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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
Japanese Japanese information.
Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
 Definition may be different outside of Buddhism.

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If shown, 2nd row of characters is Simplified Chinese.

Characters Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin/ fu2
Taiwan fu
Japanese hotoke / ほとけ    butsusaki / ぶつさき
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Buddha; Buddhism
Japanese (surname) Hotoke; (surname) Butsusaki
Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "conceive", "observe", "wake"; also 佛陀; 浮圖; 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮塔; 勃陀; 勃馱; 沒馱; 母馱; 母陀; 部陀; 休屠. Buddha means "completely conscious, enlightened", and came to mean the enlightener. he Chinese translation is 覺 to perceive, aware, awake; and 智 gnosis, knowledge. There is an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and multitudes of Buddhas, but the personality of a Supreme Buddha, an Ādi-Buddha, is not defined. Buddha is in and through all things, and some schools are definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna 三寳 commonly known as 三寳佛, while Śākyamuni Buddha is the first "person" of the Trinity, his Law the second, and the Order the third, all three by some are accounted as manifestations of the All-Buddha. As Śākyamuni, the title indicates him as the last of the line of Buddhas who have appeared in this world, Maitreya is to be the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlightenment, having discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane existence, others all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations; this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation, the monastic life, and meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one, himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment, or Omniscience, and according to Māhāyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as they seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality (twelve nidānas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the arhat. Four types of the Buddha are referred to: (1) 三藏佛the Buddha of the Tripiṭaka who attained enlightenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) 通佛the Buddha on the deva robe under the bodhi-tree of the seven precious things; (3) 別佛the Buddha on the great precious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and (4) 圓佛the Buddha on the throne of Space in the realm of eternal rest and glory where he is Vairocana. The Hīnayāna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time; Mahāyāna claims the existence of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many Buddhas as there are Buddha-universes, which are infinite in number.

see styles
Mandarin/ ji4
Taiwan chi
Japanese jaku;seki / じゃく;せき    sabi / さび
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese silent; solitary; Taiwan pr. [ji2]
Japanese (1) (entering into) nirvana; (suffix noun) (2) used after a date to indicate the death of a monk at that time; (adj-t,adv-to) (3) (usu. せき) silent; tranquil; (1) patina; antique look; (2) elegant simplicity; (3) well-trained voice; (female given name) Yoshika; (given name) Jaku
praśama; vivikta; śānti. Still, silent, quiet, solitary, calm, tranquil, nirvāṇa; to become quiet

see styles
Mandarin dào / dao4
Taiwan tao
Japanese dou / do / どう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese road; path; CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3]; principle; truth; morality; reason; skill; method; Dao (of Daoism); to say; to speak; to talk; classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process; (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times)
Japanese (1) (abbreviation) road; (2) way; (3) Buddhist teachings; (4) Taoism; (5) modern administrative region of Japan (Hokkaido); (6) historical administrative region of Japan (Tokaido, Tosando, etc.); (7) province (Tang-era administrative region of China); (8) province (modern administrative region of Korea); (personal name) Wataru; (given name) Motoi; (personal name) Michihiro; (surname) Michizaki; (surname, female given name) Michi; (given name) Makoto; (female given name) Fumi; (given name) Naoshi; (surname) Douzaki; (surname) Dou; (female given name) Tooru; (given name) Tadasu; (given name) Tadashi; (female given name) Tao; (personal name) Susumu; (given name) Osamu
mārga. A way, road; the right path; principle, Truth, Reason, Logos, Cosmic energy; to lead; to say. The way of transmigration by which one arrives at a good or bad existence; any of the six gati, or paths of destiny. The way of bodhi, or enlightenment leading to nirvāṇa through spiritual stages. Essential nirvāṇa, in which absolute freedom reigns. For the eightfold noble path v. 八聖道.; The two Ways: (1) (a) 無礙道 or 無間道 The open or unhindered way, or the way of removing all obstacles or intervention, i. e. all delusion; (b) 解脫道 the way of release, by realization of truth. (2) (a) 難行道 The hard way of "works", i. e. by the six pāramitā and the disciplines. (b) 易行道 the easy way salvation, by the invocation of Amitābha. (3) (a) 有漏道 The way of reincarnation or mortality; (b) 無漏 the enlightened way of escape from the miseries of transmigration. (4) (a) 教道 The way of instruction; (b) 證道 the way of realization. (5) The two lower excretory organs.


see styles
Mandarin mén / men2
Taiwan men
Japanese mon(p);kado / もん(P);かど
Chinese gate; door; CL:扇[shan4]; gateway; doorway; CL:個|个[ge4]; opening; valve; switch; way to do something; knack; family; house; (religious) sect; school (of thought); class; category; phylum or division (taxonomy); classifier for large guns; classifier for lessons, subjects, branches of technology; (suffix) -gate (i.e. scandal; derived from Watergate); surname Men
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) gate; (2) (もん only) branch of learning based on the teachings of a single master; (3) (もん only) {biol} division; phylum; (counter) (4) (もん only) counter for cannons; (surname) Yuki; (surname) Mon; (personal name) Mamoru; (surname) To; (surname) Kado
A door; gate; a sect, school, teaching, especially one leading to salvation or nirvana.

乞灑


乞洒

see styles
Mandarin qǐ sǎ / qi3 sa3
Taiwan ch`i sa / chi sa
Japanese kisha
乞察; 乞叉; 吃灑; 葛叉; 差; 叉; 刹; kṣaya, used in the sense of omega, implying finality, or nirvāṇa.

五行

see styles
Mandarin wǔ xíng / wu3 xing2
Taiwan wu hsing
Japanese gogyou / gogyo / ごぎょう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese five phases of Chinese philosophy: wood 木, fire 火, earth 土, metal 金, water 水
Japanese (1) (See 五大・ごだい・1) the five elements (in Chinese philosophy: wood, fire, earth, metal and water); the five phases; wu xing; (2) {Buddh} five practices of the Bodhisattvas; (3) (See 六信五行) the five pillars of Islam; (surname, given name) Gogyou
The five lines of conduct. I. According to the 起信論 Awakening of Faith they are almsgiving; keeping the commandments; patience under insult; zeal or progress; meditation. II. According to the 涅槃經 Nirvana Sutra they are saintly or bodhisattva deeds; arhat, or noble deeds; deva deeds; children's deeds (i. e. normal good deeds of men, devas, and Hinayanists); sickness conditions, e. g. illness, delusion, etc.; — into all these lines of conduct and conditions a Bodhisattva enters. III. The five elements, or tanmātra— wood, fire, earth, metal, and water; or earth, water, ire, air, and ether (or space) as taught by the later Mahāyāna philosophy; idem 五大; five practices

四諦


四谛

see styles
Mandarin sì dì / si4 di4
Taiwan ssu ti
Japanese shitai / したい
Chinese the Four Noble Truths (Budd.), covered by the acronym 苦集滅道: all life is suffering 苦, the cause of suffering is desire 集, emancipation comes only by eliminating passions 滅|灭, the way 道 to emancipation is the Eight-fold Noble Way 八正道
Japanese {Buddh} (See 苦集滅道) The Four Noble Truths (of Buddhism)
catvāri-ārya-satyāni; 四聖諦; 四眞諦. The four dogmas, or noble truths, the primary and fundamental doctrines of Śākyamuni, said to approximate to the form of medical diagnosis. They are pain or 'suffering, its cause, its ending, the way thereto; that existence is suffering, that human passion (taṇhā, 欲 desire) is the cause of continued suffering, that by the destruction of human passion existence may be brought to an end; that by a life of holiness the destruction of human passion may be attained'. Childers. The four are 苦, 聚 (or 集), 滅, and 道諦, i. e. duḥkha 豆佉, samudaya 三牟提耶, nirodha 尼棲陀, and mārga 末加. Eitel interprets them (1) 'that 'misery' is a necessary attribute of sentient existence'; (2) that 'the 'accumulation' of misery is caused by the passions'; (3) that 'the 'extinction' of passion is possible; (4) mārga is 'the doctrine of the 'path' that leads to the extinction of passion'. (1) 苦 suffering is the lot of the 六趣 six states of existence; (2) 集 is the aggregation (or exacerbation) of suffering by reason of the passions; (3) 滅 is nirvana, the extinction of desire and its consequences, and the leaving of the sufferings of mortality as void and extinct; (4) 道 is the way of such extinction, i. e. the 八正道 eightfold correct way. The first two are considered to be related to this life, the last two to 出世間 a life outside or apart from the world. The four are described as the fundamental doctrines first preached to his five former ascetic companions. Those who accepted these truths were in the stage of śrāvaka. There is much dispute as to the meaning of 滅 'extinction' as to whether it means extinction of suffering, of passion, or of existence. The Nirvana Sutra 18 says that whoever accepts the four dogmas will put an end to births and deaths 若能見四諦則得斷生死 which does not of necessity mean the termination of existence but that of continued transmigration. v. 滅.

