Free Chinese & Japanese Online Dictionary

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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
 Definition may be different outside of Buddhism.

There are 142 total results for your treasure search. I have created 2 pages of results for you. Each page contains 100 results...

If shown, 2nd row of characters is Simplified Chinese.

Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition

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Japanese takara / たから
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Japanese treasure; (female given name) Michi; (female given name) Hijiri; (surname) Tomi; (surname) Takarasaki; (s,m,f) Takara

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Mandarin bǎo / bao3
Taiwan pao
Japanese takara / たから
Chinese jewel; gem; treasure; precious
Japanese treasure; (surname) Takara
ratna, precious, a treasure, gem, pearl, anything valuable; for saptaratna v. 七寶. Also maṇi, a pearl, gem.

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Mandarin zhēn / zhen1
Taiwan chen
Japanese chin / ちん
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese precious thing; treasure; culinary delicacy; rare; valuable; to value highly
Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) rare; curious; strange; (surname) Mezurashi; (female given name) Mezura; (surname) Chin; (personal name) Jinhyaku
Precious; rare.



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Mandarin ài hù / ai4 hu4
Taiwan ai hu
Japanese aigo / あいご
Chinese to cherish; to treasure; to take care of; to love and protect
Japanese (noun/participle) protection; tender care; (personal name) Aigo
to love and protect


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Japanese chinpou;chinbou(ok) / chinpo;chinbo(ok) / ちんぽう;ちんぼう(ok)
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Japanese rare treasure



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Mandarin zhēn bǎo / zhen1 bao3
Taiwan chen pao
Japanese chinbō
Chinese a treasure
A pearl; jewel; precious thing; jewels


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Mandarin zhòng qì / zhong4 qi4
Taiwan chung ch`i / chung chi
Japanese juuki / juki / じゅうき
Chinese treasure
Japanese treasure; invaluable person; (personal name) Shigeki; (personal name) Shigekata

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Mandarin bǎo / bao3
Taiwan pao
Japanese takara / たから
Chinese variant of 寶|宝[bao3]
Japanese treasure; (surname) Takara
v. 寶 20; gem

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Mandarin huò / huo4
Taiwan huo
Japanese takara / たから
Chinese goods; money; commodity; CL:個|个[ge4]
Japanese treasure
Goods, wares; valuables

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Mandarin/ yu4
Chinese treasure; hard metal

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Mandarin zhēn / zhen1
Taiwan chen
Chinese treasure


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Japanese otakara / おたから Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) (1) (polite language) treasure; (2) picture of a treasure ship; (3) money; cash



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Mandarin yī bǎo / yi1 bao3
Taiwan i pao
Japanese ippou / ippo / いっぽう
Japanese (surname) Ippou
The one precious thing, the spirit, or intelligent nature; the intelligent mind (behind all things); singular treasure


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Mandarin rén bǎo / ren2 bao3
Taiwan jen pao
The treasure of men, Buddha.



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Mandarin rén bǎo / ren2 bao3
Taiwan jen pao
Japanese ninbō
treasure of men; treasure of men


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Mandarin shí wù / shi2 wu4
Taiwan shih wu
Japanese juumotsu / jumotsu / じゅうもつ
Japanese furniture; fixtures; utensil; treasure
Things (in general), oddments; things in general



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Mandarin fù cái / fu4 cai2
Taiwan fu ts`ai / fu tsai
Japanese fuzai
awarding the treasure; awarding the treasure



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Mandarin fú bǎo / fu2 bao3
Taiwan fu pao
Japanese buppō
See 佛寶; Buddha treasure



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Mandarin fú bǎo / fu2 bao3
Taiwan fu pao
Japanese buppō
法寳, 僧寳 Buddha, Dharma, Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Order; these are the three Jewels, or precious ones, the Buddhist Trinity; v. 三寳; buddha treasure



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Mandarin sēng bǎo / seng1 bao3
Taiwan seng pao
Japanese sōbō
saṅgha, the idealized church, the third member of the triratna; saṃgha treasure


