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Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
Japanese information.
Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
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Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition

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Daoism / Taoism
road; path; CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3]; principle; truth; morality; reason; skill; method; Dao (of Daoism); to say; to speak; to talk; classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process; (old) circuit (administrative division)
(1) (abbreviation) (See 道・みち・1) road; path; street; route; (2) (See 道・みち・5) way; set of practices; rules for conducting oneself; (3) (abbreviation) (in Japanese schools) (See 道徳教育) moral education; (4) Buddhist teachings; (5) Taoism; (6) administrative region of Japan (Hokkaido); (7) (hist) administrative region of Japan (Tokaido, Tosando, etc.); (8) province (administrative region of Korea); (9) circuit (administrative region of China); (10) (hist) province (Tang-era administrative region of China); (personal name) Wataru
mārga. A way, road; the right path; principle, Truth, Reason, Logos, Cosmic energy; to lead; to say. The way of transmigration by which one arrives at a good or bad existence; any of the six gati, or paths of destiny. The way of bodhi, or enlightenment leading to nirvāṇa through spiritual stages. Essential nirvāṇa, in which absolute freedom reigns. For the eightfold noble path v. 八聖道.; The two Ways: (1) (a) 無礙道 or 無間道 The open or unhindered way, or the way of removing all obstacles or intervention, i. e. all delusion; (b) 解脫道 the way of release, by realization of truth. (2) (a) 難行道 The hard way of "works", i. e. by the six pāramitā and the disciplines. (b) 易行道 the easy way salvation, by the invocation of Amitābha. (3) (a) 有漏道 The way of reincarnation or mortality; (b) 無漏 the enlightened way of escape from the miseries of transmigration. (4) (a) 教道 The way of instruction; (b) 證道 the way of realization. (5) The two lower excretory organs.


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(auxiliary verb) (1) (archaism) indicates recollection or realization (i.e. of hearsay or the past); can form a poetic past tense; (auxiliary verb) (2) (archaism) indicates continuation from the past to the present; (3) (from the use of the aux. at the end of waka, also written with the ateji 鳧) (See けりが付く,けりを付ける) end; conclusion; (personal name) Gary


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(colloquialism) (abbreviation) (See ペナルティ) penalty; penalization; (surname) Pena; Penna


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chéng jiù
    cheng2 jiu4
ch`eng chiu
    cheng chiu
 jouju / joju

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Achievement / Accomplishment
accomplishment; success; achievement; CL:個|个[ge4]; to achieve (a result); to create; to bring about
(n,n-suf,vs,vt,vi) fulfillment; fulfilment; realization; realisation; completion; (given name) Jouju
siddhi: accomplishment, fulfillment, completion, to bring to perfection.


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zhì huì
    zhi4 hui4
chih hui

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wisdom; knowledge; intelligent; intelligence
(1) wisdom; wit; sagacity; sense; intelligence; (2) (Buddhist term) prajna (insight leading to enlightenment); (female given name) Tomoe
jñāna as 智 knowledge and prajñā as 慧 discernment, i.e. knowledge of things and realization of truth; in general knowledge and wisdom; but sometimes implying mental and moral wisdom.



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xī dá duō
    xi1 da2 duo1
hsi ta to

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Siddhartha Gautama (563-485 BC), the historical Buddha and founder of Buddhism
(personal name) Shiddaruta
(悉達) Siddhārtha, Sarvāthasiddha, also悉多 (悉多頞他); 悉陀 the realization of all aims, prosperous; personal name of Śākyamuni.


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Self Actualization
(noun/participle) self-actualization; self-fulfillment; self-realization



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zì wǒ shí xiàn
    zi4 wo3 shi2 xian4
tzu wo shih hsien

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Self Actualization
self-actualization (psychology); self-realization

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(particle) marker of surprise, sudden realization, reminder

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outside; in addition; foreign; external
(1) outside; exterior; (2) the open (air); (3) (ant: うち・6) other place; somewhere else; outside one's group (family, company, etc.); (surname) Hoka
bāhya. Outside, external; opposite to 内 within, inner, e. g. 内證 inner witness, or realization and 外用 external manifestation, function, or use.