寂靜


寂静

see styles
Mandarin jì jìng / ji4 jing4
Taiwan chi ching
Japanese jakujō / せきせい
Chinese quiet
Japanese (out-dated kanji) (noun or adjectival noun) calmness; stillness; tranquility; (out-dated kanji) (noun or adjectival noun) (1) calmness; stillness; tranquility; (2) (Buddhist term) calmness of the heart; enlightenment
Calm and quiet; free from temptation and distress; nirvāṇa; quiescence

永生

see styles
Mandarin yǒng shēng / yong3 sheng1
Taiwan yung sheng
Japanese eisei / ese / えいせい
Chinese to live forever; eternal life; all one's life
Japanese eternal life; immortality; (personal name) Hisaki; (given name) Hisao; (surname) Nagasu; (given name) Nagao; (personal name) Eisei
Eternal life; immortality; nirvana is defined as 不生 not being born, i. e. not reborn, and therefore 不滅 not dying; 永生 is also perpetual life; the Amitābha cult says in the Pure Land.

無我


无我

see styles
Mandarin wú wǒ / wu2 wo3
Taiwan wu wo
Japanese muga / むが
Chinese anatta (Buddhist concept of "non-self")
Japanese (1) selflessness; self-effacement; self-renunciation; (2) {Buddh} anatta; anatman; doctrine that states that humans do not possess souls; (female given name) Muga
anātman; nairātmya; no ego, no soul (of an independent and self-contained character), impersonal, no individual independent existence (of conscious or unconscious beings, anātmaka). The empirical ego is merely an aggregation of various elements, and with their disintegration it ceases to exist; therefore it has nm ultimate reality of its own, but the Nirvāṇa Sūtra asserts the reality of the ego in the transcendental realm. The non-Buddhist definition of ego is that it has permanent individuality 常一之體 and is independent or sovereign 有主宰之用. When applied to men it is 人我, when to things it is 法我. Cf. 常 11; no-self

無盡


无尽

see styles
Mandarin wú jǐn / wu2 jin3
Taiwan wu chin
Japanese mujin / むじん
Chinese endless; inexhaustible
Japanese (given name) Mujin
Inexhaustible, without limit. It is a term applied by the 權教 to the noumenal or absolute; by the 實教 to the phenomenal, both being considered as infinite. The Huayan sūtra 十地品 has ten limitless things, the infinitude of living beings, of worlds, of space, of the dharmadhātu, of nirvāṇa, etc.

聖者


圣者

see styles
Mandarin shèng zhě / sheng4 zhe3
Taiwan sheng che
Japanese seija;shouja / seja;shoja / せいじゃ;しょうじゃ
Chinese holy one; saint
Japanese saint
ārya, holy or saintly one; one who has started on the path to nirvāṇa; holiness.

自愛


自爱

see styles
Mandarin zì ài / zi4 ai4
Taiwan tzu ai
Japanese jiai / じあい
Chinese self-respect; self-love; self-regard; regard for oneself; to cherish one's good name; to take good care of one's health
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) taking care of oneself (esp. used as an epistolary imperative); (2) self-love
Self-love, cause of all pursuit or seeking, which in turn causes all suffering. All Buddhas put away self-love and all pursuit, or seeking, such elimination being nirvāṇa.

菩薩


菩萨

see styles
Mandarin pú sà / pu2 sa4
Taiwan p`u sa / pu sa
Japanese bosatsu(p);bosachi(ok) / ぼさつ(P);ぼさち(ok)
Chinese Bodhisattva (Buddhism)
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) {Buddh} bodhisattva; one who has reached enlightenment but vows to save all beings before becoming a buddha; (2) High Monk (title bestowed by the imperial court); (3) (See 本地垂迹説) title bestowed to Shinto kami in manifestation theory; (surname) Mizoro
bodhisattva, cf. 菩提薩埵. While the idea is not foreign to Hīnayāna, its extension of meaning is one of the chief marks of Mahāyāna. 'The Bodhisattva is indeed the characteristic feature of the Mahāyāna.' Keith. According to Mahāyāna the Hinayanists, i.e. the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha, seek their own salvation, while the bodhisattva's aim is the salvation of others and of all. The earlier intp. of bodhisattva was 大道心衆生 all beings with mind for the truth; later it became 大覺有情 conscious beings of or for the great intelligence, or enlightenment. It is also intp. in terms of leadership, heroism, etc. In general it is a Mahayanist seeking Buddhahood, but seeking it altruistically; whether monk or layman, he seeks enlightenment to enlighten others, and he will sacrifice himself to save others; he is devoid of egoism and devoted to helping others. All conscious beings having the Buddha-nature are natural bodhisattvas, but require to undergo development. The mahāsattva is sufficiently advanced to become a Buddha and enter nirvāṇa, but according to his vow he remains in the realm of incarnation to save all conscious beings. A monk should enter on the arduous course of discipline which leads to Bodhisattvahood and Buddhahood.

轉世


转世

see styles
Mandarin zhuǎn shì / zhuan3 shi4
Taiwan chuan shih
Japanese tense
Chinese reincarnation or transmigration (Buddhism)
To return to this life; attainer of nirvāṇa from within the desire realm

八正道

see styles
Mandarin bā zhèng dào / ba1 zheng4 dao4
Taiwan pa cheng tao
Japanese hasshōdō / はっしょうどう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese the Eight-fold Noble Way (Buddhism)
Japanese (Buddhist term) noble eightfold path
(八正道分) Āryamārga. The eight right or correct ways, the "eightfold noble path" for the arhat to nirvāṇa; also styled 八道船, 八正門, 八由行, 八游行, 八聖道支, 八道行, 八直行, 八直道. The eight are: (1) 正見Samyag-dṛṣṭi, correct views in regard to the Four Axioms, and freedom from the common delusion. (2) 正思 Samyak-saṁkalpa, correct thought and purpose. (3) 正語 Samyag-vāc, correct speech, avoidance of false and idle talk. (4) 正業 Samyak-karmānta, correct deed, or conduct, getting rid of all improper action so as to dwell in purity. (5) 正命 Smnyag-ājīva, correct livelihood or occupation, avoiding the five immoral occupations. (6) 正精進 Samyag-vyāyāma, correct zeal, or energy in uninterrupted progress in the way of nirvāṇa. (7) 正念 Samyak-smṛti, correct remembrance, or memory, which retains the true and excludes the false. (8) 正定 Samyak-samadhi, correct meditation, absorption, or abstraction. The 正 means of course Buddhist orthodoxy, anything contrary to this being 邪 or heterodox, and wrong.

寂滅


寂灭

see styles
Mandarin jì miè / ji4 mie4
Taiwan chi mieh
Japanese jakumetsu / じゃくめつ
Chinese to die out; to fade away; nirvana (Buddhism)
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) {Buddh} nirvana (san:); (2) death
Calmness and extinction, nirvāṇa; to become tranquil

涅槃

see styles
Mandarin niè pán / nie4 pan2
Taiwan nieh p`an / nieh pan
Japanese nehan / ねはん
Chinese nirvana (Buddhism)
Japanese Nirvana; Buddha's death; salvation
nirvāṇa, 'blown out, gone out, put out, extinguished'; 'liberated-from existence'; 'dead, deceased, defunct.' 'Liberation, eternal bliss'; '(with Buddhists and Jainas) absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual existence.' M.W. Other forms are 涅槃那; 泥日; 泥洹; 泥畔 Originally translated 滅 to extinguish, extinction, put out (as a lamp or fire), it was also described as 解脫 release, 寂滅 tranquil extinction; 無爲 inaction, without effort, passiveness; 不生 no (re)birth; 安樂 calm joy; 滅度transmigration to 'extinction'. The meaning given to 'extinction' varies, e.g. individual extinction; cessation of rebirth; annihilation of passion; extinction of all misery and entry into bliss. While the meaning of individual extinction is not without advocates, the general acceptation is the extinction or end of all return to reincarnation with its concomitant suffering, and the entry into bliss. Nirvāṇa may be enjoyed in the present life as an attainable state, with entry into parinirvāṇa, or perfect bliss to follow. It may be (a) with a 'remainder', i.e. the cause but not all the effect (karma), of reincarnation having been destroyed; (b) without 'remainder', both cause and effect having been extinguished. The answer of the Buddha as to the continued personal existence of the Tathāgata in nirvāṇa is, in the Hīnayāna canon, relegated 'to the sphere of the indeterminates' (Keith), as one of the questions which are not essential to salvation. One argument is that flame when blown out does not perish but returns to the totality of Fire. The Nirvāṇa Sutra claims for nirvāṇa the ancient ideas of 常樂我淨 permanence, bliss, personality purity in the transcendental realm. Mahāyāna declares that Hīnayāna by denying personality in the transcendental realm denies the existence of the Buddha. In Mahāyāna final nirvāṇa is transcendental, and is also used as a term for the absolute. The place where the Buddha entered his earthly nirvāṇa is given as Kuśinagara, cf. 拘.

