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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
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Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin/ fo2
Taiwan fo
Japanese hotoke / ほとけ    butsusaki / ぶつさき
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Buddha; Buddhism
Japanese (surname) Hotoke; (surname) Butsusaki
Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "conceive", "observe", "wake"; also 佛陀; 浮圖; 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮塔; 勃陀; 勃馱; 沒馱; 母馱; 母陀; 部陀; 休屠. Buddha means "completely conscious, enlightened", and came to mean the enlightener. he Chinese translation is 覺 to perceive, aware, awake; and 智 gnosis, knowledge. There is an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and multitudes of Buddhas, but the personality of a Supreme Buddha, an Ādi-Buddha, is not defined. Buddha is in and through all things, and some schools are definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna 三寳 commonly known as 三寳佛, while Śākyamuni Buddha is the first "person" of the Trinity, his Law the second, and the Order the third, all three by some are accounted as manifestations of the All-Buddha. As Śākyamuni, the title indicates him as the last of the line of Buddhas who have appeared in this world, Maitreya is to be the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlightenment, having discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane existence, others all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations; this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation, the monastic life, and meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one, himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment, or Omniscience, and according to Māhāyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as they seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality (twelve nidānas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the arhat. Four types of the Buddha are referred to: (1) 三藏佛the Buddha of the Tripiṭaka who attained enlightenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) 通佛the Buddha on the deva robe under the bodhi-tree of the seven precious things; (3) 別佛the Buddha on the great precious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and (4) 圓佛the Buddha on the throne of Space in the realm of eternal rest and glory where he is Vairocana. The Hīnayāna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time; Mahāyāna claims the existence of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many Buddhas as there are Buddha-universes, which are infinite in number.

see styles
Mandarin dào / dao4
Taiwan tao
Japanese dou / do / どう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese road; path; CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3]; principle; truth; morality; reason; skill; method; Dao (of Daoism); to say; to speak; to talk; classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process; (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times)
Japanese (1) (abbreviation) (See 道・みち・1) road; path; street; route; (2) (See 道・みち・3) way; set of practices; rules for conducting oneself; (3) Buddhist teachings; (4) Taoism; (5) modern administrative region of Japan (Hokkaido); (6) historical administrative region of Japan (Tokaido, Tosando, etc.); (7) province (Tang-era administrative region of China); (8) province (modern administrative region of Korea); (personal name) Wataru; (given name) Motoi; (personal name) Michihiro; (surname) Michizaki; (surname, female given name) Michi; (given name) Makoto; (female given name) Fumi; (given name) Naoshi; (surname) Douzaki; (surname) Dou; (female given name) Tooru; (given name) Tadasu; (given name) Tadashi; (female given name) Tao; (personal name) Susumu; (given name) Osamu
mārga. A way, road; the right path; principle, Truth, Reason, Logos, Cosmic energy; to lead; to say. The way of transmigration by which one arrives at a good or bad existence; any of the six gati, or paths of destiny. The way of bodhi, or enlightenment leading to nirvāṇa through spiritual stages. Essential nirvāṇa, in which absolute freedom reigns. For the eightfold noble path v. 八聖道.; The two Ways: (1) (a) 無礙道 or 無間道 The open or unhindered way, or the way of removing all obstacles or intervention, i. e. all delusion; (b) 解脫道 the way of release, by realization of truth. (2) (a) 難行道 The hard way of "works", i. e. by the six pāramitā and the disciplines. (b) 易行道 the easy way salvation, by the invocation of Amitābha. (3) (a) 有漏道 The way of reincarnation or mortality; (b) 無漏 the enlightened way of escape from the miseries of transmigration. (4) (a) 教道 The way of instruction; (b) 證道 the way of realization. (5) The two lower excretory organs.


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Mandarin fó yǎn / fo2 yan3
Taiwan fo yen
Japanese butsugen
The eye of Buddha, the enlightened one who sees all and is omniscient; Buddha-eye



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Mandarin qǐ méng / qi3 meng2
Taiwan ch`i meng / chi meng
Chinese to instruct the young; to initiate; to awake sb from ignorance; to free sb from prejudice or superstition; primer; enlightened; the Enlightenment; Western learning from the late Qing dynasty


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Mandarin míng xīn / ming2 xin1
Taiwan ming hsin
Japanese meimi / memi / めいみ    harumi / はるみ    akemi / あけみ
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Japanese (female given name) Meimi; (female given name) Harumi; (female given name) Akemi
The enlightened heart; luminous mind