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school; sect; purpose; model; ancestor; clan; to take as one's model (in academic or artistic work); classifier for batches, items, cases (medical or legal), reservoirs
(1) (rare) origin; source; (2) (rare) virtuous ancestor; (given name) Motoi
Ancestors, ancestral; clan; class, category. kind; school, sect; siddhānta, summary, main doctrine, syllogism, proposition, conclusion, realization. Sects are of two kinds: (1) those founded on principles having historic continuity, as the twenty sects of the Hīnayāna, the thirteen sects of China, and the fourteen sects of Japan: (2) those arising from an individual interpretation of the general teaching of Buddhism, as the sub-sects founded by Yongming 永明 (d. 975), 法相宗, 法性宗, 破相宗, or those based on a peculiar interpretation of one of the recognized sects, as the Jōdo-shinshū 淨土眞宗 found by Shinran-shōnin. There are also divisions of five, six, and ten, which have reference to specific doctrinal differences. Cf. 宗派.

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used in Japanese names with phonetic value hatake, bata etc; dry field (i.e. not paddy field)
(1) field (for fruits, vegetables, etc.); cultivated land; vegetable plot; kitchen garden; plantation; (n,suf) (2) field (of specialization); sphere; area; (3) (colloquialism) womb; birth; birthplace; field (for fruits, vegetables, etc.); cultivated land; vegetable plot; kitchen garden; plantation; (surname) Hatazaki

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(1) field (for fruits, vegetables, etc.); cultivated land; vegetable plot; kitchen garden; plantation; (n,suf) (2) field (of specialization); sphere; area; (3) (colloquialism) womb; birth; birthplace; field (for fruits, vegetables, etc.); cultivated land; vegetable plot; kitchen garden; plantation; (surname) Hatano

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to accumulate; to hold in store; to contain; to gather together; to collect; depth; inner strength; profundity
(given name) Osamu
skandha, v. 塞; older tr. 陰, intp. as that which covers or conceals, implying that physical and mental forms obstruct realization of the truth; while the tr. 蘊, implying an accumulation or heap, is a nearer connotation to skandha, which, originally meaning the shoulder, becomes stem, branch, combination, the objects of sense, the elements of being or mundane consciousness. The term is intp. as the five physical and mental constituents, which combine to form the intelligent 性 or nature; rūpa, the first of the five, is considered as physical, the remaining four as mental; v. 五蘊. The skandhas refer only to the phenomenal, not to the 無爲 non-phenomenal.



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qī xián
    qi1 xian2
ch`i hsien
    chi hsien
(1) (See 七賢人) the Seven Wise Men (of Confucius's Analects); (2) (See 竹林の七賢) Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove
(七賢位) Also七方便位, 七加行位 The seven grades or steps in virtue preceding the entry into見道faultless wisdom, or faultlessness in its first realization. These seven are preliminary to the七聖 (七聖位). Both are grades of the倶舍 Kośa school of Hīnayāna.


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sān xiū
    san1 xiu1
san hsiu
 san shū
The three ways of discipline, i.e. three śrāvaka and three bodhisattva ways. The three śrāvaka ways are 無常修 no realization of the eternal, seeing everything as transient; 非樂修 joyless, through only contemplating misery and not realizing the ultimate nirvāṇa-joy; 無我修 non-ego discipline, seeing only the perishing self and not realizing the immortal self. The bodhisattva three are the opposite of these.


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sān jù
    san1 ju4
san chü
Three cryptic questions of 雲門 Yunmen, founder of the Yunmen Chan School. They are: (1) 截斷衆流 What is it that stops all flow (of reincarnation) ? The reply from the 起信論 is 一心, i. e. the realization of the oneness of mind, or that all is mind. (2) 函蓋乾坤 What contains and includes the universe? The 眞如. (3) 隨波逐浪 One wave following another— what is this? Birth and death 生死, or transmigration, phenomenal existence.


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sān fǎ
    san1 fa3
san fa
The three dharma, i.e. 教法 the Buddha's teaching; 行法 the practice of it; 證法 realization or experiential proof of it in bodhi and nirvāṇa.


