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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
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Characters Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin dào / dao4
Taiwan tao
Japanese dou / do / どう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese road; path; CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3]; principle; truth; morality; reason; skill; method; Dao (of Daoism); to say; to speak; to talk; classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process; (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times)
Japanese (1) (abbreviation) road; (2) way; (3) Buddhist teachings; (4) Taoism; (5) modern administrative region of Japan (Hokkaido); (6) historical administrative region of Japan (Tokaido, Tosando, etc.); (7) province (Tang-era administrative region of China); (8) province (modern administrative region of Korea); (personal name) Wataru; (given name) Motoi; (personal name) Michihiro; (surname) Michizaki; (surname, female given name) Michi; (given name) Makoto; (female given name) Fumi; (given name) Naoshi; (surname) Douzaki; (surname) Dou; (female given name) Tooru; (given name) Tadasu; (given name) Tadashi; (female given name) Tao; (personal name) Susumu; (given name) Osamu
mārga. A way, road; the right path; principle, Truth, Reason, Logos, Cosmic energy; to lead; to say. The way of transmigration by which one arrives at a good or bad existence; any of the six gati, or paths of destiny. The way of bodhi, or enlightenment leading to nirvāṇa through spiritual stages. Essential nirvāṇa, in which absolute freedom reigns. For the eightfold noble path v. 八聖道.; The two Ways: (1) (a) 無礙道 or 無間道 The open or unhindered way, or the way of removing all obstacles or intervention, i. e. all delusion; (b) 解脫道 the way of release, by realization of truth. (2) (a) 難行道 The hard way of "works", i. e. by the six pāramitā and the disciplines. (b) 易行道 the easy way salvation, by the invocation of Amitābha. (3) (a) 有漏道 The way of reincarnation or mortality; (b) 無漏 the enlightened way of escape from the miseries of transmigration. (4) (a) 教道 The way of instruction; (b) 證道 the way of realization. (5) The two lower excretory organs.


see styles
Mandarin mén / men2
Taiwan men
Japanese mon(p);kado / もん(P);かど
Chinese gate; door; CL:扇[shan4]; gateway; doorway; CL:個|个[ge4]; opening; valve; switch; way to do something; knack; family; house; (religious) sect; school (of thought); class; category; phylum or division (taxonomy); classifier for large guns; classifier for lessons, subjects, branches of technology; (suffix) -gate (i.e. scandal; derived from Watergate); surname Men
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) gate; (2) (もん only) branch of learning based on the teachings of a single master; (3) (もん only) {biol} division; phylum; (counter) (4) (もん only) counter for cannons; (surname) Yuki; (surname) Mon; (personal name) Mamoru; (surname) To; (surname) Kado
A door; gate; a sect, school, teaching, especially one leading to salvation or nirvana.

救世

see styles
Mandarin jiù shì / jiu4 shi4
Taiwan chiu shih
Japanese kyuusei;guze;kuse / kyuse;guze;kuse / きゅうせい;ぐぜ;くせ
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese salvation
Japanese salvation
To save the world; a saviour of the world, i.e. 救世者 or 救世尊; 救世菩薩 Buddhas and bodhisattvas as world-saviours, especially 救世觀世音 Guanyin, also called 救世圓滿 complete saviour of the world.

済度

see styles
Japanese saido / さいど
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Japanese (noun/participle) {Buddh} redemption; salvation

菩薩


菩萨

see styles
Mandarin pú sà / pu2 sa4
Taiwan p`u sa / pu sa
Japanese bosatsu(p);bosachi(ok) / ぼさつ(P);ぼさち(ok)
Chinese Bodhisattva (Buddhism)
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) {Buddh} bodhisattva; one who has reached enlightenment but vows to save all beings before becoming a buddha; (2) High Monk (title bestowed by the imperial court); (3) (See 本地垂迹説) title bestowed to Shinto kami in manifestation theory; (surname) Mizoro
bodhisattva, cf. 菩提薩埵. While the idea is not foreign to Hīnayāna, its extension of meaning is one of the chief marks of Mahāyāna. 'The Bodhisattva is indeed the characteristic feature of the Mahāyāna.' Keith. According to Mahāyāna the Hinayanists, i.e. the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha, seek their own salvation, while the bodhisattva's aim is the salvation of others and of all. The earlier intp. of bodhisattva was 大道心衆生 all beings with mind for the truth; later it became 大覺有情 conscious beings of or for the great intelligence, or enlightenment. It is also intp. in terms of leadership, heroism, etc. In general it is a Mahayanist seeking Buddhahood, but seeking it altruistically; whether monk or layman, he seeks enlightenment to enlighten others, and he will sacrifice himself to save others; he is devoid of egoism and devoted to helping others. All conscious beings having the Buddha-nature are natural bodhisattvas, but require to undergo development. The mahāsattva is sufficiently advanced to become a Buddha and enter nirvāṇa, but according to his vow he remains in the realm of incarnation to save all conscious beings. A monk should enter on the arduous course of discipline which leads to Bodhisattvahood and Buddhahood.

淨土宗


净土宗

see styles
Mandarin jìng tǔ zōng / jing4 tu3 zong1
Taiwan ching t`u tsung / ching tu tsung
Japanese Jōdo Shū
Chinese Pure Land Buddhism
The Pure-land sect, whose chief tenet is salvation by faith in Amitābha; it is the popular cult in China, also in Japan, where it is the Jōdo sect; it is also called 蓮宗(蓮花宗) the Lotus sect. Established by Hui-yuan 慧遠 of the Chin dynasty (317— 419), it claims P'u-hsien 普賢 Samantabhadra as founder. Its seven chief textbooks are 無量淸淨平等覺經; 大阿彌陀經; 無量壽經; 觀無量壽經; 阿彌陀經; 稱讚淨土佛攝受經; and 鼓音聲三陀羅尼經. The淨土眞宗 is the Jōdo-Shin, or Shin sect of Japan; Pure Land School

救世軍


救世军

see styles
Mandarin jiù shì jun / jiu4 shi4 jun1
Taiwan chiu shih chün
Japanese kyuuseigun / kyusegun / きゅうせいぐん
Chinese Salvation Army (protestant philanthropic organization founded in London in 1865)
Japanese Salvation Army

see styles
Mandarin chéng / cheng2
Taiwan ch`eng / cheng
Japanese jō
Chinese four horse military chariot (archaic); four (archaic); generic term for history books; to ride; to mount; to make use of; to avail oneself of; to take advantage of; to multiply (mathematics); Buddhist sect or creed; surname Cheng
Yāna 衍; 野那 a vehicle, wain, any means of conveyance; a term applied to Buddhism as carrying men to salvation. The two chief divisions are the 小乘 Hīnayāna and 大乘 Mahāyāna; but there are categories of one, two, three, four, and five sheng q.v., and they have further subdivisions.

