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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
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Characters Pronunciation
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin/ li4
Taiwan li
Japanese ryoku / りょく    riki / りき    chikara / ちから
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese power; force; strength; ability; strenuously; surname Li
Japanese (suffix) strength; power; proficiency; ability; (1) strength; power; proficiency; ability; (suffix noun) (2) (after a number of people) the strength of ... people; the strength of ... men; (1) force; strength; might; vigour (vigor); energy; (2) capability; ability; proficiency; capacity; faculty; (3) efficacy; effect; (4) effort; endeavours (endeavors); exertions; (5) power; authority; influence; good offices; agency; (6) (See 力になる) support; help; aid; assistance; (7) stress; emphasis; (8) means; resources; (given name) Riki; (given name) Teiriki; (male given name) Tsuyoshi; (given name) Tsutome; (male given name) Tsutomu; (surname, female given name) Chikara; (surname) Takariki; (given name) Isamu; (given name) Isao
bala; power, strength, of which there are several categories: 二力 power of choice and of practice; 三力 the power of Buddha; of meditation (samādhi) and of practice. 五力 pañcabala, the five powers of faith, zeal, memory (or remembering), meditation, and wisdom. 六力 A child's power is in crying; a woman's in resentment; a king's in domineering; an arhat's in zeal (or progress); a Buddha's in mercy; and a bhikṣu's in endurance (of despite) . 十力 q.v. The ten powers of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

see styles
Mandarin qiǎng // jiàng // qiáng / qiang3 // jiang4 // qiang2
Taiwan ch`iang // chiang / chiang // chiang
Japanese kyou / kyo / きょう
Chinese to force; to compel; to strive; to make an effort; strong; powerful; better; slightly more than; vigorous; violent; best in their category, e.g. see 百強|百强[bai3 qiang2]; stubborn; unyielding; surname Qiang
Japanese (suffix noun) (1) a little over; a little more than; (2) powerhouse; one of the biggest; one of the most powerful; (personal name) Tsuyomi; (male given name) Tsuyoshi; (surname) Tsuyosaki; (personal name) Tsuyoi; (male given name) Tsutomu; (given name) Susumu; (personal name) Gouji; (personal name) Gou; (surname) Kowa; (personal name) Kyouji; (given name) Kyou
Strong, forceful, violent; to force; to strengthen.


see styles
Mandarin gōng fu / gong1 fu5
Taiwan kung fu
Japanese kanfuu;kunfuu / kanfu;kunfu / カンフー;クンフー
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese skill; art; kung fu; labor; effort
Japanese (kana only) {MA} kung fu (chi: go'ngfu); (male given name) Norio; (personal name) Kouo; (male given name) Katsuo; (given name) Isao


see styles
Mandarin nǔ lì / nu3 li4
Taiwan nu li
Japanese doryoku / どりょく
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese great effort; to strive; to try hard
Japanese (noun/participle) effort; exertion; endeavour; endeavor; hard work; striving; (surname) Nuriki
to strive



see styles
Mandarin xié lì / xie2 li4
Taiwan hsieh li
Japanese kyouryoku / kyoryoku / きょうりょく
Chinese to unite in common effort
Japanese (n,vs,adj-no) cooperation; collaboration



see styles
Mandarin jīng jìn / jing1 jin4
Taiwan ching chin
Japanese shoujin(p);soujin(ok);shouji(ok);souji(ok) / shojin(p);sojin(ok);shoji(ok);soji(ok) / しょうじん(P);そうじん(ok);しょうじ(ok);そうじ(ok)
Chinese to forge ahead vigorously; to dedicate oneself to progress
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) concentration; diligence; devotion; (2) (See 六波羅蜜) asceticism; zeal in one's quest for enlightenment; (3) adherence to a vegetarian diet; (surname) Shoujin; (place-name) Shouji
vīrya, one of the seven bodhyaṅga; 'vigour,' 'valour, fortitude,' 'virility' (M.W.); 'welldoing' (Keith). The Chinese interpretation may be defined, as pure or unadulterated progress, i.e. 勤 zeal, zealous, courageously progressing in the good and eliminating the evil.; vīrya, zeal, unchecked progress; effort



