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Mandarin Chinese information.
Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
Japanese information.
Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
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Characters Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
dìng / ding4
ting
 sada / さだ
 Scroll
to set; to fix; to determine; to decide; to order
(adverb) (archaism) (kana only) certainly; truly; (given name) Yasushi
To fix, settle. samādhi. 'Composing the mind'; 'intent contemplation'; 'perfect absorption of thought into the one object of meditation.' M. W. Abstract meditation, the mind fixed in one direction, or field. (1) 散定 scattered or general meditation (in the world of desire). (2) 禪定 abstract meditation (in the realms of form and beyond form). It is also one of the five attributes of the dharmakāya 法身, i. e. an internal state of imperturbability or tranquility, exempt from all external sensations, 超受陰; cf. 三摩提; to establish


see styles
/ ye4
yeh
 waza / わざ
 Scroll
line of business; industry; occupation; job; employment; school studies; enterprise; property; (Buddhism) karma; deed; to engage in; already
deed; act; work; performance; (personal name) Hajime
karman, karma, "action, work, deed"; "moral duty"; "product, result, effect." M.W. The doctrine of the act; deeds and their effects on the character, especially in their relation to succeeding forms of transmigration. The 三業 are thought, word, and deed, each as good, bad, or indifferent. Karma from former lives is 宿業, from present conduct 現業. Karma is moral action that causes future retribution, and either good or evil transmigration. It is also that moral kernel in which each being survives death for further rebirth or metempsychosis. There are categories of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10; the 六業 are rebirth in the hells, or as animals, hungry ghosts, men, devas, or asuras: v. 六趣; activity

see styles
/ fa3
fa
 hou / ho / ほう
 Scroll
law; method; way; Buddhist teaching; Legalist
(n,n-suf) (1) law; act; principle; (2) method; (3) {ling} mood; (4) {Buddh} dharma; (female given name) Minori
Dharma, 達磨; 曇無 (or 曇摩); 達摩 (or 達謨) Law, truth, religion, thing, anything Buddhist. Dharma is 'that which is held fast or kept, ordinance, statute, law, usage, practice, custom'; 'duty'; 'right'; 'proper'; 'morality'; 'character'. M. W. It is used in the sense of 一切 all things, or anything small or great, visible or invisible, real or unreal, affairs, truth, principle, method, concrete things, abstract ideas, etc. Dharma is described as that which has entity and bears its own attributes. It connotes Buddhism as the perfect religion; it also has the second place in the triratna 佛法僧, and in the sense of 法身 dharmakāya it approaches the Western idea of 'spiritual'. It is also one of the six media of sensation, i. e. the thing or object in relation to mind, v. 六塵; dharma

see styles
shēn / shen1
shen
 mi / み
 Scroll
body; life; oneself; personally; one's morality and conduct; the main part of a structure or body; pregnant; classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset; Kangxi radical 158
(1) body; (2) oneself; (3) one's place; one's position; (4) main part; meat (as opposed to bone, skin, etc.); wood (as opposed to bark); blade (as opposed to its handle); container (as opposed to its lid); (surname) Misaki
kāya; tanu; deha. The body; the self.; Two forms of body; there are numerous pairs, e. g. (1) (a) 分段身 The varied forms of the karmic or ordinary mortal body, or being; (b) 變易身 the transformable, or spiritual body. (2) (a) 生身 The earthly body of the Buddha; (b) 化身 hinirmāṇakāya, which may take any form at will. (3) (a) 生身 his earthly body; (b) 法身 his moral and mental nature—a Hīnayāna definition, but Mahāyāna takes his earthly nirmāṇakāya as the 生身 and his dharmakāya or that and his saṃbhogakāya as 法身. (4) 眞應二身 The dharmakāya and nirmāṇakāya. (5) (a) 實相身 The absolute truth, or light, of the Buddha, i. e. the dharmakāya; (b) 爲物身 the functioning or temporal body. (6) (a) 眞身 the dharmakāya and saṃbhogakāya; (b) 化身 the nirmāṇakāya. (7) (a) 常身 his permanent or eternal body; (b) 無常身 his temporal body. (8) (a) 實身 and 化身 idem 二色身.

三宝

see styles
 sanbou;sanpou / sanbo;sanpo / さんぼう;さんぽう
 Scroll
{Buddh} the Three Jewels; the Triple Gem; Triratna; the Three Treasures; Buddha, Dharma, Sangha; Buddha, the teachings of Buddha, and the community of monks and nuns; (surname) Sanpou

三寶


三宝

see styles
sān bǎo / san1 bao3
san pao
 sanbō / さんぼう
 Scroll
the Three Precious Treasures of Buddhism, namely: the Buddha 佛, the Dharma 法 (his teaching), and the Sangha 僧 (his monastic order)
(surname) Sanbou
three treasures

世界

see styles
shì jiè / shi4 jie4
shih chieh
 sekai / せかい
 Scroll
world; CL:個|个[ge4]
(1) the world; society; the universe; (2) sphere; circle; world; (can be adjective with の) (3) renowned; world-famous; well-known outside of Japan; (4) {Buddh} (original meaning) realm governed by one Buddha; space; (surname, female given name) Sekai
Loka 世間; the finite world, the world, a world, which is of two kinds: (1) 衆生世界 that of the living, who are receiving their 正報 correct recompense or karma; (2) 器世界 that of the material, or that on which karma depends for expression. By the living is meant 有情 the sentient.

中道

see styles
zhōng dào / zhong1 dao4
chung tao
 nakamichi / なかみち
 Scroll
road through the middle; middle road; (place-name, surname) Nakamichi
The 'mean' has various interpretations. In general it denotes the mean between two extremes, and has special reference to the mean between realism and nihilism, or eternal substantial existence and annihilation; this 'mean' is found in a third principle between the two, suggesting the idea of a realm of mind or spirit beyond the terminology of 有 or 無, substance or nothing, or, that which has form, and is therefore measurable and ponderable, and its opposite of total non-existence. See 中論. The following four Schools define the term according to their several scriptures: the 法相 School describes it as the 唯識, v. 唯識中道; the 三論 School as the 八不 eight negations, v. 三論; the Tiantai as 實相 the true reality; and the Huayan as the 法界 dharmadhātu. Four forms of the Mean are given by the 三論玄義; middle way

佛法

see styles
fó fǎ / fo2 fa3
fo fa
 buppō
 Scroll
Dharma (the teachings of the Buddha); Buddhist doctrine
buddhadharma; the Dharma or Law preached by the Buddha, the principles underlying these teachings, the truth attained by him, its embodiment in his being. Buddhism; the Buddha-dharma

十法

see styles
shí fǎ / shi2 fa3
shih fa
 jippō
 Scroll
The ten 成就 perfect or perfecting Mahāyāna rules; i.e. in (1) right belief; (2) conduct; (3) spirit; (4) the joy of the bodhi mind; (5) joy in the dharma; (6) joy in meditation in it; (7) pursuing the correct dharma; (8) obedience to, or accordance with it; (9) departing from pride, etc.; (10) comprehending the inner teaching of Buddha and taking no pleasure in that of the śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha order; ten completions of the great vehicle standards

