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Characters Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin/ fu2
Taiwan fu
Japanese hotoke / ほとけ    butsusaki / ぶつさき
Chinese Buddha; Buddhism
Japanese (surname) Hotoke; (surname) Butsusaki
Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "conceive", "observe", "wake"; also 佛陀; 浮圖; 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮塔; 勃陀; 勃馱; 沒馱; 母馱; 母陀; 部陀; 休屠. Buddha means "completely conscious, enlightened", and came to mean the enlightener. he Chinese translation is 覺 to perceive, aware, awake; and 智 gnosis, knowledge. There is an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and multitudes of Buddhas, but the personality of a Supreme Buddha, an Ādi-Buddha, is not defined. Buddha is in and through all things, and some schools are definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna 三寳 commonly known as 三寳佛, while Śākyamuni Buddha is the first "person" of the Trinity, his Law the second, and the Order the third, all three by some are accounted as manifestations of the All-Buddha. As Śākyamuni, the title indicates him as the last of the line of Buddhas who have appeared in this world, Maitreya is to be the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlightenment, having discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane existence, others all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations; this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation, the monastic life, and meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one, himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment, or Omniscience, and according to Māhāyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as they seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality (twelve nidānas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the arhat. Four types of the Buddha are referred to: (1) 三藏佛the Buddha of the Tripiṭaka who attained enlightenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) 通佛the Buddha on the deva robe under the bodhi-tree of the seven precious things; (3) 別佛the Buddha on the great precious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and (4) 圓佛the Buddha on the throne of Space in the realm of eternal rest and glory where he is Vairocana. The Hīnayāna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time; Mahāyāna claims the existence of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many Buddhas as there are Buddha-universes, which are infinite in number.

日蓮


日莲

see styles
Mandarin rì lián / ri4 lian2
Taiwan jih lien
Japanese nichiren / にちれん
Japanese (given name) Nichiren; (person) Nichiren (Buddhist priest, 1222-82, founder of the Nichiren sect)
Nichiren, the Japanese founder, in A. D. 1252, of the 日蓮宗 Nichiren sect, which is also known as the 法華宗 or Lotus sect. Its chief tenets are the three great mysteries 三大祕法, representing the trikāya: (1) 本尊 or chief object of worship, being the great maṇḍala of the worlds of the ten directions, or universe, i. e. the body or nirmāṇakāya of Buddha; (2) 題目 the title of the Lotus Sutra 妙法蓮華經 Myo-ho-ren-gwe-kyo, preceded by Namo, or, 'Adoration to the scripture of the lotus of the wonderful law, ' for it is Buddha's spiritual body; (3) 戒壇 the altar of the law, which is also the title of the Lotus as above; the believer, wherever he is, dwells in the Pure-land of calm light 寂光淨土, the saṃbhogakāya.

觀世音


观世音

see styles
Mandarin guān shì yīn / guan1 shi4 yin1
Taiwan kuan shih yin
Japanese Kanzeon / かんぜおん
Chinese Guanyin, the Bodhisattva of Compassion or Goddess of Mercy (Sanskrit Avalokiteśvara)
Japanese (out-dated kanji) Avalokiteshvara (Bodhisattva); Avalokitesvara; Kannon; Kwannon; Guanyin; Buddhist deity of compassion
Regarder of the world's sounds, or cries, the so-called Goddess of Mercy; also known as 觀音; 觀世音善薩; 觀自在 (觀世自在); 觀尹; 光世音 (the last being the older form). Avalokiteśvara, v. 阿 8. Originally represented as a male, the images are now generally those of a female figure. The meaning of the term is in doubt; it is intp. as above, but the term 觀自在 (觀世自在) accords with the idea of Sovereign Regarder and is not associated with sounds or cries. Guanyin is one of the triad of Amida, is represented on his left, and is also represented as crowned with Amida; but there are as many as thirty-three different forms of Guanyin, sometimes with a bird, a vase, a willow wand, a pearl, a 'thousand' eyes and hands, etc., and, when as bestower of children, carrying a child. The island of Putuo (Potala) is the chief centre of Guanyin worship, where she is the protector of all in distress, especially of those who go to sea. There are many sūtras, etc., devoted to the cult, but its provenance and the date of its introduction to China are still in doubt. Chapter 25 of the Lotus Sūtra is devoted to Guanyin, and is the principal scripture of the cult; its date is uncertain. Guanyin is sometimes confounded with Amitābha and Maitreya. She is said to be the daughter of king Śubhavyūha 妙莊王, who had her killed by 'stifling because the sword of the executioner broke without hurting her. Her spirit went to hell; but hell changed into paradise. Yama sent her back to life to save his hell, when she was miraculously transported on a Lotus flower to the island of Poo-too'. Eitel.

一乗

see styles
Japanese ichijou / ichijo / いちじょう Japanese {Buddh} ekayana (doctrine that only one teaching, usu. the Lotus Sutra, can lead to enlightenment); (given name) Kazunori; (surname, given name) Ichijou

七喩

see styles
Mandarin qī yù / qi1 yu4
Taiwan ch`i yü / chi yü
Japanese shichiyu
The seven parables of the Lotus Sutra; seven metaphors

三乘

see styles
Mandarin sān chéng / san1 cheng2
Taiwan san ch`eng / san cheng
Japanese minori / みのり
Japanese (surname) Minori
Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.

三變


三变

see styles
Mandarin sān biàn / san1 bian4
Taiwan san pien
Japanese sanpen
(土田) The three transformations of his Buddha-realm made by Śākyamuni on the Vulture peak—- first, his revelation of this world, then its vast extension, and again its still vaster extension. See Lotus Sutra.

三車


三车

see styles
Mandarin sān chē / san1 che1
Taiwan san ch`e / san che
Japanese sansha
triyāna. 三乘 or 三乘法門 (1) The three vehicles across saṃsāra into nirvāṇa, i.e. the carts offered by the father in the Lotus Sutra to lure his children out of the burning house: (a) goat carts, representing śrāvakas; (b) deer carts, pratyekabuddhas; (c) bullock carts, bodhisattvas. (2) The three principal schools of Buddhism— Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna; three carts

三軌


三轨

see styles
Mandarin sān guǐ / san1 gui3
Taiwan san kuei
Japanese sanki
The three rules 三法 (三法妙) of the Tiantai Lotus School: (a) 眞性軌 The absolute and real, the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā; (b) 觀照軌meditation upon and understanding of it; (c) 資成軌 the extension of this understanding to all its workings. In the 三軌弘經 the three are traced to the 法師品 of the Lotus Sutra and are developed as: (a) 慈悲室 the abode of mercy, or to dwell in mercy; (b) 忍辱衣 the garment of endurance, or patience under opposition; (c) 法空座 the throne of immateriality (or spirituality), a state of nirvāṇa tranquility. Mercy to all is an extension of 資成軌 , patience of 觀照軌 and nirvāṇa tranquility of 眞性軌 .

不輕


不轻

see styles
Mandarin bù qīng / bu4 qing1
Taiwan pu ch`ing / pu ching
Japanese fukyō
Never Despise, 常不輕菩薩 a previous incarnation of the Buddha, as a monk whose constant greeting to all he met, that they were destined for Buddhahood, brought him much persecution; see the chapter of this title in the Lotus Sutra.

