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Mahayana in Chinese / Japanese...

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Ten perfect Mahayana rules

China shí fǎ
Japan jippou
Ten perfect Mahayana rules

十法 is the title of the ten perfect or perfecting Mahāyāna rules.

The order of rules are as follows:
1. right belief.
2. right conduct.
3. right spirit.
4. joy of the bodhi mind.
5. joy in the dharma.
6. joy in meditation.
7. pursuing the correct dharma.
8. obedience to, or accordance with dharma.
9. departing from pride, desire, etc.
10. comprehending the inner teaching of Buddha and taking no pleasure attaining such knowledge or noting the ignorance of others.

This title is only used in the context of Buddhism. Japanese and Chinese people who are not familiar with Buddhism will not recognize this title.

Pure Land Buddhism / Jodo Buddhism

China jìng tǔ zōng
Japan jou do shuu
Pure Land Buddhism / Jodo Buddhism

淨土宗 is the title of Japanese "Pure Land Buddhism." This form is also romanized/known as "Jodo Shu" (jōdo shū).

Also known as Amidism for the fact that this is a branch of Mahayana (Mahāyāna) Buddhism which focuses on Amitabha (Amitābha) Buddha. This form of Buddhism, along with Chinese characters, came to Japan via China in the 5th century according to most historians.


Notes:
Pure Land Buddhism is also known as 浄土仏教 (jōdo bukkyō).
Some will just express it with just 浄土 (Pure Land).


See Also:  Shin Buddhism

Dragon Spirit

China lóng shén
Japan ryuu jin
Dragon Spirit

This Chinese, Japanese Kanji, and old Korean Hanja title can mean, "dragon god," "dragon king," or "dragon spirit."

In the context of Buddhism, this is one of eight kinds of spiritual beings found in Mahāyāna texts.

Zen / Chan / Meditation

...as in Zen Buddhism
China chán
Japan zen
Zen / Chan / Meditation

First let's correct something: The Japanese romanization for this character, "Zen" has penetrated the English language. In English, it's almost always incorrectly used for phrases like "That's so zen." Nobody says "That's so meditation" - right? As the title of a sect, this would be like saying, "That's soooo Baptist!"

禪 by itself just means "meditation." In that context, it should not be confined to use by any one religion or sect.

Regardless of the dictionary definition, more often than not, this character is associated with Buddhism. And here is one of the main reasons:
Zen is used as the title of a branch of Mahayana Buddhism which strongly emphasizes the practice of meditation.
However, it should be noted that Buddhism came from India, and "Chan Buddhism" evolved and developed in medieval China. The Chinese character "Chan" was eventually pronounced as "Zen" in Japanese. Chan Buddhists in China have a lot in common with Zen Buddhists in Japan.

More about the history of Zen Buddhism here.

Please also note that the Japanese Kanji character for Zen has evolved a little in Japan, and the two boxes (kou) that you see at the top of the right side of the character have been replaced by three dots with tails. Japanese Zen Kanji The original character would still be generally understood and recognized in Japanese (it's considered an ancient version in Japan) but if you want the specifically modern Japanese version, please click on the zen Kanji to the right. Technically, there is no difference in Tensho and Reisho versions of Zen since they are ancient character styles that existed long before Japan had a written language.

Chinese Zen/Chan CharacterThere is also an alternate/shorthand/simplified Chinese version which has two dots or tails above the right-side radical. This version is also popular for calligraphy in China. If you want this version, just click the character to the right.


Further notes: Zen is just one of seven sects of Buddhism practiced in Japan. The others are 律 Ritsu (or Risshū), 法相 Hossō, 論 Sanron 華嚴 Kegon, 天台 Tendai, and 眞言 Shingon.


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Below are some entries from our dictionary that may match your mahayana search...

