Free Chinese & Japanese Online Dictionary

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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
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If shown, 2nd row of characters is Simplified Chinese.

Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin/ lu:4
Japanese ritsu / りつ
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese law; surname Lü
Japanese (1) law (esp. ancient East Asian criminal code); regulation; (2) {Buddh} vinaya (rules for the monastic community); (3) (abbreviation) (See 律宗) Ritsu (school of Buddhism); (4) (abbreviation) (See 律詩) lushi (style of Chinese poem); (5) (also りち) (musical) pitch; (6) (See 十二律,呂・2) six odd-numbered notes of the ancient chromatic scale; (7) (abbreviation) (See 律旋) Japanese seven-tone gagaku scale, similar to Dorian mode (corresponding to: re, mi, fa, so, la, ti, do); (n,n-suf,ctr) (8) (in traditional Eastern music) step (corresponding to a Western semitone); (personal name) Ritsuji; (female given name) Ritsu; (female given name) Rizumu; (given name) Hiroshi; (given name) Nori; (given name) Tadasu; (given name) Tadashi; (male given name) Takashi; (personal name) Osamu
vinaya, from vi-ni, to 1ead, train: discipline: v. 毘奈耶; other names are Prātimokṣa, śīla, and upalakṣa. The discipline, or monastic rules; one of the three divisions of the Canon, or Tripiṭaka, and said to have been compiled by Upāli.

see styles
Mandarin xīn / xin1
Taiwan hsin
Japanese shin / しん    kokoro / こころ
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese heart; mind; intention; center; core; CL:顆|颗[ke1],個|个[ge4]
Japanese (1) heart; mind; (n,suf) (2) (See 愛郷心) spirit; vitality; inner strength; (3) {astron} (See 二十八宿,蒼竜・そうりょう・3) Chinese "Heart" constellation (one of the 28 mansions); (4) (archaism) friend; (1) mind; heart; spirit; (2) the meaning of a phrase (riddle, etc.); (personal name) Moto; (female given name) Misato; (female given name) Manaka; (given name) Makoto; (female given name) Haato; (female given name) Nozomi; (female given name) Naka; (female given name) Tenshi; (female given name) Shinba; (personal name) Shinji; (surname, female given name) Shin; (female given name) Shizuka; (female given name) Kokko; (female given name) Kokoro; (female given name) Koko; (female given name) Kiyo; (female given name) Ai
hṛd, hṛdaya 汗栗太 (or 汗栗馱); 紀哩馱 the heart, mind, soul; citta 質多 the heart as the seat of thought or intelligence. In both senses the heart is likened to a lotus. There are various definitions, of which the following are six instances: (1) 肉團心 hṛd, the physical heart of sentient or nonsentient living beings, e. g. men, trees, etc. (2) 集起心 citta, the ālayavijñāna, or totality of mind, and the source of all mental activity. (3) 思量心 manas, the thinking and calculating mind; (4) 緣慮心; 了別心; 慮知心; citta; the discriminating mind; (5) 堅實心 the bhūtatathatā mind, or the permanent mind; (6) 積聚精要心 the mind essence of the sutras.

see styles
Mandarin rěn / ren3
Taiwan jen
Japanese nin / にん
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese to bear; to endure; to tolerate; to restrain oneself
Japanese (archaism) endurance; forbearance; patience; self-restraint; (given name) Nin; (surname, female given name) Shinobu; (place-name) Shinobi; (female given name) Shino; (p,s,g) Oshi; (female given name) Azumi
kṣānti, 羼提 (or 羼底); patience, endurance, (a) in adverse circumstances, (b) in the religious state. There are groups of two, three, four, five, six, ten, and fourteen, indicating various forms of patience, equanimity, repression, forbearance, endurance, constancy, or "perseverance of the saints," both in mundane and spiritual things; to endure

see styles
Mandarin/ yi4
Taiwan i
Japanese i / い
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese idea; meaning; thought; to think; wish; desire; intention; to expect; to anticipate; Italy; Italian; abbr. for 意大利[Yi4 da4 li4]
Japanese (1) feelings; thoughts; (2) meaning; (personal name) Kokoro
Manas, the sixth of the ṣaḍāyatanas or six means of perception, i.e. sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and mind. Manas means "mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers), intellect, intelligence, understanding, perception, sense, conscience, will". M.W. It is "the intellectual function of consciousness", Keith. In Chinese it connotes thought, idea, intention, meaning, will; but in Buddhist terminology its distinctive meaning is mind, or the faculty of thought; mentation

see styles
Mandarin/ fa3
Taiwan fa
Japanese hou / ho / ほう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese law; method; way; Buddhist teaching; Legalist; France; French; abbr. for 法國|法国[Fa3 guo2]; Taiwan pr. [Fa4]
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) law; act; principle; (2) method; (3) {ling} mood; (4) {Buddh} dharma; (female given name) Minori; (given name) Houshou; (surname) Housaki; (given name) Hakaru; (surname) Nori; (given name) Sadamu
Dharma, 達磨; 曇無 (or 曇摩); 達摩 (or 達謨) Law, truth, religion, thing, anything Buddhist. Dharma is 'that which is held fast or kept, ordinance, statute, law, usage, practice, custom'; 'duty'; 'right'; 'proper'; 'morality'; 'character'. M. W. It is used in the sense of 一切 all things, or anything small or great, visible or invisible, real or unreal, affairs, truth, principle, method, concrete things, abstract ideas, etc. Dharma is described as that which has entity and bears its own attributes. It connotes Buddhism as the perfect religion; it also has the second place in the triratna 佛法僧, and in the sense of 法身 dharmakāya it approaches the Western idea of 'spiritual'. It is also one of the six media of sensation, i. e. the thing or object in relation to mind, v. 六塵.

see styles
Mandarin shēng / sheng1
Taiwan sheng
Japanese fu / ふ    nama / なま    sei;shou / se;sho / せい;しょう    ki / き    iku / いく
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese to be born; to give birth; life; to grow; raw; uncooked; student
Japanese (n,n-suf) (See 芝生) area of thick growth (of trees, grass, etc.); (adj-no,adj-na,n,n-pref) (1) raw; uncooked; fresh; (2) natural; as it is; unedited; unprocessed; (3) (colloquialism) unprotected (i.e. not wearing a condom); (4) live (i.e. not recorded); (5) inexperienced; unpolished; green; crude; (6) (abbreviation) (See 生意気) impudence; sauciness; (7) (abbreviation) (See 生ビール) unpasteurized beer; draft beer; draught beer; (prefix) (8) just a little; somehow; vaguely; partially; somewhat; half-; semi-; (9) irresponsibly; half-baked; (10) (archaism) cash; (11) (abbreviation) (See 生酔い) tipsiness; (1) life; living; (n,n-suf) (2) (せい only) (masculine speech) (humble language) I; me; myself; (n,pref) pure; undiluted; raw; crude; (prefix) (archaism) vital; virile; lively; (surname) Yanao; (given name) Yadoru; (female given name) Hayuru; (female given name) Hayu; (female given name) Naru; (surname, female given name) Sei; (given name) Susumu; (surname) Sakibu; (female given name) Ubumi; (female given name) Ubu; (female given name) Ibuki; (female given name) Izuru; (female given name) Ikuru; (surname) Ikusaki; (female given name) Iku; (female given name) Ari
jāti 惹多; life; utpāda means coming forth, birth, production; 生 means beget, bear, birth, rebirth, born, begin, produce, life, the living. One of the twelve nidānas, 十二因緣; birth takes place in four forms, catur yoni, v. 四生, in each case causing: a sentient being to enter one of the 六道 six gati, or paths of transmigration.

see styles
Mandarin shàn // chán / shan4 // chan2
Taiwan shan // ch`an / shan // chan
Japanese zen / ぜん
Chinese to abdicate; dhyana (Sanskrit); Zen; meditation (Buddhism)
Japanese (out-dated kanji) (1) (Buddhist term) dhyana (profound meditation); (2) (abbreviation) Zen (Buddhism); (surname) Yuzuri; (personal name) Zen
To level a place for an altar, to sacrifice to the hills and fountains; to abdicate. Adopted by Buddhists for dhyāna, 禪 or 禪那, i.e. meditation, abstraction, trance. dhyāna is 'meditation, thought, reflection, especially profound and abstract religious contemplation'. M.W. It was intp. as 'getting rid of evil', etc., later as 靜慮 quiet meditation. It is a form of 定, but that word is more closely allied with samādhi, cf. 禪定. The term also connotes Buddhism and Buddhist things in general, but has special application to the 禪宗 q.v. It is one of the six pāramitās, cf. 波. There are numerous methods and subjects of meditation. The eighteen brahmalokas are divided into four dhyāna regions 'corresponding to certain frames of mind where individuals might be reborn in strict accordance with their spiritual state'. The first three are the first dhyāna, the second three the second dhyāna, the third three the third dhyāna, and the remaining nine the fourth dhyāna. See Eitel. According to Childers' Pali Dictionary, 'The four jhānas are four stages of mystic meditation, whereby the believer's mind is purged from all earthly emotions, and detached as it were from his body, which remains plunged in a profound trance.' Seated cross-legged, the practiser 'concentrates his mind upon a single thought. Gradually his soul becomes filled with a supernatural ecstasy and serenity', his mind still reasoning: this is the first jhāna. Concentrating his mind on the same subject, he frees it from reasoning, the ecstasy and serenity remaining, which is the second jhāna. Then he divests himself of ecstasy, reaching the third stage of serenity. Lastly, in the fourth stage the mind becomes indifferent to all emotions, being exalted above them and purified. There are differences in the Mahāyāna methods, but similarity of aim.

