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Mandarin Mandarin Chinese information.
Wade Giles Old Wade-Giles romanization used only in Taiwan.
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Buddhist definition. Note: May not apply to all sects.
 Definition may be different outside of Buddhism.

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Characters Pronunciation
Romanization
Simple Dictionary Definition

see styles
Mandarin/ fu2
Taiwan fu
Japanese hotoke / ほとけ    butsusaki / ぶつさき
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese Buddha; Buddhism
Japanese (surname) Hotoke; (surname) Butsusaki
Buddha, from budh to "be aware of", "conceive", "observe", "wake"; also 佛陀; 浮圖; 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮塔; 勃陀; 勃馱; 沒馱; 母馱; 母陀; 部陀; 休屠. Buddha means "completely conscious, enlightened", and came to mean the enlightener. he Chinese translation is 覺 to perceive, aware, awake; and 智 gnosis, knowledge. There is an Eternal Buddha, see e.g. the Lotus Sutra, cap. 16, and multitudes of Buddhas, but the personality of a Supreme Buddha, an Ādi-Buddha, is not defined. Buddha is in and through all things, and some schools are definitely Pan-Buddhist in the pantheistic sense. In the triratna 三寳 commonly known as 三寳佛, while Śākyamuni Buddha is the first "person" of the Trinity, his Law the second, and the Order the third, all three by some are accounted as manifestations of the All-Buddha. As Śākyamuni, the title indicates him as the last of the line of Buddhas who have appeared in this world, Maitreya is to be the next. As such he is the one who has achieved enlightenment, having discovered the essential evil of existence (some say mundane existence, others all existence), and the way of deliverance from the constant round of reincarnations; this way is through the moral life into nirvana, by means of self-abnegation, the monastic life, and meditation. By this method a Buddha, or enlightened one, himself obtains Supreme Enlightenment, or Omniscience, and according to Māhāyanism leads all beings into the same enlightenment. He sees things not as they seem in their phenomenal but in their noumenal aspects, as they really are. The term is also applied to those who understand the chain of causality (twelve nidānas) and have attained enlightenment surpassing that of the arhat. Four types of the Buddha are referred to: (1) 三藏佛the Buddha of the Tripiṭaka who attained enlightenment on the bare ground under the bodhi-tree; (2) 通佛the Buddha on the deva robe under the bodhi-tree of the seven precious things; (3) 別佛the Buddha on the great precious Lotus throne under the Lotus realm bodhi-tree; and (4) 圓佛the Buddha on the throne of Space in the realm of eternal rest and glory where he is Vairocana. The Hīnayāna only admits the existence of one Buddha at a time; Mahāyāna claims the existence of many Buddhas at one and the same time, as many Buddhas as there are Buddha-universes, which are infinite in number.


see styles
Mandarin jué / jue2
Taiwan chüeh
Japanese satoru / さとる
Chinese to feel; to find that; thinking; awake; aware; a nap; a sleep; CL:場|场[chang2]
Japanese (personal name) Satoru
bodhi, from bodha, 'knowing, understanding', means enlightenment, illumination; 覺 is to awake, apprehend, perceive, realize; awake, aware; (also, to sleep). It is illumination, enlightenment, or awakening in regard to the real in contrast to the seeming; also, enlightenment in regard to moral evil. Cf. 菩提 and 佛.

see styles
Mandarin dào / dao4
Taiwan tao
Japanese dou / do / どう
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese road; path; CL:條|条[tiao2],股[gu3]; principle; truth; morality; reason; skill; method; Dao (of Daoism); to say; to speak; to talk; classifier for long thin things (rivers, cracks etc), barriers (walls, doors etc), questions (in an exam etc), commands, courses in a meal, steps in a process; (old) administrative division (similar to province in Tang times)
Japanese (1) (abbreviation) road; (2) way; (3) Buddhist teachings; (4) Taoism; (5) modern administrative region of Japan (Hokkaido); (6) historical administrative region of Japan (Tokaido, Tosando, etc.); (7) province (Tang-era administrative region of China); (8) province (modern administrative region of Korea); (personal name) Wataru; (given name) Motoi; (personal name) Michihiro; (surname) Michizaki; (surname, female given name) Michi; (given name) Makoto; (female given name) Fumi; (given name) Naoshi; (surname) Douzaki; (surname) Dou; (female given name) Tooru; (given name) Tadasu; (given name) Tadashi; (female given name) Tao; (personal name) Susumu; (given name) Osamu
mārga. A way, road; the right path; principle, Truth, Reason, Logos, Cosmic energy; to lead; to say. The way of transmigration by which one arrives at a good or bad existence; any of the six gati, or paths of destiny. The way of bodhi, or enlightenment leading to nirvāṇa through spiritual stages. Essential nirvāṇa, in which absolute freedom reigns. For the eightfold noble path v. 八聖道.; The two Ways: (1) (a) 無礙道 or 無間道 The open or unhindered way, or the way of removing all obstacles or intervention, i. e. all delusion; (b) 解脫道 the way of release, by realization of truth. (2) (a) 難行道 The hard way of "works", i. e. by the six pāramitā and the disciplines. (b) 易行道 the easy way salvation, by the invocation of Amitābha. (3) (a) 有漏道 The way of reincarnation or mortality; (b) 無漏 the enlightened way of escape from the miseries of transmigration. (4) (a) 教道 The way of instruction; (b) 證道 the way of realization. (5) The two lower excretory organs.