因果

see styles
yīn guǒ / yin1 guo3
yin kuo
 inga / いんが
 Scroll
karma; cause and effect
(1) cause and effect; causality; (2) {Buddh} karma; fate; (adjectival noun) (3) unfortunate; unlucky; ill-fated
Cause and effect; every cause has its effect, as every effect arises from a cause; to cause and effect

坐禪


坐禅

see styles
zuò chán / zuo4 chan2
tso ch`an / tso chan
 zazen
 Scroll
to sit in meditation; to meditate
To sit in dhyāna, i.e. abstract meditation, fixed abstraction, contemplation; its introduction to China is attributed to Bodhidharma (though it came earlier), and its extension to Tiantai; sitting meditation

宿業


宿业

see styles
sù yè / su4 ye4
su yeh
 shukugou / shukugo / しゅくごう
 Scroll
{Buddh} karma
Former karma, the karma of previous existence; past karma

業影


业影

see styles
yè yǐng / ye4 ying3
yeh ying
 gōyō
 Scroll
Karma-shadow, karma dogging one's steps like a shadow; karmic shadow

業輪


业轮

see styles
yè lún / ye4 lun2
yeh lun
 gōrin
 Scroll
The wheel of karma which turns men into the six paths of transmigration; wheel of karma

正業


正业

see styles
zhèng yè / zheng4 ye4
cheng yeh
 seigyou / segyo / せいぎょう
 Scroll
one's regular job
legitimate occupation; honest business
samyakkarmānta, right action, purity of body, avoiding all wrong, the fourth of the 八正道; 'right action, abstaining from taking life, or what is not given, or from carnal indulgence. ' Keith; right behavior

法輪


法轮

see styles
fǎ lún / fa3 lun2
fa lun
 hourin / horin / ほうりん
 Scroll
the Eternal Wheel of life in Buddhism
{Buddh} (See 輪宝,転法輪) the teachings of Buddha (as likened to the Dharmachakra, originally a wheel-like weapon used to destroy the evils of mankind); Buddhist doctrine; (surname) Noriwa
dharmacakra, the Wheel of the Law, Buddha-truth which is able to crush all evil and all opposition, like Indra's wheel, and which rolls on from man to man, place to place, age to age. 轉法輪To turn, or roll along the Law-wheel, i.e. to preach Buddha-truth; wheel of the dharma

無盡


无尽

see styles
wú jìn / wu2 jin4
wu chin
 mujin / むじん
 Scroll
endless; inexhaustible
(given name) Mujin
Inexhaustible, without limit. It is a term applied by the 權教 to the noumenal or absolute; by the 實教 to the phenomenal, both being considered as infinite. The Huayan sūtra 十地品 has ten limitless things, the infinitude of living beings, of worlds, of space, of the dharmadhātu, of nirvāṇa, etc; inexhaustible

禪宗


禅宗

see styles
chán zōng / chan2 zong1
ch`an tsung / chan tsung
 Zenshū
 Scroll
Zen Buddhism
The Chan, meditative or intuitional, sect usually said to have been established in China by Bodhidharma, v. 達, the twenty-eighth patriarch, who brought the tradition of the Buddha-mind from India. Cf. 楞 13 Laṅkāvatāra sūtra. This sect, believing in direct enlightenment, disregarded ritual and sūtras and depended upon the inner light and personal influence for the propagation of its tenets, founding itself on the esoteric tradition supposed to have been imparted to Kāśyapa by the Buddha, who indicated his meaning by plucking a flower without further explanation. Kāśyapa smiled in apprehension and is supposed to have passed on this mystic method to the patriarchs. The successor of Bodhidharma was 慧可 Huike, and he was succeeded by 僧璨 Sengcan; 道信 Daoxin; 弘忍 Hongren; 慧能 Huineng, and 神秀 Shenxiu, the sect dividing under the two latter into the southern and northern schools: the southern school became prominent, producing 南嶽 Nanyue and 靑原 Qingyuan, the former succeeded by 馬祖 Mazu, the latter by 石頭 Shitou. From Mazu's school arose the five later schools, v. 禪門; meditation school

集諦


集谛

see styles
jí dì / ji2 di4
chi ti
 jittai / じったい
{Buddh} (See 四諦) truth of the origin of suffering
samudaya, the second of the four dogmas, that the cause of suffering lies in the passions and their resultant karma. The Chinese 集 'accumulation' does not correctly translate samudaya, which means 'origination'; [noble] truth of the arising of suffering

八正道

see styles
bā zhèng dao / ba1 zheng4 dao5
pa cheng tao
 hasshōdō / はっしょうどう
 Scroll
the Eight-fold Noble Way (Buddhism)
(Buddhist term) noble eightfold path
(八正道分) Āryamārga. The eight right or correct ways, the "eightfold noble path" for the arhat to nirvāṇa; also styled 八道船, 八正門, 八由行, 八游行, 八聖道支, 八道行, 八直行, 八直道. The eight are: (1) 正見Samyag-dṛṣṭi, correct views in regard to the Four Axioms, and freedom from the common delusion. (2) 正思 Samyak-saṁkalpa, correct thought and purpose. (3) 正語 Samyag-vāc, correct speech, avoidance of false and idle talk. (4) 正業 Samyak-karmānta, correct deed, or conduct, getting rid of all improper action so as to dwell in purity. (5) 正命 Smnyag-ājīva, correct livelihood or occupation, avoiding the five immoral occupations. (6) 正精進 Samyag-vyāyāma, correct zeal, or energy in uninterrupted progress in the way of nirvāṇa. (7) 正念 Samyak-smṛti, correct remembrance, or memory, which retains the true and excludes the false. (8) 正定 Samyak-samadhi, correct meditation, absorption, or abstraction. The 正 means of course Buddhist orthodoxy, anything contrary to this being 邪 or heterodox, and wrong; eightfold correct path

少林寺

see styles
shào lín sì / shao4 lin2 si4
shao lin ssu
 Shōrinji / しょうりんじ
 Scroll
Shaolin Temple, Buddhist monastery famous for its kung fu monks
(place-name) Shaolin Temple (China); Shourinji
The monastery at 少室 in 登封 Dengfeng xian, Henanfu, where Bodhidharma sat with his face to a wall for nine years; Shaolin Temple