see styles
Mandarin zì qiáng / zi4 qiang2
Taiwan tzu ch`iang / tzu chiang
Japanese jikyou / jikyo / じきょう
Chinese to strive for self-improvement
Japanese (noun/participle) strenuous effort



see styles
Mandarin zhèng jīng jìn / zheng4 jing1 jin4
Taiwan cheng ching chin
Japanese shō shōjin
samyagvyāyāma, right effort, zeal, or progress, unintermitting perseverance, the sixth of the 八正道; 'right effort, to suppress the rising of evil states, to eradicate those which have arisen, to stimulate good states, and to perfect those which have come into being. ' Keith; correct effort


see styles
Mandarin quán lì / quan2 li4
Taiwan ch`üan li / chüan li
Japanese zenryoku / ぜんりょく
Chinese with all one's strength; full strength; all-out (effort); fully (support)
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) all one's power (strength, energy, efforts); one's utmost


see styles
Mandarin kǔ xīn / ku3 xin1
Taiwan k`u hsin / ku hsin
Japanese kushin / くしん
Chinese painstaking effort; to take a lot of trouble; laborious at pains
Japanese (noun/participle) pains; hard work; effort; trouble; labour; labor


see styles
Mandarin yī pù shí hán / yi1 pu4 shi2 han2
Taiwan i p`u shih han / i pu shih han
Japanese ichibakujikkan / いちばくじっかん
Chinese one day's sun, ten days' frost (idiom, from Mencius); fig. to work for a bit then skimp; sporadic effort; short attention span
Japanese (expression) (1) (yoji) bursts of exertion will fail to bear fruit if interrupted by long periods of idleness; (2) strenuous efforts, unless sustained, are to no avail (Mencius)


see styles
Mandarin zì lì gēng shēng / zi4 li4 geng1 sheng1
Taiwan tzu li keng sheng
Japanese jirikikousei / jirikikose / じりきこうせい
Chinese regeneration through one's own effort (idiom); self-reliance
Japanese (noun/participle) (yoji) working out one's salvation by own efforts; rehabilitating oneself by one's own efforts; rectifying one's ways of life without relying on others' help

see styles
Mandarin chū / chu1
Taiwan ch`u / chu
Japanese de / で    shutsu / しゅつ
Chinese to go out; to come out; to occur; to produce; to go beyond; to rise; to put forth; to happen; (used after a verb to indicate an outward direction or a positive result); classifier for dramas, plays, operas etc
Japanese (n,n-suf) (1) coming out; going out; outflow; efflux; rising (of the sun or moon); (2) attending (work); appearing (on stage); one's turn to go on; (3) start; beginning; (4) origins; background; person (or item) originating from ...; graduate of ...; native of ...; member of ... (lineage); (5) architectural member that projects outward; (6) highest point of the stern of a ship; (7) (kana only) (usu. after the -masu stem of a verb as 〜出がある or 〜出がない, etc.) amount (comprising something); amount of time or effort required to do something; (1) coming out; emerging; (2) being born into (a certain family); being a native of (a particular place); (surname) De; (surname) Takade; (given name) Suguru; (surname) Sakide; (surname) Idezaki; (surname) Idesaki; (female given name) Idzuru; (personal name) Itaru; (surname, female given name) Izuru; (surname) Izuzaki; (surname) Izusaki; (surname) Izaki
To go out, come forth, put forth; exit; beyond; to emerge

see styles
Mandarin huá / hua2
Taiwan hua
Chinese to row; to paddle; profitable; worth (the effort); it pays (to do something)

see styles
Mandarin gōng / gong1
Taiwan kung
Japanese kou / ko / こう
Chinese meritorious deed or service; achievement; result; service; accomplishment; work (physics)
Japanese (1) merit; success; meritorious deed; (2) achievement; accumulated experience; (male given name) Tsutomu; (personal name) Kousou; (personal name) Kouji; (personal name) Koushou; (surname, given name) Kou; (given name) Isoshi; (given name) Isao (Isawo); (given name) Isamu; (female given name) Isao; (given name) Isa
Merit, meritorious; achievement, hence 功力 achieving strength, earnest effort after the good).