十法

see styles
Mandarin shí fǎ / shi2 fa3
Taiwan shih fa
Japanese jippō
 Vertical Wall Scroll
The ten 成就 perfect or perfecting Mahāyāna rules; i.e. in (1) right belief; (2) conduct; (3) spirit; (4) the joy of the bodhi mind; (5) joy in the dharma; (6) joy in meditation in it; (7) pursuing the correct dharma; (8) obedience to, or accordance with it; (9) departing from pride, etc.; (10) comprehending the inner teaching of Buddha and taking no pleasure in that of the śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha order; ten completions of the great vehicle standards

菩提

see styles
Mandarin pú tí / pu2 ti2
Taiwan p`u t`i / pu ti
Japanese bodai / ぼだい
 Vertical Wall Scroll
Chinese bodhi (Sanskrit); enlightenment (Buddhism)
Japanese (1) {Buddh} bodhi; enlightenment; (2) {Buddh} happiness in the next world; (place-name, surname) Bodai
bodhi; from budh; knowledge, understanding; perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightened mind; anciently intp. by 道, later by 覺 to be aware, perceive; for saṃbodhi v. 三; enlightenment

道場


道场

see styles
Mandarin dào chǎng / dao4 chang3
Taiwan tao ch`ang / tao chang
Japanese doujou / dojo / どうじょう
Chinese Taoist or Buddhist rite; abbr. for 菩提道場|菩提道场[Pu2 ti2 dao4 chang3]
Japanese (1) dojo (hall used for martial arts training); (2) (abbreviation) {Buddh} (See 菩提道場) manda (place of Buddhist practice or meditation, esp. the place under the bodhi tree where Buddha attained enlightenment); (surname) Michiba; (place-name, surname) Douba; (place-name, surname) Doujou; (surname) Touba
Truth-plot. bodhimaṇḍala, circle, or place of enlightenment. The place where Buddha attained enlightenment. A place, or method, for attaining to Buddha-truth. An object of or place for religious offerings. A place for teaching, learning, or practising religion; site of enlightenment

菩提樹


菩提树

see styles
Mandarin pú tí shù / pu2 ti2 shu4
Taiwan p`u t`i shu / pu ti shu
Japanese bodaiju / ぼだいじゅ
Chinese pipal tree (Ficus religiosa); bo fig tree; Bodhi tree (sacred to Buddhism and Hinduism)
Japanese (1) lime tree; linden (Tilia); (2) bo tree; peepul (Ficus religiosa); (given name) Bodaiju
bodhidruma, bodhitaru, bodhivṛkṣa; the wisdom-tree, i.e. that under which Śākyamuni attained his enlightenment, and became Buddha. The Ficus religiosa is the pippala, or aśvattha, wrongly identified by Faxian as the palm-tree; it is described as an evergreen, to have been 400 feet high, been cut down several times, but in the Tang dynasty still to be 40 or 50 feet high. A branch of it is said to have been sent by Aśoka to Ceylon, from which sprang the celebrated Bo-tree still flourishing there; bodhi-tree

菩提道場


菩提道场

see styles
Mandarin pú tí dào chǎng / pu2 ti2 dao4 chang3
Taiwan p`u t`i tao ch`ang / pu ti tao chang
Japanese bodaidoujou / bodaidojo / ぼだいどうじょう
Chinese Bodhimanda (place of enlightenment associated with a Bodhisattva)
Japanese {Buddh} Bodhi-manda (place of Buddhist practice or meditation, esp. the place under the bodhi tree where Buddha attained enlightenment)
bodhimaṇḍa, the bodhi-site, or plot or seat which raised itself where Śākyamuni attained Buddhahood. It is said to be diamond-like, the navel or centre of the earth; every bodhisattva sits down on such a seat before becoming Buddha; site of enlightenment

see styles
Mandarin/ ji2
Taiwan chi
Japanese zoku
Chinese variant of 即[ji2]; promptly
To draw up to, or near; approach; forthwith; to be; i.e. alias; if, even if; 就是. It is intp. as 和融 united together; 不二not two, i.e. identical; 不離 not separate, inseparable. It resembles implication, e.g. the afflictions or passions imply, or are, bodhi; births-and-deaths imply, or are, nirvana; the indication being that the one is contained in or leads to the other. Tiantai has three definitions: (1) The union, or unity, of two things, e.g. 煩惱 and 菩提, i.e. the passions and enlightenment, the former being taken as the 相 form, the latter 性 spirit, which two are inseparable; in other words, apart from the subjugation of the passions there is no enlightenment. (2) Back and front are inseparables; also (3) substance and quality, e.g. water and wave; to become one

see styles
Mandarin hōng / hong1
Taiwan hung
Japanese un
Chinese roar or howl of an animal; bellow of rage; sound of a Buddhist incantation
M020011 Translit. for hūṃ, which is interpreted as the bodhi, or omniscience, of all Buddhas; Sanskrit syllable hūṃ


see styles
Mandarin chǎng / chang3
Taiwan ch`ang / chang
Japanese ba / ば    jou / jo / じょう
Chinese large place used for a specific purpose; stage; scene (of a play); classifier for sporting or recreational activities; classifier for number of exams; threshing floor; classifier for events and happenings: spell, episode, bout
Japanese (1) place; spot; space; (2) field; discipline; sphere; realm; (3) (See その場) occasion; situation; (4) scene (of a play, movie, etc.); (5) session (of the stock market); (6) area in which cards are laid out (in a card game); (7) {mahj} (See 東場,南場,西場,北場) round (i.e. east, south, etc.); (8) {physics} field; (9) field (gestalt psychology); (n-suf,n) place; spot; grounds; arena; stadium; range; course; (surname) Bazaki; (surname) Basaki; (surname) Ba; (surname) Tsuruba; (surname) Eki
Area, arena, field, especially the bodhi-plot, or place of enlightenment, etc.; cf. 道場; 菩提場.

三乘

see styles
Mandarin sān chéng / san1 cheng2
Taiwan san ch`eng / san cheng
Japanese minori / みのり
Japanese (surname) Minori
Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.