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Mandarin pú tí / pu2 ti2
Taiwan p`u t`i / pu ti
Japanese bodai / ぼだい
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese bodhi (Sanskrit); enlightenment (Buddhism)
Japanese (1) {Buddh} bodhi; enlightenment; (2) {Buddh} happiness in the next world; (place-name, surname) Bodai
bodhi; from budh; knowledge, understanding; perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightened mind; anciently intp. by 道, later by 覺 to be aware, perceive; for saṃbodhi v. 三; enlightenment



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Mandarin mào de zhì duō / mao4 de zhi4 duo1
Taiwan mao te chih to
Japanese bōjiishitta
bodhicitta, the enlightened mind, idem 善提心.



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Mandarin shì jiā móu ní / shi4 jia1 mou2 ni2
Taiwan shih chia mou ni
Japanese Shakamuni
Chinese Siddhartha Gautama (563-485 BC), the historical Buddha and founder of Buddhism; Sakyamuni Buddha (Sanskrit: sage of the Sakya)
釋迦文 (釋迦文尼); 釋伽文 Śākyamuni, the saint of the Śākya tribe. muni is saint, holy man, sage, ascetic monk; it is: intp. as 仁 benevolent, charitable, kind, also as 寂默 one who dwells in seclusion. After '500 or 550' previous incarnations, Śākyamuni finally attained to the state of Bodhisattva, was born in the Tuṣita heaven, and descended as a white elephant, through her right side, into the womb of the immaculate Māyā, the purest woman on earth; this was on the 8th day of the 4th month; next year on the 8th day of the 2nd month he was born from her right side painlessly as she stood under a tree in the Lumbinī garden. For the subsequent miraculous events v. Eitel. also the 神通遊戲經 (Lalitavistara), the 釋迦如來成道記, etc. Simpler statements say that he was born the son of Śuddhodana, of the kṣatriya caste, ruler of Kapilavastu, and Māyā his wife; that Māyā died seven days later, leaving him to be brought up by her sister Prājapati; that in due course he was married to Yaśodharā who bore him a son, Rāhula; that in search of truth he left home, became an ascetic, severely disciplined himself, and finally at 35 years of age, under a tree, realized that the way of release from the chain of rebirth and death lay not in asceticism but in moral purity; this he explained first in his four dogmas, v. 四諦 and eightfold noble way 八正道, later amplified and developed in many sermons. He founded his community on the basis of poverty, chastity, and insight or meditation, ad it became known as Buddhism, as he became known as Buddha, the enlightened. His death was probably in or near 487 B.C., a few years before that of Confucius in 479. The sacerdotal name of his family is Gautama, said to be the original name of the whole clan, Śākya being that of his branch, v. 瞿, 喬.; his personal name was Siddhārtha, or Sarvārthasiddha, v. 悉.

see styles
Mandarin/ di4
Taiwan ti
Japanese tai / たい    akira / あきら
Chinese to examine; truth (Buddhism)
Japanese (given name) Tai; (given name) Akira
To judge, examine into, investigate, used in Buddhism for satya, a truth, a dogma, an axiom; applied to the āryasatyāni, the four dogmas, or noble truths, of 苦, 集, 滅, and 道 suffering, (the cause of its) assembly, the ( possibility of its cure, or) extinction, and the way (to extinction), i.e. the eightfold noble path, v. 四諦 and 八聖道. There are other categories of 諦, e.g. (2) 眞 and 俗 Reality in contrast with ordinary ideas of things; (3) 空, 假 and 中 q.v. (6) by the 勝論宗; and(8) by the 法相宗.; Two forms of statement: (a) 俗諦 saṃvṛti-satya, also called 世諦, 世俗諦, 覆俗諦, 覆諦, meaning common or ordinary statement, as if phenomena were real; (b) 眞諦 paramartha-satya, also called 第一諦, 勝義諦, meaning the correct dogma or averment of the enlightened. Another definition is 王法 and 佛法, royal law and Buddha law.


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Mandarin sān chéng / san1 cheng2
Taiwan san ch`eng / san cheng
Japanese minori / みのり
Japanese (surname) Minori
Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.