see styles
Mandarin shào / shao4
Taiwan shao
Japanese tsutomu / つとむ    takashi / たかし    susumu / すすむ    shou / sho / しょう    atsumu / あつむ
Chinese stimulate to effort; surname Shao
Japanese (female given name) Tsutomu; (given name) Takashi; (given name) Susumu; (given name) Shou; (given name) Atsumu

see styles
Mandarin láo / lao2
Taiwan lao
Japanese rou / ro / ろう
Chinese Japanese variant of 勞|劳
Japanese labor; labour; toil; trouble; pains; work; effort; striving; (given name) Rou; (male given name) Tsutomu

see styles
Mandarin miǎn / mian3
Taiwan mien
Japanese masaru / まさる    ben / べん    tsutomu / つとむ    susumu / すすむ
Chinese to exhort; to make an effort
Japanese (given name) Masaru; (given name) Ben; (surname, given name) Tsutomu; (given name) Susumu
to endeavor

see styles
Mandarin mài / mai4
Taiwan mai
Chinese put forth effort

see styles
Mandarin shǒu / shou3
Taiwan shou
Japanese te / て
Chinese hand; (formal) to hold; person engaged in certain types of work; person skilled in certain types of work; personal(ly); convenient; classifier for skill; CL:雙|双[shuang1],隻|只[zhi1]
Japanese (1) (occ. pronounced た when a prefix) (See お手・おて・1) hand; arm; (2) (colloquialism) (See お手・おて・3) forepaw; foreleg; (3) handle; (4) hand; worker; help; (5) trouble; care; effort; (6) means; way; trick; move; technique; workmanship; (7) hand; handwriting; (8) kind; type; sort; (9) (See 手に入る) one's hands; one's possession; (10) (See 手に余る) ability to cope; (11) hand (of cards); (12) (See 山の手・1) direction; (n,n-suf,ctr) (13) move (in go, shogi, etc.); (surname) Tezaki; (surname) Tesaki; (place-name) Te; (personal name) Tasome; (surname) Takade
pāṇī; hasta; kara; hand, arm.

see styles
Mandarin mài / mai4
Taiwan mai
Japanese mai
Chinese to sell; to betray; to spare no effort; to show off or flaunt
To sell.


see styles
Mandarin yī xī / yi1 xi1
Taiwan i hsi
Japanese hitoiki / ひといき
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) (1) one breath; pause; rest; (2) one go (i.e. in a short time); (3) small amount of effort
A breath, i.e. inspiration-cum-expiration; a rest, or cessation.


see styles
Mandarin yī shǒu / yi1 shou3
Taiwan i shou
Japanese hitote / ひとて    itte / いって
Chinese a skill; mastery of a trade; by oneself; without outside help
Japanese (1) one's own effort; doing single-handedly; (2) a game (of go, shogi, etc.); a match; (3) a dance; a (musical) composition; (4) a company (e.g. of soldiers); a group; a party; (5) one hand; (1) a move (in go, shogi, etc.); (2) only way; only means; (3) (See 一手に) doing alone; dong single-handed; monopoly
one hand


see styles
Japanese ikkyo / いっきょ Japanese (n-adv,n) one effort; one action


see styles
Japanese tansei / tanse / たんせい Japanese (noun/participle) working earnestly; sincerity; diligence; effort; pains


see styles
Japanese tansei / tanse / たんせい Japanese (noun/participle) working earnestly; sincerity; diligence; effort; pains


see styles
Mandarin rén lì / ren2 li4
Taiwan jen li
Japanese jinriki;jinryoku / じんりき;じんりょく
Chinese manpower; labor power
Japanese human power; human strength; human effort; human agency


see styles
Mandarin rén shǒu / ren2 shou3
Taiwan jen shou
Japanese hitode / ひとで
Chinese manpower; staff; human hand
Japanese (1) someone else's hands; someone else's possession; (2) hand (worker); aide; (3) labor; labour; work; manpower; effort; (4) help; assistance; (5) (human) hand; human act
a person's hand



see styles
Mandarin rén wéi / ren2 wei2
Taiwan jen wei
Japanese jini / じんい
Chinese artificial; man-made; having human cause or origin; human attempt or effort
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) human work; human agency; art; artificiality