三法

see styles
Mandarin sān fǎ / san1 fa3
Taiwan san fa
Japanese sanbō
The three dharma, i.e. 教法 the Buddha's teaching; 行法 the practice of it; 證法 realization or experiential proof of it in bodhi and nirvāṇa; three kinds of dharma

三生

see styles
Mandarin sān shēng / san1 sheng1
Taiwan san sheng
Japanese mitsuo / みつお    miki / みき    sanshou / sansho / さんしょう
Japanese (surname, given name) Mitsuo; (female given name) Miki; (given name) Sanshou
The three births, or reincarnations, past, present, future. Tiantai has (a) 種 planting the seed; (b) 熟 ripening; (c) 脫 liberating, stripping, or harvesting, i.e. beginning, development, and reward of bodhi, a process either gradual or instantaneous. Huayan has (a) 見聞生 a past life of seeing and hearing Buddha-truth; (b) 解行生 liberation in the present life; (c) 證入生 realization of life in Buddhahood. This is also called 三生成佛, Buddhahood in the course of three lives. There is also a definition of three rebirths as the shortest term for arhatship, sixty kalpas being the longest. There are other definitions.

三福

see styles
Mandarin sān fú / san1 fu2
Taiwan san fu
Japanese mifuku / みふく    sanpuku / さんぷく
Japanese (place-name, surname) Mifuku; (given name) Sanpuku
The three (sources of) felicity: (1) The 無量壽經 has the felicity of (a) 世福 filial piety, regard for elders, keeping the ten commandments; (b) 戒福 of keeping the other commandments; (c) 行福 of resolve on complete bodhi and the pursuit of the Buddha-way. (2) The 倶舍論 18, has the blessedness of (a) 施類福 almsgiving, in evoking resultant wealth; (b) 戒類福 observance of the 性戒 (against killing, stealing, adultery, lying) and the 遮戒 (against alcohol, etc.), in obtaining a happy lot in the heavens; (c) 修類福 observance of meditation in obtaining final escape from the mortal round. Cf. 三種淨業; three felicitous acts

下化

see styles
Mandarin xià huà / xia4 hua4
Taiwan hsia hua
Japanese geke
(下化衆生) Below, to transform all beings, one of the great vows of a bodhisattva. 上求菩提 above, to seek bodhi. Also 下濟衆生.

九識


九识

see styles
Mandarin jiǔ shí / jiu3 shi2
Taiwan chiu shih
Japanese kumi / くみ
Japanese (female given name) Kumi
The kinds of cognition or consciousness (vijñāna); those of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, mind, mānas (or阿陁那識 ādāna), i.e. mental perception; 阿賴耶 ālāya, bodhi-consciousness, and 阿摩羅識 amala, purified or Buddha-consciousness. There is considerable difference as to the meaning of the last three; ninth consciousness

五覺


五觉

see styles
Mandarin wǔ jué / wu3 jue2
Taiwan wu chüeh
Japanese gokaku
The five bodhi, or states of enlightenment, as described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith; see also 五菩提 for a different group. (1) 本覺 Absolute eternal wisdom, or bodhi; (2) 始覺 bodhi in its initial stages, or in action, arising from right observances; (3) 相似覺 bodhisattva. attainment of bodhi in action, in the 十信; (4) 隨分覺 further bodhisattva-enlightenment according to capacity, i. e. the stages 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (5) 究竟覺 final or complete enlightenment, i. e. the stage of 妙覺, which is one with the first, i. e. 本覺. The 本覺 is bodhi in the potential, 始覺 is bodhi in the active state, hence (2), (3), (4), and (5) are all the latter, but the fifth has reached the perfect quiescent stage of original bodhi; five kinds of enlightenment

人樹


人树

see styles
Mandarin rén shù / ren2 shu4
Taiwan jen shu
Japanese ninju
The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha.

佛性

see styles
Mandarin fú xìng / fu2 xing4
Taiwan fu hsing
Japanese butsushou / butsusho / ぶつしょう
Chinese Buddha nature
Japanese (surname) Butsushou
buddhatā. The Buddha-nature, i.e. gnosis, enlightenment; potential bodhi remains in every gati, i.e. all have the capacity for enlightenment; for the Buddha-nature remains in all as wheat-nature remains in all wheat. This nature takes two forms: 理 noumenal, in the absolute sense, unproduced and immortal, and 行 phenomenal, in action. While every one possesses the Buddha-nature, it requires to be cultivated in order to produce its ripe fruit.

佛樹


佛树

see styles
Mandarin fú shù / fu2 shu4
Taiwan fu shu
Japanese butsuju
bodhidruma; 道樹 the Bodhi-tree under which Śākyamuni obtained enlightenment or became Buddha, Ficus religiosa.

佛道

see styles
Mandarin fú dào / fu2 dao4
Taiwan fu tao
Japanese butsudō
The way of Buddha, leading to Buddhahood; intp. as bodhi, enlightenment, gnosis; buddha-way

冒地

see styles
Mandarin mào de / mao4 de
Taiwan mao te
Japanese bōji
bodhi.

勝果


胜果

see styles
Mandarin shèng guǒ / sheng4 guo3
Taiwan sheng kuo
Japanese shōka
The surpassing fruit, i.e. that of the attainment of Buddhahood, in contrast with Hīnayāna lower aims; two of these fruits are transcendent nirvāṇa and complete bodhi; excellent realization

十乘

see styles
Mandarin shí chéng / shi2 cheng2
Taiwan shih ch`eng / shih cheng
Japanese jūjō
(十乘觀) A T'ien-t'ai mode of meditation in ten "vehicles" or stages, for the attainment of bodhi.

十劫

see styles
Mandarin shí jié / shi2 jie2
Taiwan shih chieh
Japanese jūkō
The ten kalpas that have expired since Amitābha made his forty-eight vows, or 十劫正覺attained complete bodhi, hence he is styled 十劫彌陀. These ten kalpas as seen by Puxian are十劫須臾 but as a moment.