Characters

If shown, 2nd row is Simp. Chinese

Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin/ fu2
Taiwan fu
Japanese hotoke / ほとけ    butsusaki / ぶつさき
Zen / Chan / Meditation
Chinese Buddha; Buddhism
Japanese (surname) Hotoke; (surname) Butsusaki
Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "conceive", "observe", "wake"; also 佛陀; 浮圖; 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮塔; 勃陀; 勃馱; 沒馱; 母馱; 母陀; 部陀; 休屠. Buddha means "completely conscious, enlightened", and came to mean the enlightener. he Chinese translation is 覺 to perceive, aware, awake; and 智 gnosis, knowledge. There is an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and multitudes of Buddhas, but the personality of a Supreme Buddha, an Ādi-Buddha, is not defined. Buddha is in and through all things, and some schools are definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna 三寳 commonly known as 三寳佛, while Śākyamuni Buddha is the first "person" of the Trinity, his Law the second, and the Order the third, all three by some are accounted as manifestations of the All-Buddha. As Śākyamuni, the title indicates him as the last of the line of Buddhas who have appeared in this world, Maitreya is to be the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlightenment, having discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane existence, others all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations; this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation, the monastic life, and meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one, himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment, or Omniscience, and according to Māhāyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as they seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality (twelve nidānas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the arhat. Four types of the Buddha are referred to: (1) 三藏佛the Buddha of the Tripiṭaka who attained enlightenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) 通佛the Buddha on the deva robe under the bodhi-tree of the seven precious things; (3) 別佛the Buddha on the great precious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and (4) 圓佛the Buddha on the throne of Space in the realm of eternal rest and glory where he is Vairocana. The Hīnayāna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time; Mahāyāna claims the existence of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many Buddhas as there are Buddha-universes, which are infinite in number.


see styles
Mandarin chán / chan2
Taiwan ch`an / chan
Japanese yuzuri / ゆずり    zen / ぜん
Chinese to abdicate; dhyana (Sanskrit); Zen; meditation (Buddhism)
Japanese (out-dated kanji) (1) (Buddhist term) dhyana (profound meditation); (2) (abbreviation) Zen (Buddhism); (surname) Yuzuri; (personal name) Zen
To level a place for an altar, to sacrifice to the hills and fountains; to abdicate. Adopted by Buddhists for dhyāna, 禪 or 禪那, i.e. meditation, abstraction, trance. dhyāna is 'meditation, thought, reflection, especially profound and abstract religious contemplation'. M.W. It was intp. as 'getting rid of evil', etc., later as 靜慮 quiet meditation. It is a form of 定, but that word is more closely allied with samādhi, cf. 禪定. The term also connotes Buddhism and Buddhist things in general, but has special application to the 禪宗 q.v. It is one of the six pāramitās, cf. 波. There are numerous methods and subjects of meditation. The eighteen brahmalokas are divided into four dhyāna regions 'corresponding to certain frames of mind where individuals might be reborn in strict accordance with their spiritual state'. The first three are the first dhyāna, the second three the second dhyāna, the third three the third dhyāna, and the remaining nine the fourth dhyāna. See Eitel. According to Childers' Pali Dictionary, 'The four jhānas are four stages of mystic meditation, whereby the believer's mind is purged from all earthly emotions, and detached as it were from his body, which remains plunged in a profound trance.' Seated cross-legged, the practiser 'concentrates his mind upon a single thought. Gradually his soul becomes filled with a supernatural ecstasy and serenity', his mind still reasoning: this is the first jhāna. Concentrating his mind on the same subject, he frees it from reasoning, the ecstasy and serenity remaining, which is the second jhāna. Then he divests himself of ecstasy, reaching the third stage of serenity. Lastly, in the fourth stage the mind becomes indifferent to all emotions, being exalted above them and purified. There are differences in the Mahāyāna methods, but similarity of aim.

see styles
Mandarin chāo / chao1
Taiwan ch`ao / chao
Japanese chou(p);choo / cho(p);choo / ちょう(P);チョー
Zen / Chan / Meditation
Chinese to exceed; to overtake; to surpass; to transcend; to pass; to cross; ultra-; super-
Japanese (n,n-suf,pref) (1) super-; ultra-; hyper-; very; really; (n,n-suf) (2) over (after a number or counter); more than; (given name) Wataru; (given name) Masaru; (personal name) Tooru; (given name) Takashi; (given name) Susumu; (personal name) Suguru; (female given name) Koyuru
vikrama. Leap over, surpass; exempt from; to save.; Two ways of passing over (to bliss): 豎 the lengthwise, or long way (of Hīnayāna); and 橫 the crosswise, or short way of Mahāyāna.