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Japanese meihou / meho / めいほう Japanese famous treasure; noted treasure



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Mandarin mìng bǎo / ming4 bao3
Taiwan ming pao
Japanese myōhō
treasure of life; treasure of life


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Japanese kokuhou / kokuho / こくほう Japanese national treasure; (surname) Kokuhou; (personal name) Kunitomi; (given name) Kunitaka



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Mandarin guó bǎo / guo2 bao3
Taiwan kuo pao
Japanese kokuhou / kokuho / こくほう    kunitaka / くにたか
Chinese national treasure
Japanese (personal name) Kokuhou; (personal name) Kunitaka
national treasure; national treasure


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Mandarin dì zàng / di4 zang4
Taiwan ti tsang
Japanese jizou / jizo / じぞう
Chinese Kṣitigarbha, the Bodhisattva of the Great Vow (to save all souls before accepting Bodhi); also translated Earth Treasury, Earth Womb, or Earth Store Bodhisattva
Japanese (surname) Jizou
Ti-tsang, J. Jizō, Kṣitigarbha, 乞叉底蘗沙; Earth-store, Earth-treasury, or Earthwomb. One of the group of eight Dhvani- Bodhisattvas. With hints of a feminine origin, he is now the guardian of the earth. Though associated with Yama as overlord, and with the dead and the hells, his role is that of saviour. Depicted with the alarum staff with its six rings, he is accredited with power over the hells and is devoted to the saving of all creatures between the nirvana of Śākyamuni and the advent of Maitreya the fifth century he has been especially considered as the deliverer from the hells. His central place in China is at Chiu-hua-shan, forty li south-west of Ch'ing-yang in Anhui. In Japan he is also the protector of travellers by land and his image accordingly appears on the roads; bereaved parents put stones by his images to seek his aid in relieving the labours of their dead in the task of piling stones on the banks of the Buddhist Styx; he also helps women in labour. He is described as holding a place between the gods and men on the one hand and the hells on the other for saving all in distress; some say he is an incarnation of Yama. At dawn he sits immobile on the earth 地 and meditates on the myriads of its beings 藏. When represented as a monk, it may be through the influence of a Korean monk who is considered to be his incarnation, and who came to China in 653 and died in 728 at the age of 99 after residing at Chiu-hua-shan for seventy-five years: his body, not decaying, is said to have been gilded over and became an object of worship. Many have confused 眞羅 part of Korea with 暹羅 Siam. There are other developments of Ti-tsang, such as the 六地藏 Six Ti-tsang, i. e. severally converting or transforming those in the hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, and the devas; these six Ti-tsang have different images and symbols. Ti-tsang has also six messengers 六使者: Yama for transforming those in hell; the pearl-holder for pretas; the strong one or animals; the devīof mercy for asuras; the devī of the treasure for human beings; one who has charge of the heavens for the devas. There is also the 延命地藏 Yanming Ti-tsang, who controls length of days and who is approached, as also may be P'u-hsien, for that Purpose; his two assistants are the Supervisors of good and evil 掌善 and 掌惡. Under another form, as 勝軍地藏 Ti-tsang is chiefly associated with the esoteric cult. The benefits derived from his worship are many, some say ten, others say twenty-eight. His vows are contained in the 地藏菩薩本願經. There is also the 大乘大集地藏十電經 tr. by Xuanzang in 10 juan in the seventh century, which probably influenced the spread of the Ti-tsang cult.