see styles
Mandarin huà / hua4
Taiwan hua
Japanese ka / か
Chinese to make into; to change into; -ization; to ... -ize; to transform; abbr. for 化學|化学[hua4 xue2]; variant of 花[hua1]
Japanese (suffix) (See 化する) action of making something; -ification; (personal name) Fua
To transform, metamorphose: (1) conversion by instruction, salvation into Buddhism; (2) magic powers 通力 of transformation, of which there are said to be fourteen mental and eight formal kinds. It also has the meaning of immediate appearance out of the void, or creation 無而忽起; and of giving alms, spending, digesting, melting, etc; to teach

see styles
Mandarin ǎn / an3
Taiwan an
Japanese on
Chinese (interjection) oh!; (dialect) to stuff something in one's mouth; (used in buddhist transliterations) om
oṃ; auṃ; 'a word of solemn affirmation and respectful assent (sometimes translated by yes, verily, so be it, and in this sense compared with Amen). 'M. W. It is 'the mystic name for the Hindu triad', and has other significations. It was adopted by Buddhists, especially by the Tantric school, as a mystic spell, and as an object of meditation. It forms the first syllable of certain mystical combinations, e. g. 唵?呢叭 061971 吽 oṃ maṇi padme huṃ, which is a formula of the Lamaistic branch, said to be a prayer to Padmapani; each of the six syllables having its own mystic power of salvation from the lower paths of transmigration, etc.; the formula is used in sorcery, auguries, etc.; other forms of it are 唵?呢鉢頭迷吽; 唵麽抳鉢訥銘吽.


see styles
Mandarin/ wu1
Taiwan wu
Japanese yogore;yogore / よごれ;ヨゴレ
Chinese variant of 污[wu1]
Japanese (kana only) (See 汚鮫・よごれざめ,オーシャニックホワイトティップシャーク) oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus)
Filthy, impure. kleśa; contamination of attachment to the pleasures of sense, to heretical views, to moral and ascetic practices regarded as adequate to salvation, to the belief in the self, all which cause misery.; Impure; to defile; stain

一念

see styles
Mandarin yī niàn / yi1 nian4
Taiwan i nien
Japanese ichinen / いちねん
Japanese (1) determined purpose; (2) {Buddh} an incredibly short span of time (i.e. the time occupied by a single thought); (3) {Buddh} (See 浄土宗) a single repetition of a prayer (esp. in Jodo-shu); (personal name) Kazune; (personal name) Itsune; (given name) Ichinen
A kṣaṇa, or thought; a concentration of mind; a moment; the time of a thought, of which there are varying measurements from 60 kṣaṇa upwards; the Fan-yi-ming-yi makes it one kṣaṇa. A reading. A repetition (especially of Amitābha's name). The Pure-land sect identify the thought of Buddha with Amitābha's vow, hence it is an assurance of salvation; thought-moment

三乘

see styles
Mandarin sān chéng / san1 cheng2
Taiwan san ch`eng / san cheng
Japanese minori / みのり
Japanese (surname) Minori
Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.

三德

see styles
Mandarin sān dé / san1 de2
Taiwan san te
Japanese santoku
The three virtues or powers, of which three groups are given below. (1) (a) 法身德 The virtue or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, the dharmakāya; (b) 般若德 of his prājñā, or wisdom, knowing all things in their reality; (c) 解脫德 of his freedom from all bonds and his sovereign Iiberty. Each of these has the four qualities of 常, 樂我, 淨eternity, joy, personality, and purity; v. 漫涅槃經 (2) (a) 智德 The potency of his perfect knowledge; (b) 斷德 of his cutting off all illusion and perfecting of supreme nirvāṇa; the above two are 自利 for his own advantage; (c) 恩德 of his universal grace and salvation, which 利他 bestows the benefits he has acquired on others. (3) (a) 因圓德 The perfection of his causative or karmic works during his three great kalpas of preparation; (b) 果圓德 the perfection of the fruit, or results in his own character and wisdom; (c) 恩圓德 the perfection of his grace in the salvation of others.

三等

see styles
Mandarin sān děng / san1 deng3
Taiwan san teng
Japanese santō / さんとう
Japanese third class
The three equal and universal characteristics of the one Tathāgata, an esoteric definition: (1) (a) his 身 body, (b) 語 discourse, (c) 意 mind. (2) (a) his life or works 修行; (b) spiritual body 法身; (c) salvation 度生; in their equal values and universality; three equal characteristics

三身

see styles
Mandarin sān shēn / san1 shen1
Taiwan san shen
Japanese sanjin;sanshin / さんじん;さんしん
Japanese {Buddh} trikaya (three bodies of the Buddha); (surname) Sanmi
trikāya. 三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men; three bodies [of the Buddha]

中乘

see styles
Mandarin zhōng chéng / zhong1 cheng2
Taiwan chung ch`eng / chung cheng
Japanese chūjō
The middle vehicle to nirvana, includes all intermediate or medial systems between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. It also corresponds with the state of a pratyekabuddha, who lives chiefly for his own salvation but partly for others, like a man sitting in the middle of a vehicle, leaving scarcely room for others. It is a definition made by Mahayanists unknown to Hīnayāna.

事度

see styles
Mandarin shì dù / shi4 du4
Taiwan shih tu
Japanese jido
Salvation by observing the five commandments, the ten good deeds, etc; liberation through morality

二出

see styles
Mandarin èr chū / er4 chu1
Taiwan erh ch`u / erh chu
Japanese nishutsu
The two modes of escape from mortality, 堅出 the long way called the 聖道門 or 自力敎, i.e. working out one's own salvation; and 橫出 the across or short way of the Pure-land sect or 他力敎 faith in or invocation of another, i.e. Amitābha.