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Mandarin sān jiè / san1 jie4
Taiwan san chieh
Japanese sangai / さんがい
Japanese (1) {Buddh} (See 欲界,色界,無色界) the three realms of existence; (2) (abbreviation) {Buddh} (See 三千大千世界) the whole universe (of a billion worlds) that Buddha enlightened; (3) {Buddh} (See 三世・さんぜ・1) past, present and future existences; (suffix) (4) far-off ...; distant ...; (surname) Mikai
Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are 欲, 色, and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of sensuous desire, of 婬 and 食 sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful一a semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天, or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界 Arūpadhātu, or ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. v. 倶舍論世間品.



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Mandarin sān shèng / san1 sheng4
Taiwan san sheng
Japanese sansei / sanse / さんせい
Japanese (1) any of a number of lists of three enlightened men, including (but not limited to): Buddha, Confucius and Christ; (2) Lao-tzu, Confucius and Buddha; (3) Fu Xi, King Wen and Confucius; (4) Yao, Shun and Yu; (5) Yu, the Duke of Zhou, Confucius; (female given name) Misato; (female given name) Mikiyo
The three sages, or holy ones, of whom there are several groups. The 華嚴Huayan have Vairocana in the center with Mañjuśrī on his left and Samantabhadra on his right. The 彌陀 Mituo or Pure-land sect, have Amitābha in the center, with Avalokiteśvara on his left and Mahāsthāmaprāpta on his right. The Tiantai use the term for the 藏, 別, and 圓教v. 三教.



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Mandarin sān bèi / san1 bei4
Taiwan san pei
Japanese sanpai
The three ranks of those who reach the Pure Land of Amitābha: superior i.e. monks and nuns who become enlightened and devote themselves to invocation of the Buddha of boundless age; medium, i.e. laymen of similar character who do pious deeds; inferior, i.e. laymen less perfect than the last; three kinds of disciples (of Amitâbha)


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Japanese busshu / ぶっしゅ Japanese (1) (Buddhist term) seed of Buddhahood; (2) something that makes it possible to attain Buddhahood; (3) teaching of Buddha which make it possible to be enlightened


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Mandarin fú xīn / fu2 xin1
Taiwan fu hsin
Japanese busshin
The mind of Buddha, the spiritually enlightened heart. A heart of mercy; a heart abiding in the real, not the seeming; detached from good and evil and other such contrasts; buddha-mind



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Mandarin fú zhǒng / fu2 zhong3
Taiwan fu chung
Japanese busshu / ぶっしゅ
Japanese (1) (Buddhist term) seed of Buddhahood; (2) something that makes it possible to attain Buddhahood; (3) teaching of Buddha which make it possible to be enlightened
The seed of Buddhahood; bodhisattva seeds which, sown in the heart of man, produce the Buddha fruit, enlightenment.


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Mandarin fó tuó / fo2 tuo2
Taiwan fo t`o / fo to
Japanese budda
Chinese Buddha; transliteration of Sanskrit; the all-enlightened one
v. 佛 There are numerous monks from India and Central Asia bearing this as part of their names; buddha


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Mandarin liù fán / liu4 fan2
Taiwan liu fan
Japanese rokubon
The six stages of rebirth for ordinary people, as contrasted with the saints 聖者: in the hells, and as hungry: ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas; six non-enlightened realms



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Mandarin chū fā / chu1 fa1
Taiwan ch`u fa / chu fa
Japanese shohotsu
first arousal [of the enlightened mind]; first arousal [of the enlightened mind]


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Mandarin shí zhì / shi2 zhi4
Taiwan shih chih
Japanese jū chi
The ten forms of understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto, applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智; (8) 他心智 understanding of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10) 無生智 nirvāṇa wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26. II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界無礙智 unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6) 普照一切世間智 understanding of universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) 知一切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) 知一切法智 understanding of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) 知無邊諸佛智 understanding of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings, karma, passions, and Buddhas; ten kinds of cognition


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Japanese meikun / mekun / めいくん Japanese wise ruler; enlightened monarch; benevolent lord



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Mandarin yuán jī / yuan2 ji1
Taiwan yüan chi
Japanese enki
The potentiality of becoming fully enlightened at once; capacity for perfect realization


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Japanese taiin / tain / たいいん Japanese enlightened hermit


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Mandarin miào míng / miao4 ming2
Taiwan miao ming
Japanese taeaki / たえあき
Japanese (surname, given name) Taeaki
Profoundly enlightened heart or mind, i.e. the knowledge of the finality of the stream of reincarnation; excellent wisdom



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Mandarin yǐ jué / yi3 jue2
Taiwan i chüeh
Japanese ikaku
already enlightened; already enlightened