see styles
Mandarin dào / dao4
Taiwan tao
Japanese dou / do / どう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese road; path; CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3]; principle; truth; morality; reason; skill; method; Dao (of Daoism); to say; to speak; to talk; classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process; (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times)
Japanese (1) (abbreviation) (See 道・みち・1) road; path; street; route; (2) (See 道・みち・3) way; set of practices; rules for conducting oneself; (3) Buddhist teachings; (4) Taoism; (5) modern administrative region of Japan (Hokkaido); (6) historical administrative region of Japan (Tokaido, Tosando, etc.); (7) province (Tang-era administrative region of China); (8) province (modern administrative region of Korea); (personal name) Wataru; (given name) Motoi; (personal name) Michihiro; (surname) Michizaki; (surname, female given name) Michi; (given name) Makoto; (female given name) Fumi; (given name) Naoshi; (surname) Douzaki; (surname) Dou; (female given name) Tooru; (given name) Tadasu; (given name) Tadashi; (female given name) Tao; (personal name) Susumu; (given name) Osamu
mārga. A way, road; the right path; principle, Truth, Reason, Logos, Cosmic energy; to lead; to say. The way of transmigration by which one arrives at a good or bad existence; any of the six gati, or paths of destiny. The way of bodhi, or enlightenment leading to nirvāṇa through spiritual stages. Essential nirvāṇa, in which absolute freedom reigns. For the eightfold noble path v. 八聖道.; The two Ways: (1) (a) 無礙道 or 無間道 The open or unhindered way, or the way of removing all obstacles or intervention, i. e. all delusion; (b) 解脫道 the way of release, by realization of truth. (2) (a) 難行道 The hard way of "works", i. e. by the six pāramitā and the disciplines. (b) 易行道 the easy way salvation, by the invocation of Amitābha. (3) (a) 有漏道 The way of reincarnation or mortality; (b) 無漏 the enlightened way of escape from the miseries of transmigration. (4) (a) 教道 The way of instruction; (b) 證道 the way of realization. (5) The two lower excretory organs.

see styles
Mandarin xiāng / xiang1
Taiwan hsiang
Japanese kou;kori(ok) / ko;kori(ok) / こう;こり(ok)    kyou / kyo / きょう    ka / か
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese fragrant; sweet smelling; aromatic; savory or appetizing; (to eat) with relish; (of sleep) sound; perfume or spice; joss or incense stick; CL:根[gen1]
Japanese (See 御香) incense; (abbreviation) {shogi} (See 香車) lance; (esp. 〜の香) (See 花の香) smell (esp. a good smell); fragrance; scent; aroma; perfume; (female given name) Yuka; (female given name) Koron; (place-name) Kouyatsu; (surname) Kouzaki; (given name) Koukei; (female given name) Kou; (personal name) Kyouji; (female given name) Kyou; (female given name) Kaori (Kawori); (personal name) Kamura; (female given name) Kahoru; (female given name) Kanata; (personal name) Kasumi; (m,f) Kaoru; (surname, female given name) Kaori; (female given name) Kaaya; (surname) Ka
(竹; 象) Incense made in coils and burnt to measure the time; also 香盤; 香印.; gandha. Fragrance; incense; the sense of smell, i.e. one of the ṣaḍāyātana, six senses. Incense is one of the 使 Buddha's messengers to stimulate faith and devotion.



see styles
Mandarin sì dì / si4 di4
Taiwan ssu ti
Japanese shitai / したい
Chinese the Four Noble Truths (Budd.), covered by the acronym 苦集滅道: all life is suffering 苦, the cause of suffering is desire 集, emancipation comes only by eliminating passions 滅|灭, the way 道 to emancipation is the Eight-fold Noble Way 八正道
Japanese {Buddh} (See 苦集滅道) The Four Noble Truths (of Buddhism)
catvāri-ārya-satyāni; 四聖諦; 四眞諦. The four dogmas, or noble truths, the primary and fundamental doctrines of Śākyamuni, said to approximate to the form of medical diagnosis. They are pain or 'suffering, its cause, its ending, the way thereto; that existence is suffering, that human passion (taṇhā, 欲 desire) is the cause of continued suffering, that by the destruction of human passion existence may be brought to an end; that by a life of holiness the destruction of human passion may be attained'. Childers. The four are 苦, 聚 (or 集), 滅, and 道諦, i. e. duḥkha 豆佉, samudaya 三牟提耶, nirodha 尼棲陀, and mārga 末加. Eitel interprets them (1) 'that 'misery' is a necessary attribute of sentient existence'; (2) that 'the 'accumulation' of misery is caused by the passions'; (3) that 'the 'extinction' of passion is possible; (4) mārga is 'the doctrine of the 'path' that leads to the extinction of passion'. (1) 苦 suffering is the lot of the 六趣 six states of existence; (2) 集 is the aggregation (or exacerbation) of suffering by reason of the passions; (3) 滅 is nirvana, the extinction of desire and its consequences, and the leaving of the sufferings of mortality as void and extinct; (4) 道 is the way of such extinction, i. e. the 八正道 eightfold correct way. The first two are considered to be related to this life, the last two to 出世間 a life outside or apart from the world. The four are described as the fundamental doctrines first preached to his five former ascetic companions. Those who accepted these truths were in the stage of śrāvaka. There is much dispute as to the meaning of 滅 'extinction' as to whether it means extinction of suffering, of passion, or of existence. The Nirvana Sutra 18 says that whoever accepts the four dogmas will put an end to births and deaths 若能見四諦則得斷生死 which does not of necessity mean the termination of existence but that of continued transmigration. v. 滅.



see styles
Mandarin dì yù / di4 yu4
Taiwan ti yü
Japanese jigoku / じごく
Chinese hell; infernal; underworld
Japanese hell; (place-name) Jigoku
naraka, 捺落迦 (or 那落迦) ; niraya 泥犂; explained by 不樂 joyless; 可厭 disgusting, hateful; 苦具, 苦器 means of suffering; if 地獄 earth-prison; 冥府 the shades, or departments of darkness. Earth-prison is generally intp. as hell or the hells; it may also be termed purgatory; one of the six gati or ways of transmigration. The hells are divided into three classes: I. Central, or radical, 根本地獄 consisting of (1) The eight hot hells. These were the original hells of primitive Buddhism, and are supposed to be located umder the southern continent Jambudvīpa 瞻部州, 500 yojanas below the surface. (a) 等活 or 更活 Saṃjīva, rebirth, where after many kinds of suffering a cold wind blows over the soul and returns it to this life as it was before, hence the name 等活. (b) 黑繩 Kaslasūtra, where the sufferer is bound with black chains and chopped or sawn asunder. (c) 線合; 衆合; 堆壓 Saṃghāta, where are multitudes of implements of torture, or the falling of mountains upon the sufferer. (d) 號呌; 呼呼; 叫喚 Raurava, hell of wailing. (e) 大呌; 大號呌; 大呼 Mahāraurava, hell of great wailing. (f) 炎熱; 燒炙 Tapana, hell of fames and burning. (g) 大熱; 大燒炙; 大炎熱 Pratāpana, hell of molten lead. (h) 無間; 河鼻旨; 阿惟越致; 阿毗至; 阿鼻; 阿毗 Avīci, unintermitted suffering, where sinners die and are reborn to suffer without interval. (2) The eight cold hells 八寒地獄. (a) 頞浮陀地獄 Arbuda, where the cold causes blisters. (b) 尼刺部陀 Nirarbuda, colder still causing the blisters to burst. (c) 頞哳吒; 阿吒吒 Atata, where this is the only possible sound from frozen lips. (d) 臛臛婆; 阿波波 Hahava or Apapa, where it is so cold that only this sound can be uttered. (e) 虎虎婆 Hāhādhara or Huhuva, where only this sound can be uttered. (f) 嗢鉢羅; 鬱鉢羅 (or 優鉢羅) Utpala, or 尼羅鳥 (or 漚) 鉢羅 Nīlotpala, where the skin is frozen like blue lotus buds. (g) 鉢特摩 Padma, where the skin is frozen and bursts open like red lotus buds. (h) 摩訶鉢特摩 Mahāpadma, ditto like great red lotus buds. Somewhat different names are also given. Cf. 倶舍論 8; 智度論 16; 涅槃經 11. II. The secondary hells are called 近邊地獄 adjacent hells or 十六遊增 each of its four sides, opening from each such door are four adjacent hells, in all sixteen; thus with the original eight there are 136. A list of eighteen hells is given in the 十八泥梨經. III. A third class is called the 孤地獄 (獨地獄) Lokāntarika, or isolated hells in mountains, deserts, below the earth and above it. Eitel says in regard to the eight hot hells that they range 'one beneath the other in tiers which begin at a depth of 11,900 yojanas and reach to a depth of 40,000 yojanas'. The cold hells are under 'the two Tchahavālas and range shaft-like one below the other, but so that this shaft is gradually widening to the fourth hell and then narrowing itself again so that the first and last hell have the shortest, those in the centre the longest diameter'. 'Every universe has the same number of hells, ' but 'the northern continent has no hell whatever, the two continents east and west of Meru have only small Lokāntarika hells... whilst all the other hells are required for the inhabitants of the southern continent '. It may be noted that the purpose of these hells is definitely punitive, as well as purgatorial. Yama is the judge and ruler, assisted by eighteen officers and a host of demons, who order or administer the various degrees of torture. 'His sister performs the same duties with regard to female criminals, ' and it may be mentioned that the Chinese have added the 血盆池 Lake of the bloody bath, or 'placenta tank' for women who die in childbirth. Release from the hells is in the power of the monks by tantric means.