see styles
Mandarin lì zuò / li4 zuo4
Taiwan li tso
Japanese rikisaku / りきさく
Chinese to put effort into (work, farming, writing etc); a masterpiece
Japanese tour de force; painstaking piece of work; achievement; (given name) Rikisaku; (male given name) Tsutomu


see styles
Mandarin lì cuò / li4 cuo4
Taiwan li ts`o / li tso
Chinese to win as a result of tenacious effort; to fight off tough competition


see styles
Mandarin lì qiú / li4 qiu2
Taiwan li ch`iu / li chiu
Chinese to make every effort to; striving to do one's best


see styles
Mandarin gōng xūn / gong1 xun1
Taiwan kung hsün
Japanese kōkun
merits of effort; merits of effort


see styles
Mandarin jiā dà / jia1 da4
Taiwan chia ta
Chinese to increase (e.g. one's effort)


see styles
Mandarin jiā yóu / jia1 you2
Taiwan chia yu
Japanese jaayuu;jaayou / jayu;jayo / ジャーユー;ジャーヨウ
Chinese to add oil; to top up with gas; to refuel; to accelerate; to step on the gas; (fig.) to make an extra effort; to cheer sb on
Japanese (interjection) (See 頑張って) keep going (chi: jiāyóu); hang in there; go for it


see styles
Mandarin jiā xíng / jia1 xing2
Taiwan chia hsing
Japanese kagyou / kagyo / かぎょう
Japanese (surname) Kagyou
prayoga. Added progress, intensified effort, earnest endeavour; application


see styles
Japanese hagemu / はげむ Japanese (Godan verb with "mu" ending) to strive; to endeavour; to endeavor; to make an effort; to be zealous


see styles
Japanese rouryoku / roryoku / ろうりょく Japanese labour; labor; effort; toil; trouble


see styles
Mandarin miǎn lì / mian3 li4
Taiwan mien li
Chinese to strive; to make an effort; to exert oneself



see styles
Mandarin dòng yǒng / dong4 yong3
Taiwan tung yung
Japanese dōyō
willful effort; willful effort



see styles
Mandarin dòng fā / dong4 fa1
Taiwan tung fa
Japanese dōhotsu
willful effort; willful effort



see styles
Mandarin qín cái / qin2 cai2
Taiwan ch`in ts`ai / chin tsai
Japanese gonzai
jewel of effort; jewel of effort



see styles
Mandarin mài lì / mai4 li4
Taiwan mai li
Japanese mairei
to make effort; to make effort


see styles
Japanese torikumi / とりくみ Japanese (1) bout (in sports, etc.); match; (2) effort; initiative; dealing with; grappling with; wrestling with; (place-name) Torikumi


see styles
Mandarin chī lì / chi1 li4
Taiwan ch`ih li / chih li
Chinese to entail strenuous effort; to toil at a task; strenuous; laborious; strain


see styles
Mandarin zhōu zhé / zhou1 zhe2
Taiwan chou che
Chinese twists and turns; vicissitude; complication; difficulty; effort; CL:番[fan1]


see styles
Mandarin zhōu zhāng / zhou1 zhang1
Taiwan chou chang
Japanese shuushou / shusho / しゅうしょう
Chinese effort; trouble; pains (to get something done); flustered; frightened
Japanese (noun/participle) agitation; frustration


see styles
Mandarin sì bìng / si4 bing4
Taiwan ssu ping
Japanese shibyō
The four ailments, or mistaken ways of seeking perfection: 作病 'works' or effort; 任病 laissez-faire; 止病 cessation of all mental operation; 滅病 annihilaīon (of all desire); four maladies


see styles
Mandarin sì dào / si4 dao4
Taiwan ssu tao
Japanese shimichi / しみち    shidou / shido / しどう
Japanese (surname) Shimichi; (surname) Shidou
The Dao or road means the nirvana road; the 'four' are rather modes of progress, or stages in it: (1) 加行道 discipline or effort, i. e. progress from the 三賢 and 四善根 stages to that of the 三學位, i. e. morality, meditation, and understanding; (2) 無間道 uninterrupted progress to the stage in which all delusion is banished; (3) 解脫道 liberaton, or freedom, reaching the state of assurance or proof and knowledge of the truth; and (4) 勝進道 surpassing progress in dhyāni-wisdom. Those four stages are also associated with those of srota-āpanna, sakṛdāgāmin, anāgāmin, and arhat; four paths