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Japanese taihou;daihou / taiho;daiho / たいほう;だいほう Japanese (1) great treasure; (2) Taihō era (701.3.21-704.5.10); Daihō era; (3) (obscure) {Buddh} great treasure (used to refer to bodhisattvas, esoteric teachings, etc.); (4) (obscure) {Buddh} (See 護摩壇) homa-mandala (fire altar); (place-name) Daihou; (place-name) Taihou; (place-name, surname) Oodakara; (surname) Ootakara


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Mandarin dà rì / da4 ri4
Taiwan ta jih
Japanese dainichi / だいにち
Japanese Mahavairocana (Tathagata); Great Sun; Supreme Buddha of Sino-Japanese esoteric Buddhism; (place-name, surname) Dainichi; (surname) Ookusa
Vairocana, or Mahāvairocana 大日如來; 遍照如來; 摩訶毘盧遮那; 毘盧遮那; 大日覺王 The sun, "shining everywhere" The chief object of worship of the Shingon sect in Japan, "represented by the gigantic image in the temple at Nara." (Eliot.) There he is known as Dai-nichi-nyorai. He is counted as the first, and according to some, the origin of the five celestial Buddhas (dhyāni-buddhas, or jinas). He dwells quiescent in Arūpa-dhātu, the Heaven beyond form, and is the essence of wisdom (bodhi) and of absolute purity. Samantabhadra 普賢 is his dhyāni-bodhisattva. The 大日經 "teaches that Vairocana is the whole world, which is divided into Garbhadhātu (material) and Vajradhātu (indestructible), the two together forming Dharmadhātu. The manifestations of Vairocana's body to himself―that is, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas ―are represented symbolically by diagrams of several circles ". Eliot. In the 金剛界 or vajradhātu maṇḍala he is the center of the five groups. In the 胎藏界 or Garbhadhātu he is the center of the eight-leaf (lotus) court. His appearance, symbols, esoteric word, differ according to the two above distinctions. Generally he is considered as an embodiment of the Truth 法, both in the sense of dharmakāya 法身 and dharmaratna 法寳. Some hold Vairocana to be the dharmakāya of Śākyamuni 大日與釋迦同一佛 but the esoteric school denies this identity. Also known as 最高顯廣眼藏如來, the Tathagata who, in the highest, reveals the far-reaching treasure of his eye, i.e. the sun. 大日大聖不動明王 is described as one of his transformations. Also, a śramaņa of Kashmir (contemporary of Padma-saṃbhava); he is credited with introducing Buddhism into Khotan and being an incarnation of Mañjuśrī; the king Vijaya Saṃbhava built a monastery for him.


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Mandarin qí zhēn / qi2 zhen1
Taiwan ch`i chen / chi chen
Chinese a rare treasure; something priceless and unique



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Mandarin ào zàng / ao4 zang4
Taiwan ao tsang
Japanese ōzō
the hidden treasure-house (of Dharmas); the hidden treasure-house (of Dharmas)


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Japanese kodakara / こだから Japanese the treasure that is children; children


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Japanese takarajima / たからじま Japanese treasure island; (place-name) Takarajima; (surname) Takarashima


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Japanese houko / hoko / ほうこ Japanese treasury; treasure house


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Japanese houden / hoden / ほうでん Japanese (shrine) repository or treasure house; (shrine) sanctuary; (place-name) Houden


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Japanese houmotsu / homotsu / ほうもつ    takaramono / たからもの Japanese treasure; treasured item; prized possession


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Japanese takarabako / たからばこ Japanese treasure chest; strongbox


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Japanese takarabune / たからぶね Japanese (1) treasure ship; (2) picture of a treasure ship bearing the Seven Gods of Good Fortune; (surname) Housen


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Japanese houzou / hozo / ほうぞう Japanese treasure house; treasury; (surname) Houzou; (personal name) Takazou


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Mandarin jiā zhēn / jia1 zhen1
Taiwan chia chen
Japanese kachin
family treasure; family treasure



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Mandarin bǎo shā / bao3 sha1
Taiwan pao sha
Japanese hōsetsu
The precious kṣetra, or Buddha-realm; a monastery; realm of treasure



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Mandarin bǎo kù / bao3 ku4
Taiwan pao k`u / pao ku
Chinese treasure-house; treasury; treasure-trove (often fig., book of treasured wisdom)