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Mandarin wù míng / wu4 ming2
Taiwan wu ming
Japanese gomei / gome / ごめい
Japanese (given name) Gomei
enlightened and wise; enlightened and wise


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Mandarin chéng dào / cheng2 dao4
Taiwan ch`eng tao / cheng tao
Japanese joudou / jodo / じょうどう
Chinese to reach illumination (Buddhism)
Japanese (noun/participle) completing the path to becoming a Buddha (by attaining enlightenment); (personal name) Narumichi; (surname) Narimichi; (given name) Seidou; (given name) Joudou; (given name) Shigemichi
To attain the Way, or become enlightened, e.g. the Buddha under the bodhi tree; enlightenment


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Japanese meikun / mekun / めいくん Japanese wise ruler; enlightened monarch; benevolent lord; (personal name) Akikimi



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Mandarin míng shī / ming2 shi1
Taiwan ming shih
Japanese meishi
enlightened teacher; enlightened teacher


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Japanese shoudai / shodai / しょうだい Japanese glorious reign; enlightened era; (female given name) Teruyo; (place-name) Shoudai; (female given name) Kazuyo; (female given name) Akiyo


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Mandarin zhì zhě / zhi4 zhe3
Taiwan chih che
Japanese chisha / ちしゃ    chisa / ちさ
Chinese sage; wise man; clever and knowledgeable person
Japanese (out-dated or obsolete kana usage) (1) sage; wise man; wise person; man of wisdom; (2) (Buddhist term) buddha; bodhisattva; enlightened priest; (surname) Chisha
The knower, or wise man; a name for 智顗 q.v; learned person


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Mandarin zhì jiě / zhi4 jie3
Taiwan chih chieh
Japanese chikai / ちかい
Japanese (obscure) being enlightened by virtue of knowledge
discriminated understanding


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Mandarin yǒu dào / you3 dao4
Taiwan yu tao
Japanese yuudou;yuutou / yudo;yuto / ゆうどう;ゆうとう
Chinese to have attained the Way; (of a government or a ruler) enlightened; wise and just
Japanese being good; being virtuous; virtuous person; (given name) Yuudou; (given name) Michiari; (surname) Arudou; (surname) Arimichi
to embody the way


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Mandarin fàn wáng / fan4 wang2
Taiwan fan wang
Japanese Bonō
Brahmā, cf. 梵天. The father of all living beings; the first person of the Brahminical trimūrti, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, recognized by Buddhism as devas but as inferior to a Buddha, or enlightened man; King of the Brahma Heaven



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Mandarin jìng yǎn / jing4 yan3
Taiwan ching yen
Japanese jōgen
The clear or pure eyes that behold, with enlightened vision, things not only as they seem but in their reality. Also Vimalanetra, second son of Śubhavyūha in the Lotus Sutra.



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Mandarin jiàn jué / jian4 jue2
Taiwan chien chüeh
Japanese zenkaku
gradually enlightened; gradually enlightened



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Mandarin dú wù / du2 wu4
Taiwan tu wu
Japanese dokugo
individually enlightened; individually enlightened


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Japanese hatsumei / hatsume / はつめい Japanese (noun/participle) (1) invention; (adjectival noun) (2) (See 聡明) intelligent; clever; (noun/participle) (3) (archaism) being enlightened; having the meaning of everything become clear


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Mandarin zhì zhě / zhi4 zhe3
Taiwan chih che
Japanese chisha / ちしゃ    chisa / ちさ
Japanese (out-dated or obsolete kana usage) (1) sage; wise man; wise person; man of wisdom; (2) (Buddhist term) buddha; bodhisattva; enlightened priest
The knower, the cognizer, the person within who perceives; (subjective) knower


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Mandarin zhī jiě / zhi1 jie3
Taiwan chih chieh
Japanese chikai / ちかい
Japanese (obscure) being enlightened by virtue of knowledge



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Mandarin yuán jué / yuan2 jue2
Taiwan yüan chüeh
Japanese engaku
pratyekabuddha 辟支佛; 辟支迦佛; 鉢剌翳伽陀 (鉢剌翳伽佛陀) In the early translations it was rendered 緣覺, i.e. enlightened through reasoning on the riddle of life, especially as defined in the twelve nidānas. Later it was rendered 獨覺 or individual enlightenment, i.e. one who lives apart from others and attains enlightenment alone, or for himself, in contrast with the altruism of the bodhisattva principle. The term pratyekabuddha is not limited to Buddhists, but is also general for recluses pondering alone over the meaning of life, an illustration being the rhinoceros, which lives in isolation. The non-Buddhist enlightenment is illusion, e.g. from observing the 'flying flowers and falling leaves'; the Buddhist enlightenment arises from pondering over the twelve nidānas. As a degree of saintship it is undefined by early Buddhism, receiving its definition at a later period.