see styles
Mandarin tiān shàng / tian1 shang4
Taiwan t`ien shang / tien shang
Japanese tenjou / tenjo / てんじょう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese celestial; heavenly
Japanese (n,vs,adj-no) the heavens; (given name) Tenjou; (surname) Amaue
The heavens above, i. e. the six devalokas 六欲天 of the region of desire and the rupalokas andarupalokas, i. e. 色 and 無色界; heavenly realm



see styles
Mandarin yè lún / ye4 lun2
Taiwan yeh lun
Japanese gōrin
The wheel of karma which turns men into the six paths of transmigration.



see styles
Mandarin lún huí / lun2 hui2
Taiwan lun hui
Japanese rinne / りんね
Japanese (noun/participle) (Buddhist term) samsara; endless cycle of death and rebirth; (female given name) Rinne; (female given name) Kururu
輪轉 saṃsāra, the turning of the wheel, to revolve, i.e. transmigration in the six ways, the wheel of transmigration; the round of existence.



see styles
Mandarin ā xiū luó / a1 xiu1 luo2
Taiwan a hsiu lo
Japanese ashura / あしゅら
Chinese Asura, malevolent spirits in Indian mythology
Japanese Asura (fighting demon); (female given name) Ashura
asura, 修羅 originally meaning a spirit, spirits, or even the gods, it generally indicates titanic demons, enemies of the gods, with whom, especially Indra, they wage constant war. They are defined as 'not devas', and 'ugly', and 'without wine'. Other forms are 阿須羅 (or 阿蘇羅, or 阿素羅); 阿修倫 (or羅須倫 or 阿修輪 or 羅須輪); 阿素洛; 阿差. Four classes are named according to their manner of rebirth-egg, born, womb-born, transformation-born, and spawn- or water-born. Their abode is in the ocean, north of Sumeru, but certain of the weaker dwell in a western mountain cave. They have realms, rulers, and palaces, as have the devas. The 阿修羅道 is one of the six gatis, or ways of reincarnation. The 修羅場 or 修羅巷 is the battlefield of the asuras against Indra. The 阿修羅琴 are their harps.

see styles
Mandarin liù / liu4
Taiwan liu
Japanese ryuu / ryu / リュー
Chinese six; 6
Japanese (numeric) (ロー in mahjong) six (chi: liù); (surname, given name) Roku; (personal name) Renko; (personal name) Mutsusho; (surname) Mutsuzaki; (given name) Mutsu; (personal name) Mui; (personal name) Hasuko
ṣaṭ, ṣaḍ. Six.



see styles
Mandarin liù shū / liu4 shu1
Taiwan liu shu
Japanese rikusho;rikisho;rokusho / りくしょ;りきしょ;ろくしょ
Chinese Six Methods of forming Chinese characters, according to Han dictionary Shuowen 說文|说文 - namely, two primary methods: 象形 (pictogram), 指事 (ideogram), two compound methods: 會意|会意 (combined ideogram), 形聲|形声 (ideogram plus phonetic), and two transfer methods: 假借 (loan), 轉注|转注 (transfer)
Japanese (1) (りくしょ, りきしょ only) the six classes of (kanji) characters; (2) Hexateuch (first six books of the Hebrew Bible)


see styles
Mandarin liù cháo / liu4 chao2
Taiwan liu ch`ao / liu chao
Japanese rikuchou;rokuchou / rikucho;rokucho / りくちょう;ろくちょう
Chinese Six Dynasties (220-589)
Japanese (1) Six Dynasties (of China: Eastern Wu, Eastern Jin, Song, Qi, Liang, Chen); (2) calligraphic style of the Six Dynasties period


see styles
Mandarin liù yín / liu4 yin2
Taiwan liu yin
Japanese rokuin / ろくいん
Chinese (TCM) six excesses causing illness, namely: excessive wind 風|风[feng1], cold 寒[han2], heat 暑[shu3], damp 濕|湿[shi1], dryness 燥[zao4], fire 火[huo3]
Japanese six external causes of illness in traditional Chinese medicine (wind, cold, fire-heat, dampness, dryness, heat of summer)


see styles
Mandarin liù fǔ / liu4 fu3
Taiwan liu fu
Japanese roppu / ろっぷ
Chinese (TCM) six bowels (hollow organs), namely: gall bladder 膽|胆[dan3], stomach 胃[wei4], large intestine 大腸|大肠[da4 chang2], small intestine 小腸|小肠[xiao3 chang2], triple heater 三焦[san1 jiao1], bladder 膀胱[pang2 guang1]
Japanese the six internal organs (large intestine, small intestine, gallbladder, stomach, san jiao, urinary bladder)



see styles
Mandarin liù qīn / liu4 qin1
Taiwan liu ch`in / liu chin
Japanese rokushin / ろくしん
Chinese six close relatives, namely: father 父[fu4], mother 母[mu3], older brothers 兄[xiong1], younger brothers 弟[di4], wife 妻[qi1], male children 子[zi3]; one's kin
Japanese the six blood relations
The six immediate relations— father and mother, wife and child, elder and younger brothers; six kinds of blood relations, for which there are various definitions

see styles
Mandarin/ lu:3
Japanese ryo / りょ
Chinese pitchpipe, pitch standard, one of the twelve semitones in the traditional tone system; surname Lü
Japanese (1) (abbreviation) (See 甲・かん) bass range (in Japanese music); (2) (See 十二律,律・6) six even-numbered notes of the ancient chromatic scale; (3) (See 呂旋) Japanese seven-tone gagaku scale similar to Mixolydian mode (corresp. to: re, mi, fa, so, la, ti, do); (surname) Roi; (surname) Ro; (surname) Ryo; (surname) Ri; (personal name) Oto

see styles
Mandarin wèi / wei4
Taiwan wei
Japanese mi / み    aji / あじ
Chinese taste; smell; classifier for drugs (in TCM)
Japanese (1) (sense of) taste; (suf,ctr) (2) counter for food, drink, medicine, etc.; (1) flavor; flavour; taste; (2) charm; style; (3) experience; (adjectival noun) (4) (See 味な) smart; clever; witty; strange
rasa. Taste, flavour; the sense of taste. One of the six sensations; flavor

see styles
Mandarin ǎn / an3
Taiwan an
Japanese on
Chinese (interjection) oh!; (dialect) to stuff something in one's mouth; (used in buddhist transliterations) om
oṃ; auṃ; 'a word of solemn affirmation and respectful assent (sometimes translated by yes, verily, so be it, and in this sense compared with Amen). 'M. W. It is 'the mystic name for the Hindu triad', and has other significations. It was adopted by Buddhists, especially by the Tantric school, as a mystic spell, and as an object of meditation. It forms the first syllable of certain mystical combinations, e. g. 唵?呢叭 061971 吽 oṃ maṇi padme huṃ, which is a formula of the Lamaistic branch, said to be a prayer to Padmapani; each of the six syllables having its own mystic power of salvation from the lower paths of transmigration, etc.; the formula is used in sorcery, auguries, etc.; other forms of it are 唵?呢鉢頭迷吽; 唵麽抳鉢訥銘吽.