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sān shēng
    san1 sheng1
san sheng
(surname, given name) Mitsuo
The three births, or reincarnations, past, present, future. Tiantai has (a) 種 planting the seed; (b) 熟 ripening; (c) 脫 liberating, stripping, or harvesting, i.e. beginning, development, and reward of bodhi, a process either gradual or instantaneous. Huayan has (a) 見聞生 a past life of seeing and hearing Buddha-truth; (b) 解行生 liberation in the present life; (c) 證入生 realization of life in Buddhahood. This is also called 三生成佛, Buddhahood in the course of three lives. There is also a definition of three rebirths as the shortest term for arhatship, sixty kalpas being the longest. There are other definitions.


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sān shēn
    san1 shen1
san shen
{Buddh} trikaya (three bodies of the Buddha); (surname) Sanmi
trikāya. 三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men.


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zhōng hé
    zhong1 he2
chung ho
to neutralize; to counteract; neutralization (chemistry)
(noun/participle) neutralization; neutralisation; counteraction; (surname) Nakawa


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(noun, transitive verb) mastery; learning through experience; realization; realisation; comprehension


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rù yuàn
    ru4 yuan4
ju yüan
 nyuuin / nyuin
to enter hospital; to be hospitalized
(n,vs,vi) hospitalization; hospitalisation



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nèi huà
    nei4 hua4
nei hua
internalization; to internalize



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nèi zhèng
    nei4 zheng4
nei cheng
The witness or realization within: one's own assurance of the truth.


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bā rěn
    ba1 ren3
pa jen
The eight kṣānti, or powers of patient endurance, in the desire-realm and the two realms above it, necessary to acquire the full realization of the truth of the Four Axioms, 四諦; these four give rise to the 四法忍, i.e. 苦, 集, 滅, 道法忍, the endurance or patient pursuit that results in their realization. In the realm of form and the formless, they are called the 四類忍. By patient meditation the 見惑 false or perplexed views will cease, and the八智 eight kinds of jñāna or gnosis be acquired; therefore 智 results from忍 and the sixteen, 八忍八智 (or 觀), are called the 十六心, i.e. the sixteen mental conditions during the stage of 見道, when 惑 illusions or perplexities of view are destroyed. Such is the teaching of the 唯識宗. The 八智 are 苦, 集, 滅,道法智 and 苦, etc. 類智.


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liù jí
    liu4 ji2
liu chi
The six stages of Bodhisattva developments as defined in the Tiant 'ai 圓教, i. e. Perfect, or Final Teaching, in contrast with the previous, or ordinary six developments of 十信, 十住, 十行, etc., as found in the 別教 Differentiated or Separate school. The Tiantai six are: (1) 理卽 realization that all beings are of Buddha-nature; (2) 名字卽 the apprehension of terms, that those who only hear and believe are in the Buddha. law and potentially Buddha; (3) 觀行卽 advance beyond terminology to meditation, or study and accordant action; it is known as 五品觀行 or 五品弟子位; (4) 相似卽 semblance stage, or approximation to perfection in purity, the 六根淸淨位, i. e. the 十信位; (5) 分證卽 discrimination of truth and its progressive experiential proof, i. e. the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地, and 等覺位 of the 別教 known also as the 聖因 cause or root of holiness. (6) 究竟卽 perfect enlightenment, i. e. the 妙覺位 or 聖果 fruition of holiness. (1) and (2) are known as 外凡 external for, or common to, all. (1) is theoretical; (2) is the first step in practical advance, followed by (3) and (4) styled 内凡 internal for all, and (3), (4), (5), and (6) are known as the 八位 the eight grades.


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(noun, transitive verb) incarnation; embodiment; realization; giving concrete form (to)


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 naikou / naiko
(n,vs,vi) (1) {med} retrocession; (disease) settling in the internal organs; (n,vs,vi) (2) becoming pent-up (of emotions); accumulation (of anger, frustration, etc.); internalization


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míng sī
    ming2 si1
ming ssu
冥慮 The unfathomable thought or care of the buddhas and bodhisattvas, beyond the realization of men.


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fēn huà
    fen1 hua4
fen hua
to split apart; differentiation
(n,vs,vi) specialization; specialisation; differentiation


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fēn sàn
    fen1 san4
fen san
to scatter; to disperse; to distribute
(n,vs,vt,vi) (1) dispersion; breakup; scattering; decentralization; decentralisation; distribution; (n,vs,vt,vi) (2) {stat} variance; (n,vs,vt,vi) (3) {chem;physics} dispersion
visarj. To dismiss, scatter, separate, as an assembly.