see styles
Mandarin bēn zǒu / ben1 zou3
Taiwan pen tsou
Japanese honsou(p);honso(ok) / honso(p);honso(ok) / ほんそう(P);ほんそ(ok)
Chinese to run; to rush about; to be on the go
Japanese (noun/participle) running about; making every effort; being busily engaged (in something); good offices



see styles
Mandarin fèn lì / fen4 li4
Taiwan fen li
Chinese to do everything one can; to spare no effort; to strive


see styles
Japanese funtou / funto / ふんとう Japanese (noun/participle) hard struggle; strenuous effort



see styles
Mandarin gū diào / gu1 diao4
Taiwan ku tiao
Japanese kochō
Self-arranging, the Hīnayāna method of salvation by individual effort.



see styles
Mandarin kè guǒ / ke4 guo3
Taiwan k`o kuo / ko kuo
Japanese kokka
To obtain the fruit of endeavour; the fruit of effort, i.e. salvation; to attain the fruit


see styles
Mandarin gōng fu // gōng fū / gong1 fu5 // gong1 fu1
Taiwan kung fu // kung
Japanese koufu / kofu / こうふ
Chinese period of time (may be months, or mere seconds); spare time; skill; labor; effort; (old) laborer
Japanese (sensitive word) labourer; laborer; blue-collar worker
Time, work, a term for meditation; also 功夫.


see styles
Japanese torou / toro / とろう Japanese fruitless effort; wasted effort; abortive scheme; futility



see styles
Mandarin tú láo / tu2 lao2
Taiwan t`u lao / tu lao
Japanese torō
Chinese futile
wasted effort; wasted effort


see styles
Mandarin xìng shàn / xing4 shan4
Taiwan hsing shan
Japanese seizen;shouzen / sezen;shozen / せいぜん;しょうぜん
Chinese the theory of Mencius that people are by nature good
Japanese (しょうぜん is a Buddhist term) intrinsic goodness; (personal name) Shouzen
Good by nature (rather than by effort); naturally good; in contrast with 性惡 evil by nature. Cf. 性具.


see styles
Mandarin xìng dé / xing4 de2
Taiwan hsing te
Japanese shōtoku
Natural attainment, i. e. not acquired by effort; also 生得; innate



see styles
Mandarin gǎn jìn / gan3 jin4
Taiwan kan chin
Japanese kanjin
To move to zeal, or inspire to progress; inspire sentient beings toward effort



see styles
Mandarin cǎn dàn / can3 dan4
Taiwan ts`an tan / tsan tan
Chinese dark; gloomy; dismal; by painstaking effort


see styles
Japanese kenmei / kenme / けんめい Japanese (noun or adjectival noun) eager; earnest; strenuous; fervent; assiduous; with utmost effort


see styles
Japanese harau / はらう Japanese (transitive verb) (1) to pay (e.g. money, bill); (2) to brush off; to wipe away; to clear away; to dust off; to cut off (e.g. branches); (3) to drive away (e.g. one's competitors); (4) to sell off (something unneeded); to dispose of; (5) to pay (e.g. attention); to show (e.g. respect, concern); (6) to make (e.g. effort, sacrifice); to expend; to exert; (7) to move out (of one's own place); to vacate; (8) to sweep (e.g. one's legs); to knock aside; (9) to make a sweeping stroke (in Japanese calligraphy); (10) to reset (an abacus)


see styles
Mandarin zhé zhī / zhe2 zhi1
Taiwan che chih
Japanese orie / おりえ
Chinese massage; snapped-off branch; sprig; to snap a twig (i.e. something that requires very little effort)
Japanese (female given name) Orie


see styles
Mandarin juān wù / juan1 wu4
Taiwan chüan wu
Chinese to donate goods (to a relief effort); to contribute material


see styles
Japanese choubi;toubi;takubi(ik) / chobi;tobi;takubi(ik) / ちょうび;とうび;たくび(ik) Japanese final effort; end


see styles
Mandarin shī jiā / shi1 jia1
Taiwan shih chia
Chinese to exert (effort or pressure)



see styles
Mandarin pǔ qǐng / pu3 qing3
Taiwan p`u ch`ing / pu ching
Japanese fushin / ふしん
Japanese (noun/participle) (1) building; construction; (2) group effort by Buddhist practitioners; group activities by a community (e.g. cleaning, etc.)