see styles
Mandarin gòu / gou4
Taiwan kou
Japanese ku / く    aka / あか
Chinese dirt; disgrace
Japanese {Buddh} (See 煩悩・2) klesha (polluting thoughts such as greed, hatred and delusion, which result in suffering); (1) dirt; filth; grime; (2) (垢 is ateji) (See アカ) account (e.g. online service); (personal name) Yoshimi; (personal name) Yoshitsugu; (personal name) Yoshi; (personal name) Konomi; (personal name) Kou
mala. Dust, impurity, dregs; moral impurity; mental impurity. Whatever misleads or deludes the mind; illusion; defilement; the six forms are vexation, malevolence, hatred, flattery, wild talk, pride; the seven are desire, false views, doubt, presumption, arrogance, inertia, and meanness.

see styles
Mandarin chén / chen2
Taiwan ch`en / chen
Japanese chiri / ちり    jin / じん
Chinese dust; dirt; earth
Japanese dust; dirt; (1) {Buddh} defilement; impurity; affliction; (2) object (perceived with the mind or the senses); (numeric) (3) one billionth
guṇa, in Sanskrit inter alia means 'a secondary element', 'a quality', 'an attribute of the five elements', e.g. 'ether has śabda or sound for its guṇa and the ear for its organ'. In Chinese it means 'dust, small particles; molecules, atoms, exhalations'. It may be intp. as an atom, or matter, which is considered as defilement; or as an active, conditioned principle in nature, minute, subtle, and generally speaking defiling to pure mind; worldly, earthly, the world. The six guṇas or sensation-data are those of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and thought; object

see styles
Mandarin dài // dà / dai4 // da4
Taiwan tai // ta
Japanese dai / だい    oo / おお
Chinese see 大夫[dai4 fu5]; big; huge; large; major; great; wide; deep; older (than); oldest; eldest; greatly; very much; (dialect) father; father's elder or younger brother
Japanese (prefix) (1) the large part of; (2) big; large; great; (suffix) (3) approximate size; no larger than; (4) (abbreviation) (See 大学・1) -university; (5) large (e.g. serving size); loud (e.g. volume setting); (prefix) (See 大・だい・2) big; large; (given name) Yutaka; (surname, given name) Masaru; (personal name) Masa; (male given name) Futoshi; (male given name) Hiroshi; (personal name) Hiro; (surname, given name) Hajime; (personal name) Daibuku; (personal name) Daifuku; (personal name) Daisue; (surname) Daijou; (personal name) Daikatsu; (surname, female given name) Dai; (given name) Takeshi; (male given name) Takashi; (given name) Shin; (personal name) Kazuhito; (surname) Oyagi; (surname) Otaka
Maha. 摩訶; 麼賀. Great, large, big; all pervading, all-embracing; numerous 多; surpassing ; mysterious 妙; beyond comprehension 不可思議; omnipresent 體無不在. The elements, or essential things, i.e. (a) 三大 The three all-pervasive qualities of the 眞如 q.v. : its 體, 相 , 用 substance, form, and functions, v. 起信論 . (b) 四大 The four tanmātra or elements, earth, water, fire, air (or wind) of the 倶舍論. (c)五大 The five, i.e. the last four and space 空, v. 大日經. (d) 六大 The six elements, earth, water, fire, wind, space (or ether), mind 識. Hīnayāna, emphasizing impersonality 人空, considers these six as the elements of all sentient beings; Mahāyāna, emphasizing the unreality of all things 法空, counts them as elements, but fluid in a flowing stream of life, with mind 識 dominant; the esoteric sect emphasizing nonproduction, or non-creation, regards them as universal and as the Absolute in differentiation. (e) 七大 The 楞嚴經 adds 見 perception, to the six above named to cover the perceptions of the six organs 根.

see styles
Mandarin zōng / zong1
Taiwan tsung
Japanese shuu / shu / しゅう
Chinese surname Zong
Japanese sect; (given name) Motoi; (personal name) Muneto; (surname) Munetaka; (surname, female given name) Mune; (female given name) Miyako; (personal name) Hajime; (surname) Chon; (given name) Takashi; (surname) Souzaki; (surname) Sou; (surname, given name) Shuu
Ancestors, ancestral; clan; class, category. kind; school, sect; siddhānta, summary, main doctrine, syllogism, proposition, conclusion, realization. Sects are of two kinds: (1) those founded on principles having historic continuity, as the twenty sects of the Hīnayāna, the thirteen sects of China, and the fourteen sects of Japan: (2) those arising from an individual interpretation of the general teaching of Buddhism, as the sub-sects founded by Yongming 永明 (d. 975), 法相宗, 法性宗, 破相宗, or those based on a peculiar interpretation of one of the recognized sects, as the Jōdo-shinshū 淨土眞宗 found by Shinran-shōnin. There are also divisions of five, six, and ten, which have reference to specific doctrinal differences. Cf. 宗派.

see styles
Mandarin shào // shǎo / shao4 // shao3
Taiwan shao
Japanese shou / sho / しょう
Chinese young; few; less; to lack; to be missing; to stop (doing something); seldom
Japanese (prefix) small; little; few
Few: also used as a transliteration of ṣat, six.

see styles
Mandarin gōng / gong1
Taiwan kung
Japanese yumi(p);yu / ゆみ(P);ゆ    kyuu / kyu / きゅう
Chinese surname Gong
Japanese (1) (ゆ is usu. a prefix) bow (and arrow); (2) archery; (3) bow (for a violin, etc.); (1) bow (and arrow); (2) unit of distance to an archery target (approx. six feet); (3) unit of distance for land surveying (approx. eight feet); (surname, female given name) Yumi; (personal name) Yuge; (personal name) Hiroshi; (personal name) Kyuu
Dhanus. A bow; a bow's length, i. e. the 4, 000th part of a yojana. Seven grains of wheat 麥 make 1 finger-joint 指節; 24 finger-joints make 1 elbow or cubit 肘; 4 cubits make 1 bow; or 1 foot 5 inches make 1 elbow or cubit: 4 cubits make 1 bow; 300 bows make 1 li; but the measures are variously given.

see styles
Mandarin chēn / chen1
Taiwan ch`en / chen
Japanese shin / しん
Chinese to stare at angrily; variant of 嗔[chen1]
Japanese (Buddhist term) dosa (ill will, antipathy)
krodha; pratigha; dveṣa; one of the six fundamental kleśas, anger, ire, wrath, resentment, one of the three poisons; also called 瞋恚.

see styles
Mandarin ěr / er3
Taiwan erh
Japanese mimi / みみ
Chinese ear; handle (archaeology); and that is all (classical Chinese)
Japanese (1) ear; (2) hearing; (3) edge; crust; (4) selvedge (non-fray machined edge of fabrics); selvage; (surname, female given name) Mimi
śrotra, the ear, one of the 六根 six organs of sense, hence 耳入 is one of the twelve 入, as 耳處 is one of the twelve 處.

see styles
Mandarin shǎi // sè / shai3 // se4
Taiwan shai // se
Japanese shoku / しょく    shiki / しき    iro / いろ
Chinese color; dice; color; CL:種|种[zhong3]; look; appearance; sex
Japanese (counter) counter for colours; (1) {Buddh} (See 五蘊) rupa (form); (2) visible objects (i.e. color and form); (1) colour; color; hue; tint; tinge; shade; (2) complexion; skin colour; skin color; (3) look (on one's face); expression; (4) appearance; air; feeling; (5) personality; character; (6) tone (of one's voice, etc.); tune; sound; ring; (7) (See 色仕掛け) love; lust; sensuality; love affair; (8) lover; paramour; (9) beauty; sexiness; physical appeal; (10) (also written 種) kind; type; variety; (female given name) Shiki; (surname) Iro
rūpa, outward appearance, form, colour, matter, thing; the desirable, especially feminine attraction. It is defined as that which has resistance; or which changes and disappears, i. e. the phenomenal; also as 顯, 形 and 表色 colour and quality, form or the measurable, and mode or action. There are divisions of two, i. e. inner and outer, as the organs and objects of sense; also colour and form; of three, i. e. the visible object, e. g. colour, the invisible object, e. g. sound, the invisible and immaterial; of eleven, i. e. the five organs and five objects of sense and the immaterial object; of fourteen, the five organs and five objects of sense and the four elements, earth, water, fire, air. rūpa is one of the six bāhya-āyatana, the 六塵; also one of the five skandhas, 五蘊, i. e. the 色身. Keith refers to rūpa as 'material form or matter which is underived (no-utpādā) and which is derived (utpādā)', the underived or independent being the tangible; the derived or dependent being the senses, e. g. of hearing; most of their objects, e. g. sound; the qualities or faculties of feminity, masculinity, vitality; intimation by act and speech, space; qualities of matter, e. g. buoyancy and physical nutriment.