二力

see styles
Mandarin èr lì / er4 li4
Taiwan erh li
Japanese nika / にか
Japanese (female given name) Nika
Dual powers; there are three definitions: (1) 自力 one's own strength, or endeavours, i.e. salvation by cultivating 戒, 定, and 慧; 他カ another's strength, e.g. the saving power of Amitābha. (2) 思擇力 Power of thought in choosing (right principles); 修習力 power of practice and performance. (3) 有力 and 無力 positive and negative forces: dominant and subordinate; active and inert energy; two powers

二圓


二圆

see styles
Mandarin èr yuán / er4 yuan2
Taiwan erh yüan
Japanese nien
The two perfect doctrines, a term of the Tiantai School, called 今圓 (also 開顯圓 and 絶待圓) and 昔圓 (also 相待圓 ). 今圓 is the present really perfect 一實 doctrine arising from the Lotus Sūtra; 昔圓 is the older, or 相待 comparatively speaking perfect doctrine of the pre-Lotus teaching, that of the 藏, 通, and 別 schools; but the older was for limited salvation and not universal like the 今圓; these two are also termed 部圓 and 教圓 . The Huayan school has a division of the two perfections into 漸圓 gradual perfection and 頓圓 immediate perfection.

二教

see styles
Mandarin èr jiào / er4 jiao4
Taiwan erh chiao
Japanese nikyō
Dual division of the Buddha's teaching. There are various definitions: (1) Tiantai has (a) 顯教 exoteric or public teaching to the visible audience, and (b) 密教 at the same time esoteric teaching to an audience invisible to the other assembly. (2) The 眞言 Shingon School by "exoteric" means all the Buddha's preaching, save that of the 大日經 which it counts esoteric. (3) (a) 漸教 and (b) 頓教 graduated and immediate teaching, terms with various uses, e.g. salvation by works Hīnayāna, and by faith, Mahāyāna, etc.; they are applied to the Buddha's method, to the receptivity of hearers and to the teaching itself. (4) Tiantai has (a) 界内教 and (b) 界外教 teachings relating to the 三界 or realms of mortality and teachings relating to immortal realms. (5) (a) 半字教 and (b) 滿字教 Terms used in the Nirvāṇa sūtra, meaning incomplete word, or letter, teaching and complete word teaching, i.e. partial and complete, likened to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. (6) (a) 捃收教 and (b) 扶律談常教 of the Nirvāṇa sūtra, (a) completing those who failed to hear the Lotus; (b) "supporting the law, while discoursing on immortality," i.e. that the keeping of the law is also necessary to salvation. (7) Tiantai's division of (a) 偏教 and (b) 圓教 the partial teaching of the 藏, 通, and schools as contrasted with the perfect teaching of the 圓 school. (8) Tiantai's division of (a) 構教 and (6) 實教 temporary and permanent, similar to the last two. (9) (a) 世間教 The ordinary teaching of a moral life here; (b) 出世間教 the teaching of Buddha-truth of other-worldly happiness in escape from mortality. (10) (a) 了義教 the Mahāyāna perfect or complete teaching, and (b) 不了義教 Hīnayāna incompleteness. (11) The Huayan division of (a) 屈曲教 indirect or uneven teaching as in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, and (b) 平道教 direct or levelled up teaching as in the Huayan sūtra. (12) The Huayan division of (a) 化教 all the Buddha's teaching for conversion and general instruction, and (b) 制教 his rules and commandments for the control and development of his order; two kinds of teaching

五度

see styles
Mandarin wǔ dù / wu3 du4
Taiwan wu tu
Japanese godo
Chinese five degrees; fifth (basic musical interval, doh to soh)
The five means of transportation over the sea of mortality to salvation; they are the five pāramitās 五波羅蜜— almsgiving, commandment-keeping, patience under provocation, zeal, and meditation; five perfections

五觀


五观

see styles
Mandarin wǔ guān / wu3 guan1
Taiwan wu kuan
Japanese gokan
The five meditations referred to in the Lotus Sutra 25: (1) 眞 on the true, idem 空觀, to meditate on the reality of the void or infinite, in order to be rid of illusion in views and thoughts; (2) 淸淨觀 on purity, to be rid of any remains of impurity connected with the temporal, idem 假觀; (3) 廣大智慧觀 on the wider and greater wisdom, idem 中觀, by study of the 'middle' way; (4) 悲觀 on pitifulness, or the pitiable condition of the living, and by the above three to meditate on their salvation; (5) 慈觀 on mercy and the extension of the first three meditations to the carrying of joy to all the living; five contemplations

他力

see styles
Mandarin tā lì / ta1 li4
Taiwan t`a li / ta li
Japanese tariki / たりき
Japanese outside help; salvation by faith; (surname) Tariki
Another's strength, especially that of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, obtained through faith in Mahāyāna salvation; other-power

佛乘

see styles
Mandarin fú chéng / fu2 cheng2
Taiwan fu ch`eng / fu cheng
Japanese butsujō
The Buddha conveyance or vehicle, Buddhism as the vehicle of salvation for all beings; the doctrine of the 華嚴 Huayan (Kegon) School that all may become Buddha, which is called 一乘 the One Vehicle, the followers of this school calling it the 圓教 complete or perfect doctrine; this doctrine is also styled in the Lotus Sutra 一佛乘 the One Buddha-Vehicle.

假門


假门

see styles
Mandarin jiǎ mén / jia3 men2
Taiwan chia men
Japanese kemon
The sects which rely on externals, i. e. on 'works' for salvation, in contrast with faith in Amitābha; provisional teachings

利樂


利乐

see styles
Mandarin lì lè / li4 le4
Taiwan li le
Japanese riraku
Blessing and joy; the blessing being for the future life, the joy for the present; or aid (for salvation) and the joy of it; benefit and joy [given to sentient beings by bodhisattvas]

化儀


化仪

see styles
Mandarin huà yí / hua4 yi2
Taiwan hua i
Japanese kegi
The rules or methods laid down by the Buddha for salvation: Tiantai speaks of 化儀 as transforming method, and 化法 q. v. as transforming truth; its 化儀四教 are four modes of conversion or enlightenment: 頓 direct or sudden, 漸 gradual, 祕密 esoteric, and 不定 variable.