see styles
Mandarin shēn / shen1
Taiwan shen
Japanese mi / み
Zen / Chan / Meditation
Chinese body; life; oneself; personally; one's morality and conduct; the main part of a structure or body; pregnant; classifier for sets of clothes: suit, twinset; Kangxi radical 158
Japanese (1) body; (2) oneself; (3) one's place; one's position; (4) main part; meat (as opposed to bone, skin, etc.); wood (as opposed to bark); blade (as opposed to its handle); container (as opposed to its lid); (surname) Misaki
kāya; tanu; deha. The body; the self.; Two forms of body; there are numerous pairs, e. g. (1) (a) 分段身 The varied forms of the karmic or ordinary mortal body, or being; (b) 變易身 the transformable, or spiritual body. (2) (a) 生身 The earthly body of the Buddha; (b) 化身 hinirmāṇakāya, which may take any form at will. (3) (a) 生身 his earthly body; (b) 法身 his moral and mental nature—a Hīnayāna definition, but Mahāyāna takes his earthly nirmāṇakāya as the 生身 and his dharmakāya or that and his saṃbhogakāya as 法身. (4) 眞應二身 The dharmakāya and nirmāṇakāya. (5) (a) 實相身 The absolute truth, or light, of the Buddha, i. e. the dharmakāya; (b) 爲物身 the functioning or temporal body. (6) (a) 眞身 the dharmakāya and saṃbhogakāya; (b) 化身 the nirmāṇakāya. (7) (a) 常身 his permanent or eternal body; (b) 無常身 his temporal body. (8) (a) 實身 and 化身 idem 二色身.

五行

see styles
Mandarin wǔ xíng / wu3 xing2
Taiwan wu hsing
Japanese gogyou / gogyo / ごぎょう
Zen / Chan / Meditation
Chinese five phases of Chinese philosophy: wood 木, fire 火, earth 土, metal 金, water 水
Japanese (1) (See 五大・ごだい・1) the five elements (in Chinese philosophy: wood, fire, earth, metal and water); the five phases; wu xing; (2) {Buddh} five practices of the Bodhisattvas; (3) (See 六信五行) the five pillars of Islam; (surname, given name) Gogyou
The five lines of conduct. I. According to the 起信論 Awakening of Faith they are almsgiving; keeping the commandments; patience under insult; zeal or progress; meditation. II. According to the 涅槃經 Nirvana Sutra they are saintly or bodhisattva deeds; arhat, or noble deeds; deva deeds; children's deeds (i. e. normal good deeds of men, devas, and Hinayanists); sickness conditions, e. g. illness, delusion, etc.; — into all these lines of conduct and conditions a Bodhisattva enters. III. The five elements, or tanmātra— wood, fire, earth, metal, and water; or earth, water, ire, air, and ether (or space) as taught by the later Mahāyāna philosophy; idem 五大; five practices

十法

see styles
Mandarin shí fǎ / shi2 fa3
Taiwan shih fa
Japanese jippō
Zen / Chan / Meditation
The ten 成就 perfect or perfecting Mahāyāna rules; i.e. in (1) right belief; (2) conduct; (3) spirit; (4) the joy of the bodhi mind; (5) joy in the dharma; (6) joy in meditation in it; (7) pursuing the correct dharma; (8) obedience to, or accordance with it; (9) departing from pride, etc.; (10) comprehending the inner teaching of Buddha and taking no pleasure in that of the śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha order; ten completions of the great vehicle standards