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Mandarin shèng fán / sheng4 fan2
Taiwan sheng fan
Japanese shōbon
(enlightened) sage and (unenlightened) worldling; (enlightened) sage and (unenlightened) worldling



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Mandarin shèng jìng / sheng4 jing4
Taiwan sheng ching
Japanese shō kyō
realm of the enlightened; realm of the enlightened



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Mandarin shèng míng / sheng4 ming2
Taiwan sheng ming
Japanese takaaki / takaki / たかあき    seimei / seme / せいめい    satoaki / さとあき    kiyomasa / きよまさ    kiyoaki / きよあき
Chinese enlightened sage; brilliant master (flattering words applied to ruler)
Japanese (given name) Takaaki; (given name) Seimei; (given name) Satoaki; (personal name) Kiyomasa; (given name) Kiyoaki
Holy enlightenment; or the enlightenment of saints; holy illumination



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Mandarin zhòng shèng / zhong4 sheng4
Taiwan chung sheng
Japanese shushō
All saints, all who have realized the Buddha-truth; all enlightened beings



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Mandarin jiàn jiào / jian4 jiao4
Taiwan chien chiao
Chinese I have been enlightened by your teaching (humble)


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Japanese kakusha / かくしゃ Japanese enlightened person



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Mandarin qīn zhì / qin1 zhi4
Taiwan ch`in chih / chin chih
Japanese shinsha / しんしゃ
Chinese to be enlightened by direct contact with sb
Japanese (noun/participle) coming into close contact and being influenced by



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Mandarin jué le / jue2 le
Taiwan chüeh le
Japanese kakuryō
Completely and clearly enlightened; clearly to apprehend.



see styles
Mandarin jué rén / jue2 ren2
Taiwan chüeh jen
Japanese kakunin
An enlightened man who has apprehended buddha-truth; enlightened person



see styles
Mandarin jué xìng / jue2 xing4
Taiwan chüeh hsing
Japanese kakushou / kakusho / かくしょう
Japanese (personal name) Kakushou
The enlightened mind free from all illusion. The mind as the agent of knowledge, or enlightenment. Also used for dharmakāya, v. 三身; 三寶, etc; enlightened nature



see styles
Mandarin jué wù / jue2 wu4
Taiwan chüeh wu
Japanese kakugo
Chinese to come to understand; to realize; consciousness; awareness; Buddhist enlightenment (Sanskrit: cittotpāda)
To awake, become enlightened, comprehend spiritual reality; to awaken



see styles
Mandarin jué rì / jue2 ri4
Taiwan chüeh jih
Japanese kakunichi
Timelessness, eternity, changelessness, the bodhi-day which has no change. Also 覺時; enlightened days



see styles
Mandarin jué míng / jue2 ming2
Taiwan chüeh ming
Japanese kakumyō
enlightened illumination; enlightened illumination



see styles
Mandarin jué wáng / jue2 wang2
Taiwan chüeh wang
Japanese kakuō
The king of enlightenment, the enlightened king, Buddha; also覺帝.



see styles
Mandarin jué yòng / jue2 yong4
Taiwan chüeh yung
Japanese kakuyō
nirmāṇakāya, v. 三身; 三寶, etc; enlightened function



see styles
Mandarin jué zhě / jue2 zhe3
Taiwan chüeh che
Japanese kakusha
An enlightened one, especially a buddha, enlightening self and others, 自覺覺他; awakened one



see styles
Mandarin guān zhào / guan1 zhao4
Taiwan kuan chao
Japanese kanshō
To be enlightened (or enlighten) as the result of insight, or intelligent contemplation; careful consideration



see styles
Mandarin zhū shèng / zhu1 sheng4
Taiwan chu sheng
Japanese shoshō
enlightened persons; enlightened persons



see styles
Mandarin kāi shì / kai1 shi4
Taiwan k`ai shih / kai shih
Japanese haruhito / はるひと    kaishi / かいし
Japanese (personal name) Haruhito; (given name) Kaishi
The hero who is enlightened, or who opens the way of enlightenment, an epithet of the bodhisattva; also applied to monks; enlightening hero