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Mandarin bǎo wù / bao3 wu4
Taiwan pao wu
Japanese hō motsu
Chinese treasure; CL:件[jian4]



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Mandarin bǎo qiè / bao3 qie4
Taiwan pao ch`ieh / pao chieh
Japanese hōkyō
ratna-piṭaka, or ratna-karaṇḍaka; a precious box, or box of precious things; treasure box



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Mandarin bǎo zàng / bao3 zang4
Taiwan pao tsang
Japanese hōzō
Chinese precious mineral deposits; hidden treasure; (fig.) treasure; (Buddhism) the treasure of Buddha's law
The treasury of precious things, the wonderful religion of Buddha; repository for precious treasures



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Mandarin bǎo hù / bao3 hu4
Taiwan pao hu
Japanese hōgo
to treasure and guard; to treasure and guard



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Mandarin bǎo bèi / bao3 bei4
Taiwan pao pei
Chinese treasured object; treasure; darling; baby; cowry; good-for-nothing or queer character



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Mandarin bǎo huò / bao3 huo4
Taiwan pao huo
Chinese precious object; treasure



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Mandarin bǎo guì / bao3 gui4
Taiwan pao kuei
Chinese valuable; precious; to value; to treasure; to set store by



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Mandarin xún bǎo / xun2 bao3
Taiwan hsün pao
Chinese treasure hunt



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Mandarin kù cáng / ku4 cang2
Taiwan k`u ts`ang / ku tsang
Japanese ko zō
Chinese to store; to have something in storage
treasure house; treasure house


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Japanese otakara / おたから Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) (1) (polite language) treasure; (2) picture of a treasure ship; (3) money; cash; (surname) Mitakara



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Mandarin ài xī / ai4 xi1
Taiwan ai hsi
Japanese aiseki;aijaku / あいせき;あいじゃく
Chinese to cherish; to treasure; to use sparingly
Japanese (noun/participle) missing someone; loathing to part
Love and care for; to be unwilling to giving up; sparing; sorrow of parting



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Mandarin huì bǎo / hui4 bao3
Taiwan hui pao
Japanese ehō
treasure of wisdom; treasure of wisdom



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Mandarin jiè cái / jie4 cai2
Taiwan chieh ts`ai / chieh tsai
Japanese kaizai
treasure of moral discipline; treasure of moral discipline


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Mandarin gǒng bì / gong3 bi4
Taiwan kung pi
Chinese a flat round jade ornament with a hole at the center; fig. a treasure



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Mandarin fǎ bǎo / fa3 bao3
Taiwan fa pao
Japanese houbou / hobo / ほうぼう
Chinese Buddha's teaching; Buddhist monk's apparel, staff etc; (Daoism) magic weapon; talisman; fig. specially effective device; magic wand
Japanese (personal name) Houbou
Dharmaratna. (1) Dharma-treasure, i. e. the Law or Buddha-truth, the second personification in the triratna 三寶. (2) The personal articles of a monk or nun— robe, almsbowl, etc; dharma treasure



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Mandarin xiàn bǎo / xian4 bao3
Taiwan hsien pao
Chinese to present a treasure; to offer a valuable piece of advice; to show off what one treasures


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Mandarin zhēn xī / zhen1 xi1
Taiwan chen hsi
Chinese to treasure; to value; to cherish



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Mandarin zhēn shì / zhen1 shi4
Taiwan chen shih
Chinese to place great importance on; to treasure


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Japanese chinka / ちんか Japanese unusual item; rare treasure



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Mandarin guī bǎo / gui1 bao3
Taiwan kuei pao
Chinese gem; (fig.) rare and valuable item; gem; treasure


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Mandarin jīn xí / jin1 xi2
Taiwan chin hsi
Japanese kōshaku
to be proud of something and treasure it; to be proud of something and treasure it