菩薩


菩萨

see styles
Mandarin pú sà / pu2 sa4
Taiwan p`u sa / pu sa
Japanese bosatsu(p);bosachi(ok) / ぼさつ(P);ぼさち(ok)
Chinese Bodhisattva (Buddhism)
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) {Buddh} bodhisattva; one who has reached enlightenment but vows to save all beings before becoming a buddha; (2) High Monk (title bestowed by the imperial court); (3) (See 本地垂迹説) title bestowed to Shinto kami in manifestation theory; (surname) Mizoro
bodhisattva, cf. 菩提薩埵. While the idea is not foreign to Hīnayāna, its extension of meaning is one of the chief marks of Mahāyāna. 'The Bodhisattva is indeed the characteristic feature of the Mahāyāna.' Keith. According to Mahāyāna the Hinayanists, i.e. the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha, seek their own salvation, while the bodhisattva's aim is the salvation of others and of all. The earlier intp. of bodhisattva was 大道心衆生 all beings with mind for the truth; later it became 大覺有情 conscious beings of or for the great intelligence, or enlightenment. It is also intp. in terms of leadership, heroism, etc. In general it is a Mahayanist seeking Buddhahood, but seeking it altruistically; whether monk or layman, he seeks enlightenment to enlighten others, and he will sacrifice himself to save others; he is devoid of egoism and devoted to helping others. All conscious beings having the Buddha-nature are natural bodhisattvas, but require to undergo development. The mahāsattva is sufficiently advanced to become a Buddha and enter nirvāṇa, but according to his vow he remains in the realm of incarnation to save all conscious beings. A monk should enter on the arduous course of discipline which leads to Bodhisattvahood and Buddhahood.

see styles
Mandarin chéng / cheng2
Taiwan ch`eng / cheng
Japanese jō
Chinese four horse military chariot (archaic); four (archaic); generic term for history books; to ride; to mount; to make use of; to avail oneself of; to take advantage of; to multiply (mathematics); Buddhist sect or creed; surname Cheng
Yāna 衍; 野那 a vehicle, wain, any means of conveyance; a term applied to Buddhism as carrying men to salvation. The two chief divisions are the 小乘 Hīnayāna and 大乘 Mahāyāna; but there are categories of one, two, three, four, and five sheng q.v., and they have further subdivisions.

see styles
Mandarin/ da4
Taiwan ta
Japanese dai / だい    oo / おお
Chinese see 大夫[dai4 fu5]; big; huge; large; major; great; wide; deep; older (than); oldest; eldest; greatly; very much; (dialect) father; father's elder or younger brother
Japanese (prefix) (1) the large part of; (2) big; large; great; (suffix) (3) approximate size; no larger than; (4) (abbreviation) (See 大学・1) -university; (5) large (e.g. serving size); loud (e.g. volume setting); (prefix) (See 大・だい・2) big; large; (given name) Yutaka; (surname, given name) Masaru; (personal name) Masa; (male given name) Futoshi; (male given name) Hiroshi; (personal name) Hiro; (surname, given name) Hajime; (personal name) Daibuku; (personal name) Daifuku; (personal name) Daisue; (surname) Daijou; (personal name) Daikatsu; (surname, female given name) Dai; (given name) Takeshi; (male given name) Takashi; (given name) Shin; (personal name) Kazuhito; (surname) Oyagi; (surname) Otaka
Maha. 摩訶; 麼賀. Great, large, big; all pervading, all-embracing; numerous 多; surpassing ; mysterious 妙; beyond comprehension 不可思議; omnipresent 體無不在. The elements, or essential things, i.e. (a) 三大 The three all-pervasive qualities of the 眞如 q.v. : its 體, 相 , 用 substance, form, and functions, v. 起信論 . (b) 四大 The four tanmātra or elements, earth, water, fire, air (or wind) of the 倶舍論. (c)五大 The five, i.e. the last four and space 空, v. 大日經. (d) 六大 The six elements, earth, water, fire, wind, space (or ether), mind 識. Hīnayāna, emphasizing impersonality 人空, considers these six as the elements of all sentient beings; Mahāyāna, emphasizing the unreality of all things 法空, counts them as elements, but fluid in a flowing stream of life, with mind 識 dominant; the esoteric sect emphasizing nonproduction, or non-creation, regards them as universal and as the Absolute in differentiation. (e) 七大 The 楞嚴經 adds 見 perception, to the six above named to cover the perceptions of the six organs 根.

see styles
Mandarin/ wo3
Taiwan wo
Japanese ga / が
Chinese I; me; my
Japanese (1) {Buddh} obstinacy; (2) atman; the self; the ego
I, my, mine; the ego, the master of the body, compared to the ruler of a country. Composed of the five skandhas and hence not a permanent entity. It is used for ātman, the self, personality. Buddhism takes as a fundamental dogma 無我, i.e. no 常我, no permanent ego, only recognizing a temporal or functional ego. The erroneous idea of a permanent self continued in reincarnation is the source of all illusion. But the Nirvana Sutra definitely asserts a permanent ego in the transcendental world, above the range of reincarnation; and the trend of Mahāyāna supports such permanence; v. 常我樂淨.