十問


十问

see styles
Mandarin shí wèn / shi2 wen4
Taiwan shih wen
Japanese jūmon
The ten questions to the Buddha, put into the mouth of Vajrapāṇi, which, with the answers given, form the basis of the 大日經. What is (or are) (1) the nature of the bodhi-mind? (2) its form or forms? (3) the mental stages requisite to attainment? (4) the difference between them? (5) the time required? (6) the character of the merits attained? (7) the activities or practices necessary? (8) the way of such practices? (9) the condition of the uncultivated and cultivated mind? (10) the difference between it and that of the follower of Yoga?

十心

see styles
Mandarin shí xīn / shi2 xin1
Taiwan shih hsin
Japanese jisshin
The ten kinds of heart or mind; there are three groups. One is from the 止觀 4, minds ignorant and dark; affected by evil companions; not following the good; doing evil in thought, word, deed; spreading evil abroad; unceasingly wicked; secret sin; open crime; utterly shameless; denying cause and effect (retribution)―all such must remain in the flow 流 of reincarnation. The second group (from the same book) is the 逆流 the mind striving against the stream of perpetual reincarnation; it shows itself in devout faith, shame (for sin), fear (of wrong-doing), repentance and confession, reform, bodhi (i.e. the bodhisattva mind), doing good, maintaining the right law, thinking on all the Buddhas, meditation on the void (or, the unreality of sin). The third is the 眞言 group from the 大日經疏 3; the "seed" heart (i.e. the original good desire), the sprout (under Buddhist religious influence), the bud, leaf, flower, fruit, its serviceableness; the child-heart, the discriminating heart, the heart of settled judgment (or resolve); ten kinds of mind

囘向


回向

see styles
Mandarin huí xiàng / hui2 xiang4
Taiwan hui hsiang
Japanese ekō
迴向 pariṇāmanā. To turn towards; to turn something from one person or thing to another; transference of merit); the term is intp. by 轉趣 turn towards; it is used for works of supererogation, or rather, it means the bestowing on another, or others, of merits acquired by oneself, especially the merits acquired by a bodhisattva or Buddha for the salvation of all, e. g. the bestowing of his merits by Amitābha on all the living. There are other kinds, such as the turning of acquired merit to attain further progress in bodhi, or nirvana. 囘事向理 to turn (from) practice to theory; 囘自向他 to turn from oneself to another; 囘因向果 To turn from cause to effect. 囘世而向出世 to turn from this world to what is beyond this world, from the worldly to the unworldly; dedication of merit

四法

see styles
Mandarin sì fǎ / si4 fa3
Taiwan ssu fa
Japanese shihō
There are several groups of four dharma: (1) 教法 the teaching of the Buddha); 理法 its principles, or meaning; 行法 its practice; 果法 its fruits or rewards. (2) Another group relates to bodhisattvas, their never losing the bodhi-mind, or the wisdom attained, or perseverance in progress, or the monastic forest life (āraṇyaka). (3) Also 信解行證 faith, discernment, performance, and assurance. (4) The Pure-land 'True' sect of Japan has a division: 教法, i. e. the 大無量壽經; 行法 the practice of the seventeenth of Amitābha's vows; 信法 faith in the eighteenth; and 證法 proof of the eleventh. The most important work of Shinran, the founder of the sect, is these four, i. e. 教行信證. (5) A 'Lotus ' division of 四法 is the answer to a question of Puxian (Samantabhadra) how the Lotus is to be possessed after the Buddha's demise, i. e. by thought (or protection) of the Buddhas; the cultivation of virtue; entry into correct dhyāna; and having a mind to save all creatures.

四重

see styles
Mandarin sì zhòng / si4 zhong4
Taiwan ssu chung
Japanese shijuu / shiju / しじゅう
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) fourfold
(四重禁) The four grave prohibitions, or sins, 四重罪 pārājikas: killing, stealing, carnality, lying. Also four of the esoteric sect, i. e. discarding the truth, discarding the bodhi-mind, being mean or selfish in regard to the supreme law, injuring the living.

地藏

see styles
Mandarin de cáng / de cang2
Taiwan te ts`ang / te tsang
Japanese jizou / jizo / じぞう
Chinese Kṣitigarbha, the Bodhisattva of the Great Vow (to save all souls before accepting Bodhi); also translated Earth Treasury, Earth Womb, or Earth Store Bodhisattva
Japanese (surname) Jizou
Ti-tsang, J. Jizō, Kṣitigarbha, 乞叉底蘗沙; Earth-store, Earth-treasury, or Earthwomb. One of the group of eight Dhvani- Bodhisattvas. With hints of a feminine origin, he is now the guardian of the earth. Though associated with Yama as overlord, and with the dead and the hells, his role is that of saviour. Depicted with the alarum staff with its six rings, he is accredited with power over the hells and is devoted to the saving of all creatures between the nirvana of Śākyamuni and the advent of Maitreya the fifth century he has been especially considered as the deliverer from the hells. His central place in China is at Chiu-hua-shan, forty li south-west of Ch'ing-yang in Anhui. In Japan he is also the protector of travellers by land and his image accordingly appears on the roads; bereaved parents put stones by his images to seek his aid in relieving the labours of their dead in the task of piling stones on the banks of the Buddhist Styx; he also helps women in labour. He is described as holding a place between the gods and men on the one hand and the hells on the other for saving all in distress; some say he is an incarnation of Yama. At dawn he sits immobile on the earth 地 and meditates on the myriads of its beings 藏. When represented as a monk, it may be through the influence of a Korean monk who is considered to be his incarnation, and who came to China in 653 and died in 728 at the age of 99 after residing at Chiu-hua-shan for seventy-five years: his body, not decaying, is said to have been gilded over and became an object of worship. Many have confused 眞羅 part of Korea with 暹羅 Siam. There are other developments of Ti-tsang, such as the 六地藏 Six Ti-tsang, i. e. severally converting or transforming those in the hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, and the devas; these six Ti-tsang have different images and symbols. Ti-tsang has also six messengers 六使者: Yama for transforming those in hell; the pearl-holder for pretas; the strong one or animals; the devīof mercy for asuras; the devī of the treasure for human beings; one who has charge of the heavens for the devas. There is also the 延命地藏 Yanming Ti-tsang, who controls length of days and who is approached, as also may be P'u-hsien, for that Purpose; his two assistants are the Supervisors of good and evil 掌善 and 掌惡. Under another form, as 勝軍地藏 Ti-tsang is chiefly associated with the esoteric cult. The benefits derived from his worship are many, some say ten, others say twenty-eight. His vows are contained in the 地藏菩薩本願經. There is also the 大乘大集地藏十電經 tr. by Xuanzang in 10 juan in the seventh century, which probably influenced the spread of the Ti-tsang cult.