化度

see styles
Mandarin huà dù / hua4 du4
Taiwan hua tu
Japanese kedo
To convert and transport, or save; to convert and convey to salvation

化源

see styles
Mandarin huà yuán / hua4 yuan2
Taiwan hua yüan
Japanese kegen
The fount of conversion, or salvation, the beginning of the Buddha's teaching; origin of the teaching

十恩

see styles
Mandarin shí ēn / shi2 en1
Taiwan shih en
Japanese jūon
Ten kinds of the Buddha's grace: his (1) initial resolve to universalize (his salvation); (2) self-sacrifice (in previous lives); (3) complete altruism; (4) his descent into all the six states of existence for their salvation; (5) relief of the living from distress and mortality; (6) profound pity; (7) revelation of himself in human and glorified form; (8) teaching in accordance with the capacity of his hearers, first hīnayāna, then māhayāna doctrine; (9) revealing his nirvāṇa to stimulate his disciples; (10) pitying thought for all creatures, in that dying at 80 instead of at 100 he left twenty years of his own happiness to his disciples; and also the tripiṭaka for universal salvation; ten kinds of kindness

十智

see styles
Mandarin shí zhì / shi2 zhi4
Taiwan shih chih
Japanese jū chi
The ten forms of understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto, applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智; (8) 他心智 understanding of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10) 無生智 nirvāṇa wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26. II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界無礙智 unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6) 普照一切世間智 understanding of universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) 知一切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) 知一切法智 understanding of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) 知無邊諸佛智 understanding of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings, karma, passions, and Buddhas; ten kinds of cognition

十障

see styles
Mandarin shí zhàng / shi2 zhang4
Taiwan shih chang
Japanese jisshō
Ten hindrances; bodhisattvas in the stage of 十地 overcome these ten hindrances and realize the十眞如 q.v. The hindrances are: (1) 異生性障 the hindrance of the common illusions of the unenlightened, taking the seeming for real; (2) 邪行障 the hindrance of common unenlightened conduct; (3) 暗鈍障 the hindrance of ignorant and dull ideas; (4) 細惑現行障 the hindrance of the illusion that things are real and have independent existence; (5)下乘涅槃障 the hindrance of the lower ideals in Hīnayāna of nirvāṇa; (6) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the ordinary ideas of the pure and impure; (7) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the idea of reincarnation; (8) 無相加行障 the hindrance of the continuance of activity even in the formless world; (9) 不欲行障 the hindrance of no desire to act for the salvation of others; (10) 法未自在障 the hindrance of non- attainment of complete mastery of all things. v. 唯識論 10.

南無


南无

see styles
Mandarin nán wú / nan2 wu2
Taiwan nan wu
Japanese namu / なむ
Chinese Buddhist salutation or expression of faith (loanword from Sanskrit); Taiwan pr. [na2 mo2]
Japanese (conj,int) {Buddh} amen; hail; (surname) Namu
namaḥ; Pali: namo; to submit oneself to, from to bend, bow to, make obeisance, pay homage to; an expression of submission to command, complete commitment, reverence, devotion, trust for salvation, etc. Also written 南牟; 南謨; 南忙; 那謨 (or 那模 or 那麻); 納莫 (or 納慕); 娜母; 曩莫 (or 曩謨); 捺麻(or捺謨), etc. It is used constantly in liturgy, incantations, etc., especially as in namaḥ Amitābha, which is the formula of faith of the Pure-land sect, representing the believing heart of all beings and Amitābha's power and will to save; repeated in the hour of death it opens the entrance to the Pure Land.

囘向


回向

see styles
Mandarin huí xiàng / hui2 xiang4
Taiwan hui hsiang
Japanese ekō
迴向 pariṇāmanā. To turn towards; to turn something from one person or thing to another; transference of merit); the term is intp. by 轉趣 turn towards; it is used for works of supererogation, or rather, it means the bestowing on another, or others, of merits acquired by oneself, especially the merits acquired by a bodhisattva or Buddha for the salvation of all, e. g. the bestowing of his merits by Amitābha on all the living. There are other kinds, such as the turning of acquired merit to attain further progress in bodhi, or nirvana. 囘事向理 to turn (from) practice to theory; 囘自向他 to turn from oneself to another; 囘因向果 To turn from cause to effect. 囘世而向出世 to turn from this world to what is beyond this world, from the worldly to the unworldly; dedication of merit

大乘

see styles
Mandarin dà chéng / da4 cheng2
Taiwan ta ch`eng / ta cheng
Japanese oonori / おおのり
Chinese Mahayana, the Great Vehicle; Buddhism based on the Mayahana sutras, as spread to Central Asia, China and beyond; also pr. [Da4 cheng2]
Japanese (surname) Oonori
Mahāyāna; also called 上乘; 妙乘; 勝乘; 無上乘; 無上上乘; 不惡乘; 無等乘, 無等等乘; 摩訶衍 The great yāna, wain, or conveyance, or the greater vehicle in comparison with the 小乘 Hīnayāna. It indicates universalism, or Salvation for all, for all are Buddha and will attain bodhi. It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea, Japan, and in other places in the Far East. It is also called Northern Buddhism. It is interpreted as 大教 the greater teaching as compared with 小教 the smaller, or inferior. Hīnayāna, which is undoubtedly nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha, is unfairly described as an endeavour to seek nirvana through an ash-covered body, an extinguished intellect, and solitariness; its followers are sravakas and pratyekabuddhas (i.e. those who are striving for their own deliverance through ascetic works). Mahāyāna, on the other hand, is described as seeking to find and extend all knowledge, and, in certain schools, to lead all to Buddhahood. It has a conception of an Eternal Buddha, or Buddhahood as Eternal (Adi-Buddha), but its especial doctrines are, inter alia, (a) the bodhisattvas 菩薩 , i.e. beings who deny themselves final Nirvana until, according to their vows, they have first saved all the living; (b) salvation by faith in, or invocation of the Buddhas or bodhisattvas; (c) Paradise as a nirvana of bliss in the company of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, saints, and believers. Hīnayāna is sometimes described as 自利 self-benefiting, and Mahāyāna as 自利利他 self-benefit for the benefit of others, unlimited altruism and pity being the theory of Mahāyāna. There is a further division into one-yana and three-yanas: the trīyāna may be śrāvaka, pratyeka-buddha, and bodhisattva, represented by a goat, deer, or bullock cart; the one-yāna is that represented by the Lotus School as the one doctrine of the Buddha, which had been variously taught by him according to the capacity of his hearers, v. 方便. Though Mahāyāna tendencies are seen in later forms of the older Buddhism, the foundation of Mahāyāna has been attributed to Nāgārjuna 龍樹. "The characteristics of this system are an excess of transcendental speculation tending to abstract nihilism, and the substitution of fanciful degrees of meditation and contemplation (v. Samādhi and Dhyāna) in place of the practical asceticism of the Hīnayāna school."[Eitel 68-9.] Two of its foundation books are the 起信論and the 妙法蓮華經 but a larnge numberof Mahāyāna sutras are ascribed to the Buddha。; great vehicle

大度

see styles
Mandarin dà dù / da4 du4
Taiwan ta tu
Japanese taido / たいど
Chinese magnanimous; generous (in spirit)
Japanese magnanimity; (place-name) Oodo
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

大法

see styles
Mandarin dà fǎ / da4 fa3
Taiwan ta fa
Japanese taihou / taiho / たいほう
Japanese basic law; (given name) Taihou; (surname) Oonori
The great Dharma, or Law (of Mahāyāna salvation).