see styles
Mandarin/ qi2
Taiwan ch`i / chi
Japanese motomu / もとむ    kirari / きらり    eba / えば    inoru / いのる    inori / いのり
Chinese to implore; to pray; to request
Japanese (given name) Motomu; (female given name) Kirari; (female given name) Eba; (female given name) Inoru; (surname, female given name) Inori
yācñā. Pray; prayer is spoken of as absent from Hīnayāna, and only known in Mahāyāna, especially in the esoteric sect; to pray

see styles
Mandarin cáng / cang2
Taiwan ts`ang / tsang
Japanese kura / くら    osamu / おさむ
Chinese storehouse; depository; Buddhist or Taoist scripture; to conceal; to hide away; to harbor; to store; to collect; Tibet; Xizang 西藏
Japanese (surname) Kura; (personal name) Osamu
Treasury, thesaurus, store, to hide; the Canon. An intp. of piṭaka, a basket, box, granary, collection of writings. The 二藏 twofold canon may be the sutras and the vinaya; or the Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna scriptures. The 三藏 or tripiṭaka consists of the sutras, vinaya, and śāstras (abhidharma). The 四藏 fourfold canon adds a miscellaneous collection. The 五藏 fivefold collection is sutras, vinaya, abhidharma, miscellaneous, and spells, or, instead of the spells, a bodhisattva collection. There is also an esoteric fivefold canon, the first three being the above, the last two being the prājñāpāramitā and the dhāraṇīs.

see styles
Mandarin yǎn / yan3
Taiwan yen
Japanese hiroshi / ひろし
Chinese to spread out; to develop; to overflow; to amplify; superfluous
Japanese (given name) Hiroshi
Overflow, inundate; abundant; ample; superfluous; fertile; used in 摩訶衍 Mahāyāna.

一道

see styles
Mandarin yī dào / yi1 dao4
Taiwan i tao
Japanese ichidou / ichido / いちどう
Chinese together
Japanese one road; ray (of hope); (given name) Kazumichi; (surname) Ichimichi; (male given name) Ichidou
One way, the one way; the way of deliverance from mortality, the Mahāyāna. Yidao, a learned monk of the Pure-land sect.

三乘

see styles
Mandarin sān chéng / san1 cheng2
Taiwan san ch`eng / san cheng
Japanese minori / みのり
Japanese (surname) Minori
Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.

三印

see styles
Mandarin sān yìn / san1 yin4
Taiwan san yin
Japanese san'in
The three signs or proofs of a Hīnayāna sutra— non-permanence, non-personality, nirvāṇa; without these the sūtra is spurious and the doctrine is of Māra; the proof of a Mahāyāna sūtra is the doctrine of 一實 ultimate reality, q. v. Also 三法印; three seals of the dharma

三惑

see styles
Mandarin sān huò / san1 huo4
Taiwan san huo
Japanese sanwaku;sannaku / さんわく;さんなく
Japanese {Buddh} three mental disturbances
A Tiantai classification of the three delusions, also styled 三煩惱; 三漏; 三垢; 三結; trials or temptations, leakages, uncleannesses, and bonds. The first of the following three is common to all disciples, the two last to bodhisattvas. They arise from (a) 見, 思, 惑 things seen and thought, i.e. illusions from imperfect perception, with temptation to love, hate, etc.; to be rid of these false views and temptations is the discipline and nirvāṇa of ascetic or Hīnayāna Buddhists. Mahāyāna proceeds further in and by its bodhisattva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. (b) 塵沙惑 illusion and temptation through the immense variety of duties in saving men; and (c) 無明惑 illusions and temptations that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in their reality; three mental disturbances