大乘

see styles
Mandarin dà chéng / da4 cheng2
Taiwan ta ch`eng / ta cheng
Japanese oonori / おおのり
Chinese Mahayana, the Great Vehicle; Buddhism based on the Mayahana sutras, as spread to Central Asia, China and beyond; also pr. [Da4 cheng2]
Japanese (surname) Oonori
Mahāyāna; also called 上乘; 妙乘; 勝乘; 無上乘; 無上上乘; 不惡乘; 無等乘, 無等等乘; 摩訶衍 The great yāna, wain, or conveyance, or the greater vehicle in comparison with the 小乘 Hīnayāna. It indicates universalism, or Salvation for all, for all are Buddha and will attain bodhi. It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea, Japan, and in other places in the Far East. It is also called Northern Buddhism. It is interpreted as 大教 the greater teaching as compared with 小教 the smaller, or inferior. Hīnayāna, which is undoubtedly nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha, is unfairly described as an endeavour to seek nirvana through an ash-covered body, an extinguished intellect, and solitariness; its followers are sravakas and pratyekabuddhas (i.e. those who are striving for their own deliverance through ascetic works). Mahāyāna, on the other hand, is described as seeking to find and extend all knowledge, and, in certain schools, to lead all to Buddhahood. It has a conception of an Eternal Buddha, or Buddhahood as Eternal (Adi-Buddha), but its especial doctrines are, inter alia, (a) the bodhisattvas 菩薩 , i.e. beings who deny themselves final Nirvana until, according to their vows, they have first saved all the living; (b) salvation by faith in, or invocation of the Buddhas or bodhisattvas; (c) Paradise as a nirvana of bliss in the company of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, saints, and believers. Hīnayāna is sometimes described as 自利 self-benefiting, and Mahāyāna as 自利利他 self-benefit for the benefit of others, unlimited altruism and pity being the theory of Mahāyāna. There is a further division into one-yana and three-yanas: the trīyāna may be śrāvaka, pratyeka-buddha, and bodhisattva, represented by a goat, deer, or bullock cart; the one-yāna is that represented by the Lotus School as the one doctrine of the Buddha, which had been variously taught by him according to the capacity of his hearers, v. 方便. Though Mahāyāna tendencies are seen in later forms of the older Buddhism, the foundation of Mahāyāna has been attributed to Nāgārjuna 龍樹. "The characteristics of this system are an excess of transcendental speculation tending to abstract nihilism, and the substitution of fanciful degrees of meditation and contemplation (v. Samādhi and Dhyāna) in place of the practical asceticism of the Hīnayāna school."[Eitel 68-9.] Two of its foundation books are the 起信論and the 妙法蓮華經 but a larnge numberof Mahāyāna sutras are ascribed to the Buddha。; great vehicle

大日

see styles
Mandarin dà rì / da4 ri4
Taiwan ta jih
Japanese dainichi / だいにち
Japanese Mahavairocana (Tathagata); Great Sun; Supreme Buddha of Sino-Japanese esoteric Buddhism; (place-name, surname) Dainichi; (surname) Ookusa
Vairocana, or Mahāvairocana 大日如來; 遍照如來; 摩訶毘盧遮那; 毘盧遮那; 大日覺王 The sun, "shining everywhere" The chief object of worship of the Shingon sect in Japan, "represented by the gigantic image in the temple at Nara." (Eliot.) There he is known as Dai-nichi-nyorai. He is counted as the first, and according to some, the origin of the five celestial Buddhas (dhyāni-buddhas, or jinas). He dwells quiescent in Arūpa-dhātu, the Heaven beyond form, and is the essence of wisdom (bodhi) and of absolute purity. Samantabhadra 普賢 is his dhyāni-bodhisattva. The 大日經 "teaches that Vairocana is the whole world, which is divided into Garbhadhātu (material) and Vajradhātu (indestructible), the two together forming Dharmadhātu. The manifestations of Vairocana's body to himself―that is, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas ―are represented symbolically by diagrams of several circles ". Eliot. In the 金剛界 or vajradhātu maṇḍala he is the center of the five groups. In the 胎藏界 or Garbhadhātu he is the center of the eight-leaf (lotus) court. His appearance, symbols, esoteric word, differ according to the two above distinctions. Generally he is considered as an embodiment of the Truth 法, both in the sense of dharmakāya 法身 and dharmaratna 法寳. Some hold Vairocana to be the dharmakāya of Śākyamuni 大日與釋迦同一佛 but the esoteric school denies this identity. Also known as 最高顯廣眼藏如來, the Tathagata who, in the highest, reveals the far-reaching treasure of his eye, i.e. the sun. 大日大聖不動明王 is described as one of his transformations. Also, a śramaņa of Kashmir (contemporary of Padma-saṃbhava); he is credited with introducing Buddhism into Khotan and being an incarnation of Mañjuśrī; the king Vijaya Saṃbhava built a monastery for him.