滅度


灭度

see styles
Mandarin miè dù / mie4 du4
Taiwan mieh tu
Japanese metsudo / めつど
Chinese to extinguish worries and the sea of grief; nirvana (Buddhism)
Japanese extinguishing illusion and passing over to Nirvana
nirvāṇa: extinction of reincarnation and escape from suffering; extinction [of mental activity]

醍醐

see styles
Mandarin tí hú / ti2 hu2
Taiwan t`i hu / ti hu
Japanese daigo / だいご
Chinese refined cream cheese; fig. crème de la crème; nirvana; Buddha nature; Buddhist truth; broth; flawless personal character
Japanese {Buddh} (See 五味・2) ghee (held to be the greatest of all flavours); the ultimate truth of Buddhism; nirvana; (surname) Teiko; (p,s,g) Daigo; (surname) Daiko; (surname) Taigo; (surname) Taiko
A rich liquor skimmed from boiled butter; clarified butter; ghee; used for the perfect Buddha-truth as found, according to Tiantai, in the Nirvāṇa and Lotus Sūtras.

阿羅漢


阿罗汉

see styles
Mandarin ā luó hàn / a1 luo2 han4
Taiwan a lo han
Japanese arakan / あらかん
Chinese arhat (Sanskrit); a holy man who has left behind all earthly desires and concerns and attained nirvana (Buddhism)
Japanese Arhat; Buddhist monk who has attained Nirvana
arhan, arhat, lohan; worthy, venerable; an enlightened, saintly man; the highest type or ideal saint in Hīnayāna in contrast with the bodhisattva as the saint in Mahāyāna; intp. as 應供worthy of worship, or respect; intp. as 殺賊 arihat, arihan, slayer of the enemy, i.e. of mortality; for the arhat enters nirvana 不生 not to be reborn, having destroyed the karma of reincarnation; he is also in the stage of 不學 no longer learning, having attained. Also 羅漢; 阿盧漢; 阿羅訶 or 阿羅呵; 阿梨呵 (or 阿黎呵); 羅呵, etc.; cf. 阿夷; 阿畧.

see styles
Mandarin/ ji2
Taiwan chi
Japanese zoku
Chinese variant of 即[ji2]; promptly
To draw up to, or near; approach; forthwith; to be; i.e. alias; if, even if; 就是. It is intp. as 和融 united together; 不二not two, i.e. identical; 不離 not separate, inseparable. It resembles implication, e.g. the afflictions or passions imply, or are, bodhi; births-and-deaths imply, or are, nirvana; the indication being that the one is contained in or leads to the other. Tiantai has three definitions: (1) The union, or unity, of two things, e.g. 煩惱 and 菩提, i.e. the passions and enlightenment, the former being taken as the 相 form, the latter 性 spirit, which two are inseparable; in other words, apart from the subjugation of the passions there is no enlightenment. (2) Back and front are inseparables; also (3) substance and quality, e.g. water and wave; to become one

see styles
Mandarin/ du4
Taiwan tu
Japanese do / ど    tabi(p);tanbi / たび(P);たんび
Chinese to estimate; Taiwan pr. [duo4]; to pass; to spend (time); measure; limit; extent; degree of intensity; degree (angles, temperature etc); kilowatt-hour; classifier for events and occurrences
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) degree (angle, temperature, scale, etc.); (counter) (2) counter for occurrences and times; (3) strength (of alcohol); (n,n-suf,ctr) time (three times, each time, etc.); times; (given name) Wataru; (surname) Watari; (given name) Tokou; (surname) Tabi; (surname) Taku
pāramitā, 波羅蜜; intp. by 渡 to ferry over; to save. The mortal life of reincarnations is the sea; nirvana is the other shore; v. pāramitā, 波. Also, to leave the world as a monk or nun, such is a 度得 or 度者.

see styles
Mandarin/ de2
Taiwan te
Japanese toku / とく    u / う
Chinese to have to; must; ought to; to need to; structural particle: used after a verb (or adjective as main verb), linking it to following phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc; to obtain; to get; to gain; to catch (a disease); proper; suitable; proud; contented; to allow; to permit; ready; finished
Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) (1) (also written as 徳) profit; advantage; benefit; gain; (2) {Buddh} rebirth in paradise, entering nirvana; (v2a-s,vt) (1) (See 得る・うる) to get; to acquire; to obtain; to procure; to earn; to win; to gain; to secure; to attain; (2) (as 〜することを得, etc.) to be possible; (surname) Toku
prāp; prāpta. To get, obtain, attain to; got, obtained, etc; to obtain

see styles
Mandarin/ wo3
Taiwan wo
Japanese ga / が
Chinese I; me; my
Japanese (1) {Buddh} obstinacy; (2) atman; the self; the ego
I, my, mine; the ego, the master of the body, compared to the ruler of a country. Composed of the five skandhas and hence not a permanent entity. It is used for ātman, the self, personality. Buddhism takes as a fundamental dogma 無我, i.e. no 常我, no permanent ego, only recognizing a temporal or functional ego. The erroneous idea of a permanent self continued in reincarnation is the source of all illusion. But the Nirvana Sutra definitely asserts a permanent ego in the transcendental world, above the range of reincarnation; and the trend of Mahāyāna supports such permanence; v. 常我樂淨.


see styles
Mandarin miè / mie4
Taiwan mieh
Japanese metsu
Chinese to extinguish or put out; to go out (of a fire etc); to exterminate or wipe out; to drown
Extinguish, exterminate, destroy; a tr. of nirodha, suppression, annihilation; of nirvāṇa, blown out, extinguished, dead, perfect rest, highest felicity, etc.; and of nivṛtti, cessation, disappearance. nirodha is the third of the four axioms: 苦, 集, 滅, 道 pain, its focussing, its cessation (or cure), the way of such cure. Various ideas are expressed as to the meaning of 滅, i.e. annihilation or extinction of existence; or of rebirth and mortal existence; or of the passions as the cause of pain; and it is the two latter views which generally prevail; cf. M017574 10 strokes.

see styles
Mandarin yàn / yan4
Taiwan yen
Japanese en
Chinese flame
Flame, blaze; nirvāṇa; translit. ya. Cf. 炎; 閻; 夜.

一門


一门

see styles
Mandarin yī mén / yi1 men2
Taiwan i men
Japanese ichimon / いちもん
Japanese (1) family; clan; kin; (2) sect; school; adherents; followers; disciples; (3) {sumo} group of related sumo stables; (surname) Hitokado; (surname) Kazuto; (surname, given name) Ichimon; (surname) Ichikado
The one door out of mortality into nirvāṇa, i.e. the Pure-land door; single gate

一間


一间

see styles
Mandarin yī jiān / yi1 jian1
Taiwan i chien
Japanese hitoma / ひとま    ikken / いっけん
Japanese one room; one ken; six feet; (surname) Ichima
ekavīcika 翳迦鼻致迦 Still one final stage of mortality before nirvāṇa. Also wrongly styled bījaka 鼻致迦, a seed 一種 which leads to one more reincarnation; one interruption

一際


一际

see styles
Mandarin yī jì / yi1 ji4
Taiwan i chi
Japanese issai / ひときわ
Japanese (adverb) (kana only) conspicuously; noticeably; remarkably; especially; particularly
Of the same realm or boundary, i.e. the world and nirvāṇa are one.