三教

see styles
Mandarin sān jiào / san1 jiao4
Taiwan san chiao
Japanese sankyou / sankyo / さんきょう
Chinese the Three Doctrines (Daoism, Confucianism, Buddhism)
Japanese Shinto, Buddhism and Confucianism; (given name) Mitsunori
The three teachings, i.e. 儒, 佛 (or 釋), and 道Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism; or, 孔, 老, 釋 Confucianism, Taoism (aIso known as 神敎), and Buddhism. In Japan they are Shinto, Confucianism, and Buddhism. In Buddhism the term is applied to the three periods of Śākyamuni's own teaching, of which there are several definitions: (1) The Jiangnan 南中 School describe his teaching as (a) 漸progressive or gradual; (b) 頓 immediate, i.e. as one whole, especially in the 華嚴經; and (c) 不定 or indeterminate. (2) 光統 Guangtong, a writer of the Iater Wei dynasty, describes the three as (a) 漸 progressive for beginners, i.e. from impermanence to permanence, from the void to reality, etc.; (b) 頓 immediate for the more advanced; and (c) 圓complete, to the most advanced, i.e. the Huayan as above. (3) The 三時敎q.v. (4) The 南山 Southern school deals with (a) the 性空of Hīnayāna; (b) 相空of Mahāyāna; and (c) 唯識圓 the perfect idealism. v. 行事鈔中 4. Tiantai accepts the division of 漸, 頓, and 不定 for pre-Lotus teaching, but adopts 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 perfect, with the Lotus as the perfect teaching; it also has the division of 三藏敎 , 通敎 , and 別敎 q.v.

三業


三业

see styles
Mandarin sān yè / san1 ye4
Taiwan san yeh
Japanese sangou / sango / さんごう    sangyou / sangyo / さんぎょう
Japanese {Buddh} (See 身口意) three activities (action, speech and thought); the three entertainment district enterprises: eating houses, geisha houses, meeting places for assignations, etc.
trividha-dvāra. The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, 身, 口, 意. (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) 漏業 Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma of neither, independent of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are other groups of three; three activities

三病

see styles
Mandarin sān bìng / san1 bing4
Taiwan san ping
Japanese sanbyō
The three ailments: (1) (a) 貪 lust, for which the 不淨觀 meditation on uncleanness is the remedy; (b) 瞋 anger, or hate, remedy 慈悲觀 meditation on kindness and pity; (c) 癡 stupidity, or ignorance, remedy 因緣觀 meditation on causality. (2) (a) 謗 Slander of Mahāyāna; (b) 五逆罪 the five gross sins; (c) to be a "heathen" or outsider; the forms recorded seem to be icchantika, ecchantika, and aicchantika. Cf. 三毒; three diseases

三身

see styles
Mandarin sān shēn / san1 shen1
Taiwan san shen
Japanese sanjin;sanshin / さんじん;さんしん
Japanese {Buddh} trikaya (three bodies of the Buddha); (surname) Sanmi
trikāya. 三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men; three bodies [of the Buddha]

三車


三车

see styles
Mandarin sān chē / san1 che1
Taiwan san ch`e / san che
Japanese sansha
triyāna. 三乘 or 三乘法門 (1) The three vehicles across saṃsāra into nirvāṇa, i.e. the carts offered by the father in the Lotus Sutra to lure his children out of the burning house: (a) goat carts, representing śrāvakas; (b) deer carts, pratyekabuddhas; (c) bullock carts, bodhisattvas. (2) The three principal schools of Buddhism— Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna; three carts

上乘

see styles
Mandarin shàng chéng / shang4 cheng2
Taiwan shang ch`eng / shang cheng
Japanese jōjō
Chinese first-class; best quality; also pr. [shang4 sheng4]
Mahāyāna; also 上衍, 大乘 q. v; superior vehicle

上衍

see styles
Mandarin shàng yǎn / shang4 yan3
Taiwan shang yen
Japanese jōen
Mahāyāna, 上乘; v. 大乘; superior vehicle

中乘

see styles
Mandarin zhōng chéng / zhong1 cheng2
Taiwan chung ch`eng / chung cheng
Japanese chūjō
The middle vehicle to nirvana, includes all intermediate or medial systems between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. It also corresponds with the state of a pratyekabuddha, who lives chiefly for his own salvation but partly for others, like a man sitting in the middle of a vehicle, leaving scarcely room for others. It is a definition made by Mahayanists unknown to Hīnayāna.