使

see styles
shǐ / shi3
shih
 shi / し
to make; to cause; to enable; to use; to employ; to send; to instruct sb to do something; envoy; messenger
(1) messenger; (2) (abbreviation) (See 検非違使) police and judicial chief (Heian and Kamakura periods); (3) {Buddh} (See 煩悩・2) klesha (polluting thoughts such as greed, hatred and delusion, which result in suffering); (female given name) Tsukasa
To send; cause; a messenger; a pursuer, molester, lictor, disturber, troubler, intp. as 煩惱 kleśa, affliction, distress, worldly cares, vexations, and as consequent reincarnation. There are categories of 10, 16, 98, 112, and 128 such troublers, e. g. desire, hate, stupor, pride, doubt, erroneous views, etc., leading to painful results in future rebirths, for they are karma-messengers executing its purpose. Also 金剛童子 q. v; affliction, proclivities


see styles
zhuàn / zhuan4
chuan
 den / ふう
biography; historical narrative; commentaries; relay station
(surname) Fuu
To transmit, pass on, hand down, promulgate, propagate; tradition; summon; interpret; record; the Abhidharma; to transmit


see styles
/ ze2
tse
 jaku
to select; to choose; to pick over; to pick out; to differentiate; to eliminate; also pr. [zhai2]
To select, pick, choose; used for pravicāra, the second of the seven bodhyaṅga, cf. 覺分; dharmapravicaya, discrimination, the faculty of discerning the true from the false; select (the good part)


see styles
tán / tan2
t`an / tan
 don / くもり
dark clouds
cloudiness; cloudy weather; shadow; (surname) Kumori
Clouds covering the sun, spreading clouds; translit. dh in dharma 曇摩, 曇磨, 曇無; v. 達 and 法. Dharma is also the initial character for a number of names of noted Indian monks, e.g. 曇磨毱多; 達摩瞿諦; 曇無德 Dharmagupta, founder of a school, the 曇無德部 which flourished in Ceylon A.D 400. Also Dharmajātayaśas, Dharmakāla, Dharmākara, Dharmamitra, Dharmanandi, Dharmapriya, Dharmarakṣa, Dharmaruci, Dharmasatva, Dharmayaśas, etc.

see styles
gēn / gen1
ken
 ne / ね
root; basis; classifier for long slender objects, e.g. cigarettes, guitar strings; CL:條|条[tiao2]; radical (chemistry)
(1) root (of a plant); (2) root (of a tooth, hair, etc.); center (of a pimple, etc.); (3) root (of all evil, etc.); source; origin; cause; basis; (4) one's true nature; (5) (fishing) reef; (personal name) Nemawari
mūla, a root, basis, origin; but when meaning an organ of sense, indriyam, a 'power', 'faculty of sense, sense, organ of sense'. M.W. A root, or source; that which is capable of producing or growing, as the eye is able to produce knowledge, as faith is able to bring forth good works, as human nature is able to produce good or evil karma. v. 五根 and 二十二根; faculties

see styles
qiú / qiu2
ch`iu / chiu
armadillo

see styles
/ yu2
armadillo


see styles
jīng / jing1
ching
 kyō / つね
classics; sacred book; scripture; to pass through; to undergo; to bear; to endure; warp (textile); longitude; menstruation; channel (TCM); abbr. for economics 經濟|经济[jing1 ji4]
(female given name) Tsune
A warp, that which runs lengthwise; to pass through or by, past; to manage, regulate; laws, canons, classics. Skt. sūtras; threads, threaded together, classical works. Also called 契經 and 經本. The sūtras in the Tripiṭaka are the sermons attributed to the Buddha; the other two divisions are 律 the Vinaya, and 論 the śāstras, or Abhidharma; cf. 三藏. Every sūtra begins with the words 如是我聞 'Thus did I hear', indicating that it contains the words of Śākyamuni; scripture


see styles
yuán / yuan2
yüan
 en
cause; reason; karma; fate; predestined affinity; margin; hem; edge; along
pratyaya means conviction, reliance, but with Buddhists especially it means 'a co-operating cause, the concurrent occasion of an event as distinguished from its proximate cause'. M.W. It is the circumstantial, conditioning, or secondary cause, in contrast with 因 hetu, the direct or fundamental cause. hetu is as the seed, pratyaya the soil, rain, sunshine, etc. To reason, conclude. To climb, lay hold of. The mind 能緣can reason, the objective is 所緣, the two in contact constitute the reasoning process. The four kinds of causes are 因緣; 次第緣; 緣緣, and 增上緣 q.v.

see styles
zuì / zui4
tsui
 tsumi / つみ
guilt; crime; fault; blame; sin
(n,adj-na,adj-no) (1) crime; sin; wrongdoing; indiscretion; (2) penalty; sentence; punishment; (3) fault; responsibility; culpability; (noun or adjectival noun) (4) thoughtlessness; lack of consideration
That which is blameworthy and brings about bad karma; entangled in the net of wrong-doing; sin, crime.

see styles
zàng / zang4
tsang
 zō / くら
storehouse; depository; Buddhist or Taoist scripture
(surname) Kura
Treasury, thesaurus, store, to hide; the Canon. An intp. of piṭaka, a basket, box, granary, collection of writings. The 二藏 twofold canon may be the sutras and the vinaya; or the Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna scriptures. The 三藏 or tripiṭaka consists of the sutras, vinaya, and śāstras (abhidharma). The 四藏 fourfold canon adds a miscellaneous collection. The 五藏 fivefold collection is sutras, vinaya, abhidharma, miscellaneous, and spells, or, instead of the spells, a bodhisattva collection. There is also an esoteric fivefold canon, the first three being the above, the last two being the prājñāpāramitā and the dhāraṇīs; storage place

see styles
xíng / xing2
hsing
 kou / ko / こう
to walk; to go; to travel; a visit; temporary; makeshift; current; in circulation; to do; to perform; capable; competent; effective; all right; OK!; will do; behavior; conduct; Taiwan pr. [xing4] for the behavior-conduct sense
(n,n-suf) (1) going; travelling (traveling); (2) type of classical Chinese verse (usu. an epic); (3) (archaism) district (of similar merchants); guild; (suf,pref,ctr) (4) bank; (female given name) Yukue
Go; act; do; perform; action; conduct; functioning; the deed; whatever is done by mind, mouth, or body, i.e. in thought, word, or deed. It is used for ayana, going, road, course; a march, a division of time equal to six months; also for saṁskāra, form, operation, perfecting, as one of the twelve nidānas, similar to karma, action, work, deed, especially moral action, cf. 業; to practice


see styles
lùn / lun4
lun
 ron / ろん
opinion; view; theory; doctrine; to discuss; to talk about; to regard; to consider; per; by the (kilometer, hour etc)
(n,n-suf) (1) argument; discussion; dispute; controversy; discourse; debate; (2) theory (e.g. of evolution); doctrine; (3) essay; treatise; comment; (surname) Ron
To discourse upon, discuss, reason over; tr. for śāstra, abhidharma, and upadeśa, i.e. discourses, discussions, or treatises on dogma, philosophy, discipline, etc.


see styles
lún / lun2
lun
 rin / りん
wheel; disk; ring; steamship; to take turns; to rotate; by turn; classifier for big round objects: disk, or recurring events: round, turn
(counter) counter for wheels and flowers; (female given name) Run
cakra; wheel, disc, rotation, to revolve; v. 研. The three wheels are 惑業苦illusion, karma, suffering, in constant revolution. The five are earth, water, fire, wind, and space; the earth rests on revolving spheres of water, fire, wind, and space. The nine are seen on the tops of pagodas, cf. 九輪.; The two wheels of a cart compared by the Tiantai school to 定 (or to its Tiantai form 止觀) and 慧 meditation and wisdom; see 止觀 5. Also 食 food and 法 the doctrine, i. e. food physical and spiritual.