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Mandarin mì cáng / mi4 cang2
Taiwan mi ts`ang / mi tsang
Japanese hi zō
Chinese hidden; a hidden treasure (often a Buddhist relic); to keep secret
(祕密藏) The treasury of the profound wisdom. or mysteries, variously interpreted; secret store


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Mandarin shén qì / shen2 qi4
Taiwan shen ch`i / shen chi
Japanese jingi;shinki;shingi(ok) / じんぎ;しんき;しんぎ(ok)
Chinese magical object; object symbolic of imperial power; fine weapon
Japanese (1) (See 三種の神器・1) sacred treasure; the three sacred treasures (sword, jewel, mirror); (2) implement used in religious ceremonies


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Japanese shinpou / shinpo / しんぽう Japanese sacred treasure; (surname) Shinpou; (place-name) Shinhou


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Japanese hihou / hiho / ひほう Japanese hidden treasure; treasured article


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Japanese shihou / shiho / しほう Japanese greatest treasure; most valuable asset; pride (of); (f,p) Shihou



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Mandarin zhì bǎo / zhi4 bao3
Taiwan chih pao
Chinese most valuable treasure; most precious asset
Japanese See: 至宝


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Japanese zaihou / zaiho / ざいほう Japanese treasure


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Japanese rinpou / rinpo / りんぽう    rinbou / rinbo / りんぼう Japanese (Buddhist term) Cakraratna; wheel-shaped treasure possessed by the ideal universal ruler, carried in front of him during excursions to allow easy passage; (surname) Rinpou



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Mandarin lún bǎo / lun2 bao3
Taiwan lun pao
Japanese rinpou / rinpo / りんぽう    rinbou / rinbo / りんぼう
Japanese (out-dated kanji) (Buddhist term) Cakraratna; wheel-shaped treasure possessed by the ideal universal ruler, carried in front of him during excursions to allow easy passage
A cakravartin's wheel, i.e. either gold, silver, copper, or iron, manifesting his rank and power; wheel-treasure


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Japanese chouhou(p);juuhou / choho(p);juho / ちょうほう(P);じゅうほう Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) (1) (ちょうほう only) convenient; useful; handy; helpful; (2) priceless treasure; (noun/participle) (3) (ちょうほう only) valuing highly; prizing; (given name) Shigetaka


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Japanese kinzou / kinzo / きんぞう    kanegura / かねぐら Japanese (out-dated or obsolete kana usage) treasure house; treasury; (1) treasure house; treasury; (2) financial supporter; patron; financier; backer; (surname) Konzou; (given name) Kinzou; (personal name) Kanezou; (surname) Kanekura; (place-name) Kanakura



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Mandarin zhōng ài / zhong1 ai4
Taiwan chung ai
Japanese shouai / shoai / しょうあい
Chinese to treasure; to be very fond of
Japanese (n,adj-no,vs) deep affection; tender love; devotion; doting upon


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Japanese reihou / reho / れいほう Japanese sacred treasure



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Mandarin sān bǎo yī / san1 bao3 yi1
Taiwan san pao i
Japanese sanbōe
idem 三衣; three treasure garments



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Mandarin sān bǎo shēn / san1 bao3 shen1
Taiwan san pao shen
Japanese sanbōshin
v. 三身; three treasure-bodies



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Mandarin bā zhēn tāng / ba1 zhen1 tang1
Taiwan pa chen t`ang / pa chen tang
Chinese eight-treasure decoction, tonic formula used in Chinese medicine


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Japanese maizoubutsu / maizobutsu / まいぞうぶつ Japanese buried property; buried treasure; treasure trove; deposits


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Japanese maizoukin / maizokin / まいぞうきん Japanese buried gold; buried treasure


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Mandarin dà xiàng cáng / da4 xiang4 cang2
Taiwan ta hsiang ts`ang / ta hsiang tsang
Japanese daishō zō
Great elephant (or nāga) treasure, an incense supposed to be produced by nāgas or dragons fighting; great elephant treasure


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Japanese takaramono / たからもの Japanese treasure; treasured item; prized possession


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Japanese takarasagashi / たからさがし Japanese (1) treasure hunting; (2) lucky dip; game involving finding hidden prizes from a sand box, barrel of leaves, etc.