大覺


大觉

see styles
Mandarin dà jué / da4 jue2
Taiwan ta chüeh
Japanese dai gaku
The supreme bodhi, or enlightenment, and the enlightening power of a Buddha; great enlightenment

天帝

see styles
Mandarin tiān dì / tian1 di4
Taiwan t`ien ti / tien ti
Japanese tentei / tente / てんてい
Chinese God of heaven; Celestial emperor
Japanese (1) Shangdi (creator deity in Chinese folk religion); (2) God (in Christianity); (3) {Buddh} Sakra
King, or emperor of Heaven, i. e. 因陀羅 Indra, i. e. 釋 (釋迦); 釋迦婆; 帝 (帝釋); Śakra, king of the devaloka 忉利天, one of the ancient gods of India, the god of the sky who fights the demons with his vajra, or thunderbolt. He is inferior to the trimūrti, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, having taken the place of Varuṇa, or sky. Buddhism adopted him as its defender, though, like all the gods, he is considered inferior to a Buddha or any who have attained bodhi. His wife is Indrāṇī.

妙果

see styles
Mandarin miào guǒ / miao4 guo3
Taiwan miao kuo
Japanese myōka
Wonderful fruit, i.e. bodhi or enlightenment and nirvana; the marvelous fruits of practice

師絃


师弦

see styles
Mandarin shī xián / shi1 xian2
Taiwan shih hsien
Japanese shigen
or 師筋 A tiger's tendons as lute-strings, i.e. bodhi music silences all minor strings; a tiger's tendons as lute strings

意力

see styles
Mandarin yì lì / yi4 li4
Taiwan i li
Japanese iryoku / いりょく
Japanese will; will-power
Mental power or intention; the purpose to attain bodhi or enlightenment; power of the mind (manas)

成佛

see styles
Mandarin chéng fú / cheng2 fu2
Taiwan ch`eng fu / cheng fu
Japanese jōbutsu
Chinese to become a Buddha; to attain enlightenment
To become Buddha, as a Bodhisattva does on reaching supreme perfect bodhi; becoming a buddha

成道

see styles
Mandarin chéng dào / cheng2 dao4
Taiwan ch`eng tao / cheng tao
Japanese joudou / jodo / じょうどう
Chinese to reach illumination (Buddhism)
Japanese (noun/participle) completing the path to becoming a Buddha (by attaining enlightenment); (personal name) Narumichi; (surname) Narimichi; (given name) Seidou; (given name) Joudou; (given name) Shigemichi
To attain the Way, or become enlightened, e.g. the Buddha under the bodhi tree; enlightenment

提樹


提树

see styles
Mandarin tí shù / ti2 shu4
Taiwan t`i shu / ti shu
Japanese teiju / teju / ていじゅ
Japanese (given name) Teiju
The bodhidruma tree, v. 菩; bodhi-tree

有性

see styles
Mandarin yǒu xìng / you3 xing4
Taiwan yu hsing
Japanese yuusei / yuse / ゆうせい
Japanese (noun - becomes adjective with の) sexual
To have the nature, 'i. e. to be a Buddhist, have the bodhi-mind, in contrast with the 無性 absence of this mind, i. e. the闡提 icchanti, or unconverted; existent

末伽

see styles
Mandarin mò jiā / mo4 jia1
Taiwan mo chia
Japanese maga
mārga; track, path, way, the way; the fourth of the four dogmas 四諦, i. e. 道, known as the 八聖道, 八正道 (or 八正門), the eight holy or correct ways, or gates out of suffering into nirvana. Mārga is described as the 因 cause of liberation, bodhi as its 果 result.

本覺


本觉

see styles
Mandarin běn jué / ben3 jue2
Taiwan pen chüeh
Japanese hongaku
Original bodhi, i. e. 'enlightenment', awareness, knowledge, or wisdom, as contrasted with 始覺 initial knowledge, that is 'enlightenment a priori is contrasted with enlightenment a posteriori'. Suzuki, Awakening of Faith, P. 62. The reference is to universal mind 衆生之心體, which is conceived as pure and intelligent, with 始覺 as active intelligence. It is considered as the Buddha-dharmakāya, or as it might perhaps be termed, the fundamental mind. Nevertheless in action from the first it was influenced by its antithesis 無明 ignorance, the opposite of awareness, or true knowledge. See 起信論 and 仁王經,中. There are two kinds of 本覺, one which is unconditioned, and never sullied by ignorance and delusion, the other which is conditioned and subject to ignorance. In original enlightenment is implied potential enlightenment in each being.

果果

see styles
Mandarin guǒ guǒ / guo3 guo3
Taiwan kuo kuo
Japanese kaka
The fruit of fruit, i. e. nirvāṇa, the fruition of bodhi.

果海

see styles
Mandarin guǒ hǎi / guo3 hai3
Taiwan kuo hai
Japanese kakai
The ocean of bodhi or enightenment; fruit-ocean

果頭


果头

see styles
Mandarin guǒ tóu / guo3 tou2
Taiwan kuo t`ou / kuo tou
Japanese kazu
The condition of retribution, especially the reward of bodhi or enlightenment, idem 果上, hence 果頭佛 is he who has attained the Buddha-condition, a Tiantai term.

業障


业障

see styles
Mandarin yè zhàng / ye4 zhang4
Taiwan yeh chang
Japanese gōshō
Chinese karmic hindrance (buddhism); karmic consequences that stand in the way of enlightenment; (term of abuse, especially toward the younger generation) devil spawn; (fig.) money
karmāvaraṇa; the screen, or hindrance, of past karma, hindering the attainment of bodhi; hindrance of karma

發心


发心

see styles
Mandarin fā xīn / fa1 xin1
Taiwan fa hsin
Japanese hosshin
Mental initiation or initiative, resolve, make up the mind to; to start out for bodhi, or perfect enlightenment; to show kindness of heart, give alms; arousal of mind

聖果


圣果

see styles
Mandarin shèng guǒ / sheng4 guo3
Taiwan sheng kuo
Japanese seira / sera / せいら    seika / seka / せいか
Japanese (female given name) Seira; (female given name) Seika
The holy fruit, or fruit of the saintly life, i.e. bodhi, nirvāṇa; sagehood

舍摩

see styles
Mandarin shě mó / she3 mo2
Taiwan she mo
Japanese shama
śama, calm, quiet, a name for the bodhi tree. For舍摩陀 v. 奢.