七善

see styles
Mandarin qī shàn / qi1 shan4
Taiwan ch`i shan / chi shan
Japanese shichizen
The seven exce1lences claimed for the Buddha's teaching good in its 時 timing or seasonableness, 義 meaning, 語 expression, 濁法 uniqueness, 具足 completeness, 淸淨調柔 pure adaptability, and 凡行 its sole objective, nirvana. There are other similar groups; seven excellences

七子

see styles
Mandarin qī zi / qi1 zi
Taiwan ch`i tzu / chi tzu
Japanese fumiko / ふみこ    nanako / ななこ    shichiko / しちこ
Japanese (female given name) Fumiko; (female given name) Nanako; (female given name) Shichiko
The parable in the Nirvana Sutra of the sick son whose parents, though they love all their sons equally, devote themselves to him. So does the Buddha specially care for sinners. The seven sons are likened to mankind, devas, sravakas, pratyeka-buddhas, and the three kinds of bodhisattvas of the 藏, 通 and 別教.

七華


七华

see styles
Mandarin qī huá / qi1 hua2
Taiwan ch`i hua / chi hua
Japanese hanaka / はなか    nanaka / ななか
Japanese (female given name) Hanaka; (female given name) Nanaka
The seven flowers of enlightenmenmt, idem. 七善提分. Another versionispure in the commandments, in heart, in views, in doubt-discrimination, in judgment, in conduct, and in nirvana.

三乘

see styles
Mandarin sān chéng / san1 cheng2
Taiwan san ch`eng / san cheng
Japanese minori / みのり
Japanese (surname) Minori
Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.

三修

see styles
Mandarin sān xiū / san1 xiu1
Taiwan san hsiu
Japanese san shū
The three ways of discipline, i.e. three śrāvaka and three bodhisattva ways. The three śrāvaka ways are 無常修 no realization of the eternal, seeing everything as transient; 非樂修 joyless, through only contemplating misery and not realizing the ultimate nirvāṇa-joy; 無我修 non-ego discipline, seeing only the perishing self and not realizing the immortal self. The bodhisattva three are the opposite of these; three ways of cultivation

三印

see styles
Mandarin sān yìn / san1 yin4
Taiwan san yin
Japanese san'in
The three signs or proofs of a Hīnayāna sutra— non-permanence, non-personality, nirvāṇa; without these the sūtra is spurious and the doctrine is of Māra; the proof of a Mahāyāna sūtra is the doctrine of 一實 ultimate reality, q. v. Also 三法印; three seals of the dharma

三寳


三宝

see styles
Mandarin sān bǎo / san1 bao3
Taiwan san pao
Japanese sanbō
Triratna, or Ratnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones: 佛 Buddha, 法 Dharma, 儈 Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel suggests this trinity may be adapted from the Trimūrti, i.e, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Sīva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikāya 三身 q.v. There is also the Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Buddha as a Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Dhyāni-Buddha, and Mānuṣi-Buddha; also the Tantric trinity of Vairocana as Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel "existing in reflex in the world of forms", and the human Buddha, Śākyamuni. There are other elaborated details known as the four and the six kinds of triratna 四 and 六種三寳, e.g. that the Triratna exists in each member of the trinity. The term has also been applied to the 三仙 q.v. Popularly the 三寳 are referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre one is Śākyamuni, on his left Bhaiṣajya 藥師 and on his right Amitābha. There are other explanations, e.g. in some temples Amitābha is in the centre, Avalokiteśvara on his left, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta or Mañjuśrī on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikāya, and Trailokya: — DHARMASAṄGHABUDDHAEssential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical BodhiDhyāni BuddhaDhyāni BodhisattvaMānuṣī BuddhaDharmakāyaSambhogakāyaNirmāṇakāyaPurityCompletenessTransformations4th Buddha-kṣetra3rd Buddha-kṣetra1st and 2nd Buddha kṣetraArūpadhātuRūpadhātuKāmadhātu.

三德

see styles
Mandarin sān dé / san1 de2
Taiwan san te
Japanese santoku
The three virtues or powers, of which three groups are given below. (1) (a) 法身德 The virtue or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, the dharmakāya; (b) 般若德 of his prājñā, or wisdom, knowing all things in their reality; (c) 解脫德 of his freedom from all bonds and his sovereign Iiberty. Each of these has the four qualities of 常, 樂我, 淨eternity, joy, personality, and purity; v. 漫涅槃經 (2) (a) 智德 The potency of his perfect knowledge; (b) 斷德 of his cutting off all illusion and perfecting of supreme nirvāṇa; the above two are 自利 for his own advantage; (c) 恩德 of his universal grace and salvation, which 利他 bestows the benefits he has acquired on others. (3) (a) 因圓德 The perfection of his causative or karmic works during his three great kalpas of preparation; (b) 果圓德 the perfection of the fruit, or results in his own character and wisdom; (c) 恩圓德 the perfection of his grace in the salvation of others.

三惑

see styles
Mandarin sān huò / san1 huo4
Taiwan san huo
Japanese sanwaku;sannaku / さんわく;さんなく
Japanese {Buddh} three mental disturbances
A Tiantai classification of the three delusions, also styled 三煩惱; 三漏; 三垢; 三結; trials or temptations, leakages, uncleannesses, and bonds. The first of the following three is common to all disciples, the two last to bodhisattvas. They arise from (a) 見, 思, 惑 things seen and thought, i.e. illusions from imperfect perception, with temptation to love, hate, etc.; to be rid of these false views and temptations is the discipline and nirvāṇa of ascetic or Hīnayāna Buddhists. Mahāyāna proceeds further in and by its bodhisattva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. (b) 塵沙惑 illusion and temptation through the immense variety of duties in saving men; and (c) 無明惑 illusions and temptations that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in their reality; three mental disturbances

三明

see styles
Mandarin sān míng / san1 ming2
Taiwan san ming
Japanese sanmyou / sanmyo / さんみょう
Chinese Sanming prefecture level city in Fujian
Japanese {Buddh} (See 宿命通,天眼通,漏尽通) three kinds of awareness; (surname, given name) Mitsuaki; (surname) Miake; (surname) Miaki; (place-name) Sanmei; (place-name) Sanmyou; (surname) Kazuaki
The three insights; also 三達. Applied to Buddhas they are called 三達, to arhats 三明. (a) 宿命明 Insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives; (b) 天眼明 supernatural insight into future mortal conditions; (c) 漏盡明 nirvāṇa insight, i.e. into present mortal sufferings so as to overcome aIl passions or temptations. In the 倶舍論 27 the three are termed 住智識證明; 死生識證明 and 漏盡識證明. For 三明經 v. 長阿含16.

三時


三时

see styles
Mandarin sān shí / san1 shi2
Taiwan san shih
Japanese mitoki / みとき    santoki / さんとき    sanji / さんじ
Japanese (adverbial noun) (1) 3 o'clock; (2) 3 o'clock snack; (personal name) Mitoki; (surname) Santoki; (surname) Sanji
The three divisions of the day, i.e. dawn, daylight, and sunset; or morning, noon, and evening; also the three periods, after his nirvāṇa, of every Buddha's teaching, viz., 正 correct, or the period of orthodoxy and vigour, 像 semblance, or the period of scholasticism, and 末 end, the period of decline and termination; three times

三有

see styles
Mandarin sān yǒu / san1 you3
Taiwan san yu
Japanese san'u
The three kinds of bhava, or existence; idem 三界 q. v. The three states of mortal existence in the trailokya, i. e. in the realms of desire, of form, and beyond form. Another definition is 現有 present existence, or the present body and mind; 當有 in a future state; 中有 antara-bhava, in the intermediate state. 三有對 The three sets of limitation on freedom: (a) direct resistance or opposition; (b) environment or condition; (c) attachment. 三有爲法 The three active) functioning dharmas: (1) pratigha, matter or form, i. e. that which has ' substantial resistance'; (2) mind; and (3) 非色非心 entities neither of matter nor mind; cf. 七十五法. 三有爲相 The three forms of all phenomena, birth, stay (i. e. 1ife), death; utpāda, sthiti, and nirvana.

三業


三业

see styles
Mandarin sān yè / san1 ye4
Taiwan san yeh
Japanese sangou / sango / さんごう    sangyou / sangyo / さんぎょう
Japanese {Buddh} (See 身口意) three activities (action, speech and thought); the three entertainment district enterprises: eating houses, geisha houses, meeting places for assignations, etc.
trividha-dvāra. The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, 身, 口, 意. (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) 漏業 Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma of neither, independent of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are other groups of three; three activities

三樂


三乐

see styles
Mandarin sān lè / san1 le4
Taiwan san le
Japanese sanraku
The three joys— the joy of being born a deva, the joy of meditation, the joy of nirvana.