一業


一业

see styles
yī yè / yi1 ye4
i yeh
 ichi gō
A karma; a 業困 karma-cause, causative of the next form of existence; a karma

一法

see styles
yī fǎ / yi1 fa3
i fa
 ippō / かずのり
(given name) Kazunori
A dharma, or law; an ordered something, a thing, a matter; one dharma

七有

see styles
qī yǒu / qi1 you3
ch`i yu / chi yu
 shichiu
七生 The seven stages of existence in a human world, or in any 欲界 desire-world. Also (1) in the hells, (2) as animals, (3) hungry ghosts, (4) gods, (5) men, (6) karma 業, and (7) in the intermediate stage; seven existences

七祖

see styles
qī zǔ / qi1 zu3
ch`i tsu / chi tsu
 shichiso
(1) The seven founders of the 華嚴 Huayan School, whose names are given as 馬鳴 Aśvaghoṣa, 龍樹 Nāgārjuna 杜順 (i.e. 法順) , Zhiyan 智儼, Fazang 法藏, Chengguan 澄觀 and Zongmi 宗密; (2) the seven founders of the 禪Chan School, i.e. 達磨 or 菩提達磨 Bodhidharma, Huike 慧可, Sengcan 僧璨, Daoxin 道信, Hongren 弘忍, Huineng 慧能 and Heze 荷澤 (or Shenhui 神曾); (3) The seven founders of the 淨土 Pure Land School, i.e. Nagarjuna, 世親 Vasubandhu, Tanluan 曇鸞, Daochuo 道綽, Shandao 善導, Yuanxin 源信 and Yuankong 源空 (or Faran 法然), whose teaching is contained in the Qizushengjiao 七祖聖教; seven ancestors

三因

see styles
sān yīn / san1 yin1
san yin
 sanin / さんいん
{Buddh} (See 三因仏性) three causes of Buddha nature; (place-name) Miyori
The six "causes" of the Abhidharma Kośa 倶舍論 as reduced to three in the Satyasiddhi śāstra 成實論, i.e. 生因 producing cause, as good or evil deeds cause good or evil karma; 習因 habit cause, e.g. lust breeding lust; 依因 dependent or hypostatic cause, e.g. the six organs 六根 and their objects 六境 causing the cognitions 六識; three causes

三大

see styles
sān dà / san1 da4
san ta
 sandai / さんだい
(prefix) (See 三大疾病) the big three ...; (surname) Miou
The three great characteristics of the 眞如 in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (1) 體大 The greatness of the bhūtatathatā in its essence or substance; it is 衆生心之體性 the embodied nature of the mind of all the living, universal, immortal, immutable, eternal; (2) 相大 the greatness of its attributes or manifestations, perfect in wisdom and mercy, and every achievement; (3) 用大 the greatness of its functions and operations within and without, perfectly transforming all the living to good works and good karma now and hereafter. There are other groups, e.g. 體, 宗, and 用; three kinds of greatness

三寳


三宝

see styles
sān bǎo / san1 bao3
san pao
 sanbō
Triratna, or Ratnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones: 佛 Buddha, 法 Dharma, 儈 Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel suggests this trinity may be adapted from the Trimūrti, i.e, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Sīva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikāya 三身 q.v. There is also the Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Buddha as a Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Dhyāni-Buddha, and Mānuṣi-Buddha; also the Tantric trinity of Vairocana as Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel "existing in reflex in the world of forms", and the human Buddha, Śākyamuni. There are other elaborated details known as the four and the six kinds of triratna 四 and 六種三寳, e.g. that the Triratna exists in each member of the trinity. The term has also been applied to the 三仙 q.v. Popularly the 三寳 are referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre one is Śākyamuni, on his left Bhaiṣajya 藥師 and on his right Amitābha. There are other explanations, e.g. in some temples Amitābha is in the centre, Avalokiteśvara on his left, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta or Mañjuśrī on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikāya, and Trailokya: — DHARMASAṄGHABUDDHAEssential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical BodhiDhyāni BuddhaDhyāni BodhisattvaMānuṣī BuddhaDharmakāyaSambhogakāyaNirmāṇakāyaPurityCompletenessTransformations4th Buddha-kṣetra3rd Buddha-kṣetra1st and 2nd Buddha kṣetraArūpadhātuRūpadhātuKāmadhātu; three treasures

三德

see styles
sān dé / san1 de2
san te
 santoku
The three virtues or powers, of which three groups are given below. (1) (a) 法身德 The virtue or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, the dharmakāya; (b) 般若德 of his prājñā, or wisdom, knowing all things in their reality; (c) 解脫德 of his freedom from all bonds and his sovereign Iiberty. Each of these has the four qualities of 常, 樂我, 淨eternity, joy, personality, and purity; v. 漫涅槃經 (2) (a) 智德 The potency of his perfect knowledge; (b) 斷德 of his cutting off all illusion and perfecting of supreme nirvāṇa; the above two are 自利 for his own advantage; (c) 恩德 of his universal grace and salvation, which 利他 bestows the benefits he has acquired on others. (3) (a) 因圓德 The perfection of his causative or karmic works during his three great kalpas of preparation; (b) 果圓德 the perfection of the fruit, or results in his own character and wisdom; (c) 恩圓德 the perfection of his grace in the salvation of others.