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Japanese takarasagashi / たからさがし Japanese (1) treasure hunting; (2) lucky dip; game involving finding hidden prizes from a sand box, barrel of leaves, etc.


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Japanese houmotsuden / homotsuden / ほうもつでん Japanese (shrine) repository or treasure house; (shrine) sanctuary; (place-name) Houmotsuden



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Mandarin zhēng cāng yuàn / zheng1 cang1 yuan4
Taiwan cheng ts`ang yüan / cheng tsang yüan
Japanese shousouin / shosoin / しょうそういん
Chinese Shōsō-in, treasure house belonging to Tōdai-ji 東大寺, Nara 奈良, Japan, an extensive repository of imperial treasures from Tang times; described as the east-most end of the Silk road
Japanese (place-name) Shousouin



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Mandarin fǎ bǎo cáng / fa3 bao3 cang2
Taiwan fa pao ts`ang / fa pao tsang
Japanese hōbō zō
The storehouse of all law and truth, i. e. the sūtras; storehouse of the dharma treasure


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Japanese tamatebako / たまてばこ Japanese (1) treasure chest (in the story of Urashima Taro); Urashima's casket; Pandora's box; (2) important secret that is not easily revealed to others


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Japanese zuihoushou / zuihosho / ずいほうしょう Japanese Orders of the Sacred Treasure



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Mandarin bǎi bǎo xiāng / bai3 bao3 xiang1
Taiwan pai pao hsiang
Chinese treasure chest



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Mandarin shèng fǎ zàng / sheng4 fa3 zang4
Taiwan sheng fa tsang
Japanese shōhōzō
the treasure-house of the sacred Dharma; the treasure-house of the sacred Dharma



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Mandarin jù bǎo pén / ju4 bao3 pen2
Taiwan chü pao p`en / chü pao pen
Chinese treasure bowl (mythology); fig. source of wealth; cornucopia; gold mine


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Japanese hesomawari / へそまわり Japanese (kana only) circumference of the navel; treasure trail; sagittal hair



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Mandarin cáng bǎo xiāng / cang2 bao3 xiang1
Taiwan ts`ang pao hsiang / tsang pao hsiang
Chinese treasure chest


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Japanese toranoko / とらのこ Japanese (1) tiger cub; (2) treasure (as it is said that tigers treasure their young)


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Japanese toranoko / とらのこ Japanese (1) tiger cub; (2) treasure (as it is said that tigers treasure their young); (female given name) Toranoko



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Mandarin jīn yín dǎo / jin1 yin2 dao3
Taiwan chin yin tao
Chinese Treasure Island by R.L. Stevenson 羅伯特·路易斯·斯蒂文森|罗伯特·路易斯·斯蒂文森[Luo2 bo2 te4 · Lu4 yi4 si1 · Si1 di4 wen2 sen1]


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Japanese tamatebako / たまてばこ Japanese (1) treasure chest (in the story of Urashima Taro); Urashima's casket; Pandora's box; (2) important secret that is not easily revealed to others


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Japanese toranoko / とらのこ Japanese (1) tiger cub; (2) treasure (as it is said that tigers treasure their young)


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Japanese toranoko / トラのこ Japanese (1) tiger cub; (2) treasure (as it is said that tigers treasure their young)


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Japanese toranoko / トラのこ Japanese (1) tiger cub; (2) treasure (as it is said that tigers treasure their young)


This page contains 100 results for "treasure" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

The following titles are just to help people who are searching for an Asian dictionary to find this page.

Japanese Kanji Dictionary

Free Asian Dictionary

Chinese Kanji Dictionary

Chinese Words Dictionary

Chinese Language Dictionary

Japanese Chinese Dictionary