九部

see styles
Mandarin jiǔ bù / jiu3 bu4
Taiwan chiu pu
Japanese kubu
(九部經) Nine of the Hīnayāna twelve classes of sūtras, that is, all except the 方廣, 授記 and 無門自說. Generally the term is thus interpreted, but there is also a Mahāyāna division of nine of the twelve sūtras, i.e. all except the 緣起, 譬喩, 論議. These are: sūtras, the Buddha's sermons; geyas, metrical pieces; vyākaraṇas, prophecies; gāthās, chants or poems; udāṇas, impromptu or unsolicited addresses; ityuktas, or itivṛttakas, marratives; jātakas, stories of former lives of Buddha, etc.; vaipulyas, expanded sūtras, etc.; adbhutadharmas, miracles, etc.; v. 十二部經.

事教

see styles
Mandarin shì jiào / shi4 jiao4
Taiwan shih chiao
Japanese jikyō
Teaching dealing with phenomena. The characterization by Tiantai of the Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching as 界内事教 within the three realms of desire, form, and formlessness; and the 別教 'different teaching' as 界外事教 outside or superior to those realms; the one dealt with the activities of time and sense, the other transcended these but was still involved in the transient; the 別教 was initial Mahāyāna incompletely developed.

二乘

see styles
Mandarin èr chéng / er4 cheng2
Taiwan erh ch`eng / erh cheng
Japanese nijō
dviyāna. The two vehicles conveying to the final goal. There are several definitions: (1) Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna. (2) 聲聞 and 緣覺 or 聲覺二乘 . Śrāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. (3) 二乘作佛 The Lotus Sūtra teaches that śrāvakas and pratyekas also become Buddhas. (4) 三一二乘 The "two vehicles" of "three" and "one", the three being the pre-Lotus ideas of śrāvaka, pratyeka, and bodhsattva, the one being the doctrine of the Lotus Sūtra which combined all three in one.

二始

see styles
Mandarin èr shǐ / er4 shi3
Taiwan erh shih
Japanese nishi
The two beginnings, i.e. of Hīnayāna, by the preaching of the 阿含 Āgama sūtras; and of Mahāyāna by the preaching of the 華嚴 Avataṁsaka sūtra.

二教

see styles
Mandarin èr jiào / er4 jiao4
Taiwan erh chiao
Japanese nikyō
Dual division of the Buddha's teaching. There are various definitions: (1) Tiantai has (a) 顯教 exoteric or public teaching to the visible audience, and (b) 密教 at the same time esoteric teaching to an audience invisible to the other assembly. (2) The 眞言 Shingon School by "exoteric" means all the Buddha's preaching, save that of the 大日經 which it counts esoteric. (3) (a) 漸教 and (b) 頓教 graduated and immediate teaching, terms with various uses, e.g. salvation by works Hīnayāna, and by faith, Mahāyāna, etc.; they are applied to the Buddha's method, to the receptivity of hearers and to the teaching itself. (4) Tiantai has (a) 界内教 and (b) 界外教 teachings relating to the 三界 or realms of mortality and teachings relating to immortal realms. (5) (a) 半字教 and (b) 滿字教 Terms used in the Nirvāṇa sūtra, meaning incomplete word, or letter, teaching and complete word teaching, i.e. partial and complete, likened to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. (6) (a) 捃收教 and (b) 扶律談常教 of the Nirvāṇa sūtra, (a) completing those who failed to hear the Lotus; (b) "supporting the law, while discoursing on immortality," i.e. that the keeping of the law is also necessary to salvation. (7) Tiantai's division of (a) 偏教 and (b) 圓教 the partial teaching of the 藏, 通, and schools as contrasted with the perfect teaching of the 圓 school. (8) Tiantai's division of (a) 構教 and (6) 實教 temporary and permanent, similar to the last two. (9) (a) 世間教 The ordinary teaching of a moral life here; (b) 出世間教 the teaching of Buddha-truth of other-worldly happiness in escape from mortality. (10) (a) 了義教 the Mahāyāna perfect or complete teaching, and (b) 不了義教 Hīnayāna incompleteness. (11) The Huayan division of (a) 屈曲教 indirect or uneven teaching as in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, and (b) 平道教 direct or levelled up teaching as in the Huayan sūtra. (12) The Huayan division of (a) 化教 all the Buddha's teaching for conversion and general instruction, and (b) 制教 his rules and commandments for the control and development of his order; two kinds of teaching

Search for Mahayana in my Japanese & Chinese Dictionary


The following table may be helpful for those studying Chinese or Japanese...