中宗

see styles
Mandarin zhōng zōng / zhong1 zong1
Taiwan chung tsung
Japanese nakamune / なかむね    nakasou / nakaso / なかそう    chuusou / chuso / ちゅうそう
Japanese (surname) Nakamune; (surname) Nakasou; (personal name) Chuusou
The school or principle of the mean, represented by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, which divides the Buddha's teaching into three periods, the first in which he preached 有 existence, the second 空 non-existence, the third 中 neither, something 'between' or above them, e. g. a realm of pure spirit, vide the 深密經 Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra and the Lotus Sutra; school of the mean

九轍


九辙

see styles
Mandarin jiǔ zhé / jiu3 zhe2
Taiwan chiu che
Japanese kutetsu
Kumārajīva's nine divisions of the meaning of the Lotus Sūtra, whence he was styled the 九轍法師.

二乘

see styles
Mandarin èr chéng / er4 cheng2
Taiwan erh ch`eng / erh cheng
Japanese nijō
dviyāna. The two vehicles conveying to the final goal. There are several definitions: (1) Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna. (2) 聲聞 and 緣覺 or 聲覺二乘 . Śrāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. (3) 二乘作佛 The Lotus Sūtra teaches that śrāvakas and pratyekas also become Buddhas. (4) 三一二乘 The "two vehicles" of "three" and "one", the three being the pre-Lotus ideas of śrāvaka, pratyeka, and bodhsattva, the one being the doctrine of the Lotus Sūtra which combined all three in one.

二圓


二圆

see styles
Mandarin èr yuán / er4 yuan2
Taiwan erh yüan
Japanese nien
The two perfect doctrines, a term of the Tiantai School, called 今圓 (also 開顯圓 and 絶待圓) and 昔圓 (also 相待圓 ). 今圓 is the present really perfect 一實 doctrine arising from the Lotus Sūtra; 昔圓 is the older, or 相待 comparatively speaking perfect doctrine of the pre-Lotus teaching, that of the 藏, 通, and 別 schools; but the older was for limited salvation and not universal like the 今圓; these two are also termed 部圓 and 教圓 . The Huayan school has a division of the two perfections into 漸圓 gradual perfection and 頓圓 immediate perfection.

二妙

see styles
Mandarin èr miào / er4 miao4
Taiwan erh miao
Japanese nimyō
The dual "marvel" of the Lotus sūtra, the 相待妙 or comparative view, i.e. compared with all previous teaching, which is the rough groundwork; and the 絕待妙 or view of it as the perfection of teaching; hence it is "wonderful" in comparison with all previous doctrine, and absolutely "wonderful' in itself; cf. 二圓; two marvels

二教

see styles
Mandarin èr jiào / er4 jiao4
Taiwan erh chiao
Japanese nikyō
Dual division of the Buddha's teaching. There are various definitions: (1) Tiantai has (a) 顯教 exoteric or public teaching to the visible audience, and (b) 密教 at the same time esoteric teaching to an audience invisible to the other assembly. (2) The 眞言 Shingon School by "exoteric" means all the Buddha's preaching, save that of the 大日經 which it counts esoteric. (3) (a) 漸教 and (b) 頓教 graduated and immediate teaching, terms with various uses, e.g. salvation by works Hīnayāna, and by faith, Mahāyāna, etc.; they are applied to the Buddha's method, to the receptivity of hearers and to the teaching itself. (4) Tiantai has (a) 界内教 and (b) 界外教 teachings relating to the 三界 or realms of mortality and teachings relating to immortal realms. (5) (a) 半字教 and (b) 滿字教 Terms used in the Nirvāṇa sūtra, meaning incomplete word, or letter, teaching and complete word teaching, i.e. partial and complete, likened to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. (6) (a) 捃收教 and (b) 扶律談常教 of the Nirvāṇa sūtra, (a) completing those who failed to hear the Lotus; (b) "supporting the law, while discoursing on immortality," i.e. that the keeping of the law is also necessary to salvation. (7) Tiantai's division of (a) 偏教 and (b) 圓教 the partial teaching of the 藏, 通, and schools as contrasted with the perfect teaching of the 圓 school. (8) Tiantai's division of (a) 構教 and (6) 實教 temporary and permanent, similar to the last two. (9) (a) 世間教 The ordinary teaching of a moral life here; (b) 出世間教 the teaching of Buddha-truth of other-worldly happiness in escape from mortality. (10) (a) 了義教 the Mahāyāna perfect or complete teaching, and (b) 不了義教 Hīnayāna incompleteness. (11) The Huayan division of (a) 屈曲教 indirect or uneven teaching as in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, and (b) 平道教 direct or levelled up teaching as in the Huayan sūtra. (12) The Huayan division of (a) 化教 all the Buddha's teaching for conversion and general instruction, and (b) 制教 his rules and commandments for the control and development of his order; two kinds of teaching

二聖


二圣

see styles
Mandarin èr shèng / er4 sheng4
Taiwan erh sheng
Japanese ni shō
Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna 多寶; two sages (of the Lotus Sūtra)

二頓


二顿

see styles
Mandarin èr dùn / er4 dun4
Taiwan erh tun
Japanese niton
The two immediate or direct ways to perfection, as defined by Jingxi 荊溪 of the Huayan school; the gradual direct way of the Lotus; the direct way of the Huayan sutra, which is called the 頓頓頓圓, while that of the Lotus is called the 漸頓漸圓; two kinds of suddenness

五品

see styles
Mandarin wǔ pǐn / wu3 pin3
Taiwan wu p`in / wu pin
Japanese gohon
A division of the disciples, in the Lotus Sutra, into five grades— those who hear and rejoice; read and repeat; preach; observe and meditate; and transform self and others; five classes

五時


五时

see styles
Mandarin wǔ shí / wu3 shi2
Taiwan wu shih
Japanese goji
(五時教) The five periods or divisions of Śākyamuni's teaching. According to Tiantai they are (1) 華嚴時 the Avataṃsaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment, when he preached the content, of this sutra; (2) 鹿苑時 the twelve years of his preaching the Āgamas 阿含 in the Deer Park; (3) 方等時 the eight years of preaching Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna doctrines, the vaipulya period; (4) 般若時 the twenty-two years of his preaching the prajñā or wisdom sutras; (5) 法華涅槃時 the eight years of his preaching the Lotus Sutra and, in a day and a night, the Nirvana Sutra. According to the Nirvana School (now part of the Tiantai) they are (1) 三乘別教 the period when the differentiated teaching began and the distinction of the three vehicles, as represented by the 四諦 Four Noble Truths for śrāvakas, the 十二因緣 Twelve Nidānas for pratyekabuddhas, and the 六度 Six Pāramitās for bodhisattvas; (2) 三乘通教 the teaching common to all three vehicles, as seen in the 般若經; (3) 抑揚教 the teaching of the 維摩經, the 思益梵天所問經, and other sutras olling the bodhisattva teaching at the expense of that for śrāvakas; (4) 同歸教 the common objective teaching calling all three vehicles, through the Lotus, to union in the one vehicle; (5) 常住教 the teaehmg of eternal life i. e. the revelation through the Nirvana sutra of the eternity of Buddhahood; these five are also called 有相; 無相; 抑揚; 曾三歸—; and 圓常. According to 劉虬 Liu Chiu of the 晉 Chin dynasty, the teaching is divided into 頓 immediate and 漸 gradual attainment, the latter having five divisions called 五時教 similar to those of the Tiantai group. According to 法寶 Fabao of the Tang dynasty the five are (1) 小乘; (2) 般着 or 大乘; (3) 深密 or 三乘; (4) 法華 or 一乘; (5) 涅槃 or 佛性教.

