin;shikkongoujin / shukongojin;shukongojin;shikkongojin / しゅこんごうじん;しゅうこんごうじん;しっこんごうじん
Japanese {Buddh} (See 金剛杵,仁王) Vajradhara (vajra-wielding gods)
vajrapāṇi, vajradhara. Any deva-holder of the vajra. (1) Indra, who in a former incarnation took an oath to defend Buddhism, was reborn as king of the yakṣas, hence he and his yakṣas carry vajras. (2) Mañjuśrī as the spiritual reflex of the Dhyāni Buddha Akṣobhya. (3) A popular deity, the terror of all enemies of Buddhist believers, specially worshipped in exorcisms and sorcery by the Yoga school; vajra-wielding gods

如是我聞


如是我闻

see styles
Mandarin rú shì wǒ wén / ru2 shi4 wo3 wen2
Taiwan ju shih wo wen
Japanese nyozegamon / にょぜがもん
Chinese so I have heard (idiom); the beginning clause of Buddha's quotations as recorded by his disciple, Ananda (Buddhism)
Japanese (yoji) thus I hear (quote from the sutras); these ears have heard
thus have I heard

ご影;御影

see styles
Japanese goei;miei(御影);gyoei(御影) / goe;mie(御影);gyoe(御影) / ごえい;みえい(御影);ぎょえい(御影) Japanese (honorific or respectful language) (ぎょえい is usu. for royalty; みえい for Buddhism) image (esp. of a deity, buddha, royal, noble, etc.)

釋迦牟尼佛


释迦牟尼佛

see styles
Mandarin shì jiā móu ní fó / shi4 jia1 mou2 ni2 fo2
Taiwan shih chia mou ni fo
Japanese Shakamuni butsu
Chinese Sakyamuni Buddha (Sanskrit: sage of the Sakya); Siddhartha Gautama (563-485 BC), the historical Buddha and founder of Buddhism
Śākyamuni Buddha; Śākyamuni Buddha

三千大千世界

see styles
Mandarin sān qiān dà qiān shì jiè / san1 qian1 da4 qian1 shi4 jie4
Taiwan san ch`ien ta ch`ien shih chieh / san chien ta chien shih chieh
Japanese sanzendaisensekai / さんぜんだいせんせかい
Chinese cosmos (Buddhism)
Japanese {Buddh} the whole universe (of a billion worlds) that Buddha enlightened
tri-sahasra-mahā-sahasra-loka-dhātu, a great chiliocosm; 三千; 三千界, 三千世界. Mt. Sumeru and its seven surrounding continents, eight seas and ring of iron mountains form one small world; 1, 000 of these form a small chiliocosm 小千世界; 1, 000 of these small chiliocosms form a medium chiliocosm 中千世界; a thousand of these form a great chiliocosm 大千世界, which thus consists of 1, 000, 000, 000 small worlds. The 三千 indicates the above three kinds of thousands, therefore 三千大千世界 is the same as 大千世界, which is one Buddha-world.

Entries with 2nd row of characters: The 2nd row is Simplified Chinese.

This page contains 83 results for "Buddhism Buddha" in Chinese and/or Japanese.



Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).



Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

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