see styles
Mandarin chù // chǔ / chu4 // chu3
Taiwan ch`u / chu
Japanese tokoro / ところ
Chinese place; location; spot; point; office; department; bureau; respect; classifier for locations or items of damage: spot, point; to reside; to live; to dwell; to be in; to be situated at; to stay; to get along with; to be in a position of; to deal with; to discipline; to punish
Japanese (out-dated kanji) (n,suf) (1) place; spot; scene; site; (2) (kana only) address; (3) (kana only) district; area; locality; (4) (kana only) one's house; (5) (kana only) point; aspect; side; facet; (6) (kana only) passage (in text); part; (7) (kana only) space; room; (8) (kana only) thing; matter; (9) (kana only) whereupon; as a result; (10) (kana only) about to; on the verge of; (11) (kana only) was just doing; was in the process of doing; have just done; just finished doing; (surname) Tokoro
To dwell, abide; fix, decide, punish; a place, state. āyatana, 阿耶怛那, also tr. 入, place or entrance of the sense, both the organ and the sensation, or sense datum; hence the 十二處 twelve āyatana, i. e. six organs, and six sense data that enter for discrimination.

see styles
Mandarin xíng // háng / xing2 // hang2
Taiwan hsing // hang
Japanese kou / ko / こう    gyou / gyo / ぎょう
Chinese to walk; to go; to travel; a visit; temporary; makeshift; current; in circulation; to do; to perform; capable; competent; effective; all right; OK!; will do; behavior; conduct; Taiwan pr. [xing4] for the behavior-conduct sense; row; line; commercial firm; line of business; profession; to rank (first, second etc) among one's siblings (by age); (in data tables) row; (Tw) column
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) going; travelling (traveling); (2) type of classical Chinese verse (usu. an epic); (3) (archaism) district (of similar merchants); guild; (suf,pref,ctr) (4) bank; (1) line (i.e. of text); row; verse; (2) {Buddh} carya (austerities); (3) {Buddh} samskara (formations); (4) (abbreviation) (See 行書) running script (a semi-cursive style of kanji); (female given name) Yukue; (personal name) Yukimune; (p,s,f) Yuki; (personal name) Michi; (given name) Makoto; (surname) Nameki; (surname) Namekata; (given name) Tooru; (male given name) Tsuyoshi; (male given name) Tsutomu; (given name) Susumu; (given name) Kou; (surname) Gyoutoku; (surname, given name) Gyou; (female given name) Itaru; (female given name) Iku; (place-name) Iki; (female given name) An; (place-name) Aruki; (given name) Akira
Go; act; do; perform; action; conduct; functioning; the deed; whatever is done by mind, mouth, or body, i.e. in thought, word, or deed. It is used for ayana, going, road, course; a march, a division of time equal to six months; also for saṁskāra, form, operation, perfecting, as one of the twelve nidānas, similar to karma, action, work, deed, especially moral action, cf. 業; to practice

see styles
Mandarin zhì // shí / zhi4 // shi2
Taiwan chih // shih
Japanese shiki / しき
Chinese to record; to write a footnote; to know; knowledge; Taiwan pr. [shi4]
Japanese (1) acquaintanceship; (2) {Buddh} vijnana; consciousness; (3) (after a signature) written by...; (personal name) Tsuguhide; (female given name) Shiki; (given name) Satoru; (female given name) Sato
vijñāna, "the art of distinguishing, or perceiving, or recognizing, discerning, understanding, comprehending, distinction, intelligence, knowledge, science, learning . . . wisdom." M.W. parijñāna, "perception, thorough knowledge," etc. M.W. It is intp. by 心 the mind, mental discernment, perception, in contrast with the object discerned; also by 了別 understanding and discrimination. There are classifications of 一識 that all things are the one mind, or are metaphysical; 二識 q. v. discriminating the ālaya-vijñāna or primal undivided condition from the mano-vijñāna or that of discrimination; 三識 in the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra, fundamental, manifested and discriminate; 五識 q.v. in the 起信論, i.e. 業, 轉, 現, 知, and 相續識; 六識 the perceptions and discernings of the six organs of sense; also of 8, 9, 10, and 11 識. The most important is the eight of the 起信論, i.e. the perceptions of the six organs of sense, eye, ear, nose, tongue, body (or touch), and mind, together with manas, intp. as 意識 the consciousness of the previous moment, on which the other six depend; the eighth is the ālaya-vijñāna, v. 阿賴耶, in which is contained the seed or stock of all phenomena and which 無沒 loses none, or nothing, is indestructible; a substitute for the seventh is ādāna 'receiving' of the 唯識, which is intp. as 無解 undiscriminated, or indefinite perception; there is a difference of view between the 相 and the 性 schools in regard to the seventh and eight 識; and the latter school add a ninth called the amala, or pure vijñāna, i.e. the non-phenomenal 眞如識. The esoterics add that all phenomena are mental and all things are the one mind, hence the one mind is 無量識 unlimited mind or knowledge, every kind of knowledge, or omniscience. vijñāna is one of the twelve nidānas.; Ālaya-vijñāna and mano-vijñāna; i. e. 阿梨耶 | and 分別事 |; v. 識.

see styles
Mandarin tòng // tōng / tong4 // tong1
Taiwan t`ung / tung
Japanese tsuu / tsu / つう
Chinese classifier for an activity, taken in its entirety (tirade of abuse, stint of music playing, bout of drinking etc); to go through; to know well; (suffix) expert; to connect; to communicate; open; to clear; classifier for letters, telegrams, phone calls etc
Japanese (adj-na,n-suf) (1) connoisseur; authority; (counter) (2) counter for letters, notes, documents, etc.; (given name) Michiaki; (surname, female given name) Michi; (given name) Hiraku; (given name) Tooru; (place-name) Toori; (surname) Tsuuzaki; (female given name) Tsuu; (place-name) Kayoi; (female given name) Kayo; (personal name) Ikariya
Permeate, pass through, pervade; perceive, know thoroughly; communicate; current; free, without hindrance, unimpeded universal; e.g. 神通 supernatural, ubiquitous powers. There are categories of 五通, 六通, and 十通, all referring to supernatural powers; the five are (1) knowledge of the supernatural world; (2) deva vision; (3) deva hearing; (4) knowledge of the minds of all others; (5) knowledge of all the transmigrations of self and all others. The six are the above together with perfect wisdom for ending moral hindrance and delusion. The ten are knowing all previous transmigrations, having deva hearing, knowing the minds of others, having deva vision, showing deva powers, manifesting many bodies or forms, being anywhere instantly, power of bringing glory to one's domain, manifesting a body of transformation, and power to end evil and transmigration.

see styles
Mandarin/ bi2
Taiwan pi
Japanese hana / はな
Chinese nose
Japanese nose; (surname) Hana
ghrāṇa. The nose; one of the five 根 indryas; the organ of smell; one of the six vijñānas (六識) or perceptions, the sense of smell; translit. vai, vi.



see styles
Mandarin yī jiān / yi1 jian1
Taiwan i chien
Japanese hitoma / ひとま    ikken / いっけん
Japanese one room; one ken; six feet; (surname) Ichima
ekavīcika 翳迦鼻致迦 Still one final stage of mortality before nirvāṇa. Also wrongly styled bījaka 鼻致迦, a seed 一種 which leads to one more reincarnation; one interruption



see styles
Mandarin qī zhòng / qi1 zhong4
Taiwan ch`i chung / chi chung
Japanese shichishu / しちしゅ
Japanese seven orders of Buddhist disciples (monks, nuns, probationary nuns, male novices, female novices, male lay devotees, female lay devotees)
The seven classes of disciples:―(1)比丘 bhikṣu,monk;(2) bhikṣuṇī a female observer of all commandments; (3) 式叉摩那śikṣamāṇa, a novice, or observer of the six commandments; (4) 沙彌 śrāmaṇera, and (5) 沙彌尼 śrāmaṇerika, male and female observers of the minor commandments; (6) 優婆塞 upāsaka, male observers of the five commandments; and (7) 優婆夷upāsikā, female ditto. The first five have left home, the last two remain at home. Tiantai makes nine groups by dividing the last two into four, two remaining at home, two leaving home and keeping the eight commandments. Others make four groups, i.e. (1), (2), (6), and (7) of the above. Tiantai also has a four-group; seven groups (of Buddhist disciples)


see styles
Mandarin zhàng liù / zhang4 liu4
Taiwan chang liu
Japanese jouroku / joroku / じょうろく
Japanese (1) one jō and six shaku (4.85m); (2) statue of Buddha measuring one jō and six shaku; (3) sitting cross-legged; (place-name, surname) Jouroku
Sixteen "feet", the normal height of a Buddha in his "transformation body" 化 身 nirmāṇa-kāya; said to be the height of the Buddha when he was on earth; sixteen feet


see styles
Mandarin sān chéng / san1 cheng2
Taiwan san ch`eng / san cheng
Japanese minori / みのり
Japanese (surname) Minori
Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.