藏教

see styles
Mandarin cáng jiào / cang2 jiao4
Taiwan ts`ang chiao / tsang chiao
Japanese zōkyō
The Piṭaka, i.e. Tripiṭaka school, one of the four divisions 藏通別圓 as classified by Tiantai; it is the Hīnayāna school of the śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha type, based on the tripiṭaka and its four dogmas, with the bodhisattva doctrine as an unimportant side issue. It is also subdivided into four others, 有 the reality of things, 空 their unreality, both and neither. The bodhisattva of the Piṭaka school is defined as undergoing seven stages, beginning with the four dogmas and ending with complete enlightenment under the bodhi-tree; tripiṭaka teaching

覺日


觉日

see styles
Mandarin jué rì / jue2 ri4
Taiwan chüeh jih
Japanese kakunichi
Timelessness, eternity, changelessness, the bodhi-day which has no change. Also 覺時; enlightened days

覺樹


觉树

see styles
Mandarin jué shù / jue2 shu4
Taiwan chüeh shu
Japanese kakuju
The tree of knowledge, or enlightenment, the pippala under which the Buddha attained enlightenment, also called bodhidruma and ficus religiosa. To plant virtue in order to attain enlightenment; bodhi tree

道樹


道树

see styles
Mandarin dào shù / dao4 shu4
Taiwan tao shu
Japanese michiki / みちき    douju / doju / どうじゅ
Japanese (given name) Michiki; (given name) Douju
The bodhi-tree, under which Buddha attained enlightenment; also as a synonym of Buddhism with its powers of growth and fruitfulness.

七最勝


七最胜

see styles
Mandarin qī zuì shèng / qi1 zui4 sheng4
Taiwan ch`i tsui sheng / chi tsui sheng
Japanese shichi saishō
The seven perfections, see唯識論, 9. 安住最勝 Perfect rest in the bodhisattva nature. 依止最勝 perfect reliance on, or holding fast to the great bodhi (awakened mind). 意果最勝 perfect resultant aim in-pity for all 事業最勝 Perfect in constant performance. 巧便最勝 Perfect in able device (for spiritual presentation). 廻向最勝 Perfect direction towards the highest bodhi. 滿淨最勝 Perfect purity and peace.

七聖覺


七圣觉

see styles
Mandarin qī shèng jué / qi1 sheng4 jue2
Taiwan ch`i sheng chüeh / chi sheng chüeh
Japanese shichishō kaku
See 七菩提分; seven characteristics of bodhi

三發心


三发心

see styles
Mandarin sān fā xīn / san1 fa1 xin1
Taiwan san fa hsin
Japanese san hosshin
The three resolves of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (a) 信成就發心 to perfect the bodhi of faith, i.e. in the stage of faith; (b) 解行發心 to understand and carry into practice this wisdom; (c) 證發心 the realization, or proof of or union with bodhi.

三退屈

see styles
Mandarin sān tuì qū / san1 tui4 qu1
Taiwan san t`ui ch`ü / san tui chü
Japanese sant aikutsu
The three feelings of oppression that make for a bodhisattva's recreancy— the vastness of bodhi; the unlimited call to sacrifice; the uncertainty of final perseverance. There are 三事練磨 three modes of training against them; three types of retrogression

九方便

see styles
Mandarin jiǔ fāng biàn / jiu3 fang1 bian4
Taiwan chiu fang pien
Japanese ku hōben
The nine suitable stages in religious service; cf. 大日經, 7; 作禮 salutation to the universal Triratna; 出罪 repentance and confession; 歸依 trust (in the Triratna); 施身 giving of self (to the Tathāgata); 發菩提心 vowing to devote the mind to bodhi; 隨喜 rejoicing (in all good); 勸請 beseeching (all Tathāgatas to rain down the saving law); 奉請法身 praying for the Buddha-nature in self and others for entry in the Pure Land; 迴向 demitting the good produced by the above eight methods, to others, universally, past, present, and future. This form of service is generally performed before engaging in esoteric observances. The verses in which these nine stages are presented are of a commendably devotional character; nine expedient methods

二十天

see styles
Mandarin èr shí tiān / er4 shi2 tian1
Taiwan erh shih t`ien / erh shih tien
Japanese nijū ten
The twenty devas. (1) 大梵天王 (Mahābrahman), (2) 帝釋尊天(Śakra devānām Indra), (3) 多聞天王 (Vaiśravana, 毘沙門, or Dhanada), (4) 持國天王(Dhṛtarāṣṭra), (5) 增長天王 (Virūḍhaka), (6) 廣目天王 (Virūpākṣa), (7) 金剛密迹(?Gunyapati), (8) 摩醯首羅 (Maheśvara), (9) 散脂 (迦) 大將 (Pañcika), (10) 大辯才天 (Sarasvatī), (11) 大功德天 (Lakṣmī), (12) 韋驛天神 (Skanda), (13) 堅牢地神 (Pṛthivī), (14) 善提樹神 (Bodhidruma, or Bodhi-vṛkṣa), (15) 鬼子母神 (Hāritī), (16) 摩利支天 (Marīci), (17) 日宮天子 (Sūrya), (18) 月宮天子 (Candra, etc. There are many different names), (19) 裟竭龍王(Sāgara), (20) 閣摩羅王 (Yama-rāja); twenty celestials

五十法

see styles
Mandarin wǔ shí fǎ / wu3 shi2 fa3
Taiwan wu shih fa
Japanese gojū hō
Fifty modes of meditation mentioned in the 大品般若; i. e. the 三十七品 bodhi paksika dharma, the 三三昧, four 禪, four 無量心, four 無色定, eight 背捨, eight 勝處, nine 次第定, and eleven 切處; fifty methods