大船

see styles
Mandarin dà chuán / da4 chuan2
Taiwan ta ch`uan / ta chuan
Japanese oobune(p);oofune;taisen / おおぶね(P);おおふね;たいせん
Japanese large boat; (given name) Daisen; (surname) Oobuna; (place-name, surname) Oofune; (place-name, surname) Oofuna
The great ship of salvation — Mahāyāna; great vessel

孤調


孤调

see styles
Mandarin gū diào / gu1 diao4
Taiwan ku tiao
Japanese kochō
Self-arranging, the Hīnayāna method of salvation by individual effort.

宗派

see styles
Mandarin zōng pài / zong1 pai4
Taiwan tsung p`ai / tsung pai
Japanese shuuha / shuha / しゅうは
Chinese sect
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) sect; denomination
Sects (of Buddhism). In India, according to Chinese accounts, the two schools of Hīnayāna became divided into twentysects. Mahāyāna had two main schools, the Mādhyamika, ascribed to Nāgārjunaand Āryadeva about the second century A. D., and the Yogācārya, ascribed toAsaṅga and Vasubandhu in the fourth century A. D. In China thirteen sectswere founded: (1) 倶舍宗 Abhidharma or Kośa sect, representing Hīnayāna,based upon the Abhidharma-kosa-śāstra or 倶舍論. (2) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect, based on the 成實論 Satyasiddhi-śāstra,tr. by Kumārajīva; no sect corresponds to it in India; in China and Japan itbecame incorporated in the 三論宗. (3) 律宗 Vinaya or Discipline sect, basedon 十誦律, 四分律, 僧祗律, etc. (4) 三論宗 The three śāstra sect, based on theMādhyamika-śāstra 中觀論 of Nāgārjuna, theSata-śāstra 百論 of Āryadeva, and theDvādasa-nikāya-śāstra 十二門論 of Nāgārjuna; this schooldates back to the translation of the three śāstras by Kumārajīva in A. D. 409. (5) 涅槃宗 Nirvāṇasect, based upon the Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra 涅槃經 tr. byDharmaraksa in 423; later incorporated in Tiantai, with which it had much incommon. (6) 地論宗 Daśabhūmikā sect, based on Vasubandhu's work on the tenstages of the bodhisattva's path to Buddhahood, tr. by Bodhiruci 508,absorbed by the Avataṃsaka school, infra. (7) 淨土宗 Pure-land or Sukhāvatīsect, founded in China by Bodhiruci; its doctrine was salvation throughfaith in Amitābha into the Western Paradise. (8) 禪宗 dhyāna, meditative or intuitional sect, attributed toBodhidharma about A. D. 527, but it existed before he came to China. (9) 攝論宗, based upon the 攝大乘論 Mahāyāna-saṃparigraha-śāstra byAsaṅga, tr. by Paramārtha in 563, subsequently absorbed by the Avataṃsakasect. (10) 天台宗 Tiantai, based on the 法華經 SaddharmapuṇḍarīkaSūtra, or the Lotus of the Good Law; it is aconsummation of the Mādhyamika tradition. (11) 華嚴宗 Avataṃsaka sect, basedon the Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra, or Gandha-vyūha 華嚴經 tr. in 418. (12) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect, established after thereturn of Xuanzang from India and his trans. of the important Yogācāryaworks. (13) 眞言宗 Mantra sect, A. D. 716. In Japan twelve sects are named:Sanron, Hossō, Kegon, Kusha, Jōjitsu, Ritsu, Tendai, Shingon; these areknown as the ancient sects, the two last being styled mediaeval; therefollow the Zen and Jōdo; the remaining two are Shin and Nichiren; at presentthere are the Hossō, Kegon, Tendai, Shingon, Zen, Jōdo, Shin, and Nichirensects.

寂種


寂种

see styles
Mandarin jì zhǒng / ji4 zhong3
Taiwan chi chung
Japanese jakushu
The nirvāṇa class, i.e. the Hinayanists who are said to seek only their own salvation; extinction type

尅果


克果

see styles
Mandarin kè guǒ / ke4 guo3
Taiwan k`o kuo / ko kuo
Japanese kokka
To obtain the fruit of endeavour; the fruit of effort, i.e. salvation; to attain the fruit

小乘

see styles
Mandarin xiǎo chéng / xiao3 cheng2
Taiwan hsiao ch`eng / hsiao cheng
Japanese shōjō
Chinese Hinayana, the Lesser Vehicle; Buddhism in India before the Mayahana sutras; also pr. [Xiao3 cheng2]
Hīnayāna 希那衍. The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed after Śākyamuni's death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahāyāna doctrines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahāyānism which developed on lines fundamentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith). Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hīnayāna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahāyāna. Hīnayāna remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahāyāna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the general literary language of the surviving form of Hīnayāna, Sanskrit of Mahāyāna. The term Hīnayāna is of Mahāyānist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of Mahāyāna over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahāyāna teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it declares that Hīnayāna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood, seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvāṇa. For arhatship the 四諦Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyekabuddhahood the 十二因緣 twelve-nidānas, and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles 二乘. Tiantai sometimes calls them the (Hīnayāna) Tripiṭaka school. Three of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools were transported to China: 倶舍 (Abhidharma) Kośa; 成實 Satya-siddhi; and the school of Harivarman, the律 Vinaya school. These are described by Mahāyānists as the Buddha's adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahāyāna all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahāyāna view of Hīnayāna, and if the Vaipulya sūtras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiated by Hīnayāna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahāyāna in condemning Hīnayāna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sūtras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authenticity; while those of Hīnayāna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hīnayāna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately after the death of Śākyamuni, when the sthāvira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rājagṛha, to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside; these two are the first 上坐部 and 大衆部 q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk 大天 Mahādeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha's nirvāṇa and during the reign of Aśoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahādeva's sect became the Mahāsāṅghikā, the other the Sthāvira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals are the so-called "twenty sects" of Hīnayāna. Another division of four sects, referred to by Yijing, is that of the 大衆部 (Arya) Mahāsaṅghanikāya, 上座部 Āryasthavirāḥ, 根本說一切有部 Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, and 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ. There is still another division of five sects, 五部律. For the eighteen Hīnayāna sects see 小乘十八部.