see styles
Mandarin sān yīn / san1 yin1
Taiwan san yin
Japanese sanin / さんいん
Japanese {Buddh} (See 三因仏性) three causes of Buddha nature; (place-name) Miyori
The six "causes" of the Abhidharma Kośa 倶舍論 as reduced to three in the Satyasiddhi śāstra 成實論, i.e. 生因 producing cause, as good or evil deeds cause good or evil karma; 習因 habit cause, e.g. lust breeding lust; 依因 dependent or hypostatic cause, e.g. the six organs 六根 and their objects 六境 causing the cognitions 六識; three causes



see styles
Mandarin sān bǎo / san1 bao3
Taiwan san pao
Japanese sanbō
Triratna, or Ratnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones: 佛 Buddha, 法 Dharma, 儈 Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel suggests this trinity may be adapted from the Trimūrti, i.e, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Sīva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikāya 三身 q.v. There is also the Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Buddha as a Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Dhyāni-Buddha, and Mānuṣi-Buddha; also the Tantric trinity of Vairocana as Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel "existing in reflex in the world of forms", and the human Buddha, Śākyamuni. There are other elaborated details known as the four and the six kinds of triratna 四 and 六種三寳, e.g. that the Triratna exists in each member of the trinity. The term has also been applied to the 三仙 q.v. Popularly the 三寳 are referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre one is Śākyamuni, on his left Bhaiṣajya 藥師 and on his right Amitābha. There are other explanations, e.g. in some temples Amitābha is in the centre, Avalokiteśvara on his left, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta or Mañjuśrī on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikāya, and Trailokya: — DHARMASAṄGHABUDDHAEssential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical BodhiDhyāni BuddhaDhyāni BodhisattvaMānuṣī BuddhaDharmakāyaSambhogakāyaNirmāṇakāyaPurityCompletenessTransformations4th Buddha-kṣetra3rd Buddha-kṣetra1st and 2nd Buddha kṣetraArūpadhātuRūpadhātuKāmadhātu.


see styles
Mandarin sān xīn / san1 xin1
Taiwan san hsin
Japanese sanshin / さんしん
Japanese (given name) Sanshin
The three minds, or hearts; various groups are given: (1) Three assured ways of reaching the Pure Land, by (a) 至誠心 perfect sincerity; (b) 深 profound resolve for it; (c) 廻向接發願心 resolve on demitting one's merits to others. (2) (a) 根本心 The 8th or ālaya-vijñāna mind, the storehouse, or source of all seeds of good or evil; (b) 依本 the 7th or mano-vijñāna mind, the mediating cause of all taint; (c) 起事心 the ṣaḍāyatana-vijñāna mind, the immediate influence of the six senses. (3) (a) 入心 (b) 住心 (c) 出心 The mind entering into a condition, staying there, departing. (4) A pure, a single, and an undistracted mind. There are other groups; three kinds of mind


see styles
Mandarin sān jiè / san1 jie4
Taiwan san chieh
Japanese sangai / さんがい
Japanese (1) {Buddh} (See 欲界,色界,無色界) the three realms of existence; (2) (abbreviation) {Buddh} (See 三千大千世界) the whole universe (of a billion worlds) that Buddha enlightened; (3) {Buddh} (See 三世・さんぜ・1) past, present and future existences; (suffix) (4) far-off ...; distant ...; (surname) Mikai
Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are 欲, 色, and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of sensuous desire, of 婬 and 食 sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful一a semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天, or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界 Arūpadhātu, or ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. v. 倶舍論世間品.


see styles
Mandarin zhōng gēn / zhong1 gen1
Taiwan chung ken
Japanese nakane / なかね
Japanese (place-name, surname) Nakane
Medium capacity, neither clever nor dull, of each of the six organs 六根; there are three powers of each organ 上根, 中根, and 下根.


see styles
Japanese nakagami / なかがみ Japanese Ten'ichijin; Nakagami; god of fortune in Onmyodo who descends to the northeast on the 46th day of the sexagenary cycle and completes a clockwise circuit, spending five days on each cardinal point and six days on each ordinal point, returning to heaven from the north on the 30th day of the next sexagenary cycle; travelling in the direction of Ten'ichijin is considered unlucky; (surname) Nakajin; (place-name, surname) Nakagami; (surname) Nakakami


see styles
Mandarin èr sān / er4 san1
Taiwan erh san
Japanese nisan / にさん
Japanese (adverbial noun) two or three; (surname) Matakazu; (female given name) Fumi; (surname) Futami; (given name) Nizou; (given name) Niisan; (female given name) Tsugumi; (given name) Tsuguzou; (personal name) Tsugizou; (female given name) Amari
The six non-Buddhist philosophers, 二三邪徒.


see styles
Mandarin èr liù / er4 liu4
Taiwan erh liu
Japanese furo / ふろ    futamu / ふたむ    banja / ばんじゃ    niroku / にろく    jiroku / じろく
Japanese (given name) Furo; (given name) Futamu; (surname) Banja; (given name) Niroku; (personal name) Jiroku
Twelve; two sets of six


see styles
Mandarin wǔ chéng / wu3 cheng2
Taiwan wu ch`eng / wu cheng
Japanese gojō
The five vehicles conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the vehicle: they are generally summed up as (1) 入乘 rebirth among men conveyed by observing the five commandments; (2) 天乘 among the devas by the ten forms of good action; (3) 聲聞乘 among the śrāvakas by the four noble truths; (4) 緣覺乘 among pratyekabuddhas by the twelve nidānas; (5) 菩薩乘 among the Buddhas and bodhisattvas by the six pāramitās 六度 q. v. Another division is the various vehicles of bodhisattvas; pratyekabuddhas; śrāvakas; general; and devas-and-men. Another is Hīnayāna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, the gods of the Brahma heavens, and those of the desire-realm. Another is Hīnayāna ordinary disciples: śrāvakas: pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas; and the one all-inclusive vehicle. And a sixth, of Tiantai, is for men; devas; śrāvakas-cum-pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas: and the Buddha-vehicle. The esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: śrāvakas, with fire: pratyekabuddhas, with wind; and bodhisattvas, with 空 the 'void'.


see styles
Mandarin wǔ xún / wu3 xun2
Taiwan wu hsün
Japanese gojun
pañca-bhijñā. The five supernatural or magical powers; six is the more common number in Chinese texts, five is the number in Ceylon; v. 五神通; five supernatural powers



see styles
Mandarin wǔ shí / wu3 shi2
Taiwan wu shih
Japanese goji
(五時教) The five periods or divisions of Śākyamuni's teaching. According to Tiantai they are (1) 華嚴時 the Avataṃsaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment, when he preached the content, of this sutra; (2) 鹿苑時 the twelve years of his preaching the Āgamas 阿含 in the Deer Park; (3) 方等時 the eight years of preaching Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna doctrines, the vaipulya period; (4) 般若時 the twenty-two years of his preaching the prajñā or wisdom sutras; (5) 法華涅槃時 the eight years of his preaching the Lotus Sutra and, in a day and a night, the Nirvana Sutra. According to the Nirvana School (now part of the Tiantai) they are (1) 三乘別教 the period when the differentiated teaching began and the distinction of the three vehicles, as represented by the 四諦 Four Noble Truths for śrāvakas, the 十二因緣 Twelve Nidānas for pratyekabuddhas, and the 六度 Six Pāramitās for bodhisattvas; (2) 三乘通教 the teaching common to all three vehicles, as seen in the 般若經; (3) 抑揚教 the teaching of the 維摩經, the 思益梵天所問經, and other sutras olling the bodhisattva teaching at the expense of that for śrāvakas; (4) 同歸教 the common objective teaching calling all three vehicles, through the Lotus, to union in the one vehicle; (5) 常住教 the teaehmg of eternal life i. e. the revelation through the Nirvana sutra of the eternity of Buddhahood; these five are also called 有相; 無相; 抑揚; 曾三歸—; and 圓常. According to 劉虬 Liu Chiu of the 晉 Chin dynasty, the teaching is divided into 頓 immediate and 漸 gradual attainment, the latter having five divisions called 五時教 similar to those of the Tiantai group. According to 法寶 Fabao of the Tang dynasty the five are (1) 小乘; (2) 般着 or 大乘; (3) 深密 or 三乘; (4) 法華 or 一乘; (5) 涅槃 or 佛性教.