三智

see styles
sān zhì / san1 zhi4
san chih
 sanchi / みち
(female given name) Michi
The three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) 一切智 śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that all the dharma or laws are 空 void and unreal; (b) 道種智 bodhisattva-knowledge. of all things in their proper discrimination; (c) 一切種智 Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Tiantai associates the above with 室, 候, 中. (2) (a) 世間智 earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) 出世間智 supra-mundane, or spiritual (śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) 出世間上上智 supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas. v. 智度論 27, 止觀 3, and 概伽經 3. Cf. — 心三智; three kinds of cognition

三有

see styles
sān yǒu / san1 you3
san yu
 san'u
The three kinds of bhava, or existence; idem 三界 q. v. The three states of mortal existence in the trailokya, i. e. in the realms of desire, of form, and beyond form. Another definition is 現有 present existence, or the present body and mind; 當有 in a future state; 中有 antara-bhava, in the intermediate state. 三有對 The three sets of limitation on freedom: (a) direct resistance or opposition; (b) environment or condition; (c) attachment. 三有爲法 The three active) functioning dharmas: (1) pratigha, matter or form, i. e. that which has ' substantial resistance'; (2) mind; and (3) 非色非心 entities neither of matter nor mind; cf. 七十五法. 三有爲相 The three forms of all phenomena, birth, stay (i. e. 1ife), death; utpāda, sthiti, and nirvana; three kinds of existence

三業


三业

see styles
sān yè / san1 ye4
san yeh
 sangou / sango / さんごう
{Buddh} (See 身口意) three activities (action, speech and thought)
trividha-dvāra. The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, 身, 口, 意. (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) 漏業 Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma of neither, independent of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are other groups of three; three activities

三檀

see styles
sān tán / san1 tan2
san t`an / san tan
 sandan
The three kinds of dāna, i. e. charity; giving of goods, of the dharma, of abhaya, or fearlessness. Idem 三施; three kinds of giving

三歸


三归

see styles
sān guī / san1 gui1
san kuei
 sanki
Triśaraṇa, or Śaraṇa-gamana. The three surrenders to, or "formulas of refuge" in, the Three Precious Ones 三賓, i.e. to the Buddha 佛, the Dharma 法, the Saṅgha 僧. The three formulas are 歸依佛 Buddham śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依法 Dharmaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依僧 Saṅghaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi. It is "the most primitive formula fidei of the early Buddhists". The surrender is to the Buddha as teacher 師, the Law as medicine 藥, the Ecclesia as friends 友. These are known as the 三歸依; three refuges

三法

see styles
sān fǎ / san1 fa3
san fa
 sanbō
The three dharma, i.e. 教法 the Buddha's teaching; 行法 the practice of it; 證法 realization or experiential proof of it in bodhi and nirvāṇa; three kinds of dharma

三疑

see styles
sān yí / san1 yi2
san i
 sangi
The three doubts— of self, of teacher, of the dharma-truth.

三目

see styles
sān mù / san1 mu4
san mu
 san moku / みつめ
(surname) Mitsume
The three-eyed, a term for Śiva, i.e Maheśvara; simile for the dharmakāya, or spiritual body, prajñā, or wisdom, and nirvāṇa emancipation; three eyed

三綱


三纲

see styles
sān gāng / san1 gang1
san kang
 sangou / sango / さんごう
{Buddh} three monastic positions with management roles at a temple; (given name) Sankou
The three bonds, i.e. directors of a monastery: (a) 上座 sthavira, elder, president; (b) 寺主vihārasvāmin, v. 毘 the abbot who directs the temporal affairs; (c) 維那 karmadāna, v. 羯 who directs the monks. Another meaning: (a) 上座; (b) 維那; (c) 典座 vihārapāla, v. 毘director of worship. The three vary in different countries; three cords

三行

see styles
sān xíng / san1 xing2
san hsing
 sangyō / みゆき
(g,p) Miyuki
Three lines of action that affect karma, i.e. the ten good deeds that cause happy karma; the ten evil deeds that cause unhappy karma; 不動業 or 無動行 karma arising without activity, e.g. meditation on error and its remedy; three karmic activities

三身

see styles
sān shēn / san1 shen1
san shen
 sanjin;sanshin / さんじん;さんしん
{Buddh} trikaya (three bodies of the Buddha); (surname) Sanmi
trikāya. 三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men; three bodies [of the Buddha]

三輪


三轮

see styles
sān lún / san1 lun2
san lun
 sanrin / さんりん
three wheels; (p,s,f) Miwa
The three wheels: (1) The Buddha's (a) 身 body or deeds; (b) 口 mouth, or discourse; (c) 意 mind or ideas. (2) (a) 神通 (or 變) His supernatural powers, or powers of (bodily) self-transformation, associated with 身 body; (b) 記心輪 his discriminating understanding of others, associated with 意 mind; (c) 敎誡輪 or 正敎輪 his (oral) powers of teaching, associated with 口. (3) Similarly (a) 神足輪 ; (b) 說法輪 ; (c) 憶念輪 . (4) 惑, 業, and 苦. The wheel of illusion produces karma, that of karma sets rolling that of suffering, which in turn sets rolling the wheel of illusion. (5) (a) Impermanence; (b) uncleanness; (c) suffering. Cf. 三道.

三道

see styles
sān dào / san1 dao4
san tao
 sandō / みつみち
(surname) Mitsumichi
(1) The three paths all have to tread; 輪廻三道, 三輪, i.e. (a) 煩惱道 ; 惑道 ; the path of misery, illusion, mortality; (b) 業道 the path of works, action, or doing, productive of karma; (c) 苦道 the resultant path of suffering. As ever recurring they are called the three wheels. (2) 聾, 緣, 菩 śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, cf. 三乘; three holy paths

三達


三达

see styles
sān dá / san1 da2
san ta
 sandatsu / みたつ
(surname) Mitatsu
Three aspects of the omniscience of Buddha: knowledge of future karma, of past karma, of present illusion and liberation; v. 三明; three kinds of penetrating insight

三餘


三余

see styles
sān yú / san1 yu2
san yü
 sanyo
The three after death remainders, or continued mortal experiences, of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, who mistakenly think they are going to 無餘涅槃final nirvāṇa, but will still find 煩惱餘 further passion and illusion, 業餘 further karma, and 果餘 continued rebirth, in realms beyond the 三界trailokya; three remainders

不覺


不觉

see styles
bù jué / bu4 jue2
pu chüeh
 fukaku
unconsciously
Unenlightened, uncomprehending, without 'spiritual' insight, the condition of people in general, who mistake the phenomenal for the real, and by ignorance beget karma, reaping its results in the mortal round of transmigration; i. e. people generally; non-enlightenment

世法

see styles
shì fǎ / shi4 fa3
shih fa
 sehō
Common or ordinary dharmas, i. e. truths, laws, things, etc; mundane phenomena

中宗

see styles
zhōng zōng / zhong1 zong1
chung tsung
 chū shū / なかむね
(surname) Nakamune
The school or principle of the mean, represented by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, which divides the Buddha's teaching into three periods, the first in which he preached 有 existence, the second 空 non-existence, the third 中 neither, something 'between' or above them, e. g. a realm of pure spirit, vide the 深密經 Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra and the Lotus Sutra; school of the mean

中陰


中阴

see styles
zhōng yīn / zhong1 yin1
chung yin
 chuuin / chuin / ちゅういん
{Buddh} bardo; state (or period) of intermediate existence between one's death and rebirth (in Japan, 49 days); (place-name) Nakakage
The intermediate existence between death and reincarnation, a stage varying from seven to forty-nine days, when the karma-body will certainly be reborn; v. 中有.