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 bungyou / bungyo
(n,vs,vt,vi) division of labor; division of labour; specialization; specialisation; assembly-line production


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decentralization of authority; decentralisation of authority


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sì fēn
    si4 fen1
ssu fen
(noun/participle) divide into four pieces; one fourth; (place-name) Shibu
The 法相 Dharmalakṣana school divides the function of 識 cognition into four, i. e. 相分 mental phenomena, 見分 discriminating such phenomena, 自證分 the power that discriminates, and 證自證 the proof or assurance of that power. Another group is: 信 faith, 解 liberty, 行 action, and 證 assurance or realization.



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sì yùn
    si4 yun4
ssu yün
(四運心) The four stages of a thought: not yet arisen, its initiation, its realization, its passing away, styled 未念, 欲念, 正念, and 念巳.


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wài huà
    wai4 hua4
wai hua
(noun/participle) externalization
to face outward , teaching and transforming sentient beings


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dìng lǜ
    ding4 lu:4
ting lü
scientific law (e.g. law of conservation of energy); (in human affairs) a generalization based on observation (e.g. "power corrupts")
fixed law; (personal name) Yasunori


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(n,vs,vt,vi) implementation (e.g. of a system); materialization; materialisation; realization; realisation; actualization; actualisation


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 jikkou / jikko
(noun, transitive verb) (1) execution (e.g. of a plan); carrying out; (putting into) practice; action; implementation; fulfillment; realization; (noun, transitive verb) (2) {comp} execution (of a program); run; (given name) Jikkou


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jì jí
    ji4 ji2
chi chi
to register as domiciled in another land; naturalization


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 senshuu / senshu
(noun, transitive verb) specialization; specialisation; (surname) Senshuu


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(n,vs,vi) localization; existing only in a certain area


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shì zhí
    shi4 zhi2
shih chih
market capitalization; market value


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(n,vs,vi) naturalization; naturalisation


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píng héng
    ping2 heng2
p`ing heng
    ping heng
 heikou / heko
balance; equilibrium
(noun/participle) even scale; equilibrium; balance; equalization; equalisation


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(n,vs,adj-no) justification; rationalization; pretext; explanation; exculpation; defence; defense; excuse; apology


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xíng xiàng
    xing2 xiang4
hsing hsiang
 keishou / kesho
image; form; figure; CL:個|个[ge4]; visualization; vivid
shape; figure; image


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gǎn dé
    gan3 de2
kan te
(noun, transitive verb) (1) (profound) realization; awareness; appreciation; becoming (spiritually) awakened (to); (noun, transitive verb) (2) one's faith being transmitted to a deity and one's wish then being granted; (noun, transitive verb) (3) (archaism) obtaining (something) unexpectedly
to attain


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chéng lì
    cheng2 li4
ch`eng li
    cheng li
to establish; to set up; to be tenable; to hold water
(noun/participle) (1) formation; establishment; materialization; coming into existence; (noun/participle) (2) conclusion (e.g. of a deal); reaching (e.g. an agreement); approval; completion; closing; enacting; arrangement; (noun/participle) (3) being valid (of a theory, argument, etc.); holding; applying; (personal name) Shigetatsu
to consist of



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tuī guǎng
    tui1 guang3
t`ui kuang
    tui kuang
to extend; to spread; to popularize; generalization; promotion (of a product etc)


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(noun, transitive verb) appraisal; estimation; valuation; realization; conversion (into cash)


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(noun, transitive verb) realization (of goods into money); conversion (into money); liquidation


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 hansou / hanso
(noun, transitive verb) (1) transportation; conveyance; delivery; (noun, transitive verb) (2) hospitalization; transfer to hospital


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 koukyuu / kokyu
(noun/participle) specialization (in a field of study); study



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jiào zhèng
    jiao4 zheng4
chiao cheng
The two ways of learning, by teaching or experience.; Teaching and evidence, doctrine and its evidential results, or realization.