五觀


五观

see styles
Mandarin wǔ guān / wu3 guan1
Taiwan wu kuan
Japanese gokan
The five meditations referred to in the Lotus Sutra 25: (1) 眞 on the true, idem 空觀, to meditate on the reality of the void or infinite, in order to be rid of illusion in views and thoughts; (2) 淸淨觀 on purity, to be rid of any remains of impurity connected with the temporal, idem 假觀; (3) 廣大智慧觀 on the wider and greater wisdom, idem 中觀, by study of the 'middle' way; (4) 悲觀 on pitifulness, or the pitiable condition of the living, and by the above three to meditate on their salvation; (5) 慈觀 on mercy and the extension of the first three meditations to the carrying of joy to all the living; five contemplations

佛乘

see styles
Mandarin fú chéng / fu2 cheng2
Taiwan fu ch`eng / fu cheng
Japanese butsujō
The Buddha conveyance or vehicle, Buddhism as the vehicle of salvation for all beings; the doctrine of the 華嚴 Huayan (Kegon) School that all may become Buddha, which is called 一乘 the One Vehicle, the followers of this school calling it the 圓教 complete or perfect doctrine; this doctrine is also styled in the Lotus Sutra 一佛乘 the One Buddha-Vehicle.

佛壽


佛寿

see styles
Mandarin fú shòu / fu2 shou4
Taiwan fu shou
Japanese butsu ju
Buddha's life, or age. While he only lived to eighty as a man, in his saṁbhogakāya he is without end, eternal; cf. Lotus Sutra, 壽量品, where Buddha is declared to be eternal; the Buddha's life span

光宅

see styles
Mandarin guāng zhái / guang1 zhai2
Taiwan kuang chai
Japanese Kōtaku
Kuang-chai, name of the temple where 法雲 Fa-yun early in the sixth century wrote his commentary on the Lotus Sutra, which is known as the 光宅疏; 光宅 became his epithet. He made a division of four yāna from the Burning House parable, the goat cart representing the śrāvaka, the deer cart the pratyekabuddha, the ox-cart the Hīnayāna bodhisattva, and the great white ox-cart the Mahāyāna bodhisattva; a division adopted by T'ien-t'ai.

八教

see styles
Mandarin bā jiào / ba1 jiao4
Taiwan pa chiao
Japanese hakkyō
The eight Tiantai classifications of Śākyamuni's teaching, from the Avataṁsaka to the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, divided into the two sections (1) 化法四教 his four kinds of teaching of the content of the Truth accommodated to the capacity of his disciples; (2) 化儀四教 his four modes of instruction. (1) The four 化法教 are: (a) 三藏教 The Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching, for śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattva doctrine being subordinate; it also included the primitive śūnya doctrine as developed in the Satyasiddhi śāstra. (b) 教通His later "intermediate" teaching which contained Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna doctrine for śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, to which are attributed the doctrines of the Dharmalakṣaṇa or Yogācārya and Mādhyamika schools. (c) 別教 His differentiated , or separated, bodhisattva teaching, definitely Mahāyāna. (d) 圓教 His final, perfect, bodhisattva, universal teaching as preached, e.g. in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras. (2) The four methods of instruction 化儀 are: (a) 頓教 Direct teaching without reserve of the whole truth, e.g. the 華嚴 sūtra. (b) 漸教 Gradual or graded, e.g. the 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; all the four 化法 are also included under this heading. (c) 祕密教 Esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly. (d) 不定教 General or indeterminate teaching, from which each hearer would derive benefit according to his interpretation; eight teaching categories

八部

see styles
Mandarin bā bù / ba1 bu4
Taiwan pa pu
Japanese hachibu / はちぶ
Japanese (abbreviation) {Buddh} (See 八部衆) the eight legions (devas, nagas, yaksas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kimnaras, mahoragas); (surname) Yabe
(八部衆) The eight classes of supernatural beings in the Lotus sūtra: 天 deva, 龍 nāga, 夜叉yakṣa, 乾闥婆 gandharva, 阿修羅 asura, 迦樓羅 garuḍa, 緊那羅 kinnara, 摩喉羅迦 mahoraga. Also called 天龍八部 and 龍神八部.

六瑞

see styles
Mandarin liù ruì / liu4 rui4
Taiwan liu jui
Japanese roku sui
The six auspicious indications attributed to the Buddha as a preliminary to his delivery of the Lotus Sutra, see 法華經, 序品: (1) his opening address on the infinite; (2) his samādhi; (3) the rain of flowers; (4) the earthquake; (5) the delight of the beholders; (6) the Buddha-ray; six portents

六部

see styles
Japanese rokubu / ろくぶ    rikubu / りくぶ Japanese (1) six copies; (2) (abbreviation) (See 六十六部) Buddhist pilgrim (carrying 66 copies of the Lotus Sutra to be left at sites across Japan); Six Ministries (Sui-dynasty to Qing-dynasty China); (surname) Rokube

化前

see styles
Mandarin huà qián / hua4 qian2
Taiwan hua ch`ien / hua chien
Japanese kezen
In the Amitābha cult the term means before its first sutra, the 觀無量壽經, just as 爾前 in the Lotus School means 'before the Lotus.'; before the teaching

化城

see styles
Mandarin huà chéng / hua4 cheng2
Taiwan hua ch`eng / hua cheng
Japanese gejou / gejo / げじょう
Japanese {Buddh} castle magically created by the Buddha
The magic, or illusion city, in the Lotus Sutra; it typifies temporary or incomplete nirvana, i. e. the imperfect nirvana of Hīnayāna; conjured city

十二

see styles
Mandarin shí èr / shi2 er4
Taiwan shih erh
Japanese juuni / juni / じゅうに
Chinese twelve; 12
Japanese 12; twelve; (given name) Tooji; (place-name, surname) Juuni
dvātriṃśa. Thirty-two. 三十二應 (or 三十二身) The thirty-two forms of Guanyin, and of Puxian, ranging from that of a Buddha to that of a man, a maid, a rakṣas; similar to the thirty-three forms named in the Lotus Sūtra. 三十二相三十二大人相 dvātriṃśadvaralakṣaṇa. The thirty-two lakṣaṇas, or physical marks of a cakravartī, or 'wheel-king', especially of the Buddha, i. e. level feet, thousand-spoke wheel-sign on feet, long slender fingers, pliant hands and feet, toes and fingers finely webbed, full-sized heels, arched insteps, thighs like a royal stag, hands reaching below the knees well-retracted male organ, height and stretch of arms equal, every hair-root dark coloured, body hair graceful and curly, golden-hued body, a 10 ft. halo around him, soft smooth skin, the 七處, i. e. two soles, two palms, two shoulders, and crown well rounded, below the armpits well-filled, lion-shaped body, erect, full shoulders, forty teeth, teeth white even and close, the four canine teeth pure white, lion-jawed, saliva improving the taste of all food, tongue long and broad, voice deep and resonant, eyes deep blue, eyelashes like a royal bull, a white ūrnā or curl between the eyebrows emitting light, an uṣṇīṣa or fleshy protuberance on the crown. These are from the 三藏法數 48, with which the 智度論 4, 涅盤經 28, 中阿含經, 三十ニ相經 generally agree. The 無量義經 has a different list. 三十二相經 The eleventh chapter of the 阿含經. 三十二相經願 The twenty-first of Amitābha's vows, v. 無量壽經. 三十三 trayastriṃśat. Thirty-three. 三十三天忉利天; 憺梨天, 多羅夜登陵舍; 憺利夜登陵奢; 憺利耶憺利奢 Trayastriṃśas. The Indra heaven, the second of the six heavens of form. Its capital is situated on the summit of Mt. Sumeru, where Indra rules over his thirty-two devas, who reside on thirty-two peaks of Sumeru, eight in each of the four directons. Indra's capital is called 殊勝 Sudarśana, 喜見城 Joy-view city. Its people are a yojana in height, each one's clothing weighs 六鐵 (1; 4 oz. ), and they live 1, 000 years, a day and night being equal to 100 earthly years. Eitel says Indra's heaven 'tallies in all its details with the Svarga of Brahminic mythology' and suggests that 'the whole myth may have an astronomical meaning', or be connected, with 'the atmosphere with its phenomena, which strengthens Koeppen's hypothesis explaining the number thirty-three as referring to the eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Ādityas, and two Aśvins of Vedic mythology'. In his palace called Vaijayanta 'Indra is enthroned with 1, 000 eyes with four arms grasping the vajra. There he revels in numberless sensual pleasures together with his wife Śacī... and with 119, 000 concubines with whom he associates by means of transformation'.; dvādaśa, twelve.