主砲

see styles
 shuhou / shuho / しゅほう main battery; main armament

九品

see styles
jiǔ pǐn / jiu3 pin3
chiu p`in / chiu pin
 kuhon;kokonoshina / くほん;ここのしな
(1) (abbreviation) {Buddh} (See 浄土・1) nine levels of Amitabha's Pure Land; (2) (くほん only) (See 九品浄土) Amitabha's Pure Land; (3) (くほん only) (See 九品蓮台) nine-tiered lotus leaf platform in Amitabha's Pure Land; (given name) Kuhon
Nine classes, or grades, i.e. 上上, 上中, 上下 upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, and so on with 中 and 下. They are applied in many ways, e.g. 上品上生 the highest type of incarnate being, to 下品下生, the lowest, with corresponding karma; see 九品淨土. Each grade may also be subdivided into nine, thus making a list of eighty-one grades, with similar further subdivision ad infinitum; nine levels

九業


九业

see styles
jiǔ yè / jiu3 ye4
chiu yeh
 kugō
The nine kinds of karma, i.e. the desire realm and the form realm each has conduct that causes karma, does not cause karma, or is neutral, making 6; in the formless realm there are non-causative deeds, neutrality, and immortality, making 9; 成實論 8; nine kinds of karma

九部

see styles
jiǔ bù / jiu3 bu4
chiu pu
 kubu
(九部經) Nine of the Hīnayāna twelve classes of sūtras, that is, all except the 方廣, 授記 and 無門自說. Generally the term is thus interpreted, but there is also a Mahāyāna division of nine of the twelve sūtras, i.e. all except the 緣起, 譬喩, 論議. These are: sūtras, the Buddha's sermons; geyas, metrical pieces; vyākaraṇas, prophecies; gāthās, chants or poems; udāṇas, impromptu or unsolicited addresses; ityuktas, or itivṛttakas, marratives; jātakas, stories of former lives of Buddha, etc.; vaipulyas, expanded sūtras, etc.; adbhutadharmas, miracles, etc.; v. 十二部經; nine divisions of the canon

二受

see styles
èr shòu / er4 shou4
erh shou
 niju
The dual receptivity or karma of pleasure and pain, the physical and the mental, i.e. 身 and 心; two sensations

二土

see styles
èr tǔ / er4 tu3
erh t`u / erh tu
 nido
There are three groups: 性土 and 相土 : the former is the ubiquitous, unadulterated or innocent 法性之理 dharma-name, or essence of things; the latter is the form-nature, or formal existence of the dharma, pure or impure according to the mind and action of the living. The 淨土 and 穢土 are Pure-land or Paradise; and impure land, e.g. the present world. In the Pure-land there are also 報土 , the land in which a Buddha himself dwells and 化土 in which all beings are transformed. There are other definitions, e. g. the former is Buddha's Paradise, the latter the world in which he dwells and which he is transforming, e. g. this Sahā-world; two grounds

二執


二执

see styles
èr zhí / er4 zhi2
erh chih
 nishū
The two (erroneous) tenets, or attachments: (1) 我執 or 人執 that of the reality of the ego, permanent personality, the ātman, soul or self. (2) 法執 that of the reality of dharma, things or phenomena. Both are illusions. "All illusion arises from holding to the reality of the ego and of things."; two attachments

二報


二报

see styles
èr bào / er4 bao4
erh pao
 nihō
The dual reward. (1) 依報 or 依果 The material environment on which a person depends, resulting from former karma, e.g. country, house, property, etc. (2) 正報 or 正果 his direct reward, i. e. his body, or person; two karmic rewards

二果

see styles
èr guǒ / er4 guo3
erh kuo
 nika
Sakṛdāgāmin; v. 裟 and 斯. The second "fruit" of the four kinds of Hīnayāna arhats, who have only once more to return to mortality. Also the two kinds of fruit or karma: (a) 習氣果 The good or evil characteristics resulting from habit or practice in a former existence; (b) 報果the pain or pleasure resulting (in this life) from the practices of a previous life; second realization

二業


二业

see styles
èr yè / er4 ye4
erh yeh
 nigyou / nigyo / にぎょう
(archaism) restaurants and geisha establishments
Two classes of karma. (1) (a) 引業 leads to the 總報, i.e. the award as to the species into which one is to be born, e.g. men, gods, etc.; (6) 滿業 is the 別報 or fulfillment in detail, i.e. the kind or quality of being e.g. clever or stupid, happy or unhappy, etc. (2) (a) 善業 and (b) 惡業 Good and evil karma, resulting in happiness or misery. (3) (a) 助業 Aids to the karma of being reborn in Amitābha's Pure—land e. g. offerings, chantings, etc.; (b) 正業 thought and invocation of Amitābha with undivided mind, as the direct method; two kinds of karmic activity

二覺


二觉

see styles
èr jué / er4 jue2
erh chüeh
 nikaku
The two enlightenments: (1) The 起信論 has two—(a) 本覺 the immanent mind in all things, e.g. "which lighteth every man that cometh into the world", also defined as the 法身 dharmakāya; (b) 始覺 initial enlightenment or beginning of illumination; this initiation leads on to Buddhahood, or full enlightenment. (2) (a) 等覺 The fifty-first stage of a bodhisattva's 行 位 practice; (b) 妙覺 the fifty-second stage, or enlightenment of Buddhahood.(3) (a)自覺 A Buddha's own or natural enlightenment; (b) 覺他 his enlightening of all others; two kinds of enlightenment

二邊


二边

see styles
èr biān / er4 bian1
erh pien
 nihen
(a) 有邊 That things exist; (6) 無邊 that since nothing is self-existent, things cannot be said to exist. (2) (a) 增益邊 The plus side, the common belief in a soul and permanence; (b) 損減邊 the minus side, that nothing exists even of karma. (3) (a) 斷邊見 and (b) 常邊見 annihilation and immortality; v. 見; two extremes

五乘

see styles
wǔ shèng / wu3 sheng4
wu sheng
 gojō
The five vehicles conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the vehicle: they are generally summed up as (1) 入乘 rebirth among men conveyed by observing the five commandments; (2) 天乘 among the devas by the ten forms of good action; (3) 聲聞乘 among the śrāvakas by the four noble truths; (4) 緣覺乘 among pratyekabuddhas by the twelve nidānas; (5) 菩薩乘 among the Buddhas and bodhisattvas by the six pāramitās 六度 q. v. Another division is the various vehicles of bodhisattvas; pratyekabuddhas; śrāvakas; general; and devas-and-men. Another is Hīnayāna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, the gods of the Brahma heavens, and those of the desire-realm. Another is Hīnayāna ordinary disciples: śrāvakas: pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas; and the one all-inclusive vehicle. And a sixth, of Tiantai, is for men; devas; śrāvakas-cum-pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas: and the Buddha-vehicle. The esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: śrāvakas, with fire: pratyekabuddhas, with wind; and bodhisattvas, with 空 the 'void'.