see styles
Mandarin wǔ zhì / wu3 zhi4
Taiwan wu chih
Japanese gochi / ごち
Japanese (place-name, surname) Gochi
The five kinds of wisdom of the 眞言宗 Shingon School. Of the six elements 六大 earth, water, fire, air (or wind), ether (or space) 曇空, and consciousness (or mind 識 ), the first five form the phenomenal world, or Garbhadhātu, the womb of all things 胎藏界, the sixth is the conscious, or perceptive, or wisdom world, the Vajradhātu 金剛界, sometimes called the Diamond realm. The two realms are not originally apart, but one, and there is no consciousness without the other five elements. The sixth element, vijñāna, is further subdivided into five called the 五智 Five Wisdoms: (1) 法界體性智 dharmadhātu-prakṛti-jñāna, derived from the amala-vijñāna, or pure 識; it is the wisdom of the embodied nature of the dharmadhātu, defined as the six elements, and is associated with Vairocana 大日, in the centre, who abides in this samādhi; it also corresponds to the ether 空 element. (2) 大圓鏡智 adarśana-jñāna, the great round mirror wisdom, derived from the ālaya-vijñāna, reflecting all things; corresponds to earth, and is associated with Akṣobhya and the east. (3) 平等性智 samatā-jñāna, derived from mano-vijñāna, wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally; corresponds to fire, and is associated with Ratnasaṃbhava and the south. (4) 妙觀察智 pratyavekṣaṇa-jñāna, derived from 意識, wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for exposition and doubt-destruction; corresponds to water, and is associated with Amitābha and the west. (5) 成所作智 kṛtyānuṣṭhāna-jñāna, derived from the five senses, the wisdom of perfecting the double work of self-welfare and the welfare of others; corresponds to air 風 and is associated with Amoghasiddhi and the north. These five Dhyāni-Buddhas are the 五智如來. The five kinds of wisdom are the four belonging to every Buddha, of the exoteric cult, to which the esoteric cult adds the first, pure, all-refecting, universal, all-discerning, and all-perfecting.


see styles
Mandarin wǔ guǒ / wu3 guo3
Taiwan wu kuo
Japanese goka / ごか
Japanese (1) five fruits (peach, Japanese plum, apricot, jujube, Japanese chestnut); (2) (Buddhist term) five types of effect in cause-and-effect relationships; (3) (Buddhist term) five effects of ignorance and formations on one's current life
The five fruits, or effects; there are various groups, e. g. I. (1) 異熟果 fruit ripening divergently, e. g. pleasure and goodness are in different categories; present organs accord in pain or pleasure with their past good or evil deeds; (2) 等流果 fruit of the same order, e. g. goodness reborn from previous goodness; (3) 土用果 present position and function fruit, the rewards of moral merit in previous lives; (4) 增上果 superior fruit, or position arising from previous earnest endeavor and superior capacity: (5) 離繋果 fruit of freedom from all bonds, nirvana fruit. II. Fruit, or rebirth: (1) 識 conception (viewed psychologically); (2) 名色 formation mental and physical; (3) 六處 the six organs of perception complete; (4) 觸 their birth and contact with the world; (5) 受 consciousness. III. Five orders of fruit, with stones, pips, shells (as nuts), chaff-like (as pine seeds), and with pods; fivefold aspects of cause and effect


see styles
Mandarin rén qù / ren2 qu4
Taiwan jen ch`ü / jen chü
Japanese ninshu
人道 The human stage of the six gati, or states of existence; destiny of human rebirth


see styles
Japanese kaii / kai / かいい Japanese (See 会意文字) compound ideograph formation (one of the six kanji classifications); making kanji up of meaningful parts (e.g. "mountain pass" is up + down + mountain)


see styles
Mandarin fú jiè / fu2 jie4
Taiwan fu chieh
Japanese bukkai
The Buddha realm, the state of Buddhahood, one of the ten realms, which consist of the six gati together with the realms of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, pratyeka-buddhas, and śrāvakas; also a Buddha-land; also the Buddha's country; cf. 佛土; sphere of Buddha


see styles
Mandarin jiǎ jiè / jia3 jie4
Taiwan chia chieh
Chinese to make use of; to use something as pretext; under false pretenses; under the guise of; masquerading as; lenient; tolerant; loan character (one of the Six Methods 六書|六书 of forming Chinese characters); character acquiring meanings by phonetic association; also called phonetic loan


see styles
Japanese pikaichi / ぴかいち Japanese (1) scoring hand in hanafuda with one 20 point flower card and six 1 point flower cards; (2) something (or someone) that stands out above the rest; (given name) Mitsukazu; (given name) Mitsuichi; (male given name) Kooichi; (male given name) Kouichi


see styles
Mandarin bā zōng / ba1 zong1
Taiwan pa tsung
Japanese hasshuu / hasshu / はっしゅう
Japanese (See 南都六宗) the two sects of Buddhism introduced to Japan during the Heian period (Tiantai and Shingon) and the six sects introduced during the Nara period
or 八家 Eight of the early Japanese sects: 倶舍 Kusha, 成實 Jōjitsu, 律 Ritsu, 法相Hossō, 三論 Sanron, 華嚴 Kegon, 天台 Tendai, 眞言 Shingon; eight schools


see styles
Japanese mutsu / むつ    muttsu / むっつ Japanese (numeric) six


see styles
Mandarin liù wèi / liu4 wei4
Taiwan liu wei
Japanese rokui
The six stages of Bodhisattva development, i. e. 十信位; 十住位; 十廻向位; 十地位; 等覺位; 佛地位; these are from the order Huayan jing.


see styles
Japanese rikutai;rokutai / りくたい;ろくたい Japanese the six historical styles of writing kanji: large seal, small seal, clerical, triangular-swept clerical, running, and cursive; (place-name) Rottai


see styles
Mandarin liù zuò / liu4 zuo4
Taiwan liu tso
Japanese rokusa
idem 六受; six sensations


see styles
Mandarin liù yī / liu4 yi1
Taiwan liu i
Japanese roku e
The six senses on which one relies, or from which knowledge is received; v. 六情; six sense faculties


see styles
Japanese rokushin / ろくしん Japanese (See 六信五行) the six articles of faith (in Islam); (surname) Mutsunobu


see styles
Mandarin liù rù / liu4 ru4
Taiwan liu ju
Japanese rokunyuu / rokunyu / ろくにゅう
Japanese {Buddh} six sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind)
ṣaḍāyatana; 六阿耶怛那 (or 六阿也怛那) the six entrances, or locations, both the organ and the sensation — eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind; sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and perception. The six form one of the twelve nidanas, see 十二因緣. The 六根 are the six organs, the 六境 the six objects, and the 六塵 or guṇas, the six inherent qualities. The later term is 六處 q. v.; The "six entries" ṣaḍāyatana, which form one of the links in the chain of causaton, v. 十二因緣 the preceding link being觸contact, and the succeeding link 識 perception. The six are the qualities and effects of the six organs of sense producing sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought (or mental presentations). v. also 二入; six bases of the senses


see styles
Mandarin liù fán / liu4 fan2
Taiwan liu fan
Japanese rokubon
The six stages of rebirth for ordinary people, as contrasted with the saints 聖者: in the hells, and as hungry: ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas; six non-enlightened realms


see styles
Japanese rokusho / ろくしょ Japanese {Buddh} six sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind)


see styles
Japanese roppun / ろっぷん Japanese (temporal noun) six minutes; (place-name) Rokubu



see styles
Mandarin liù jiàn / liu4 jian4
Taiwan liu chien
Japanese rokken
六箭 The six swords (or arrows), i. e. the six senses, v. 六塵, which are defined as the qualities of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and mind.