度門


度门

see styles
Mandarin dù mén / du4 men2
Taiwan tu men
Japanese domon
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

廻向


迴向

see styles
Mandarin huí xiàng / hui2 xiang4
Taiwan hui hsiang
Japanese ekō / えこう
Japanese (noun/participle) Buddhist memorial service; prayers for the repose of the soul
The goal or direction of any discipline such as that of bodhisattva, Buddha, etc.; to devote one's merits to the salvation of others; works of supererogation; to transfer one's merit to another

廻施


迴施

see styles
Mandarin huí shī / hui2 shi1
Taiwan hui shih
Japanese ese
is similar; cf. 囘向; 十廻向; 五悔; 三心; 九方便; to devote oneself to the salvation of others

得度

see styles
Mandarin dé dù / de2 du4
Taiwan te tu
Japanese tokudo / とくど
Japanese (noun/participle) {Buddh} becoming a monk; entering priesthood
To obtain transport across the river of transmigration, to obtain salvation; to enter the monastic life; to save

得道

see styles
Mandarin dé dào / de2 dao4
Taiwan te tao
Japanese tokudou / tokudo / とくどう
Chinese to achieve the Dao; to become an immortal
Japanese (noun/participle) attaining salvation; (given name) Noriyori
To obtain the way, or the religion; by obedience to the commandments, practice of meditation, and knowledge, to attain enlightenment; to attain the way

悲智

see styles
Mandarin bēi zhì / bei1 zhi4
Taiwan pei chih
Japanese hichi
Pity and wisdom; the two characteristics of a bodhisattva seeking to attain perfect enlightenment and the salvation of all beings. In the esoteric sects pity is represented by the Garbadhātu or the womb treasury, while wisdom is represented by the Vajradhātu, the diamond treasury. Pity is typified by Guanyin, wisdom by Mahāsthāmaprāpta, the two associates of Amitābha; compassion and wisdom

戒門


戒门

see styles
Mandarin jiè mén / jie4 men2
Taiwan chieh men
Japanese kaimon
The way or method of the commandments or rules: obedience to the commandments as a way of salvation; approach of moral discipline

拙度

see styles
Mandarin zhuō dù / zhuo1 du4
Taiwan cho tu
Japanese setsudo
A stupid, powerless salvation, that of Hīnayāna; clumsy liberation

攝濟


摄济

see styles
Mandarin shè jǐ / she4 ji3
Taiwan she chi
Japanese shōsai
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

救い

see styles
Japanese sukui / すくい Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) help; aid; relief; (religious) salvation; (Christian) grace; providence

救国

see styles
Japanese kyuukoku / kyukoku / きゅうこく Japanese patriot devoted to the salvation of his country

救恩

see styles
Mandarin jiù ēn / jiu4 en1
Taiwan chiu en
Chinese salvation

救済

see styles
Japanese kusai;gusai / くさい;ぐさい    kyuusai / kyusai / きゅうさい Japanese {Buddh} salvation (from suffering based on Buddha's teachings); (noun/participle) relief; aid; rescue; salvation; help; (personal name) Gusai; (personal name) Kyuusei

普渡

see styles
Mandarin pǔ dù / pu3 du4
Taiwan p`u tu / pu tu
Japanese futo
Universally to ferry across; universal salvation

染垢

see styles
Mandarin rǎn gòu / ran3 gou4
Taiwan jan kou
Japanese zenku
染汚 Soiled, contaminated, impure, especially by holding on to the illusory ideas and things of life; deluded. The kleśas or contaminations of attachment to the pleasures of the senses, to false views, to moral and ascetic practices regarded as adequate for salvation, to the belief in a self which causes suffering, etc; polluted

染淨


染净

see styles
Mandarin rǎn jìng / ran3 jing4
Taiwan jan ching
Japanese zenjō
Impurity and purity; the thoughts and things of desire are impure, the thoughts and methods of salvation are pure; defilement and purity

樂說


乐说

see styles
Mandarin lè shuō / le4 shuo1
Taiwan le shuo
Japanese gyōsetsu
Joy in preaching, or telling the way of salvation; joy in that which is preached. It is also called pratibhāna, bold and illuminating discourse, or freedom in expounding the truth with correct meaning and appropriate words, one of the 無礙智 four pratisaṃvids; unimpeded eloquence

橫出


横出

see styles
Mandarin héng chū / heng2 chu1
Taiwan heng ch`u / heng chu
Japanese ōshutsu
By discipline to attain to temporary nirvāṇa in contrast with 橫超 happy salvation to Amitābha's paradise through trust in him; the across or short way escape from mortality

法愛


法爱

see styles
Mandarin fǎ ài / fa3 ai4
Taiwan fa ai
Japanese noa / のあ
Japanese (female given name) Noa
Religious love in contrast with 欲愛 ordinary love; Dharma-love may be Hīnayāna desire for nirvāṇa; or bodhisattva attachment to illusory things, both of which are to be eradicated; or Tathāgata-love, which goes out to all beings for salvation; to love of the dharma (teaching)

涅槃

see styles
Mandarin niè pán / nie4 pan2
Taiwan nieh p`an / nieh pan
Japanese nehan / ねはん
Chinese nirvana (Buddhism)
Japanese Nirvana; Buddha's death; salvation
nirvāṇa, 'blown out, gone out, put out, extinguished'; 'liberated-from existence'; 'dead, deceased, defunct.' 'Liberation, eternal bliss'; '(with Buddhists and Jainas) absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual existence.' M.W. Other forms are 涅槃那; 泥日; 泥洹; 泥畔 Originally translated 滅 to extinguish, extinction, put out (as a lamp or fire), it was also described as 解脫 release, 寂滅 tranquil extinction; 無爲 inaction, without effort, passiveness; 不生 no (re)birth; 安樂 calm joy; 滅度transmigration to 'extinction'. The meaning given to 'extinction' varies, e.g. individual extinction; cessation of rebirth; annihilation of passion; extinction of all misery and entry into bliss. While the meaning of individual extinction is not without advocates, the general acceptation is the extinction or end of all return to reincarnation with its concomitant suffering, and the entry into bliss. Nirvāṇa may be enjoyed in the present life as an attainable state, with entry into parinirvāṇa, or perfect bliss to follow. It may be (a) with a 'remainder', i.e. the cause but not all the effect (karma), of reincarnation having been destroyed; (b) without 'remainder', both cause and effect having been extinguished. The answer of the Buddha as to the continued personal existence of the Tathāgata in nirvāṇa is, in the Hīnayāna canon, relegated 'to the sphere of the indeterminates' (Keith), as one of the questions which are not essential to salvation. One argument is that flame when blown out does not perish but returns to the totality of Fire. The Nirvāṇa Sutra claims for nirvāṇa the ancient ideas of 常樂我淨 permanence, bliss, personality purity in the transcendental realm. Mahāyāna declares that Hīnayāna by denying personality in the transcendental realm denies the existence of the Buddha. In Mahāyāna final nirvāṇa is transcendental, and is also used as a term for the absolute. The place where the Buddha entered his earthly nirvāṇa is given as Kuśinagara, cf. 拘.