三法

see styles
Mandarin sān fǎ / san1 fa3
Taiwan san fa
Japanese sanbō
The three dharma, i.e. 教法 the Buddha's teaching; 行法 the practice of it; 證法 realization or experiential proof of it in bodhi and nirvāṇa; three kinds of dharma

三目

see styles
Mandarin sān mù / san1 mu4
Taiwan san mu
Japanese mitsume / みつめ
Japanese (surname) Mitsume
The three-eyed, a term for Śiva, i.e Maheśvara; simile for the dharmakāya, or spiritual body, prajñā, or wisdom, and nirvāṇa emancipation; three eyed

三相

see styles
Mandarin sān xiāng / san1 xiang1
Taiwan san hsiang
Japanese sansou / sanso / さんそう
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) three phases
The three forms or positions: 解脫相 nirvāṇa; 離相 no nirvāṇa; 滅和 or 非有非無之中道 absence of both, or the "middle way" of neither; three aspects

三衍

see styles
Mandarin sān yǎn / san1 yan3
Taiwan san yen
Japanese sanen
The three yāna, or vehicles to nirvāṇa, i.e. śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, v. 三乘; three vehicles

三身

see styles
Mandarin sān shēn / san1 shen1
Taiwan san shen
Japanese sanjin;sanshin / さんじん;さんしん
Japanese {Buddh} trikaya (three bodies of the Buddha); (surname) Sanmi
trikāya. 三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men; three bodies [of the Buddha]

三車


三车

see styles
Mandarin sān chē / san1 che1
Taiwan san ch`e / san che
Japanese sansha
triyāna. 三乘 or 三乘法門 (1) The three vehicles across saṃsāra into nirvāṇa, i.e. the carts offered by the father in the Lotus Sutra to lure his children out of the burning house: (a) goat carts, representing śrāvakas; (b) deer carts, pratyekabuddhas; (c) bullock carts, bodhisattvas. (2) The three principal schools of Buddhism— Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna; three carts

三軌


三轨

see styles
Mandarin sān guǐ / san1 gui3
Taiwan san kuei
Japanese sanki
The three rules 三法 (三法妙) of the Tiantai Lotus School: (a) 眞性軌 The absolute and real, the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā; (b) 觀照軌meditation upon and understanding of it; (c) 資成軌 the extension of this understanding to all its workings. In the 三軌弘經 the three are traced to the 法師品 of the Lotus Sutra and are developed as: (a) 慈悲室 the abode of mercy, or to dwell in mercy; (b) 忍辱衣 the garment of endurance, or patience under opposition; (c) 法空座 the throne of immateriality (or spirituality), a state of nirvāṇa tranquility. Mercy to all is an extension of 資成軌 , patience of 觀照軌 and nirvāṇa tranquility of 眞性軌 .

三餘


三余

see styles
Mandarin sān yú / san1 yu2
Taiwan san yü
Japanese sanyo
The three after death remainders, or continued mortal experiences, of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, who mistakenly think they are going to 無餘涅槃final nirvāṇa, but will still find 煩惱餘 further passion and illusion, 業餘 further karma, and 果餘 continued rebirth, in realms beyond the 三界trailokya; three remainders

不生

see styles
Mandarin bù shēng / bu4 sheng1
Taiwan pu sheng
Japanese fushou / fusho / ふしょう
Japanese (place-name) Fushou
anutpatti; anutpāda. Non-birth: not to be reborn, exempt from rebirth; arhan is mistakenly interpreted as 'not born', meaning not born again into mortal worlds. The 'nir' in nirvana is also erroneously said to mean 'not born'; certain schools say that nothing ever has been born, or created, for all is eternal. The Shingon word 'a' is interpreted as symbolizing the uncreated. The unborn or uncreated is a name for the Tathāgata, who is not born, but eternal ; hence by implication the term means "eternal". ādi, which means"at first, " "beginning","primary", is also interpreted as 不生 uncreated.

不退

see styles
Mandarin bù tuì / bu4 tui4
Taiwan pu t`ui / pu tui
Japanese futai / ふたい
Japanese determination; (surname) Futai
(不退轉) avaivartika, or avinivartanīya. Never receding, always progressing, not backsliding, or losing ground; never retreating but going straight to nirvana; an epithet of every Buddha.

中乘

see styles
Mandarin zhōng chéng / zhong1 cheng2
Taiwan chung ch`eng / chung cheng
Japanese chūjō
The middle vehicle to nirvana, includes all intermediate or medial systems between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. It also corresponds with the state of a pratyekabuddha, who lives chiefly for his own salvation but partly for others, like a man sitting in the middle of a vehicle, leaving scarcely room for others. It is a definition made by Mahayanists unknown to Hīnayāna.

乘津

see styles
Mandarin chéng jīn / cheng2 jin1
Taiwan ch`eng chin / cheng chin
Japanese jōshin
The vehicle and ford to nirvana, i.e. Buddha-truth; vehicle for fording the river of cyclic existence

九道

see styles
Mandarin jiǔ dào / jiu3 dao4
Taiwan chiu tao
Japanese kudō
idem 九有情居.; The nine truths, or postulates: impermanence; suffering; voidness (or unreality of things); no permanent ego, or soul; love of existence or possessions, resulting in suffering; the opposite (or fear of being without them), also resulting in suffering; the cutting off of suffering and its cause; nirvāṇa with remainder still to be worked out; complete nirvāṇa; nine paths

事障

see styles
Mandarin shì zhàng / shi4 zhang4
Taiwan shih chang
Japanese jishō
Phenomenal hindrances to entry into nirvāṇa, such as desire, etc.; 理障 are noumenal hindrances, such as false doctrine, etc.

二教

see styles
Mandarin èr jiào / er4 jiao4
Taiwan erh chiao
Japanese nikyō
Dual division of the Buddha's teaching. There are various definitions: (1) Tiantai has (a) 顯教 exoteric or public teaching to the visible audience, and (b) 密教 at the same time esoteric teaching to an audience invisible to the other assembly. (2) The 眞言 Shingon School by "exoteric" means all the Buddha's preaching, save that of the 大日經 which it counts esoteric. (3) (a) 漸教 and (b) 頓教 graduated and immediate teaching, terms with various uses, e.g. salvation by works Hīnayāna, and by faith, Mahāyāna, etc.; they are applied to the Buddha's method, to the receptivity of hearers and to the teaching itself. (4) Tiantai has (a) 界内教 and (b) 界外教 teachings relating to the 三界 or realms of mortality and teachings relating to immortal realms. (5) (a) 半字教 and (b) 滿字教 Terms used in the Nirvāṇa sūtra, meaning incomplete word, or letter, teaching and complete word teaching, i.e. partial and complete, likened to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. (6) (a) 捃收教 and (b) 扶律談常教 of the Nirvāṇa sūtra, (a) completing those who failed to hear the Lotus; (b) "supporting the law, while discoursing on immortality," i.e. that the keeping of the law is also necessary to salvation. (7) Tiantai's division of (a) 偏教 and (b) 圓教 the partial teaching of the 藏, 通, and schools as contrasted with the perfect teaching of the 圓 school. (8) Tiantai's division of (a) 構教 and (6) 實教 temporary and permanent, similar to the last two. (9) (a) 世間教 The ordinary teaching of a moral life here; (b) 出世間教 the teaching of Buddha-truth of other-worldly happiness in escape from mortality. (10) (a) 了義教 the Mahāyāna perfect or complete teaching, and (b) 不了義教 Hīnayāna incompleteness. (11) The Huayan division of (a) 屈曲教 indirect or uneven teaching as in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, and (b) 平道教 direct or levelled up teaching as in the Huayan sūtra. (12) The Huayan division of (a) 化教 all the Buddha's teaching for conversion and general instruction, and (b) 制教 his rules and commandments for the control and development of his order; two kinds of teaching

二際


二际

see styles
Mandarin èr jì / er4 ji4
Taiwan erh chi
Japanese nisai
The two borders, or states: according to Hīnayāna, nirvana and mortality; according to Mahāyāna the two are one; duality

二障

see styles
Mandarin èr zhàng / er4 zhang4
Taiwan erh chang
Japanese nishō
The two hindrances:(1) (a) 煩惱障 The passions and delusion which aid rebirth and hinder entrance into nirvana; (b) 智障 or所知障, worldly wisdom e.g. accounting the seeming as real, a hindrance to true wisdom. (2) (a) 煩惱障 as above; (b) 解脱障 hindrances to deliverance. (3) (a)理障 hindrances to truth; (b) 事障 hindrances of the passions, etc.