Title CharactersRomaji(Romanized Japanese)Various forms of Romanized Chinese
Ten perfect Mahayana rules十法jippou / jiposhí fǎ / shi2 fa3 / shi fa / shifashih fa / shihfa
Pure Land Buddhism
Jodo Buddhism
淨土宗
浄土宗
jou do shuu
joudoshuu
jo do shu
jodoshu
jìng tǔ zōng
jing4 tu3 zong1
jing tu zong
jingtuzong
ching t`u tsung
chingtutsung
ching tu tsung
Dragon Spirit龍神
龙神
ryuu jin / ryuujin / ryu jin / ryujinlóng shén
long2 shen2
long shen
longshen
lung shen
lungshen
Zen
Chan
Meditation

zenchán / chan2 / chanch`an / chan
In some entries above you will see that characters have different versions above and below a line.
In these cases, the characters above the line are Traditional Chinese, while the ones below are Simplified Chinese.



Successful Chinese Character and Japanese Kanji calligraphy searches within the last few hours...

Archangel
Balance
Bear
Bushido Code
Create
Diamond
Dragon Soul
Dream
Energy
Enlightened
Enso
Family
Follow Your Dreams
Follow Your Heart
Fortune
Friendship
Future
Generation
Good Fortune
Grace
Hanawa
Harmony
Honor
House
Independence
Justice
Kung Fu
Love
Loyalty
Nature
Ninpo
Nirvana
Pain
Peach
Rain
Responsibility
Right Intention
River
Samurai
Shadow
Shogun
Spiritual Strength
Strength
Strength of Spirit
Strong Will
Sword
Tiger
Truth
Vitality
Water
Wedding
White
Wing Chun
Winter

All of our calligraphy wall scrolls are handmade.

When the calligrapher finishes creating your artwork, it is taken to my art mounting workshop in Beijing where a wall scroll is made by hand from a combination of silk, rice paper, and wood.
After we create your wall scroll, it takes at least two weeks for air mail delivery from Beijing to you.

Allow a few weeks for delivery. Rush service speeds it up by a week or two for $10!

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A nice Chinese calligraphy wall scroll

The wall scroll that Sandy is holding in this picture is a "large size"
single-character wall scroll.
We also offer custom wall scrolls in small, medium, and an even-larger jumbo size.

A professional Chinese Calligrapher

Professional calligraphers are getting to be hard to find these days.
Instead of drawing characters by hand, the new generation in China merely type roman letters into their computer keyboards and pick the character that they want from a list that pops up.

There is some fear that true Chinese calligraphy may become a lost art in the coming years. Many art institutes in China are now promoting calligraphy programs in hopes of keeping this unique form of art alive.

Trying to learn Chinese calligrapher - a futile effort

Even with the teachings of a top-ranked calligrapher in China, my calligraphy will never be good enough to sell. I will leave that to the experts.

A high-ranked Chinese master calligrapher that I met in Zhongwei

The same calligrapher who gave me those lessons also attracted a crowd of thousands and a TV crew as he created characters over 6-feet high. He happens to be ranked as one of the top 100 calligraphers in all of China. He is also one of very few that would actually attempt such a feat.


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Some people may refer to this entry as Mahayana Kanji, Mahayana Characters, Mahayana in Mandarin Chinese, Mahayana Characters, Mahayana in Chinese Writing, Mahayana in Japanese Writing, Mahayana in Asian Writing, Mahayana Ideograms, Chinese Mahayana symbols, Mahayana Hieroglyphics, Mahayana Glyphs, Mahayana in Chinese Letters, Mahayana Hanzi, Mahayana in Japanese Kanji, Mahayana Pictograms, Mahayana in the Chinese Written-Language, or Mahayana in the Japanese Written-Language.