牛車


牛车

see styles
Mandarin niú chē / niu2 che1
Taiwan niu ch`e / niu che
Japanese gyuusha;gissha;ushiguruma / gyusha;gissha;ushiguruma / ぎゅうしゃ;ぎっしゃ;うしぐるま
Japanese ox carriage (for Heian era nobles); oxcart
Bullock cart, the 自牛車 white bullock cart as the one universal vehicle of salvation, v. 火宅.

狗戒

see styles
Mandarin gǒu jiè / gou3 jie4
Taiwan kou chieh
Japanese kukai
Dog-rule, dog-morals, i.e. heretics who sought salvation by living like dogs, eating garbage, etc; dog morality

結緣


结缘

see styles
Mandarin jié yuán / jie2 yuan2
Taiwan chieh yüan
Japanese kechien
Chinese to form ties; to become attached (to sb, something)
To form a cause or basis, to form a connection, e.g. for future salvation; to make a connection

胎生

see styles
Mandarin tāi shēng / tai1 sheng1
Taiwan t`ai sheng / tai sheng
Japanese taisei / taise / たいせい
Chinese viviparity; zoogony
Japanese (1) viviparity; (can be adjective with の) (2) viviparous; zoogonous; live-bearing
Uterine birth, womb-born. Before the differentiation of the sexes birth is supposed to have been by transformation. The term is also applied to beings enclosed in unopened lotuses in paradise, who have not had faith in Amitābha but trusted to their own strength to attain salvation; there they remain for proportionate periods, happy, but without the presence of the Buddha, or Bodhisattvas, or the sacred host, and do not hear their teaching. The condition is known as 胎宮, the womb-palace; viviparous

自度

see styles
Mandarin zì dù / zi4 du4
Taiwan tzu tu
Japanese jido
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

興世


兴世

see styles
Mandarin xìng shì / xing4 shi4
Taiwan hsing shih
Japanese kousei / kose / こうせい
Japanese (given name) Kousei
The raising, or beginning of the salvation, of the world, i.e. the birth of Buddha; to raise the world

船師


船师

see styles
Mandarin chuán shī / chuan2 shi1
Taiwan ch`uan shih / chuan shih
Japanese senshi
Captain, i.e. the Buddha as captain of salvation, ferrying across to the nirvāṇa shore.

萬行


万行

see styles
Mandarin wàn xíng / wan4 xing2
Taiwan wan hsing
Japanese mangiyou / mangiyo / まんぎよう    mangyou / mangyo / まんぎょう
Japanese (personal name) Mangiyou; (surname) Mangyou
All procedures, all actions, all disciplines, or modes of salvation; all wholesome practices

蓮宗


莲宗

see styles
Mandarin lián zōng / lian2 zong1
Taiwan lien tsung
Japanese Renshū
Chinese see 淨土宗|净土宗[Jing4 tu3 zong1]
The Lotus sect founded by 慧遠 Huiyuan circa A.D. 390 at his monastery, in which was a 自蓮池 white lotus pond. It has no connection with the White Lily Secret Society which arose during the Mongol or Yuan dynasty. The Lotus sect is traced to the awakening of Huiyuan by the reading of the Prajñāpāramitā sūtra. He then turned his attention to calling on the name of Buddha to obtain salvation direct to his Pure Land. The school became that of the Amitābha or Pure-land sect, which in later years developed into the principal Buddhist cult in the Far East; Amitâbha-Lotus School

衆道


众道

see styles
Mandarin zhòng dào / zhong4 dao4
Taiwan chung tao
Japanese shuudou;shudou / shudo;shudo / しゅうどう;しゅどう
Japanese male homosexuality; pederasty
The way of all; all the three yāna, or vehicles of salvation; all paths

西行

see styles
Mandarin xī xíng / xi1 xing2
Taiwan hsi hsing
Japanese saigyou / saigyo / さいぎょう
Japanese (person) Saigyou (Poet of the Heian period, included in the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu)
Going west; practices of the Amitābha cult, leading to salvation in the Western Paradise.

願度

see styles
Mandarin yuàn dù / yuan4 du4
Taiwan yüan tu
Salvation through trust in the vow e.g. of Amitābha.

一乘經


一乘经

see styles
Mandarin yī chéng jīng / yi1 cheng2 jing1
Taiwan i ch`eng ching / i cheng ching
Japanese ichijō kyō
一乘妙典 (or 一乘妙文) Another name for the Lotus Sūtra, so called because it declares the one way of salvation, the perfect Mahāyāna; scripture of the One Vehicle

一大車


一大车

see styles
Mandarin yī dà chē / yi1 da4 che1
Taiwan i ta ch`e / i ta che
Japanese ichi daisha
The one great salvation vehicle of the Lotus Sūtra, the Mahāyāna; one great vehicle

一實乘


一实乘

see styles
Mandarin yī shí chéng / yi1 shi2 cheng2
Taiwan i shih ch`eng / i shih cheng
Japanese ichijitsu jō
The one method, of salvation, the 一實 School; vehicle of the single reality

七種捨


七种舍

see styles
Mandarin qī zhǒng shě / qi1 zhong3 she3
Taiwan ch`i chung she / chi chung she
Japanese shichishu sha
Seven abandonments or riddances―cherishing none and nothing, no relations with others, riddance of love and hate, of anxiety about the salvation of others, of form, giving to others (e.g. supererogation), benefiting others without hope of return. Another form is―cherishing nothing, riddance of love and hate, of desire, anger, etc., of anxiety about, etc., as above; seven kinds of detachment

三聚戒

see styles
Mandarin sān jù jiè / san1 ju4 jie4
Taiwan san chü chieh
Japanese sanju kai
(三聚淨戒) The three cumulative commandments: (a) the formal 5, 8, or 10, and the rest; (b) whatever works for goodness; (c) whatever works for the welfare or salvation of living, sentient beings. 三聚圓戒interprets the above three as implicit in each of the ten commandments e.g. (a) not to kill implies (b) mercy and (c) protection or salvation; three sets of precepts