十妙

see styles
Mandarin shí miào / shi2 miao4
Taiwan shih miao
Japanese jūmyō
The ten wonders, or incomprehensibles; there are two groups, the 迹v traceable or manifested and 本門妙 the fundamental. The 迹門十妙 are the wonder of: (1) 境妙 the universe, sphere, or whole, embracing mind, Buddha, and all things as a unity; (2) 智妙 a Buddha's all-embracing knowledge arising from such universe; (3) 行妙 his deeds, expressive of his wisdom; (4) 位妙 his attainment of all the various Buddha stages, i.e. 十住 and十地; (5) 三法妙 his three laws of 理, 慧, and truth, wisdom, and vision; (6) 感應妙 his response to appeal, i.e. his (spiritual) response or relation to humanity, for "all beings are my children"; (7) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (8) 說法妙 his preaching; (9) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (10) 利益妙 the blessings derived through universal elevation into Buddhahood. The 本門十妙 are the wonder of (1) 本因妙 the initial impulse or causative stage of Buddhahood; (2) 本果妙 its fruit or result in eternity, joy, and purity; (3) 國土妙 his (Buddha) realm; (4) 感應妙 his response (to human needs); (5) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (6) 說法妙 his preaching; (7) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (8) 涅槃妙 his nirvāṇa; (9) 壽命妙 his (eternal) life; (10) his blessings as above. Both groups are further defined as progressive stages in a Buddha's career. These "wonders" are derived from the Lotus sūtra.

唱題

see styles
Japanese shoudai / shodai / しょうだい Japanese {Buddh} (See 題目・3) chanting the title of a sutra (esp. the Lotus Sutra)

嚴王


严王

see styles
Mandarin yán wáng / yan2 wang2
Taiwan yen wang
Japanese Gonō
i.e. 妙莊王 in the Lotus Sutra; Śubhavyūha

四一

see styles
Mandarin sì yī / si4 yi1
Taiwan ssu i
Japanese yoichi / よいち    shiichi / shichi / しいち
Japanese (given name) Yoichi; (personal name) Shiichi
The four 'ones', or the unity contained (according to Tiantai) in the 方便品 of the Lotus Sutra; i. e. 教一 its teaching of one Vehicle; 行一 its sole bodhisattva procedure; 人一 its men all and only as bodhisattvas; 理一 its one ultimate truth of the reality of all existence; four kinds of unity

四乘

see styles
Mandarin sì chéng / si4 cheng2
Taiwan ssu ch`eng / ssu cheng
Japanese shijō
The goat, deer, and ox carts and the great white-bullock cart of the Lotus Sutra, see 四車; four carts

四味

see styles
Mandarin sì wèi / si4 wei4
Taiwan ssu wei
Japanese shimi
The four 'tastes': the Tiantai definition of the four periods of the Buddha's teaching preliminary to the fifth, i. e. that of the Lotus Sutra; cf. 五味; four flavors

四唱

see styles
Mandarin sì chàng / si4 chang4
Taiwan ssu ch`ang / ssu chang
Japanese shishō
The four commanders or leaders; see Lotus Sutra 15.

四教

see styles
Mandarin sì jiào / si4 jiao4
Taiwan ssu chiao
Japanese shikyō
Four teachings, doctrines, or schools; five groups are given, whose titles are abbreviated to 光天曉苑龍: (1) 光宅四教 The four schools of 法雲 Fayun of the 光宅 Guangzhai monastery are the four vehicles referred to in the burning house parable of the Lotus Sutra, i. e. śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, bodhisattva, and the final or one vehicle teaching. (2) 天台四教 The Tiantai four are 藏通, 別, and 圓, v. 八教. (3) 曉公四教 The group of 元曉 Wŏnhyo of 海東 Haedong are the 三乘別教 represented by the 四諦緣起經; 三乘通教 represented by the 般若深密教; 一乘分教 represented by the 究網經; and 一乘滿教 represented by the 華嚴經. (4) 苑公四教 The group of 慧苑 Huiyuan: the schools of unbelievers, who are misled and mislead; of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas who know only the phenomenal bhūtatathatā; of novitiate bodhisattvas who know only the noumenal bhūtatathatā; and of fully developed bodhisattvas, who know both. (5) 龍樹四教 Nāgārjuna's division of the canon into 有 dealing with existence, or reality, cf. the 四阿含; 空 the Void, cf. 般若經; 亦有亦 空 both, cf. 深密經; and 非有非 空 neither, cf. 中論.

四衆


四众

see styles
Mandarin sì zhòng / si4 zhong4
Taiwan ssu chung
Japanese shishu;shishuu / shishu;shishu / ししゅ;ししゅう
Japanese (1) four orders of Buddhist followers (monks, nuns, male lay devotees and female lay devotees); (2) four monastic communities (ordained monks, ordained nuns, male novices and female novices); (3) (in Tendai) the four assemblies
The four varga (groups, or orders), i. e. bhikṣu, bhikṣuṇī, upāsaka and upāsikā, monks, nuns, male and female devotees. Another group, according to Tiantai's commentary on the Lotus, is 發起衆 the assembly which, through Śāriputra, stirred the Buddha to begin his Lotus Sutra sermons; 當機衆 the pivotal assembly, those who were responsive to him; 影向衆 the reflection assembly, those like Mañjuśrī, etc., who reflected on, or drew out the Buddha's teaching; and 結緣衆 those who only profited in having seen and heard a Buddha, and therefore whose enlightenment is delayed to a future life; four types of monastic community

四車


四车

see styles
Mandarin sì chē / si4 che1
Taiwan ssu ch`e / ssu che
Japanese yotsuguruma / よつぐるま    shishiya / ししや
Japanese (surname) Yotsuguruma; (surname) Shishiya
The four vehicles 四乘 of the Lotus Sutra 譬喩品, i. e. goat, deer, bullock, and great white-bullock carts; four carts

地涌

see styles
Mandarin de yǒng / de yong3
Taiwan te yung
Japanese chiyō
To spring forth, or burst from the earth, a chapter in the Lotus Sutra.

塵劫


尘劫

see styles
Mandarin chén jié / chen2 jie2
Taiwan ch`en chieh / chen chieh
Japanese jingō
(塵點劫) A period of time as impossible of calculation as the atoms of a ground-up world, an attempt to define the infinite, v. Lotus Sūtra 7 and 16; eons as great in number of all the atoms in the universe

多寶


多宝

see styles
Mandarin duō bǎo / duo1 bao3
Taiwan to pao
Japanese Tahō
(多寳) (多寳如來, 多寶如來) Prabhūtaratna, abundant treasures, or many jewels. The Ancient Buddha, long in nirvana, who appears in his stūpa to hear the Buddha preach the Lotus doctrine, by his presence revealing, inter alia, that nirvana is not annihilation, and that the Lotus doctrine is the Buddha-gospel; v. Lotus Sutra 寳塔品.