五因

see styles
Mandarin wǔ yīn / wu3 yin1
Taiwan wu yin
Japanese goin
The five causes, v. 倶舍論 7. i. e. (1) 生因 producing cause; (2) 依因supporting cause; (3) 立因 upholding or establishing cause; (4) 持因 maintaining cause; (5) 養因 nourishing or strengthening cause. These all refer to the four elements, earth, water, fire, wind, for they are the causers or producers and maintainers of the infinite forms of nature. Another list from the Nirvana-Sutra 21 is (1) 生因 cause of rebirth, i. e. previous delusion; (2) 和合因 intermingling cause, i. e. good with good, bad with bad, neutral with neutral; (3) 住因 cause of abiding in the present condition, i. e. the self in its attachments; (4) 增長因 causes of development, e. g. food, clothing, etc.; (5) 遠因 remoter cause, the parental seed.

五夢


五梦

see styles
Mandarin wǔ mèng / wu3 meng4
Taiwan wu meng
Japanese itsumu / いつむ
Japanese (female given name) Itsumu
The five bad dreams of King Ajātaśatru on the night that Buddha entered nirvana— as the moon sank the sun arose from the earth. the stars fell like rain, seven comets appeared, and a great conflagration filling the sky fell on the earth; five dreams

五忍

see styles
Mandarin wǔ rěn / wu3 ren3
Taiwan wu jen
Japanese gonin
The five stages of bodhisattva-kṣānti, patience or endurance according to the 別教: (1) 伏忍the causes of passion and illusion controlled but not finally cut off, the condition of 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (2) 信忍 firm belief, i. e. from the 初地 to the 三地; (3) 順忍 patient progress towards the end of all mortality, i. e. 四地 to 六地; (4) 無生忍 patience for full apprehension, of the truth of no rebirth, 七地 to 九地; and (5) 寂滅忍 the patience that leads to complete nirvana, 十地 to 妙覺; cf. 五位; five kinds of patient endurance

五教

see styles
Mandarin wǔ jiào / wu3 jiao4
Taiwan wu chiao
Japanese gokyō
The five division of Buddhism according to the Huayan School, of which there are two That of 杜順 Dushun down to 賢首 Xianshou is (1) 小乘教 Hīnayāna which interprets nirvana as annihilation; (2) 大乘始教 the primary stage of Mahāyāna, with two sections the 相始教 and 空 始教 or realistic and idealistic, (3) 大乘終教 Mahāyāna in its final stage, teaching the 眞如 and universal Buddhahood; (4) 頓教 the immediate, direct, or intuitive school, e. g. by right concentration of thought, or faith, apart from 'works'; (5) 圓教 the complete or perfect teaching of the Huayan, combining all the rest into one all-embracing vehicle. The five are now differentiated into 十宗 ten schools. The other division, by 圭峯 Guifeng of the same school, is (1) 人天教 rebirth as human beings for those who keep the five commandments and as devas those who keep the 十善 as 相始教 above; (4) 大乘破相教 as 空始教 above; and (5) 一乘顯性教 the one vehicle which reveals the universal Buddha-nature; it includes (3), (4), and (5) of the first group. See also 五時教; five teachings

五時


五时

see styles
Mandarin wǔ shí / wu3 shi2
Taiwan wu shih
Japanese goji
(五時教) The five periods or divisions of Śākyamuni's teaching. According to Tiantai they are (1) 華嚴時 the Avataṃsaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment, when he preached the content, of this sutra; (2) 鹿苑時 the twelve years of his preaching the Āgamas 阿含 in the Deer Park; (3) 方等時 the eight years of preaching Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna doctrines, the vaipulya period; (4) 般若時 the twenty-two years of his preaching the prajñā or wisdom sutras; (5) 法華涅槃時 the eight years of his preaching the Lotus Sutra and, in a day and a night, the Nirvana Sutra. According to the Nirvana School (now part of the Tiantai) they are (1) 三乘別教 the period when the differentiated teaching began and the distinction of the three vehicles, as represented by the 四諦 Four Noble Truths for śrāvakas, the 十二因緣 Twelve Nidānas for pratyekabuddhas, and the 六度 Six Pāramitās for bodhisattvas; (2) 三乘通教 the teaching common to all three vehicles, as seen in the 般若經; (3) 抑揚教 the teaching of the 維摩經, the 思益梵天所問經, and other sutras olling the bodhisattva teaching at the expense of that for śrāvakas; (4) 同歸教 the common objective teaching calling all three vehicles, through the Lotus, to union in the one vehicle; (5) 常住教 the teaehmg of eternal life i. e. the revelation through the Nirvana sutra of the eternity of Buddhahood; these five are also called 有相; 無相; 抑揚; 曾三歸—; and 圓常. According to 劉虬 Liu Chiu of the 晉 Chin dynasty, the teaching is divided into 頓 immediate and 漸 gradual attainment, the latter having five divisions called 五時教 similar to those of the Tiantai group. According to 法寶 Fabao of the Tang dynasty the five are (1) 小乘; (2) 般着 or 大乘; (3) 深密 or 三乘; (4) 法華 or 一乘; (5) 涅槃 or 佛性教.

五果

see styles
Mandarin wǔ guǒ / wu3 guo3
Taiwan wu kuo
Japanese goka / ごか
Japanese (1) five fruits (peach, Japanese plum, apricot, jujube, Japanese chestnut); (2) (Buddhist term) five types of effect in cause-and-effect relationships; (3) (Buddhist term) five effects of ignorance and formations on one's current life
The five fruits, or effects; there are various groups, e. g. I. (1) 異熟果 fruit ripening divergently, e. g. pleasure and goodness are in different categories; present organs accord in pain or pleasure with their past good or evil deeds; (2) 等流果 fruit of the same order, e. g. goodness reborn from previous goodness; (3) 土用果 present position and function fruit, the rewards of moral merit in previous lives; (4) 增上果 superior fruit, or position arising from previous earnest endeavor and superior capacity: (5) 離繋果 fruit of freedom from all bonds, nirvana fruit. II. Fruit, or rebirth: (1) 識 conception (viewed psychologically); (2) 名色 formation mental and physical; (3) 六處 the six organs of perception complete; (4) 觸 their birth and contact with the world; (5) 受 consciousness. III. Five orders of fruit, with stones, pips, shells (as nuts), chaff-like (as pine seeds), and with pods; fivefold aspects of cause and effect

五繫


五系

see styles
Mandarin wǔ xì / wu3 xi4
Taiwan wu hsi
Japanese goke
The five suspended corpses, or dead snakes, hanging from the four limbs and neck of Mara as Papiyan; v. Nirvana sutra 6; five suspensions

五衰

see styles
Mandarin wǔ shuāi / wu3 shuai1
Taiwan wu shuai
Japanese gosui
The five signs of decay or approaching death, of which descriptions vary. e. g. uncontrolled discharges, flowers on the head wither. unpleasant odor, sweating armpits, uneasiness (or anxiety); Nirvana Sutra 19.

五轉


五转

see styles
Mandarin wǔ zhuǎn / wu3 zhuan3
Taiwan wu chuan
Japanese goten
The five evolutions, or developments; (1) resolve on Buddhahood; (2) observance of the rules; (3) attainment of enlightenment; (4) of nirvana; (5) of power to aid others according to need.

人空

see styles
Mandarin rén kōng / ren2 kong1
Taiwan jen k`ung / jen kung
Japanese ningū
Man is only a temporary combination formed by the five skandhas and the twelve nidānas, being the product of previous causes, and without a real self or permanent soul. Hīnayāna is said to end these causes and consequent reincarnation by discipline in subjection of the passions and entry into nirvana by the emptying of the self. Mahāyāna fills the "void" with the Absolute, declaring that when man has emptied himself of the ego he realizes his nature to be that of the absolute, bhūtatathatā; v. 二空; emptiness of person

仏果

see styles
Japanese bukka / ぶっか Japanese Buddhahood; Nirvana

佛滅


佛灭

see styles
Mandarin fú miè / fu2 mie4
Taiwan fu mieh
Japanese butsumetsu
(佛滅度) Buddha's nirvana; it is interpreted as the extinction of suffering, or delusion, and as transport across the 苦海 bitter sea of mortality, v. 滅.