五力

see styles
wǔ lì / wu3 li4
wu li
 goriki
pañcabalāni, the five powers or faculties — one of the categories of the thirty-seven bodhipakṣika dharma 三十七助道品; they destroy the 五障 five obstacles, each by each, and are: 信力 śraddhābala, faith (destroying doubt); 精進力 vīryabala, zeal (destroying remissness); 念 or 勤念 smṛtibala, memory or thought (destroying falsity); 正定力 samādhibala, concentration of mind, or meditation (destroying confused or wandering thoughts); and 慧力 prajñābala, wisdom (destroying all illusion and delusion). Also the five transcendent powers, i. e. 定力 the power of meditation; 通力 the resulting supernatural powers; 借識力 adaptability, or powers of 'borrowing' or evolving any required organ of sense, or knowledge, i. e. by beings above the second dhyāna heavens; 大願力 the power of accomplishing a vow by a Buddha or bodhisattva; and 法威德力 the august power of Dharma. Also, the five kinds of Mara powers exerted on sight, 五大明王.

五師


五师

see styles
wǔ shī / wu3 shi1
wu shih
 goshi / ごし
(surname) Goshi
The five masters or teachers, i. e. respectively of the sutras, the vinaya, the śāstras, the abhidharma, and meditation. A further division is made of 異世五師 and 同世五師. The first, i. e. of different periods, are Mahākāśyapa, Ānanda, Madhyāntika, Śāṇavāsa, and Upagupta; another group connected with the Vinaya is Upāli, Dāsaka, Sonaka, Siggava, and Moggaliputra Tissva. The 同世 or five of the same period are variously stated: the Sarvāstivādins say they were the five immediate disciples of Upagupta, i. e. Dharmagupta, etc.; see 五部.

五性

see styles
wǔ xìng / wu3 xing4
wu hsing
 goshō
The five different natures as grouped by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect; of these the first and second, while able to attain to non-return to mortality, are unable to reach Buddhahood; of the fourth some may, others may not reach it; the fifth will be reborn as devas or men: (1) śrāvakas for arhats; (2) pratyekabuddhas for pratyekabuddha-hood; (3) bodhisattvas for Buddhahood; (4) indefinite; (5) outsiders who have not the Buddha mind. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圓覺經 has another group, i. e. the natures of (1) ordinary good people; (2) śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas; (3) bodhisattvas; (4) indefinite; (5) heretics; five natures

五明

see styles
wǔ míng / wu3 ming2
wu ming
 gomyou / gomyo / ごみょう
the five sciences of ancient India (grammar and composition, arts and mathematics, medicine, logic, and philosophy); (surname) Gomei
pañca-vidyā, the five sciences or studies of India: (1) śabda, grammar and composition; śilpakarmasthāna, the arts and mathematics; cikitsā, medicine; hetu, logic; adhyātma, philosophy, which Monier Williams says is the 'knoowledge of the supreme spirit, or of ātman', the basis of the four Vedas; the Buddhists reckon the Tripiṭṭaka and the 十二部教 as their 内明, i. e. their inner or special philosophy.

五智

see styles
wǔ zhì / wu3 zhi4
wu chih
 gochi / ごち
(place-name, surname) Gochi
The five kinds of wisdom of the 眞言宗 Shingon School. Of the six elements 六大 earth, water, fire, air (or wind), ether (or space) 曇空, and consciousness (or mind 識 ), the first five form the phenomenal world, or Garbhadhātu, the womb of all things 胎藏界, the sixth is the conscious, or perceptive, or wisdom world, the Vajradhātu 金剛界, sometimes called the Diamond realm. The two realms are not originally apart, but one, and there is no consciousness without the other five elements. The sixth element, vijñāna, is further subdivided into five called the 五智 Five Wisdoms: (1) 法界體性智 dharmadhātu-prakṛti-jñāna, derived from the amala-vijñāna, or pure 識; it is the wisdom of the embodied nature of the dharmadhātu, defined as the six elements, and is associated with Vairocana 大日, in the centre, who abides in this samādhi; it also corresponds to the ether 空 element. (2) 大圓鏡智 adarśana-jñāna, the great round mirror wisdom, derived from the ālaya-vijñāna, reflecting all things; corresponds to earth, and is associated with Akṣobhya and the east. (3) 平等性智 samatā-jñāna, derived from mano-vijñāna, wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally; corresponds to fire, and is associated with Ratnasaṃbhava and the south. (4) 妙觀察智 pratyavekṣaṇa-jñāna, derived from 意識, wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for exposition and doubt-destruction; corresponds to water, and is associated with Amitābha and the west. (5) 成所作智 kṛtyānuṣṭhāna-jñāna, derived from the five senses, the wisdom of perfecting the double work of self-welfare and the welfare of others; corresponds to air 風 and is associated with Amoghasiddhi and the north. These five Dhyāni-Buddhas are the 五智如來. The five kinds of wisdom are the four belonging to every Buddha, of the exoteric cult, to which the esoteric cult adds the first, pure, all-refecting, universal, all-discerning, and all-perfecting; five kinds of cognition

五業


五业

see styles
wǔ yè / wu3 ye4
wu yeh
 gogō
The five kinds of karma: of which the groups are numerous and differ; five kinds of karma

五法

see styles
wǔ fǎ / wu3 fa3
wu fa
 gohō
pañcadharma. The five laws or categories, of which four groups are as follows: I. 相名五法 The five categories of form and name: (1) 相 appearances, or phenomena; (2) 名 their names; (3) 分別 sometimes called 妄想 ordinary mental discrimination of them— (1) and (2) are objective, (3) subjective; (4) 正智 corrective wisdom, which corrects the deficiencies and errors of the last: (5) 如如 the 眞如 Bhutatathata or absolute wisdom, reached through the 如理智 understanding of the law of the absolute, or ultimate truth. II. 事理五法 The five categories into which things and their principles are divided: (1) 心法 mind; (2) 心所法 mental conditions or activities; (3) 色法 the actual states or categories as conceived; (4) 不相應法 hypothetic categories, 唯識 has twenty-four, the Abhidharma fourteen; (5) 無爲法 the state of rest, or the inactive principle pervading all things; the first four are the 事 and the last the 理. III. 理智五法 cf. 五智; the five categories of essential wisdom: (1) 眞如 the absolute; (2) 大圓鏡智 wisdom as the great perfect mirror reflecting all things; (3) 平等性智 wisdom of the equal Buddha nature of all beings; (4) 妙觀察智 wisdom of mystic insight into all things and removal of ignorance and doubt; (5) 成所作智 wisdom perfect in action and bringing blessing to self and others. IV. 提婆五法 The five obnoxious rules of Devadatta: not to take milk in any form, nor meat, nor salt; to wear unshaped garments, and to live apart. Another set is: to wear cast-off rags, beg food, have only one set meal a day, dwell in the open, and abstain from all kinds of flesh, milk, etc; five kinds of dharmas

五海

see styles
wǔ hǎi / wu3 hai3
wu hai
 gokai / ごうみ
(surname) Goumi
The five 'seas' or infinities seen in a vision by Puxian, v. 舊華嚴經 3, viz., (1) all worlds, (2) all the living, (3) universal karma, (4) the roots of desire and pleasure of all the living, (5) all the Buddhas, past, present, and future.