大車


大车

see styles
Mandarin dà chē / da4 che1
Taiwan ta ch`e / ta che
Japanese ooguruma / おおぐるま
Japanese (surname) Ooguruma
The great bullock-cart in the parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahāyāna, v. Lotus Sutra; great cart

大通

see styles
Mandarin dà tōng / da4 tong1
Taiwan ta t`ung / ta tung
Japanese daitsuu / daitsu / だいつう    oomichi / おおみち    oodoori / おおどおり
Chinese Datong district of Huainan city 淮南市[Huai2 nan2 shi4], Anhui; Datong Hui and Tu autonomous county in Xining 西寧|西宁[Xi1 ning2], Qinghai
Japanese (surname) Daitsuu; (surname) Oomichi; (place-name) Oodoori
大通智勝 Mahābhijñā Jñānābhibhu. The great Buddha of supreme penetraton and wisdom. "A fabulous Buddha whose realm was Sambhava, his kalpa Mahārūpa. Having spent ten middling kalpas in ecstatic meditation he became a Buddha, and retired again in meditation for 84,000 kalpas, during which his sixteen sons continued (as Buddhas) his preaching. Incarnations of his sons are," Akṣobhya, Merukūṭa, Siṃhaghoṣa, Siṃhadhvaja, Ākāśapratiṣṭhita, Nityapaṛvrtta, Indradhvaja, Brahmadhvaja, Amitābha, Sarvalokadhātū- padravodvegapratyuttīrna, Tamāla-patra-candanagandha, Merukalpa, Meghasvara, Meghasvararāja, Sarvaloka-bhayastambhitatva- vidhvaṃsanakāra, and Śākyamuni; v. Eitel. He is said to have lived in a kalpa earlier than the present by kalpas as numerous as the atoms of a chiliocosm. Amitābha is his ninth son. Śākyamuni his sixteenth, and the present 大衆 or assembly of believers are said to be the reincarnation of those who were his disciples in that former aeon; v. Lotus Sutra, chapter 7.

天華


天华

see styles
Mandarin tiān huá / tian1 hua2
Taiwan t`ien hua / tien hua
Japanese yuki / ゆき    tenka / てんか
Japanese (Buddhist term) flowers that bloom in the heavens; paper flowers scattered before the Buddha's image; snow; (female given name) Yuki; (female given name) Tenka
Deva, or divine, flowers, stated in the Lotus Sutra as of four kinds, mandāras, mahāmandāras, mañjūṣakas, and mahāmañjūṣakas, the first two white, the last two red; divine flower

妙教

see styles
Mandarin miào jiào / miao4 jiao4
Taiwan miao chiao
Japanese myōkyō
Admirable, profound teaching; i.e. that of the Lotus Sutra.

妙法

see styles
Mandarin miào fǎ / miao4 fa3
Taiwan miao fa
Japanese myouhou / myoho / みょうほう
Japanese (1) mysteries; excellent methods; (2) {Buddh} marvelous law of Buddha; Saddharma; (3) {Buddh} (See 妙法蓮華経) Lotus Sutra; teachings of the Lotus Sutra; (g,p) Myouhou
saddharma, 薩達摩 (薩達刺摩) The wonderful law or truth (of the Lotus Sutra).

妙玄

see styles
Mandarin miào xuán / miao4 xuan2
Taiwan miao hsüan
Japanese myougen / myogen / みょうげん
Japanese (surname) Myougen
Wonderful and profound; an abbreviation for妙法蓮華經玄義 the Tiantai commentary on the Lotus Sutra.

妙車


妙车

see styles
Mandarin miào chē / miao4 che1
Taiwan miao ch`e / miao che
Japanese myōsha
The wonderful vehicles (mentioned in the Lotus Sutra); marvelous vehicles

妙音

see styles
Mandarin miào yīn / miao4 yin1
Taiwan miao yin
Japanese myouon / myoon / みょうおん
Japanese exquisite voice; exquisite music; (place-name) Myouon; (female given name) Mio; (personal name) Tayune; (female given name) Taene
Wonderful sound. (1) Gadgadasvara, 妙音菩薩 (or 妙音大士) a Bodhisattva, master of seventeen degrees of samādhi, residing in Vairocanaraśmi-pratimaṇḍita, whose name heads chap. 24 of the Lotus Sutra. (2) Sughoṣa, a sister of Guanyin; also a Buddha like Varuṇa controlling the waters 水天德佛, the 743rd Buddha of the present kalpa. (3) Ghoṣa, 瞿沙 an arhat, famous for exegesis, who "restored the eyesight of Dharmavivardhana by washing his eyes with the tears of people who were moved by his eloquence." Eitel.

宗派

see styles
Mandarin zōng pài / zong1 pai4
Taiwan tsung p`ai / tsung pai
Japanese shuuha / shuha / しゅうは
Chinese sect
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) sect; denomination
Sects (of Buddhism). In India, according to Chinese accounts, the two schools of Hīnayāna became divided into twentysects. Mahāyāna had two main schools, the Mādhyamika, ascribed to Nāgārjunaand Āryadeva about the second century A. D., and the Yogācārya, ascribed toAsaṅga and Vasubandhu in the fourth century A. D. In China thirteen sectswere founded: (1) 倶舍宗 Abhidharma or Kośa sect, representing Hīnayāna,based upon the Abhidharma-kosa-śāstra or 倶舍論. (2) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect, based on the 成實論 Satyasiddhi-śāstra,tr. by Kumārajīva; no sect corresponds to it in India; in China and Japan itbecame incorporated in the 三論宗. (3) 律宗 Vinaya or Discipline sect, basedon 十誦律, 四分律, 僧祗律, etc. (4) 三論宗 The three śāstra sect, based on theMādhyamika-śāstra 中觀論 of Nāgārjuna, theSata-śāstra 百論 of Āryadeva, and theDvādasa-nikāya-śāstra 十二門論 of Nāgārjuna; this schooldates back to the translation of the three śāstras by Kumārajīva in A. D. 409. (5) 涅槃宗 Nirvāṇasect, based upon the Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra 涅槃經 tr. byDharmaraksa in 423; later incorporated in Tiantai, with which it had much incommon. (6) 地論宗 Daśabhūmikā sect, based on Vasubandhu's work on the tenstages of the bodhisattva's path to Buddhahood, tr. by Bodhiruci 508,absorbed by the Avataṃsaka school, infra. (7) 淨土宗 Pure-land or Sukhāvatīsect, founded in China by Bodhiruci; its doctrine was salvation throughfaith in Amitābha into the Western Paradise. (8) 禪宗 dhyāna, meditative or intuitional sect, attributed toBodhidharma about A. D. 527, but it existed before he came to China. (9) 攝論宗, based upon the 攝大乘論 Mahāyāna-saṃparigraha-śāstra byAsaṅga, tr. by Paramārtha in 563, subsequently absorbed by the Avataṃsakasect. (10) 天台宗 Tiantai, based on the 法華經 SaddharmapuṇḍarīkaSūtra, or the Lotus of the Good Law; it is aconsummation of the Mādhyamika tradition. (11) 華嚴宗 Avataṃsaka sect, basedon the Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra, or Gandha-vyūha 華嚴經 tr. in 418. (12) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect, established after thereturn of Xuanzang from India and his trans. of the important Yogācāryaworks. (13) 眞言宗 Mantra sect, A. D. 716. In Japan twelve sects are named:Sanron, Hossō, Kegon, Kusha, Jōjitsu, Ritsu, Tendai, Shingon; these areknown as the ancient sects, the two last being styled mediaeval; therefollow the Zen and Jōdo; the remaining two are Shin and Nichiren; at presentthere are the Hossō, Kegon, Tendai, Shingon, Zen, Jōdo, Shin, and Nichirensects.