佛跡


佛迹

see styles
Mandarin fú jī / fu2 ji1
Taiwan fu chi
Japanese busseki
佛迹 Buddha's relic; any trace of Buddha, e.g. the imprint of his foot in stone before he entered nirvana; footsteps of the Buddha

元妙

see styles
Mandarin yuán miào / yuan2 miao4
Taiwan yüan miao
Japanese ganmyō
The original or fundamental marvel or mystery, i. e. the conception of nirvana; primal mystery

入寂

see styles
Mandarin rù jì / ru4 ji4
Taiwan ju chi
Japanese nyuujaku / nyujaku / にゅうじゃく
Japanese (noun/participle) death of a priest; nirvana; spiritual liberty
To inter into rest, or nirvana; also, to die. Also 入滅 or 入寂滅.

入涅

see styles
Mandarin rù niè / ru4 nie4
Taiwan ju nieh
Chinese to enter nirvana (Buddhism)

入滅


入灭

see styles
Mandarin rù miè / ru4 mie4
Taiwan ju mieh
Japanese nyuumetsu / nyumetsu / にゅうめつ
Japanese (noun/participle) dying; entering nirvana; death (of Buddhist saint)
idem 入寂; to enter into nirvāṇa

內薰

see styles
Mandarin nèi xūn / nei4 xun1
Taiwan nei hsün
Inner censing; primal ignorance, or unenlightenment; perfuming, censing, or acting upon original intelligence causes the common uncontrolled mind to resent the miseries of mortality and to seek nirvana; v. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

兩河


两河

see styles
Mandarin liǎng hé / liang3 he2
Taiwan liang ho
Japanese ryōga
Chinese two rivers; Mesopotamia
The 'two rivers', Nairañjanā, v. 尼, where Buddha attained enlightenment, and Hiraṇyavatī, see 尸, where he entered Nirvāṇa.

八味

see styles
Mandarin bā wèi / ba1 wei4
Taiwan pa wei
Japanese hachimi
The eight savours (or pleasures) of the Buddha's nirvāṇa: 常住 perpetual abode, 寂滅extinction (of distress, etc.), 不老 eternal youth, 不死 immortality, 淸淨 purity, 虛通 absolute freedom (as space), 不動 imperturbility, and 快樂 joy; eight flavors

八字

see styles
Mandarin bā zì / ba1 zi4
Taiwan pa tzu
Japanese yaji / やじ
Chinese the character 8 or 八; birthdate characters used in fortune-telling
Japanese (surname) Yaji
The eight leading characters of the 聖行 chapter in the Nirvāṇa sūtra 生滅滅巳寂滅爲樂, the teaching of the sūtra is death, or nirvāṇa, as entry into joy; eight words

八教

see styles
Mandarin bā jiào / ba1 jiao4
Taiwan pa chiao
Japanese hakkyō
The eight Tiantai classifications of Śākyamuni's teaching, from the Avataṁsaka to the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, divided into the two sections (1) 化法四教 his four kinds of teaching of the content of the Truth accommodated to the capacity of his disciples; (2) 化儀四教 his four modes of instruction. (1) The four 化法教 are: (a) 三藏教 The Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching, for śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattva doctrine being subordinate; it also included the primitive śūnya doctrine as developed in the Satyasiddhi śāstra. (b) 教通His later "intermediate" teaching which contained Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna doctrine for śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, to which are attributed the doctrines of the Dharmalakṣaṇa or Yogācārya and Mādhyamika schools. (c) 別教 His differentiated , or separated, bodhisattva teaching, definitely Mahāyāna. (d) 圓教 His final, perfect, bodhisattva, universal teaching as preached, e.g. in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras. (2) The four methods of instruction 化儀 are: (a) 頓教 Direct teaching without reserve of the whole truth, e.g. the 華嚴 sūtra. (b) 漸教 Gradual or graded, e.g. the 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; all the four 化法 are also included under this heading. (c) 祕密教 Esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly. (d) 不定教 General or indeterminate teaching, from which each hearer would derive benefit according to his interpretation; eight teaching categories

六度

see styles
Mandarin liù dù / liu4 du4
Taiwan liu tu
Japanese rokudo / ろくど
Japanese (surname) Rokudo
The six things that ferry one beyond the sea of mortality to nirvana, i. e. the six pāramitās 波羅蜜 (波羅蜜多): (1) 布施 dāna, charity, or giving, including the bestowing of the truth on others; (2) 持戒 śīla, keeping the command rents; (3) 忍辱 kṣānti, patience under insult; (4) 精進 vīrya, zeal and progress; (5) 闡定 dhyāna, meditation or contemplation; (6) 智慧 prajñā; wisdom, the power to discern reality or truth. It is the last that carries across the saṃsāra (sea of incarnate life) to the shores of nirvana. The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, a distracted mind, and ignorance. The 唯識論 adds four other pāramitās: (7) 方便 upāya, the use of appropriate means; (8) 願 praṇidhāna, pious vows; (9) 力 bala, power of fulfillment; (10) 智 jñāna knowledge; six perfections

六慧

see styles
Mandarin liù huì / liu4 hui4
Taiwan liu hui
Japanese rokue
The six kinds of wisdom. Each is allotted seriatim to one of the six positions 六位 q. v. (1) 聞慧 the wisdom of hearing and apprehending the truth of the middle way is associated with the 十住; (2) 思慧 of thought with the 十行; (3) 修慧 of observance with the 十廻向; (4) 無相慧 of either extreme, or the mean, with the 十地; (5) 照寂慧 of understanding of nirvana with 等覺慧; (6) 寂照慧 of making nirvana illuminate all beings associated with 佛果 Buddha-fruition. They are a 別教 Differentiated School series and all are associated with 中道 the school of the 中 or middle way.

六難


六难

see styles
Mandarin liù nán / liu4 nan2
Taiwan liu nan
Japanese rokunan
The six difficult things— to be born in a Buddha-age, to hear the true Buddha-law, to beget a good heart, to be born in the central kingdom (India), to be born in human form, and to be perfect; see, Nirvana Sutra 23; six difficult attainments

円寂

see styles
Japanese enjaku / えんじゃく Japanese nirvana; death of the Buddha

出世

see styles
Mandarin chū shì / chu1 shi4
Taiwan ch`u shih / chu shih
Japanese shusse / しゅっせ
Chinese to be born; to come into being; to withdraw from worldly affairs
Japanese (noun/participle) success in life; getting ahead; successful career; promotion; climbing the corporate ladder; eminence; (surname) Shutsuse; (surname) Shusse
(1) Appearance in the world e. g. the Buddha's appearing. (2) To leave the world; a monk or nun. (3) Beyond, or outside this world, not of this world; of nirvana character; supramundane

出道

see styles
Mandarin chū dào / chu1 dao4
Taiwan ch`u tao / chu tao
Japanese demichi / でみち
Chinese to make one's first public performance (of an entertainer etc); to start one's career
Japanese (surname) Demichi
To leave the world and enter the nirvana way; leave the world and enter the path

初地

see styles
Mandarin chū de / chu1 de
Taiwan ch`u te / chu te
Japanese shoji
The first of the 十地 ten bodhisattva stages to perfect enlightenment and nirvāṇa; first ground

前佛

see styles
Mandarin qián fú / qian2 fu2
Taiwan ch`ien fu / chien fu
Japanese maebutsu / まえぶつ    zenbutsu / ぜんぶつ
Japanese (surname) Maebutsu; (surname) Zenbutsu
A preceding Buddha; former Buddhas who have entered into nirvana; former buddha(s)

勝果


胜果

see styles
Mandarin shèng guǒ / sheng4 guo3
Taiwan sheng kuo
Japanese shōka
The surpassing fruit, i.e. that of the attainment of Buddhahood, in contrast with Hīnayāna lower aims; two of these fruits are transcendent nirvāṇa and complete bodhi; excellent realization

化城

see styles
Mandarin huà chéng / hua4 cheng2
Taiwan hua ch`eng / hua cheng
Japanese gejou / gejo / げじょう
Japanese {Buddh} castle magically created by the Buddha
The magic, or illusion city, in the Lotus Sutra; it typifies temporary or incomplete nirvana, i. e. the imperfect nirvana of Hīnayāna; conjured city