see styles
Mandarin kāi wù / kai1 wu4
Taiwan k`ai wu / kai wu
Japanese kaigo / かいご
Chinese to become enlightened (Buddhism)
Japanese (noun/participle) wisdom; enlightenment
To awaken, arouse, open up the intelligence and bring enlightenment; to uncover enlightenment



see styles
Mandarin kāi míng / kai1 ming2
Taiwan k`ai ming / kai ming
Japanese kaimei / kaime / かいめい
Chinese enlightened; open-minded; enlightenment
Japanese civilization; civilisation; enlightenment; (place-name) Kaimei
opening the eye



see styles
Mandarin suí jué / sui2 jue2
Taiwan sui chüeh
Japanese zuikaku
enlightened in regard to; enlightened in regard to


see styles
Mandarin sān fó tuó / san1 fo2 tuo2
Taiwan san fo t`o / san fo to
Japanese sanbutsuda
saṃbuddha; the truly enlightened one, or correct enlightenment.


see styles
Mandarin sān pú tí / san1 pu2 ti2
Taiwan san p`u t`i / san pu ti
Japanese sanbodai
saṃbodhi, 糝帽地 intp. 正等覺. Perfect universal awareness, perfectly enlightened; v. 菩提; (Skt. saṃbodhi)


see styles
Mandarin fú wǔ xìng / fu2 wu3 xing4
Taiwan fu wu hsing
Japanese butsugoshō
The five surnames of Buddha before he became enlightened: 瞿曇 Gautama, a branch of the Śākya clan; 甘蔗Ikṣvāku, one of Buddha's ancestors; 日種 Sūryavaṁśa, of the sun race; 舍夷 ? Śāka; 釋迦 Śākya, the name of Buddha's clan. This last is generally used in China; the Buddha's five surnames


see styles
Japanese senkakusha / せんかくしゃ Japanese seer; pioneer; leading spirit; enlightened person



see styles
Mandarin shèng yì dì / sheng4 yi4 di4
Taiwan sheng i ti
Japanese shōgi tai
The superior truth, enlightened truth as contrasted with worldly truth; ultimate truth



see styles
Mandarin sì bù jiàn / si4 bu4 jian4
Taiwan ssu pu chien
Japanese shi fuken
The four invisibles— water to fish, wind (or air) to man, the nature (of things) to the deluded, and the 空 'void'to the 悟 enlightened, because he is in his own element, and the Void is beyond conception.



see styles
Mandarin dà jué shèng / da4 jue2 sheng4
Taiwan ta chüeh sheng
Japanese daikaku jō
the vehicle of the greatly enlightened one; the vehicle of the greatly enlightened one



see styles
Mandarin dà jué zūn / da4 jue2 zun1
Taiwan ta chüeh tsun
Japanese daikaku son
Most honored Enlightened One; Most honored Enlightened One



see styles
Mandarin miào jué xìng / miao4 jue2 xing4
Taiwan miao chüeh hsing
Japanese myōgaku shō
The profound, enlightened nature, that of Buddha, one of the 六性; marvelously enlightened nature



see styles
Mandarin yǐ jué wù / yi3 jue2 wu4
Taiwan i chüeh wu
Japanese i kakugo
already enlightened; already enlightened



see styles
Mandarin màn tú luó / man4 tu2 luo2
Taiwan man t`u lo / man tu lo
Japanese mandara / まんだら
Chinese mandala (loan, Buddhism)
Japanese mandala; Buddhist visual schema of the enlightened mind; (given name) Mandara
曼怛羅; 曼特羅; 曼陀羅; 曼拏羅; 蔓陀囉; 滿荼邏 maṇḍala, a circle, globe, wheel ring; "any circular figure or diagram" (M.W.); a magic circle; a plot or place of enlightenment; a round or square altar on which buddhas and bodhisattvas are placed; a group of such, especially the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu groups of the Shingon sect; these were arranged by Kōbō Daishi to express the mystic doctrine of the two dhātu by way of illustration, the garbhadhātu representing the 理 and the 因 principle and cause, the vajradhātu the 智 and the 果 intelligence (or reason) and the effect, i.e. the fundamental realm of being, and mind as inherent in it; v. 胎 and 金剛. The two realms are fundamentally one, as are the absolute and phenomenal, e.g. water and wave. There are many kinds of maṇḍalas, e.g. the group of the Lotus Sutra; of the 觀經; of the nine luminaries; of the Buddha's entering into nirvana, etc. The real purpose of a maṇḍala is to gather the spiritual powers together, in order to promote the operation of the dharma or law. The term is commonly applied to a magic circle, subdivided into circles or squares in which are painted Buddhist divinities and symbols. Maṇḍalas also reveal the direct retribution of each of the ten worlds of beings (purgatory, pretas, animals, asuras, men, devas, the heavens of form, formless heavens, bodhisattvas, and buddhas). Each world has its maṇḍala which represents the originating principle that brings it to completion. The maṇḍala of the tenth world indicates the fulfilment and completion of the nine worlds.