定光

see styles
Mandarin dìng guāng / ding4 guang1
Taiwan ting kuang
Japanese joukou / joko / じょうこう    sadamitsu / さだみつ
Japanese (place-name) Joukou; (surname, given name) Sadamitsu
(1) Dīpaṃkara 提洹羯; 然燈佛, to whom Śākyamuni offered five lotuses when the latter was 儒童 Rutong Bodhisattva, and was thereupon designated as a coming Buddha. He is called the twenty-fourth predecessor of Śākyamuni. He appears whenever a Buddha preaches the Lotus Sutra. (2) Crystal, or some other bright stone.

實本


实本

see styles
Mandarin shí běn / shi2 ben3
Taiwan shih pen
Japanese jitsumoto / じつもと    sanemoto / さねもと
Japanese (personal name) Jitsumoto; (surname) Sanemoto
Fundamental reality, applied to the teaching of the Lotus Sūtra, as opposed to the previous Buddhist teaching; true basis

寶乘


宝乘

see styles
Mandarin bǎo chéng / bao3 cheng2
Taiwan pao ch`eng / pao cheng
Japanese hōjō
The precious vehicle of the Lotus Sutra; the Mahāyāna.

寶塔


宝塔

see styles
Mandarin bǎo tǎ / bao3 ta3
Taiwan pao t`a / pao ta
Japanese hōtō
Chinese pagoda
A stupa, or fane for precious things, or relics; a pagoda adorned with gems; the shrine of 多寶 Prabhūtaratna in the Lotus Sutra; jeweled stūpa

寶車


宝车

see styles
Mandarin bǎo chē / bao3 che1
Taiwan pao ch`e / pao che
Japanese hōsha
The precious cart (in the Lotus Sutra), i.e. the one vehicle, the Mahāyāna; jeweled cart

序王

see styles
Mandarin xù wáng / xu4 wang2
Taiwan hsü wang
Japanese Joō
The introduction by Chih-i to the Lotus Sutra. Introductions are divided into 序, 正, and 流通, the first relating to the reason for the book; the second to its method; and the third to its subsequent history; Xuwang

懺法


忏法

see styles
Mandarin chàn fǎ / chan4 fa3
Taiwan ch`an fa / chan fa
Japanese senbou / senbo / せんぼう
Japanese (1) {Buddh} penitence by chanting sutras; confession (of sins); Tendai ritual of chanting Lotus Sutra or to Kanzeon, Amida, or Kichijoten for forgiveness of sins performed unknowingly; (n,n-suf) (2) {Buddh} penitence sutra; (3) {Buddh} guidebook to penitence
The mode of action, or ritual, at the confessional; also the various types of confessional, e.g. that of Guanyin, Amitābha, etc.

扶疏

see styles
Mandarin fú shū / fu2 shu1
Taiwan fu shu
Japanese fusho
Supporting commentary', another name for the 涅槃經 Nirvāṇa Sūtra, because according to Tiantai it is an amplification of the Lotus Sutra.

文句

see styles
Mandarin wén jù / wen2 ju4
Taiwan wen chü
Japanese monku / もんく
Japanese (1) complaint; grumbling; objection; (2) phrase; words; expression
Textual explanation or criticism, also termed 章; 疏; 述義; 記, etc.; the term applies to works on canonical texts in general, but has particular reference to the Lotus Sutra, i. e. the 妙法蓮華經文句.

文殊

see styles
Mandarin wén shū / wen2 shu1
Taiwan wen shu
Japanese monju / もんじゅ
Chinese Manjushri, the Bodhisattva of keen awareness
Japanese (Buddhist term) Manjushri; Manjusri; Bodhisattva that represents transcendent wisdom; (p,s,f) Monju
(文殊師利) Mañjuśrī 滿殊尸利 -later 曼殊室利. 文殊 is also used for Mañjunātha, Mañjudeva, Mañjughoṣa, Mañjuṣvara, et al. T., hjamdpal; J., Monju. Origin unknown; presumably, like most Buddhas and bodhisattvas, an idealization of a particular quality, in his case of Wisdom. Mañju is beautiful, Śrī; good fortune, virtue, majesty, lord, an epithet of a god. Six definitions are obtained from various scriptures: 妙首 (or 頭 ) wonderful or beautiful) head; 普首 universal head; 濡首 glossy head (probably a transliteration); 敬首 revered head; 妙德 wonderful virtue (or power); 妙吉祥 wonderfully auspicious; the last is a later translation in the 西域記. As guardian of wisdom 智慧 he is often placed on Śākyamuni's left, with 普顯 on the right as guardian of law 理, the latter holding the Law, the former the wisdom or exposition of it; formerly they held the reverse positions. He is often represented with five curls or waves to his hair indicating the 五智 q. v. or the five peaks; his hand holds the sword of wisdom and he sits on a lion emblematic of its stern majesty: but he has other forms. He is represented as a youth, i. e. eternal youth. His present abode is given as east of the universe, known as 淸涼山 clear and cool mountain, or a region 寶住 precious abode, or Abode of Treasures, or 寶氏 from which he derives one of his titles, 寶相如來. One of his dhāraṇīs prophesies China as his post-nirvāṇa realm. In past incarnations he is described as being the parent of many Buddhas and as having assisted the Buddha into existence; his title was 龍種上佛 the supreme Buddha of the nāgas, also 大身佛 or 神仙佛; now his title is 歡喜藏摩尼寶精佛 The spiritual Buddha who joyfully cares for the jewel: and his future title is to be 普現佛 Buddha universally revealed. In the 序品 Introductory Chapter of the Lotus Sutra he is also described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Śākyamuni. He is looked on as the chief of the Bodhisattvas and represents them, as the chief disciple of the Buddha, or as his son 法王子. Hīnayāna counts Śāriputra as the wisest of the disciples, Mahāyāna gives Mañjuśrī the chief place, hence he is also styled 覺母 mother, or begetter of understanding. He is shown riding on either a lion or a peacock, or sitting on a white lotus; often he holds a book, emblem of wisdom, or a blue lotus; in certain rooms of a monastery he is shown as a monk; and he appears in military array as defender of the faith. His signs, magic words, and so on, are found in various sutras. His most famous centre in China is Wu-tai shan in Shansi. where he is the object of pilgrimages, especially of Mongols. The legends about him are many. He takes the place in Buddhism of Viśvakarman as Vulcan, or architect, of the universe. He is one of the eight Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, and sometimes has the image of Akṣobhya in his crown. He was mentioned in China as early as the fourth century and in the Lotus Sutra he frequently appears, especially as the converter of the daughter of the Dragon-king of the Ocean. He has five messengers 五使者 and eight youths 八童子 attending on him. His hall in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala is the seventh, in which his group numbers twenty-five. His position is northeast. There are numerous sutras and other works with his name as title, e. g. 文殊師利問菩提經 Gayaśīrṣa sūtra, tr. by Kumārajīva 384-417: and its 論 or .Tīkā of Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhiruci 535. see list in B. N.