五眼

see styles
wǔ yǎn / wu3 yan3
wu yen
 gogen / ごげん
{Buddh} the five eyes (physical eye, heavenly eye, wisdom eye, dharma eye and Buddha eye)
The five kinds of eyes or vision: human; deva (attainable by men in dhyāna); Hīnayāna wisdom; bodhisattva truth; and Buddha-vision or omniscience. There are five more relate to omniscience making 十眼 ten kinds of eyes or vision; five eyes

五逆

see styles
wǔ nì / wu3 ni4
wu ni
 gogyaku
pañcānantarya; 五無間業 The five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, killing an arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity. The above definition is common both to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. The lightest of these sins is the first; the heaviest the last. II. Another group is: (1) sacrilege, such as destroying temples, burning sutras, stealing a Buddha's or a monk's things, inducing others to do so, or taking pleasure therein; (2) slander, or abuse of the teaching of śrāvaka s, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas; (3) ill-treatment or killing of a monk; (4) any one of the five deadly sins given above; (5) denial of the karma consequences of ill deeds, acting or teaching others accordingly, and unceasing evil life. III. There are also five deadly sins, each of which is equal to each of the first set of five: (1) violation of a mother, or a fully ordained nun; (2) killing a bodhisattva in a sangha; (5) destroying a Buddha's stūpa. IV. The five unpardonable sin of Devadatta who (1) destroyed the harmony of the community; (2) injured Śākyamuni with a stone, shedding his blood; (3) induced the king to let loose a rutting elephant to trample down Śākyamuni; (4) killed a nun; (5) put poison on his finger-nails and saluted Śākyamuni intending to destroy him thereby; five heinous crimes

五障

see styles
wǔ zhàng / wu3 zhang4
wu chang
 goshō
The five hindrances, or obstacles; also 五礙; 五雲. I. Of women, i. e. inability to become Brahma-kings, Indras, Māra-kings, Caikravarti-kings, or Buddhas. II. The hindrances to the five 五力 powers, i. e. (self-) deception a bar to faith, as sloth is to zeal, anger to remembrance, hatred to meditaton, and discontent to wisdom. III. The hindrances of (1) the passion-nature, e. g. original sin; (2) of karma caused in previous lives; (3) the affairs of life; (4) no friendly or competent preceptor; (5) partial knowledge.

五食

see styles
wǔ shí / wu3 shi2
wu shih
 gojiki
The five kinds of spiritual food by which roots of goodness are nourished: correct thoughts; delight in the Law; pleasure in meditation; firm resolve, or vows of self-control; and deliverance from the karma of illusion; five kinds of nourishment

住地

see styles
zhù dì / zhu4 di4
chu ti
 jūji
living area; residential area
Dwelling-place; abiding place in the Truth, i.e. the acquirement by faith of a self believing in the dharma and producing its fruits; entrenchment

佛宗

see styles
fó zōng / fo2 zong1
fo tsung
 busshū
Buddhism; principles of the Buddha Law, or dharma.

佛寶


佛宝

see styles
fó bǎo / fo2 bao3
fo pao
 buppō
法寳, 僧寳 Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Order; these are the three Jewels, or precious ones, the Buddhist Trinity; v. 三寳; buddha treasure

佛母

see styles
fó mǔ / fo2 mu3
fo mu
 butsubo
(1) The mother of the Buddha, Mahāmāyā, 摩耶 Māyā, or Mātṛkā. (2) His aunt who was his foster-mother. (3) The Dharma or Law which produced him. (4) The prajñā-pāramitā, mother or begetter of all Buddhas. (5) Other "Buddha-mothers", e.g. 准提佛母; 孔雀佛母, etc. Cf. 佛眼; buddha mother

佛說


佛说

see styles
fó shuō / fo2 shuo1
fo shuo
 bussetsu
Buddha's preaching; the Buddha said. Buddha's utterance of the sutras. There are over 150 sutras of which the titles begin with these two words, e.g. 佛說無量壽經 Aparimitāyus Sutra, tr. by Saṇghavarman A.D. 252; Buddha's sermon

作業


作业

see styles
zuò yè / zuo4 ye4
tso yeh
 sagyou / sagyo / さぎょう
school assignment; homework; work; task; operation; CL:個|个[ge4]; to operate
(noun/participle) work; operation; manufacturing; fatigue duty
Karma produced, i.e. by the action of body, words, and thought, which educe the kernel of the next rebirth; activity

作法

see styles
zuò fǎ / zuo4 fa3
tso fa
 sahou(p);sakuhou / saho(p);sakuho / さほう(P);さくほう
course of action; method of doing something; practice; modus operandi
(1) (さほう only) manners; etiquette; propriety; (2) manner of production (esp. of prose, poetry, etc.); way of making
Karma, which results from action, i.e. the "deeds" of body or mouth; to perform ceremonies; rules of behavior

依報


依报

see styles
yī bào / yi1 bao4
i pao
 ehou / eho / えほう
{Buddh} (See 正報) circumstantial retribution; circumstances (e.g. geographical, societal) one is born into because of karma in previous lives
v. 依正; circumstantial reward

依正

see styles
yī zhèng / yi1 zheng4
i cheng
 eshō / よりまさ
(personal name) Yorimasa
The two forms of karma resulting from one's past; 正報 being the resultant person, 依報 being the dependent condition or environment, e. g. country, family, possessions, etc; circumstantial and direct [rewards]

信忍

see styles
xìn rěn / xin4 ren3
hsin jen
 shinnin
Faith-patience, faith-endurance: (1) To abide patiently in the faith and repeat the name of Amitābha. (2) To believe in the Truth and attain the nature of patient faith. (3) According to Tiantai the 別教 meaning is the unperturbed faith of the Bodhisattva (that all dharma is unreal); cognitive faith

信樂


信乐

see styles
xìn lè / xin4 le4
hsin le
 shingyō / しがらき
(personal name) Shigaraki
To believe and rejoice in the dharma; the joy of believing; faith as joy

倶舍

see styles
jù shè / ju4 she4
chü she
 kusha
kośa, 句捨 cask, box, treasury; translated 藏 store, also 鞘 sheath, scabbard; especially the 倶舍論 Abhidharma-kośa-śāstra, v. 阿, composed by Vasubandhu, tr. by Paramārtha and Xuanzang; (Skt. kośa)

Entries with 2nd row of characters: The 2nd row is Simplified Chinese.

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This page contains 100 results for "Arma" in Chinese and/or Japanese.



Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Japanese Bath House

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).



Combined, these cover 1,007,753 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, names, placenames, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

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No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

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Japanese Kanji Dictionary

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