下輩觀


下辈观

see styles
Mandarin xià bèi guān / xia4 bei4 guan1
Taiwan hsia pei kuan
Japanese gehai kan
A meditation of the Amitābha sect on the 下品 q. v.; it is the last of sixteen contemplations, and deals with those who have committed the five rebellious acts 五逆 and the ten evils 十惡, but who still can obtain salvation; v. 無量壽經. 下輩下生觀 idem; observation of inferiors

不退輪


不退轮

see styles
Mandarin bù tuì lún / bu4 tui4 lun2
Taiwan pu t`ui lun / pu tui lun
Japanese futai rin
(不退轉法輪) The never-receding Buddha vehicle, of universal salvation; never turning-back wheel

二解脫


二解脱

see styles
Mandarin èr jiě tuō / er4 jie3 tuo1
Taiwan erh chieh t`o / erh chieh to
Japanese ni gedatsu
Two kinds of deliverance, mukti or mokṣa: (1) (a) 有爲解脫 Active or earthly deliverance to arhatship; (b) 無爲解脫 nirvana-deliverance. (2) (a) 性淨解脫 The pure, original freedom or innocence; (b) 障盡解脫 deliverance acquired by the ending of all hindrances (to salvation). (3) (a) 慧解脫 The arhat's deliverance from hindrances to wisdom; (b) 具解脫 his complete deliverance in regard to both wisdom and vision 慧 and 定. (4) (a) 時解脫 The dull who take time or are slow in attaining to 定 vision; (b) 不時解脫 the quick or clever who take "no time". (5) (a) 心解脫 A heart or mind delivered from desires; (b) 慧解脫 a mind delivered from ignorance by wisdom; two kinds of liberation

五祕密


五秘密

see styles
Mandarin wǔ mì mì / wu3 mi4 mi4
Taiwan wu mi mi
Japanese go himitsu
(五祕) The five esoteric or occult ones, i. e. the five bodhisattvas of the diamond realm, known as Vajrasattva in the middle; 欲 desire on the east; 觸 contact, south; 愛 love, west; and 慢 pride, north. Vajrasattva represents the six fundamental elements of sentient existence and here indicates the birth of bodhisattva sentience; desire is that of bodhi and the salvation of all: contact with the needy world for its salvation follows; love of all the living comes next; pride or the power of nirvana succeeds; five esoteric ones

他力宗

see styles
Mandarin tā lì zōng / ta1 li4 zong1
Taiwan t`a li tsung / ta li tsung
Japanese tariki shū
Those who trust to salvation by faith, contrasted with 自力宗 those who seek salvation by works, or by their own strength; other power teaching

佛乘戒

see styles
Mandarin fú chéng jiè / fu2 cheng2 jie4
Taiwan fu ch`eng chieh / fu cheng chieh
Japanese butsujō kai
The rules and commandments conveying beings to salvation; buddha-vehicle morality

化他壽


化他寿

see styles
Mandarin huà tā shòu / hua4 ta1 shou4
Taiwan hua t`a shou / hua ta shou
Japanese ketaju
A Buddha's long or 'eternal' life spent in saving others; implying his powers of unlimited salvation; buddha's long life of teaching others

十惱亂


十恼乱

see styles
Mandarin shí nǎo luàn / shi2 nao3 luan4
Taiwan shih nao luan
Japanese jū nōran
The ten disturbers of the religious life: a domineering (spirit); heretical ways; dangerous amusements; a butcher's or other low occupation; asceticism (or selfish hīnayāna salvation); (the condition of a) eunuch; lust; endangering (the character by improper intimacy); contempt; breeding animals, etc. (for slaughter); ten disrupters

十普門


十普门

see styles
Mandarin shí pǔ mén / shi2 pu3 men2
Taiwan shih p`u men / shih pu men
Japanese jū fumon
The ten universals of a bodhisattva: 慈悲普 universal pity; 弘誓門 vow of universal salvation; 修行門 accordant action; 斷惑門 universal cutting off of delusions; 入法門門 freedom of entry into all forms of truth; 神通門 universal superhuman powers; 方便門 universal accordance with conditions of the receptivity of others; 說法門 powers of universal explication of the truth; 供養諸佛門 power of universal service of all Buddhas; 成就衆生門 the perfecting of all beings universally; ten universal practices

四性行

see styles
Mandarin sì xìng xíng / si4 xing4 xing2
Taiwan ssu hsing hsing
Japanese shi shō gyō
The four kinds of conduct natural to a Bodhisattva, that arising from his native goodness, his vow-nature, his compliant nature, i. e. to the six pāramitās, and his transforming nature, i. e. his powers of conversion or salvation; four kinds of conduct kin to the bodhisattva nature

大滅度


大灭度

see styles
Mandarin dà miè dù / da4 mie4 du4
Taiwan ta mieh tu
Japanese dai metsudo
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

大船師


大船师

see styles
Mandarin dà chuán shī / da4 chuan2 shi1
Taiwan ta ch`uan shih / ta chuan shih
Japanese dai senshi
The captain of the great ship of salvation, Buddha.

如來乘


如来乘

see styles
Mandarin rú lái chéng / ru2 lai2 cheng2
Taiwan ju lai ch`eng / ju lai cheng
Japanese nyorai jō
tathāgata-yāna, the Tathāgata vehicle, or means of salvation.

悲願船


悲愿船

see styles
Mandarin bēi yuàn chuán / bei1 yuan4 chuan2
Taiwan pei yüan ch`uan / pei yüan chuan
Japanese higan no fune
The boat of this vow for ferrying beings to salvation; boat of the compassionate vow

成熟者

see styles
Mandarin chéng shú zhě / cheng2 shu2 zhe3
Taiwan ch`eng shu che / cheng shu che
Japanese jōjuku sha
The ripe; those who attain; those in whom the good nature, immanent in all the living, completes their salvation.

救世輪


救世轮

see styles
Mandarin jiù shì lún / jiu4 shi4 lun2
Taiwan chiu shih lun
Japanese kyūserin
The wheel of salvation.

救濟乘


救济乘

see styles
Mandarin jiù jǐ shèng / jiu4 ji3 sheng4
Taiwan chiu chi sheng
Japanese kusai jō
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

果縛斷


果缚断

see styles
Mandarin guǒ fù duàn / guo3 fu4 duan4
Taiwan kuo fu tuan
Japanese kabaku dan
Cutting off the ties of retribution, i. e. entering nirvāṇa, e. g. entering salvation; cutting the bonds of retribution

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This page contains 100 results for "salvation" in Chinese and/or Japanese.



Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).



Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

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