方便

see styles
Mandarin fāng biàn / fang1 bian4
Taiwan fang pien
Japanese houben / hoben / ほうべん
Chinese convenient; suitable; to facilitate; to make things easy; having money to spare; (euphemism) to relieve oneself
Japanese (1) expedient; means; instrument; (2) {Buddh} upaya (skillful means, methods of teaching); (surname) Houben
upāya. Convenient to the place, or situation, suited to the condition, opportune, appropriate; but 方 is interpreted as 方法 method, mode, plan, and 便 as 便用 convenient for use, i. e. a convenient or expedient method; also 方 as 方正 and 便 as 巧妙, which implies strategically correct. It is also intp. as 權道智 partial, temporary, or relative (teaching of) knowledge of reality, in contrast with 般若智 prajñā, and 眞實 absolute truth, or reality instead of the seeming. The term is a translation of 傴和 upāya, a mode of approach, an expedient, stratagem, device. The meaning is— teaching according to the capacity of the hearer, by any suitable method, including that of device or stratagem, but expedience beneficial to the recipient is understood. Mahāyāna claims that the Buddha used this expedient or partial method in his teaching until near the end of his days, when he enlarged it to the revelation of reality, or the preaching of his final and complete truth; Hīnayāna with reason denies this, and it is evident that the Mahāyāna claim has no foundation, for the whole of its 方等 or 方廣 scriptures are of later invention. Tiantai speaks of the 三乘 q. v. or Three Vehicles as 方便 expedient or partial revelations, and of its 一乘 or One Vehicle as the complete revelation of universal Buddhahood. This is the teaching of the Lotus Sutra, which itself contains 方便 teaching to lead up to the full revelation; hence the terms 體内 (or 同體 ) 方便, i. e. expedient or partial truths within the full revelation, meaning the expedient part of the Lotus, and 體外方便 the expedient or partial truths of the teaching which preceded the Lotus; see the 方便品 of that work, also the second chapter of the 維摩經. 方便 is also the seventh of the ten pāramitās.

普賢


普贤

see styles
Mandarin pǔ xián / pu3 xian2
Taiwan p`u hsien / pu hsien
Japanese fugen / ふげん
Chinese Samantabhadra, the Buddhist Lord of Truth
Japanese Samantabhadra (bodhisattva); Universal Compassion; (place-name) Fugen; (surname) Fuken
Samantabhadra, Viśvabhadra; cf. 三曼 Universal sagacity, or favour; lord of the 理 or fundamental law, the dhyāna, and the practice of all Buddhas. He and Mañjuśrī are the right- and left-hand assistants of Buddha, representing 理 and 智 respectively. He rides on a white elephant, is the patron of the Lotus Sūtra and its devotees, and has close connection with the Huayan Sūtra. His region is in the east. The esoteric school has its own special representation of him, with emphasis on the sword indicative of 理 as the basis of 智. He has ten vows; Samantabhadra bodhisattva

智積


智积

see styles
Mandarin zhì jī / zhi4 ji1
Taiwan chih chi
Japanese chishaku / ちしゃく
Japanese (place-name) Chishaku
Jñānākara. Accumulation of knowledge. Eldest son of Mahābhijñā; also said to be Akṣobhya. Prajñākūṭa. A Bodhisattva in the retinue of Prabhūtratna, v. Lotus Sūtra; accumulate wisdom

智顗

see styles
Mandarin zhì yǐ / zhi4 yi3
Taiwan chih i
Japanese Chigi
Chinese Zhiyi (538-597), founder of the Tiantai sect of Buddhism
Zhiyi, founder of the Tiantai school, also known as 智者 and 天台 (天台大師); his surname was 陳 Chen; his 字 was 德安, De-an; born about A. D. 538, he died in 597 at 60 years of age. He was a native of 頴川 Ying-chuan in Anhui, became a neophyte at 7, was fully ordained at 20. At first a follower of 慧思, Huisi, in 575 he went to the Tiantai mountain in Chekiang, where he founded his famous school on the Lotus Sūtra as containing the complete gospel of the Buddha.

本教

see styles
Mandarin běn jiào / ben3 jiao4
Taiwan pen chiao
Japanese honkyō
The fundamental doctrine, i. e. of the One Vehicle as declared in the Lotus Sutra, also 根本之教; original teaching

本門


本门

see styles
Mandarin běn mén / ben3 men2
Taiwan pen men
Japanese honmon / ほんもん
Japanese (1) (obscure) main gate; front gate; (2) {Buddh} (See 迹門) latter half of the Lotus Sutra, which describes the nature of the Buddha; (surname) Motokado
v. 本迹; fundamental part

毒藥


毒药

see styles
Mandarin dú yào / du2 yao4
Taiwan tu yao
Japanese dokuyaku
Chinese poison
Poison, cf. the sons who drank their father's poisons in the 善門 chapter of The Lotus Sutra.

法花

see styles
Mandarin fǎ huā / fa3 hua1
Taiwan fa hua
Japanese hotsuke / ほつけ    hokke / ほっけ    houge / hoge / ほうげ    norika / のりか
Japanese (surname) Hotsuke; (place-name) Hokke; (place-name) Houge; (female given name) Norika
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

法華


法华

see styles
Mandarin fǎ huá / fa3 hua2
Taiwan fa hua
Japanese hokke;hoke / ほっけ;ほけ
Japanese (1) (abbreviation) (See 法華宗) Nichiren sect; Tendai sect; (2) (abbreviation) (See 法華経) Lotus Sutra; (female given name) Myouka; (place-name) Hokke; (surname) Hokka; (female given name) Houka; (female given name) Norika
The Dharma-flower, i.e. the Lotus Sutra, the法華經 or 妙法蓮華經 q.v. Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sutra; also the法華宗 Lotus sect, i.e. that of Tiantai, which had this sutra for its basis. There are many treatises with this as part of the title. 法華法, 法華會, 法華講 ceremonials, meetings, or explications connected with this sutra.

淨眼


净眼

see styles
Mandarin jìng yǎn / jing4 yan3
Taiwan ching yen
Japanese jōgen
The clear or pure eyes that behold, with enlightened vision, things not only as they seem but in their reality. Also Vimalanetra, second son of Śubhavyūha in the Lotus Sutra.

淨藏


净藏

see styles
Mandarin jìng cáng / jing4 cang2
Taiwan ching ts`ang / ching tsang
Japanese jō zō
Vimalagarbha, eldest son of Śubhavyūha in the Lotus Sutra.

漸教


渐教

see styles
Mandarin jiàn jiào / jian4 jiao4
Taiwan chien chiao
Japanese zengyō
The gradual method of teaching by beginning with the Hīnayāna and proceeding to the Mahāyāna, in contrast with 頓教 q.v. the immediate teaching of the Mahāyāna doctrine, or of any truth directly; e.g. the Huayan school considers the Huayan sūtra as the immediate or direct teaching, and the Lotus Sūtra as both gradual and direct; Tiantai considers the Lotus direct and complete; but there are other definitions; gradual teaching

火宅

see styles
Mandarin huǒ zhái / huo3 zhai2
Taiwan huo chai
Japanese kataku / かたく
Japanese {Buddh} this world of suffering
The parable of the burning house; one of the 'seven parables' in the Lotus Sutra 譬喩品, that of the burning house from which the owner tempts his heedless children by the device of the three kinds of carts— goat, deer, and bullock, especially a white-bullock cart i. e. Mahāyāna.

爾前


尔前

see styles
Mandarin ěr qián / er3 qian2
Taiwan erh ch`ien / erh chien
Japanese nizen
Before this, formerly used by Tiantai to denote the time preceding the Lotus Sūtra.

玄疏

see styles
Mandarin xuán shū / xuan2 shu1
Taiwan hsüan shu
Japanese genso
The 玄義, a Tiantai commentary an the contents and meaning of the Lotus Sutra, and 疏 the critical commentary on the text; profound commentary

王膳

see styles
Mandarin wáng shàn / wang2 shan4
Taiwan wang shan
Japanese ōzen
A royal feast referred to in the Lotus Sutra, where the hungry people feared to accept the King's feast till he came himself and called them; i. e. the feast of Buddhahood and the Buddha's call.