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wén shū
    wen2 shu1
wen shu
Manjushri, the Bodhisattva of keen awareness
(Buddhist term) Manjushri; Manjusri; Bodhisattva that represents transcendent wisdom; (p,s,f) Monju
(文殊師利) Mañjuśrī 滿殊尸利 -later 曼殊室利. 文殊 is also used for Mañjunātha, Mañjudeva, Mañjughoṣa, Mañjuṣvara, et al. T., hjamdpal; J., Monju. Origin unknown; presumably, like most Buddhas and bodhisattvas, an idealization of a particular quality, in his case of Wisdom. Mañju is beautiful, Śrī; good fortune, virtue, majesty, lord, an epithet of a god. Six definitions are obtained from various scriptures: 妙首 (or 頭 ) wonderful or beautiful) head; 普首 universal head; 濡首 glossy head (probably a transliteration); 敬首 revered head; 妙德 wonderful virtue (or power); 妙吉祥 wonderfully auspicious; the last is a later translation in the 西域記. As guardian of wisdom 智慧 he is often placed on Śākyamuni's left, with 普顯 on the right as guardian of law 理, the latter holding the Law, the former the wisdom or exposition of it; formerly they held the reverse positions. He is often represented with five curls or waves to his hair indicating the 五智 q. v. or the five peaks; his hand holds the sword of wisdom and he sits on a lion emblematic of its stern majesty: but he has other forms. He is represented as a youth, i. e. eternal youth. His present abode is given as east of the universe, known as 淸涼山 clear and cool mountain, or a region 寶住 precious abode, or Abode of Treasures, or 寶氏 from which he derives one of his titles, 寶相如來. One of his dhāraṇīs prophesies China as his post-nirvāṇa realm. In past incarnations he is described as being the parent of many Buddhas and as having assisted the Buddha into existence; his title was 龍種上佛 the supreme Buddha of the nāgas, also 大身佛 or 神仙佛; now his title is 歡喜藏摩尼寶精佛 The spiritual Buddha who joyfully cares for the jewel: and his future title is to be 普現佛 Buddha universally revealed. In the 序品 Introductory Chapter of the Lotus Sutra he is also described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Śākyamuni. He is looked on as the chief of the Bodhisattvas and represents them, as the chief disciple of the Buddha, or as his son 法王子. Hīnayāna counts Śāriputra as the wisest of the disciples, Mahāyāna gives Mañjuśrī the chief place, hence he is also styled 覺母 mother, or begetter of understanding. He is shown riding on either a lion or a peacock, or sitting on a white lotus; often he holds a book, emblem of wisdom, or a blue lotus; in certain rooms of a monastery he is shown as a monk; and he appears in military array as defender of the faith. His signs, magic words, and so on, are found in various sutras. His most famous centre in China is Wu-tai shan in Shansi. where he is the object of pilgrimages, especially of Mongols. The legends about him are many. He takes the place in Buddhism of Viśvakarman as Vulcan, or architect, of the universe. He is one of the eight Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, and sometimes has the image of Akṣobhya in his crown. He was mentioned in China as early as the fourth century and in the Lotus Sutra he frequently appears, especially as the converter of the daughter of the Dragon-king of the Ocean. He has five messengers 五使者 and eight youths 八童子 attending on him. His hall in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala is the seventh, in which his group numbers twenty-five. His position is northeast. There are numerous sutras and other works with his name as title, e. g. 文殊師利問菩提經 Gayaśīrṣa sūtra, tr. by Kumārajīva 384-417: and its 論 or .Tīkā of Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhiruci 535. see list in B. N.


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chūn huà
    chun1 hua4
ch`un hua
    chun hua
(agriculture) vernalization


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 kisei / kise
realization of an objective; realisation of an objective


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gài kuò
    gai4 kuo4
kai k`uo
    kai kuo
to summarize; to generalize; briefly; in broad outline
(noun, transitive verb) summary; generalization; generalisation


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zhèng huà
    zheng4 hua4
cheng hua
 shouge / shoge
normalization; to normalize
(surname) Shouge
to guide correctly



see styles
guī huà
    gui1 hua4
kuei hua
to return


see styles
generalization (psychology, linguistics, etc.)