十信

see styles
Mandarin shí xìn / shi2 xin4
Taiwan shih hsin
Japanese jisshin
The ten grades of bodhisattva faith, i.e. the first ten 位 in the fifty-two bodhisattva positions: (1) 信 faith (which destroys illusion and results in); (2) 念 remembrance, or unforgetfulness; (3) 精進 zealous progress; (4) 慧 wisdom; (5) 定 settled firmness in concentration; (6) 不退 non-retrogression; (7) 護法 protection of the Truth; (8) 廻向 reflexive powers, e.g. for reflecting the Truth; (9) 戒 the nirvāṇa mind in 無為 effortlessness; (10) 願 action at will in anything and everywhere; ten stages of faith

十力

see styles
Mandarin shí lì / shi2 li4
Taiwan shih li
Japanese jūriki
Daśabala. The ten powers of Buddha, giving complete knowledge of: (1) what is right or wrong in every condition; (2) what is the karma of every being, past, present, and future; (3) all stages of dhyāna liberation, and samādhi; (4) the powers and faculties of all beings; (5) the desires, or moral direction of every being; (6) the actual condition of every individual; (7) the direction and consequence of all laws; (8) all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality; (9) the end of all beings and nirvāṇa; (10) the destruction of all illusion of every kind. See the 智度論 25 and the 倶舍論 29.

十地

see styles
Mandarin shí de / shi2 de
Taiwan shih te
Japanese juuji / juji / じゅうじ
Japanese {Buddh} dasabhumi (forty-first to fiftieth stages in the development of a bodhisattva); (place-name) Juuji
daśabhūmi; v. 十住. The "ten stages" in the fifty-two sections of the development of a bodhisattva into a Buddha. After completing the十四向 he proceeds to the 十地. There are several groups. I. The ten stages common to the Three Vehicles 三乘 are: (1) 乾慧地 dry wisdom stage, i. e. unfertilized by Buddha-truth, worldly wisdom; (2) 性地 the embryo-stage of the nature of Buddha-truth, the 四善根; (3) 八人地 (八忍地), the stage of the eight patient endurances; (4) 見地 of freedom from wrong views; (5) 薄地 of freedom from the first six of the nine delusions in practice; (6) 離欲地 of freedom from the remaining three; (7) 巳辨地 complete discrimination in regard to wrong views and thoughts, the stage of an arhat; (8) 辟支佛地 pratyeka-buddhahood, only the dead ashes of the past left to sift; (9) 菩薩地 bodhisattvahood; (10) 佛地 Buddhahood. v. 智度論 78. II. 大乘菩薩十地 The ten stages of Mahāyāna bodhisattva development are: (1) 歡喜地 Pramuditā, joy at having overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood; (2) 離垢地 Vimalā, freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity; (3) 發光地 Prabhākarī, stage of further enlightenment; (4) 焰慧地 Arciṣmatī, of glowing wisdom; (5) 極難勝地 Sudurjayā, mastery of utmost or final difficulties; (6) 現前地 Abhimukhī, the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity; (7) 遠行地 Dūraṁgamā, proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in order to save others; (8) 不動地 Acalā, attainment of calm unperturbedness; (9) 善慧地 Sādhumatī, of the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the 十力 ten powers; (10) 法雲地 Dharmamegha, attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the ten pāramitās, v. 波. Each of the 四乘 or four vehicles has a division of ten. III. The 聲聞乘十地 ten Śrāvaka stages are: (1) 受三歸地 initiation as a disciple by receiving the three refuges, in the Buddha, Dharma, and Saṅgha; (2) 信地 belief, or the faith-root; (3) 信法地 belief in the four truths; (4) 内凡夫地 ordinary disciples who observe the 五停心觀, etc.; (5) 學信戒 those who pursue the 三學 three studies; (6) 八人忍地 the stage of 見道 seeing the true Way; (7) 須陀洹地 śrota-āpanna, now definitely in the stream and assured of nirvāṇa; (8) 斯陀含地 sakrdāgāmin, only one more rebirth; (9) 阿那含地 anāgāmin, no rebirth; and (10) 阿羅漢地 arhatship. IV. The ten stages of the pratyekabuddha 緣覺乘十地 are (1) perfect asceticism; (2) mastery of the twelve links of causation; (3) of the four noble truths; (4) of the deeper knowledge; (5) of the eightfold noble path; (6) of the three realms 三法界; (7) of the nirvāṇa state; (8) of the six supernatural powers; (9) arrival at the intuitive stage; (10) mastery of the remaining influence of former habits. V. 佛乘十地 The ten stages, or characteristics of a Buddha, are those of the sovereign or perfect attainment of wisdom, exposition, discrimination, māra-subjugation, suppression of evil, the six transcendent faculties, manifestation of all bodhisattva enlightenment, powers of prediction, of adaptability, of powers to reveal the bodhisattva Truth. VI. The Shingon has its own elaborate ten stages, and also a group 十地十心, see 十心; and there are other groups.

十境

see styles
Mandarin shí jìng / shi2 jing4
Taiwan shih ching
Japanese jikkyō
Ten objects of or stages in meditation觀 in the Tiantai school, i.e. 陰境 the five skandhas; 煩惱境 life's distresses and delusion; 病患境 sickness, or duḥkha, its cause and cure; 業相境 age-long karmaic influences; 魔事境 Māra affairs, how to overthrow their rule; 禪定境 the conditions of dhyāna and samādhi; 諸見境 various views and doubts that arise; 慢境 pride in progress and the delusion that one has attained nirvāṇa; 二乘境 temptation to be content with the lower nirvāṇa, instead of going on to the greater reward; 菩薩境 bodhisattvahood; see the 止觀 5.

十妙

see styles
Mandarin shí miào / shi2 miao4
Taiwan shih miao
Japanese jūmyō
The ten wonders, or incomprehensibles; there are two groups, the 迹v traceable or manifested and 本門妙 the fundamental. The 迹門十妙 are the wonder of: (1) 境妙 the universe, sphere, or whole, embracing mind, Buddha, and all things as a unity; (2) 智妙 a Buddha's all-embracing knowledge arising from such universe; (3) 行妙 his deeds, expressive of his wisdom; (4) 位妙 his attainment of all the various Buddha stages, i.e. 十住 and十地; (5) 三法妙 his three laws of 理, 慧, and truth, wisdom, and vision; (6) 感應妙 his response to appeal, i.e. his (spiritual) response or relation to humanity, for "all beings are my children"; (7) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (8) 說法妙 his preaching; (9) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (10) 利益妙 the blessings derived through universal elevation into Buddhahood. The 本門十妙 are the wonder of (1) 本因妙 the initial impulse or causative stage of Buddhahood; (2) 本果妙 its fruit or result in eternity, joy, and purity; (3) 國土妙 his (Buddha) realm; (4) 感應妙 his response (to human needs); (5) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (6) 說法妙 his preaching; (7) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (8) 涅槃妙 his nirvāṇa; (9) 壽命妙 his (eternal) life; (10) his blessings as above. Both groups are further defined as progressive stages in a Buddha's career. These "wonders" are derived from the Lotus sūtra.

十度

see styles
Mandarin shí dù / shi2 du4
Taiwan shih tu
Japanese jū do
The ten pāramitās or virtues transporting to nirvāṇa; idem 十波羅蜜 q.v; ten perfections

十恩

see styles
Mandarin shí ēn / shi2 en1
Taiwan shih en
Japanese jūon
Ten kinds of the Buddha's grace: his (1) initial resolve to universalize (his salvation); (2) self-sacrifice (in previous lives); (3) complete altruism; (4) his descent into all the six states of existence for their salvation; (5) relief of the living from distress and mortality; (6) profound pity; (7) revelation of himself in human and glorified form; (8) teaching in accordance with the capacity of his hearers, first hīnayāna, then māhayāna doctrine; (9) revealing his nirvāṇa to stimulate his disciples; (10) pitying thought for all creatures, in that dying at 80 instead of at 100 he left twenty years of his own happiness to his disciples; and also the tripiṭaka for universal salvation; ten kinds of kindness

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This page contains 100 results for "nirvana" in Chinese and/or Japanese.



Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).



Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

The following titles are just to help people who are searching for an Asian dictionary to find this page.

Japanese Kanji Dictionary

Free Asian Dictionary

Chinese Kanji Dictionary

Chinese Words Dictionary

Chinese Language Dictionary

Japanese Chinese Dictionary