窮子


穷子

see styles
Mandarin qióng zi / qiong2 zi
Taiwan ch`iung tzu / chiung tzu
Japanese kyūshi
The poor son, or prodigal son, of the Lotus Sūtra.

糞除


粪除

see styles
Mandarin fèn chú / fen4 chu2
Taiwan fen ch`u / fen chu
Japanese funjo
Chinese (literary) to clean up
To get rid of garbage, scavenge; cf. Lotus Sutra 4.

經者


经者

see styles
Mandarin jīng zhě / jing1 zhe3
Taiwan ching che
Japanese kyōsha
One who expounds the sūtras and śāstras; one who keeps the teaching of the Lotus Sūtra; scripturalist(s)

羊車


羊车

see styles
Mandarin yáng chē / yang2 che1
Taiwan yang ch`e / yang che
Japanese yōsha
羊乘 The inferior, or śrāvaka, form of Buddhism, v. Lotus Sūtra, in the parable of the burning house; goat carriage

舍利

see styles
Mandarin shè lì / she4 li4
Taiwan she li
Japanese shari
Chinese ashes after cremation; Buddhist relics (Sanskirt: sarira)
(1) śārī, śārikā; a bird able to talk, intp. variously, but, M. W. says the mynah. Śārikā was the name of Śāriputra's mother, because her eyes were bright and clever like those of a mynah; there are other interpretation (2) śarīra(m). 設利羅 (or 室利羅); 實利; 攝 M004215 藍 Relics or ashes left after the cremation of a buddha or saint; placed in stupas and worhipped. The white represent bones; the black, hair; and the red, flesh. Also called dhātu-śarīra or dharma-śarīra. The body, a dead body. The body looked upon as dead by reason of obedience to the discipline, meditation, and wisdom. The Lotus Sutra and other sutras are counted as relics, Śākyamuni's relics are said to have amounted to 八斛四斗 84 pecks, for which Aśoka is reputed to have built in one day 84,000 stupas; but other figures are also given. śarīra is also intp. by grains of rice, etc., and by rice as food.

蓮宗


莲宗

see styles
Mandarin lián zōng / lian2 zong1
Taiwan lien tsung
Japanese Renshū
Chinese see 淨土宗|净土宗[Jing4 tu3 zong1]
The Lotus sect founded by 慧遠 Huiyuan circa A.D. 390 at his monastery, in which was a 自蓮池 white lotus pond. It has no connection with the White Lily Secret Society which arose during the Mongol or Yuan dynasty. The Lotus sect is traced to the awakening of Huiyuan by the reading of the Prajñāpāramitā sūtra. He then turned his attention to calling on the name of Buddha to obtain salvation direct to his Pure Land. The school became that of the Amitābha or Pure-land sect, which in later years developed into the principal Buddhist cult in the Far East; Amitâbha-Lotus School

蓮經


莲经

see styles
Mandarin lián jīng / lian2 jing1
Taiwan lien ching
Japanese Renkyō
The Lotus Sūtra; v. 法華.

藥師


药师

see styles
Mandarin yào shī / yao4 shi1
Taiwan yao shih
Japanese yakushi / やくし
Japanese (surname) Yakushi
Bhaiṣajya-guru-vaiḍūrya-prabhāṣa; 藥師璢璃光如來; 大醫王佛; 醫王善逝, etc. The Buddha of Medicine, who heals all diseases, including the disease of ignorance. His image is often at the left of Śākyamuni Buddha's, and he is associated with the east. The history of this personification is not yet known, but cf. the chapter on the 藥王 in the Lotus Sutra. There are several sutras relating to him, the藥王璢璃光, etc., tr. by Xuanzang circa A.D. 650, and others. There are shrines of the 藥王三尊 the three honoured doctors, with Yaoshi in the middle and as assistants 日光邊照 the Bodhisattva Sunlight everywhere shining on his right and 月光邊照 the Bodhisattva Moonlight, etc., on his left. The 藥王七佛 seven healing Buddhas are also all in the east. There are also the 藥王十二神將 twelve spiritual generals or protectors of Yaoshi, for guarding his worshippers.

衣珠

see styles
Mandarin yī zhū / yi1 zhu1
Taiwan i chu
Japanese koromo no tama
衣寳 The pearl in the garment, i.e. a man starving yet possessed of a priceless pearl in his garment, of which he was unaware; v. Lotus Sutra 五百授記品.

譬喩

see styles
Mandarin pì yù / pi4 yu4
Taiwan p`i yü / pi yü
Japanese hiyu / ひゆ
Japanese (ik) simile; metaphor; allegory; parable
A parable, metaphor; the avadāna section of the canon, v. 阿波; there are numerous categories, e.g. the seven parables of the Lotus Sūtra, the ten of the Prajñā and Vimalakīrti sūtras, etc.

跨節


跨节

see styles
Mandarin kuà jié / kua4 jie2
Taiwan k`ua chieh / kua chieh
Japanese kasetsu
To interpret one sūtra by another, a Tiantai term, e.g. interpreting all other sūtras in the light of the Lotus Sūtra; straddling the connection

身燈


身灯

see styles
Mandarin shēn dēng / shen1 deng1
Taiwan shen teng
Japanese shintō
The body as a lamp, burnt in offering to a Buddha, e. g. the Medicine King in the Lotus Sutra.

迹化

see styles
Mandarin jī huà / ji1 hua4
Taiwan chi hua
Japanese shakuke
Teaching or lessons derived from external events, i.e. of the Buddha's life and work, shown in the first fourteen sections of the Lotus Sutra; the second fourteen sections of that work are called 本化 his direct teaching. The lessons from the external indications are called 迹化十妙 the ten marvellous indications, cf. 十妙.

迹門


迹门

see styles
Mandarin jī mén / ji1 men2
Taiwan chi men
Japanese shakumon / しゃくもん
Japanese (See 本門・2) first half of the Lotus Sutra, in which the Buddha appears as a spatiotemporally restricted being
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

醫子


医子

see styles
Mandarin yī zi / yi1 zi
Taiwan i tzu
Japanese ishi
The parable of the healing of his poisoned sons by the doctor in the Lotus Sutra; healing of the sons

開顯


开显

see styles
Mandarin kāi xiǎn / kai1 xian3
Taiwan k`ai hsien / kai hsien
Japanese kaiken
To open up and reveal; to expose the one and make manifest the other. It is a term used by Tiantai, i.e. 開權顯實, to expose and dispose of the temporary or partial teaching, and reveal the final and real truth as in the Lotus Sūtra; to disclose

露牛

see styles
Mandarin lù niú / lu4 niu2
Taiwan lu niu
Japanese rogo
The great white ox and oxcart revealed in the open, i.e. the Mahāyāna, v. Lotus Sūtra; ox out in the open

非器

see styles
Mandarin fēi qì / fei1 qi4
Taiwan fei ch`i / fei chi
A vessel unfit for Buddha or Buddhism, e.g. a woman's body, which is unclean, v. Lotus Sutra 提襲 chapter 12.

頓寫

see styles
Mandarin dùn xiě / dun4 xie3
Taiwan tun hsieh
頓經; 一日經 To copy the Lotus Sūtra at one sitting.

顯本

see styles
Mandarin xiǎn běn / xian3 ben3
Taiwan hsien pen
The revelation of his fundamental or eternal life by the Buddha in the Lotus Sūtra.

髻珠

see styles
Mandarin jì zhū / ji4 zhu1
Taiwan chi chu
髻寶 The precious stone worn in the 髻 topknot; a king's most prized possession in the Lotus Sūtra parable.

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This page contains 100 results for "lotus sutra" in Chinese and/or Japanese.



Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).



Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

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