see styles
Mandarin yǒu qín / you3 qin2
Taiwan yu ch`in / yu chin
Japanese u gon
with effort; with effort


see styles
Japanese hongoshi / ほんごし Japanese strenuous effort; earnestness; seriousness



see styles
Mandarin jí lì / ji2 li4
Taiwan chi li
Japanese kyokuryoku / きょくりょく
Chinese to make a supreme effort; at all costs
Japanese (adverb) to the utmost; to the best of one's ability


see styles
Mandarin zhèng qín / zheng4 qin2
Taiwan cheng ch`in / cheng chin
Japanese shōgon
correct effort; correct effort


see styles
Japanese shiryoku / しりょく Japanese desperate effort



see styles
Mandarin shā mén / sha1 men2
Taiwan sha men
Japanese shamon;samon / しゃもん;さもん
Chinese monk (Sanskrit: Sramana, originally refers to north India); Buddhist monk
Japanese {Buddh} shramana (wandering monk); (surname) Shamon
śramaṇa. 桑門; 娑門; 喪門; 沙門那; 舍羅磨拏; 沙迦懣曩; 室摩那拏 (1) Ascetics of all kinds; 'the Sarmanai, or Samanaioi, or Germanai of the Greeks, perhaps identical also with the Tungusian Saman or Shaman.' Eitel. (2) Buddhist monks 'who 'have left their families and quitted the passions', the Semnoi of the Greeks'. Eitel. Explained by 功勞 toilful achievement, 勤息 diligent quieting (of the mind and the passions), 淨志 purity of mind, 貧道 poverty. 'He must keep well the Truth, guard well every uprising (of desire), be uncontaminated by outward attractions, be merciful to all and impure to none, be not elated to joy nor harrowed by distress, and able to bear whatever may come.' The Sanskrit root is śram, to make effort; exert oneself, do austerities.


see styles
Mandarin niè pán / nie4 pan2
Taiwan nieh p`an / nieh pan
Japanese nehan / ねはん
Chinese nirvana (Buddhism)
Japanese (1) {Buddh} Nirvana; supreme enlightenment; (2) {Buddh} death; death of Buddha
nirvāṇa, 'blown out, gone out, put out, extinguished'; 'liberated-from existence'; 'dead, deceased, defunct.' 'Liberation, eternal bliss'; '(with Buddhists and Jainas) absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual existence.' M.W. Other forms are 涅槃那; 泥日; 泥洹; 泥畔 Originally translated 滅 to extinguish, extinction, put out (as a lamp or fire), it was also described as 解脫 release, 寂滅 tranquil extinction; 無爲 inaction, without effort, passiveness; 不生 no (re)birth; 安樂 calm joy; 滅度transmigration to 'extinction'. The meaning given to 'extinction' varies, e.g. individual extinction; cessation of rebirth; annihilation of passion; extinction of all misery and entry into bliss. While the meaning of individual extinction is not without advocates, the general acceptation is the extinction or end of all return to reincarnation with its concomitant suffering, and the entry into bliss. Nirvāṇa may be enjoyed in the present life as an attainable state, with entry into parinirvāṇa, or perfect bliss to follow. It may be (a) with a 'remainder', i.e. the cause but not all the effect (karma), of reincarnation having been destroyed; (b) without 'remainder', both cause and effect having been extinguished. The answer of the Buddha as to the continued personal existence of the Tathāgata in nirvāṇa is, in the Hīnayāna canon, relegated 'to the sphere of the indeterminates' (Keith), as one of the questions which are not essential to salvation. One argument is that flame when blown out does not perish but returns to the totality of Fire. The Nirvāṇa Sutra claims for nirvāṇa the ancient ideas of 常樂我淨 permanence, bliss, personality purity in the transcendental realm. Mahāyāna declares that Hīnayāna by denying personality in the transcendental realm denies the existence of the Buddha. In Mahāyāna final nirvāṇa is transcendental, and is also used as a term for the absolute. The place where the Buddha entered his earthly nirvāṇa is given as Kuśinagara, cf. 拘.