see styles
fǎ xiàng
    fa3 xiang4
fa hsiang
 hossou / hosso
(1) {Buddh} (See 法性) dharmalaksana (dharma characteristics, the specific characteristics of all manifest phenomena); (2) (abbreviation) (See 法相宗) Hosso sect of Buddhism
The aspects of characteristics of things-all things are of monad nature but differ in form. A name of the 法相宗 Faxiang or Dharmalakṣaṇa sect (Jap. Hossō), called also 慈恩宗 Cien sect from the Tang temple, in which lived 窺基 Kuiji, known also as 慈恩. It "aims at discovering the ultimate entity of cosmic existence n contemplation, through investigation into the specific characteristics (the marks or criteria) of all existence, and through the realization of the fundamental nature of the soul in mystic illumination". "An inexhaustible number" of "seeds" are "stored up in the Ālaya-soul; they manifest themselves in innumerable varieties of existence, both physical and mental". "Though there are infinite varieties. . . they all participate in the prime nature of the ālaya." Anesaki. The Faxiang School is one of the "eight schools", and was established in China on the return of Xuanzang, consequent on his translation of the Yogācārya works. Its aim is to understand the principle underlying the 萬法性相 or nature and characteristics of all things. Its foundation works are the 解深密經, the 唯識論, and the 瑜伽論. It is one of the Mahāyāna realistic schools, opposed by the idealistic schools, e.g. the 三論 school; yet it was a "combination of realism and idealism, and its religion a profoundly mystic one". Anesaki.



see styles
hàn huà
    han4 hua4
han hua
to sinicize; sinicization; (software) Chinese localization


see styles
tè huà
    te4 hua4
t`e hua
    te hua
(noun, transitive verb) specialization; specialisation


see styles
embodiment; manifestation; materialization; materialisation; expression; indication



see styles
xiàn zhèng
    xian4 zheng4
hsien cheng
The immediate realization of enlightenment, or nirvana; abhisamaya, inner realization; pratyakṣa, immediate perception, evidence of the eye or other organ.



see styles
xiàn shì
    xian4 shi4
hsien shih
Direct knowledge, manifesting wisdom, another name of the ālayavijñāna, on which all things depend for realization, for it completes the knowledge of the other vijñānas. Also the 'representation-consciousness' or perception of an external world, one of the 五識 q.v. of the 起信論.


see styles
 hassei / hasse
(n,vs,vi) (1) utterance; speaking; vocalization; vocalisation; (n,vs,vi) (2) leading a group of people (in cheering, singing, etc.)



see styles
bǎi huì
    bai3 hui4
pai hui
Where all things meet, i. e. the head, the place of centralization; it is applied also to the Buddha as the centre of all wisdom.



see styles
zhēn zhèng
    zhen1 zheng4
chen cheng
Real evidence, proof, or assurance, or realization of truth. The knowledge, concept, or idea which corresponds to reality.


see styles
shí huà
    shi2 hua4
shih hua
 sekika; sekka
    せきか; せっか
to petrify; petrochemical industry
(n,vs,vi) petrifaction; petrification; mineralization; mineralisation; lithification; fossilization; fossilisation


see styles
 touka / toka
{comp} equalization



see styles
bù jì
    bu4 ji4
pu chi
(noun/participle) journalization (accounts); journalisation; bookkeeping


see styles
(n,vs,vi) (1) fruition; fructification; bearing fruit; (n,vs,vi) (2) bearing fruit (of efforts, plans, etc.); coming to fruition; yielding success; paying off; realization; realisation; fruit (e.g. of hard work); result; (female given name) Yumi


see styles
 toukatsu / tokatsu
(noun/participle) (1) unification; bringing together; generalization; (2) control; supervision



see styles
tǒng xiá
    tong3 xia2
t`ung hsia
    tung hsia
 toukatsu / tokatsu
to govern; to have complete control over; to be in command of
(noun/participle) (1) unification; bringing together; generalization; (2) control; supervision



see styles
wéi xīn
    wei2 xin1
wei hsin
(political) reform; revitalization; modernization
(1) reformation; revolution; renewal; (2) (hist) (See 明治維新) Meiji Restoration; (3) (abbreviation) (See 日本維新の会) Nippon Ishin no Kai; Japan Innovation Party; (given name) Ishin



see styles
liàn mó
    lian4 mo2
lien mo
(noun/participle) training; practice; practising; cultivation
To drill and grind, three bodhisattava conditions for maintaining progress: the fixing of attention on those who have attained enlightenment; the examination of one's purpose; and the realization of the power at work in others; v. 三退屈.