see styles
Mandarin liù dòng / liu4 dong4
Taiwan liu tung
Japanese roku dō
six movements [of the earth]; six movements [of the earth]


see styles
Mandarin liù qiān / liu4 qian1
Taiwan liu ch`ien / liu chien
Japanese rokusen
six thousand; six thousand


see styles
Mandarin liù jí / liu4 ji2
Taiwan liu chi
Japanese rokusoku
The six stages of Bodhisattva developments as defined in the Tiant 'ai 圓教, i. e. Perfect, or Final Teaching, in contrast with the previous, or ordinary six developments of 十信, 十住, 十行, etc., as found in the 別教 Differentiated or Separate school. The Tiantai six are: (1) 理卽 realization that all beings are of Buddha-nature; (2) 名字卽 the apprehension of terms, that those who only hear and believe are in the Buddha. law and potentially Buddha; (3) 觀行卽 advance beyond terminology to meditation, or study and accordant action; it is known as 五品觀行 or 五品弟子位; (4) 相似卽 semblance stage, or approximation to perfection in purity, the 六根淸淨位, i. e. the 十信位; (5) 分證卽 discrimination of truth and its progressive experiential proof, i. e. the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地, and 等覺位 of the 別教 known also as the 聖因 cause or root of holiness. (6) 究竟卽 perfect enlightenment, i. e. the 妙覺位 or 聖果 fruition of holiness. (1) and (2) are known as 外凡 external for, or common to, all. (1) is theoretical; (2) is the first step in practical advance, followed by (3) and (4) styled 内凡 internal for all, and (3), (4), (5), and (6) are known as the 八位 the eight grades; six identicals


see styles
Japanese rikukei;rikkei / rikuke;rikke / りくけい;りっけい Japanese (See 六官) six ministers (of the six Zhou-dynasty Chinese ministries)


see styles
Mandarin liù fǎn / liu4 fan3
Taiwan liu fan
Japanese rokutan / ろくたん
Japanese (surname) Rokutan
six times; six times


see styles
Mandarin liù shòu / liu4 shou4
Taiwan liu shou
Japanese rokuju
The six vedanas, i. e. receptions, or sensations from the 六根 six organs. Also 六作; six sensations


see styles
Mandarin liù jù / liu4 ju4
Taiwan liu chü
Japanese rokku
six phrases; six phrases


see styles
Mandarin liù hé // lù hé / liu4 he2 // lu4 he2
Taiwan liu ho // lu
Japanese rikugou / rikugo / りくごう
Chinese the six directions (north, south, east, west, up, down); the whole country; the universe; everything under the sun; Luhe district of Nanjing City 南京市 in Jiangsu 江蘇|江苏
Japanese the universe; the cosmos; (place-name) Rokugou; (place-name, surname) Kuni
six combinations; six combinations


see styles
Mandarin liù wèi / liu4 wei4
Taiwan liu wei
Japanese roku mi
The six tastes, or flavors — bitter, sour, sweet, acrid, salt, and insipid; six flavors


see styles
Mandarin liù hé / liu4 he2
Taiwan liu ho
Japanese rokuwa / ろくわ
Japanese (given name) Rokuwa
six ways that monks harmonize with each other; six ways that monks harmonize with each other


see styles
Mandarin liù pǐn / liu4 pin3
Taiwan liu p`in / liu pin
Japanese roku hon
six chapters; six chapters


see styles
Mandarin liù yù / liu4 yu4
Taiwan liu yü
Japanese rokuyu / ろくゆ
Japanese (personal name) Rokuyu
The six illustrations of unreality Diamond Sutra: a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning. Also 六如; six metaphors


see styles
Mandarin liù yīn / liu4 yin1
Taiwan liu yin
Japanese rokuin
The six causations of the 六位 six stages of Bodhisattva development, q. v. Also, the sixfold division of causes of the Vaibhāṣikas (cf. Keith, 177-8); every phenomenon depends upon the union of 因 primary cause and 緣 conditional or environmental cause; and of the 因 there are six kinds: (1) 能作因 karaṇahetu, effective causes of two kinds: 與力因 empowering cause, as the earth empowers plant growth, and 不障因 non-resistant cause, as space does not resist, i. e. active and passive causes; (2) 倶有因 sahabhūhetu, co-operative causes, as the four elements 四大 in nature, not one of which can be omitted; (3) 同類因 sabhāgahetu, causes of the same kind as the effect, good producing good, etc.; (4) 相應因 saṃprayuktahetu, mutual responsive or associated causes, e. g. mind and mental conditions, subject with object; Keith gives 'faith and intelligence'; similar to (2); (5) 遍行因 sarvatragahetu, universal or omnipresent cause, i. e. of illusion, as of false views affecting every act; it resembles (3) but is confined to delusion; (6) 異熟因 vipākahetu, differental fruition, i. e. the effect different from the cause, as the hells are from evil deeds; six kinds of causes


see styles
Japanese rikkoku;rokkoku;rikukoku / りっこく;ろっこく;りくこく Japanese (See 戦国時代・2) Six Kingdoms (of China's Warring States period: Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Wei & Zhao)


see styles
Mandarin liù de / liu4 de
Taiwan liu te
Japanese rokuchi
Six bodhisattvas in the Dizang group of the garbhadhātu, each controlling one of the 六道 or ways of sentient existence. They deal with rebirth in the hells, as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas; six grounds


see styles
Mandarin liù gòu / liu4 gou4
Taiwan liu kou
Japanese rokku
(六垢法) Six things that defile: 誑 exaggeration, 謟 flattery, 憍 arrogance, 惱 vexation, 恨 hatred, 害 malice.



see styles
Mandarin liù chén / liu4 chen2
Taiwan liu ch`en / liu chen
Japanese rokujin
The six guṇas, qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense, i. e. sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea; the organs are the 六根, 六入, 六處, and the perceptions or discernments the 六識; cf. 六境. Dust 塵 is dirt, and these six qualities are therefore the cause of all impurity. Yet 六塵說法 the Buddha made use of them to preach his law.



see styles
Mandarin liù qiàn / liu4 qian4
Taiwan liu ch`ien / liu chien
Japanese rokusen
the six moats; the six moats


see styles
Mandarin liù jìng / liu4 jing4
Taiwan liu ching
Japanese rokkyou / rokkyo / ろっきょう
Japanese {Buddh} six objective fields of the senses (shape and colour, sound, scent, flavour, physical feeling, and mental presentation)
The six fields of the senses, i. e. the objective fields of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea (or thought); rūpa, form and color, is the field of vision; sound, of hearing; scent, of smelling; the five flavors, of tasting; physical feeling, of touch; and mental presentation, of discernment; cf. 六入; 六處 and next; six objects


see styles
Mandarin liù dà / liu4 da4
Taiwan liu ta
Japanese rokudai / ろくだい
Japanese {Buddh} the six elements (earth, water, fire, wind, void, and consciousness); (place-name) Rokudai
The six great or fundamental things, or elements — earth; water; fire; wind (or air); space (or ether); and 識 mind, or perception. These are universal and creative of all things, but the inanimate 非情 are made only of the first five, while the animate 有情 are of all six. The esoteric cult represents the six elements, somewhat differently interpreted in the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu. Also 六大界.


see styles
Mandarin liù tiān / liu4 tian1
Taiwan liu t`ien / liu tien
Japanese rokuten / ろくてん
Japanese (place-name) Rokuten
The six devalokas, i. e. the heavens with sense organs above Sumeru, between the brahmalokas and the earth, i. e. 四王天; 忉利天; 夜摩天; 兜率天; 樂變化天; and 他化自在天. The sixth is the heaven of Mara, v. 六欲天; six heavens


see styles
Mandarin liù yí / liu4 yi2
Taiwan liu i
Japanese roku i
The six pārājikas, v. 波羅夷; six forbidden crimes


see styles
Mandarin liù rú / liu4 ru2
Taiwan liu ju
Japanese rokunyo
The six 'likes' or comparisons, like a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning, v. 六喩; six metaphors


see styles
Mandarin liù wàng / liu4 wang4
Taiwan liu wang
Japanese rokumō
The six misleaders, i. e. the six senses; six deluders


see styles
Mandarin liù zì / liu4 zi4
Taiwan liu tzu
Japanese mutsuji / むつじ
Japanese (given name) Mutsuji
The six words or syllables, 南無阿彌陀佛 Namo Amitābha; six syllables


see styles
Mandarin liù zōng / liu4 zong1
Taiwan liu tsung
Japanese rokumune / ろくむね    mutsumune / むつむね
Japanese (surname) Rokumune; (surname) Mutsumune
The six schools, i. e. 三論宗; 法相宗; 華嚴宗; 律宗; 成實宗, and 倶舍宗 q. v.; the last two are styled Hīnayāna schools. Mahāyāna in Japan puts in place of them 天台宗 and 眞言宗 Tendai and Shingon.


see styles
Japanese rikukan;rikkan;rokkan / りくかん;りっかん;ろっかん Japanese six ministries (of Zhou-dynasty China)


see styles
Mandarin liù jiā / liu4 jia1
Taiwan liu chia
Japanese rokke / ろっけ    rokuie / ろくいえ
Chinese Six schools of pre-Han philosophy, as analyzed by 司馬談|司马谈[Si1 ma3 Tan2] (儒家[Ru2 jia1], 道家[Dao4 jia1], 陰陽|阴阳[yin1 yang2], 法家[Fa3 jia1], 名家[Ming2 jia1], and 墨家[Mo4 jia1])
Japanese (place-name) Rokke; (surname) Rokuie


This page contains 100 results for "six" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

The following titles are just to help people who are searching for an Asian dictionary to find this page.

Japanese Kanji Dictionary

Free Asian Dictionary

Chinese Kanji Dictionary

Chinese Words Dictionary

Chinese Language Dictionary

Japanese Chinese Dictionary