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Mandarin hùn shì / hun4 shi4
Taiwan hun shih
Chinese to work half-heartedly; to get by in a job with the minimum effort



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Mandarin wú gōng / wu2 gong1
Taiwan wu kung
Japanese mukō
no effort; no effort



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Mandarin zhēng dé / zheng1 de2
Taiwan cheng te
Chinese to obtain by an effort; to strive to get something



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Mandarin hěn jìn / hen3 jin4
Taiwan hen chin
Chinese to exert all one's force; all-out effort; CL:股[gu3]


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Japanese dokuryoku / どくりょく Japanese (n-adv,n-t) one's own effort


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Mandarin yòng gōng / yong4 gong1
Taiwan yung kung
Japanese yūkō
Chinese diligent; industrious (in one's studies); to study hard; to make great effort



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Mandarin fā fèn / fa1 fen4
Taiwan fa fen
Chinese to make an effort; to push for something; to work hard



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Mandarin fā fèn / fa1 fen4
Taiwan fa fen
Chinese to make a determined effort



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Mandarin jìn lì / jin4 li4
Taiwan chin li
Japanese jinriki
Chinese to strive one's hardest; to spare no effort
to exhaust one's powers


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Mandarin shěng lì / sheng3 li4
Taiwan sheng li
Japanese shouryoku / shoryoku / しょうりょく
Chinese to save labor; to save effort
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) labor saving; labour saving



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Mandarin shěng jìn / sheng3 jin4
Taiwan sheng chin
Chinese to save labor; to save effort



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Mandarin tū jī / tu1 ji1
Taiwan t`u chi / tu chi
Chinese sudden and violent attack; assault; fig. rushed job; concentrated effort to finish a job quickly



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Mandarin cè lì / ce4 li4
Taiwan ts`e li / tse li
Japanese sakurei
Chinese to encourage; to urge; to impel; to spur sb on



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Mandarin gei lì / gei3 li4
Taiwan kei li
Chinese cool; nifty; awesome; impressive; to put in extra effort



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Mandarin mián bó / mian2 bo2
Taiwan mien po
Chinese my humble effort; my meager contribution (humble)


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Mandarin hào lì / hao4 li4
Taiwan hao li
Chinese to require much effort


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Japanese jikyou / jikyo / じきょう Japanese (noun/participle) strenuous effort; (given name) Jikyou


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Mandarin kǔ gōng / ku3 gong1
Taiwan k`u kung / ku kung
Chinese hard work; laborious effort; painstaking work



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Mandarin kǔ zhàn / ku3 zhan4
Taiwan k`u chan / ku chan
Chinese bitter struggle; hard battle; arduous effort



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Mandarin kǔ jié / ku3 jie2
Taiwan k`u chieh / ku chieh
Japanese kusetsu / くせつ
Japanese unremitting effort; dogged perseverance; unswerving loyalty
to practice austerities



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Mandarin zhuó lì / zhuo2 li4
Taiwan cho li
Chinese to put effort into something; to try really hard



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Mandarin chōng cì / chong1 ci4
Taiwan ch`ung tz`u / chung tzu
Chinese to sprint; to spurt; to dash; big effort


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Japanese kokoromi / こころみ Japanese (1) attempt; trial; experiment; (2) endeavour (endeavor); effort; venture; initiative


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Japanese kanshi / かんし Japanese (noun/participle) committing suicide (to remonstrate or dissuade one's lord); preparing to die in an effort to dissuade one's lord


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Japanese kanshi / かんし Japanese (noun/participle) committing suicide (to remonstrate or dissuade one's lord); preparing to die in an effort to dissuade one's lord

Entries with 2nd row of characters: The 2nd row is Simplified Chinese.


This page contains 100 results for "effort" in Chinese and/or Japanese.

Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).

Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

We do offer Chinese and Japanese Tattoo Services. We'll also be happy to help you translate something for other purposes.

No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

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Japanese Kanji Dictionary

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