see styles
Mandarin màn tuó luó / man4 tuo2 luo2
Taiwan man t`o lo / man to lo
Japanese mandara / まんだら
Chinese flower of north India (Datura stramonium, Sanskrit: mandara), considered sacred and grown in temples, similar to belladonna
Japanese mandala; Buddhist visual schema of the enlightened mind; (f,p) Mandara
or 曼阤羅; 漫陀羅 mandāra(va), the coral-tree; the erythrina indica, or this tree regarded as one of the five trees of Paradise, i.e, Indra's heaven; a white variety of Calotropis gigantea. Name of a noted monk, and of one called Mandra; maṇḍala



see styles
Mandarin běn jué xīn / ben3 jue2 xin1
Taiwan pen chüeh hsin
Japanese hongaku shin
intrinsically enlightened mind; intrinsically enlightened mind



see styles
Mandarin běn jué dào / ben3 jue2 dao4
Taiwan pen chüeh tao
Japanese hongaku dō
intrinsically enlightened character of the original mind; intrinsically enlightened character of the original mind



see styles
Mandarin zhèng biàn zhì / zheng4 bian4 zhi4
Taiwan cheng pien chih
Japanese shōhen chi
saṃyak-saṃbuddha 三藐三佛陀; omniscience, completely enlightened, the universal knowledge of a Buddha, hence he is the 正徧智海 ocean of omniscience. Also 正徧覺; 正等正覺.



see styles
Mandarin zhèng jué zhě / zheng4 jue2 zhe3
Taiwan cheng chüeh che
Japanese shōgaku sha
the perfectly enlightened one; the perfectly enlightened one



see styles
Mandarin zhèng jué dào / zheng4 jue2 dao4
Taiwan cheng chüeh tao
Japanese shōkaku dō
the path of a perfectly enlightened one; the path of a perfectly enlightened one



see styles
Mandarin pí qū luō / pi2 qu1 luo1
Taiwan p`i ch`ü lo / pi chü lo
Japanese Bikyara
(or 毘低羅) Vikāra, an old housekeeper with many keys round her waist who had charge of the Śākya household, and who loved her things so much that she did not wish to be enlightened.


see styles
Mandarin lǐ jí fó / li3 ji2 fo2
Taiwan li chi fo
Japanese risoku butsu
things in principle are enlightened; things in principle are enlightened


see styles
Japanese namazatori;namasatori / なまざとり;なまさとり Japanese (n,vs,adj-no) (1) incomplete enlightenment; (2) incompletely enlightened person



see styles
Mandarin zhēn jué zhě / zhen1 jue2 zhe3
Taiwan chen chüeh che
Japanese shinkaku sha
truly enlightened; truly enlightened



see styles
Mandarin děng jué xìng / deng3 jue2 xing4
Taiwan teng chüeh hsing
Japanese tōgaku shō
virtually enlightened nature; virtually enlightened nature



see styles
Mandarin yuán jué chéng / yuan2 jue2 cheng2
Taiwan yüan chüeh ch`eng / yüan chüeh cheng
Japanese engaku jō
The 'middle conveyance' period, characterized as that of the pratyekabuddha, who is enlightened by the twelve nidānas; it is considered as an advance on the Hīnayāna, cf. śrāvaka, but not yet the standard of the altruistic bodhisattva-vehicle, the Mahāyāna; the vehicle of the self-enlightened ones



see styles
Mandarin shèng jìng jiè / sheng4 jing4 jie4
Taiwan sheng ching chieh
Japanese shō kyōgai
realm of the enlightened ones; realm of the enlightened ones


see styles
Mandarin pú tí xīn / pu2 ti2 xin1
Taiwan p`u t`i hsin / pu ti hsin
Japanese bodaishin / ぼだいしん
Japanese aspiration for Buddhahood
The mind for or of bodhi; the awakened, or enlightened mind; the mind that perceives the real behind the seeming, believes in moral consequences, and that all have the Buddha-nature, and aims at Buddhahood.