see styles
(noun/participle) decalcification; demineralization


see styles
(suffix) development; revitalization; (kana only) millet or rice cake, roasted and hardened with starch syrup and sugar (sometimes including peanuts, etc.)


see styles
generalization (psychology, linguistics, etc.)


see styles
embodiment; manifestation; materialization; materialisation; expression; indication



see styles
jiàn dì
    jian4 di4
chien ti
The realization of correct views, i. e. the Hīnayāna stage of one who has entered the stream of holy living; the Mahāyāna stage after the first Bodhisattva stage.



see styles
jiǎng jiu
    jiang3 jiu5
chiang chiu
 koukyuu / kokyu
to pay particular attention to; carefully selected for quality; tastefully chosen
(noun/participle) specialization (in a field of study); study



see styles
zhèng wù
    zheng4 wu4
cheng wu
Mystic insight; conviction by thinking, realization, to prove and ponder.



see styles
zhèng zhì
    zheng4 zhi4
cheng chih
 shō chi
adhigamavābodha. Experiential knowledge; realization; the attainment of truth by the bodhisattva in the first stage.



see styles
guàn chè
    guan4 che4
kuan ch`e
    kuan che
to implement; to put into practice; to carry out
(noun, transitive verb) (1) accomplishment; realization; attainment; fulfillment; achievement; (noun, transitive verb) (2) (non-standard usage) penetration; pervasion; (personal name) Tsuramichi



see styles
biàn jiě
    bian4 jie3
pien chieh
to explain; to justify; to defend (a point of view etc); to provide an explanation; to try to defend oneself
(out-dated kanji) (n,vs,adj-no) justification; rationalization; pretext; explanation; exculpation; defence; defense; excuse; apology



see styles
mí mèng
    mi2 meng4
mi meng
 meimu / memu
pipedream; unrealizable plan
illusion; fallacy; delusion; (female given name) Meimu



see styles
lián zǎi
    lian2 zai3
lien tsai
serialized; published as a serial (in a newspaper)
(n,vs,vt,adj-no) serialization; serialisation; serial story



see styles
dá chéng
    da2 cheng2
ta ch`eng
    ta cheng
to reach (an agreement); to accomplish
(noun, transitive verb) achievement; attainment; accomplishment; realization; (given name) Tatsunari


see styles
 kouka / koka
(noun/participle) mineralization; mineralisation


see styles
(noun/participle) restriction; localization


see styles
jí zhōng
    ji2 zhong1
chi chung
 shuuchuu / shuchu
to concentrate; to centralize; to focus; centralized; concentrated; to put together
(n,vs,vt,vi) (1) concentration (on a task); focusing one's attention; (n,vs,vt,vi) (2) concentration (of population, buildings, power, etc.); centralization; convergence; focus (of a debate, questions, etc.); (3) within a collection of works


see styles
 shuuken / shuken
centralization (e.g. power); centralisation


see styles
 shuukei / shuke
(noun, transitive verb) totalization; totalisation; aggregation; tally (e.g. of votes); adding up; summing up



see styles
shùn huà
    shun4 hua4
shun hua
Hue, city in central Vietnam and capital of Thua Thien province
(noun/participle) acclimatization; naturalization; acclimation; (place-name) Junka
To accord with one's lessons; to follow the custom; to die.



see styles
dùn wù
    dun4 wu4
tun wu
a flash of realization; the truth in a flash; a moment of enlightenment (usually Buddhist)
(noun/participle) {Buddh} (See 漸悟) sudden enlightenment
Instantly to apprehend, or attain to Buddha-enlightenment, in contrast with Hīnayāna and other methods of gradual attainment.

Entries with 2nd row of characters: The 2nd row is Simplified Chinese.


This page contains 100 results for "Aliza" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Japanese Bath House

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 1,007,753 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, names, placenames, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

The following titles are just to help people who are searching for an Asian dictionary to find this page.

Japanese Kanji Dictionary

Free Asian Dictionary

Chinese Kanji Dictionary

Chinese Words Dictionary

Chinese Language Dictionary

Japanese Chinese Dictionary