see styles
Mandarin jué wù zhì / jue2 wu4 zhi4
Taiwan chüeh wu chih
Japanese kakugochi
Enlightened wisdom; wisdom that extends beyond the limitations of time and sense; omniscience.



see styles
Mandarin jué yǒu qíng / jue2 you3 qing2
Taiwan chüeh yu ch`ing / chüeh yu ching
Japanese kaku ujō
enlightened, but having feelings; enlightened, but having feelings



see styles
Mandarin zhū shèng zhě / zhu1 sheng4 zhe3
Taiwan chu sheng che
Japanese sho shōja
all enlightened ones; all enlightened ones



see styles
Mandarin tōng dá xīn / tong1 da2 xin1
Taiwan t`ung ta hsin / tung ta hsin
Japanese tsūdatsu shin
通達菩提心 To attain to the enlightened mind; the stage of one who has passed through the novitiate and understands the truth; penetrating mind


see styles
Japanese hirakeru / ひらける Japanese (v1,vi) (1) to become opened up; to improve; to get better; (2) to develop; to progress; to become civilized (civilised); to be up-to-date; (3) to be enlightened; to be sensible



see styles
Mandarin ā luó hàn / a1 luo2 han4
Taiwan a lo han
Japanese arakan / あらかん
Chinese arhat (Sanskrit); a holy man who has left behind all earthly desires and concerns and attained nirvana (Buddhism)
Japanese Arhat; Buddhist monk who has attained Nirvana
arhan, arhat, lohan; worthy, venerable; an enlightened, saintly man; the highest type or ideal saint in Hīnayāna in contrast with the bodhisattva as the saint in Mahāyāna; intp. as 應供worthy of worship, or respect; intp. as 殺賊 arihat, arihan, slayer of the enemy, i.e. of mortality; for the arhat enters nirvana 不生 not to be reborn, having destroyed the karma of reincarnation; he is also in the stage of 不學 no longer learning, having attained. Also 羅漢; 阿盧漢; 阿羅訶 or 阿羅呵; 阿梨呵 (or 阿黎呵); 羅呵, etc.; cf. 阿夷; 阿畧.


see styles
Mandarin yī qiè jiē chéng / yi1 qie4 jie1 cheng2
Taiwan i ch`ieh chieh ch`eng / i chieh chieh cheng
Japanese issai kai jō
All beings become Buddhas, for all have the Buddha-nature and must ultimately become enlightened, i.e. 一切衆生皆悉成佛. This is the doctrine of developed Mahāyāna, or universalism, as opposed to the limited salvation of Hīnayāna and of undeveloped Mahāyāna; 法華經方便品; 若有聞法者無一不成佛 if there be any who hear the dharma, not one will fail to become Buddha.


see styles
Mandarin sān shí sì xīn / san1 shi2 si4 xin1
Taiwan san shih ssu hsin
Japanese sanjūshi shin
thirty-four enlightened mental states; thirty-four enlightened mental states



see styles
Mandarin bù fèn bù qǐ / bu4 fen4 bu4 qi3
Taiwan pu fen pu ch`i / pu fen pu chi
Chinese a student shall not be enlightened until he has tried hard by himself (idiom)


see styles
Mandarin bù yóu tā wù / bu4 you2 ta1 wu4
Taiwan pu yu t`a wu / pu yu ta wu
Japanese fuyu tago
enlightened without relying on others; enlightened without relying on others


see styles
Mandarin nǎi zhì pú tí / nai3 zhi4 pu2 ti2
Taiwan nai chih p`u t`i / nai chih pu ti
Japanese naishi bodai
until I am enlightened; until I am enlightened



see styles
Mandarin jiǔ pǐn jué wáng / jiu3 pin3 jue2 wang2
Taiwan chiu p`in chüeh wang / chiu pin chüeh wang
Japanese kuhon (no) kakuō
The king or lord of the bodhi of the Pure Land, Amitābha; enlightened king of the nine classes (of the Pure Land)

Entries with 2nd row of characters: The 2nd row is Simplified Chinese.


This page contains 100 results for "enlightened" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

The following titles are just to help people who are searching for an Asian dictionary to find this page.

Japanese Kanji Dictionary

Free Asian Dictionary

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