五祕密


五秘密

see styles
Mandarin wǔ mì mì / wu3 mi4 mi4
Taiwan wu mi mi
Japanese go himitsu
(五祕) The five esoteric or occult ones, i. e. the five bodhisattvas of the diamond realm, known as Vajrasattva in the middle; 欲 desire on the east; 觸 contact, south; 愛 love, west; and 慢 pride, north. Vajrasattva represents the six fundamental elements of sentient existence and here indicates the birth of bodhisattva sentience; desire is that of bodhi and the salvation of all: contact with the needy world for its salvation follows; love of all the living comes next; pride or the power of nirvana succeeds; five esoteric ones

五種性


五种性

see styles
Mandarin wǔ zhǒng xìng / wu3 zhong3 xing4
Taiwan wu chung hsing
Japanese goshu shō
The five germ-natures, or roots of bodhisattva development: (1) 習種性 the germ nature of study of the 空 void (or immaterial), which corrects all illusions of time and space; it corresponds to the 十住 stage; (2) 性種性 that of ability to discriminate all the 性 natures of phenomena and transform the living; the 十行 stage; (3) 道種性(the middle-) way germ-nature, which attains insight into Buddha-laws; the 十廻向; (4) 聖種性 the saint germ-nature which produces holiness by destroying ignorance; the 十廻向 which the bodhisattva leaves the ranks of the 賢 and becomes 聖; (5) 等覺種性 the bodhi-rank germ-nature which produces Buddhahood, i. e. 等覺; five kinds of natures

五菩提

see styles
Mandarin wǔ pú tí / wu3 pu2 ti2
Taiwan wu p`u t`i / wu pu ti
Japanese go bodai
The five bodhi, or stages of enlightenment: (1) 發心菩提 resolve on supreme bodhi; (2) 伏心菩提 mind control, i. e. of the passions and observance of the pāramitās: (3) 明心菩提 mental enlightenment, study, and increase in knowledge and in the prajñāpāramitā: (4) 出到菩提 mental expansion, freedom from the limitations of reincarnation and attainment of complete knowledge; (5) 無上菩提 attainment of a passionless condition and of supreme perfect enlightenment;; five kinds of enlightenment

人中樹


人中树

see styles
Mandarin rén zhōng shù / ren2 zhong1 shu4
Taiwan jen chung shu
Japanese ninchūju
The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha.

元吉樹


元吉树

see styles
Mandarin yuán jí shù / yuan2 ji2 shu4
Taiwan yüan chi shu
Japanese gankitsuju
The tree of the origin of felicity, i. e. the bodhi-tree or ficus religiosa, also styled 佛樹; 道樹, and 菩提樹; bodhi tree

大梵天

see styles
Mandarin dà fàn tiān / da4 fan4 tian1
Taiwan ta fan t`ien / ta fan tien
Japanese Daibon ten
Mahābrahman; Brahma; 跋羅吸摩; 波羅賀磨; 梵覽摩; 梵天王; 梵王; 梵. Eitel says: "The first person of the Brahminical Trimūrti, adopted by Buddhism, but placed in an inferior position, being looked upon not as Creator, but as a transitory devatā whom every Buddhistic saint surpasses on obtaining bodhi. Notwithstanding this, the Saddharma-puṇḍarīka calls Brahma 'the father of all living beings'" 一切衆生之父. Mahābrahman is the unborn or uncreated ruler over all, especially according to Buddhism over all the heavens of form, i.e. of mortality. He rules over these heavens, which are of threefold form: (a) Brahma (lord), (b) Brahma-purohitas (ministers), and (c) Brahma-pāriṣadyāh (people). His heavens are also known as the middle dhyāna heavens, i.e. between the first and second dhyānas. He is often represented on the right of the Buddha. According to Chinese accounts the Hindus speak of him (1) as born of Nārāyaṇa, from Brahma's mouth sprang the brahmans, from his arms the kṣatriyas, from his thighs the vaiśyas, and from his feet the śūdras; (2) as born from Viṣṇu; (3) as a trimūrti, evidently that of Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, but Buddhists define Mahābrahma's dharmakāya as Maheśvara (Śiva), his saṃbhogakāya as Nārāyaṇa, and his nirmāṇakāya as Brahmā. He is depicted as riding on a swan, or drawn by swans; great brahma heaven

天德甁

see styles
Mandarin tiān dé píng / tian1 de2 ping2
Taiwan t`ien te p`ing / tien te ping
Japanese tentoku byō
The vase of divine virtue, i.e. bodhi; also a sort of cornucopia.; The vase of deva virtue, i. e. the bodhi heart, because all that one desires comes from it, e. g. the 如意珠 the talismanic pearl. Cf. 天意樹; celestial vase

師子乳


师子乳

see styles
Mandarin shī zi rǔ / shi1 zi ru3
Taiwan shih tzu ju
Japanese shishinyū
Lion's milk, like bodhi -enlightenment, which is able to annihilate countless ages of the karma of affliction, just as one drop of lion's milk can disintegrate an ocean of ordinary milk.

成道会

see styles
Japanese joudoue / jodoe / じょうどうえ Japanese Bodhi Day; Buddhist holiday on December 8 to celebrate Shakyamuni's enlightenment

月輪觀


月轮观

see styles
Mandarin yuè lún guān / yue4 lun2 guan1
Taiwan yüeh lun kuan
Japanese gatsurinkan
(or 月輪三昧) The moon contemplation ( or samādhi) in regard to its sixteen nights of waxing to the full, and the application of this contemplation to the development of bodhi within, especially of the sixteen kinds of bodhisattva mind of the lotus and of the human heart.

正等覺


正等觉

see styles
Mandarin zhèng děng jué / zheng4 deng3 jue2
Taiwan cheng teng chüeh
Japanese shōtōkaku
samyagbuddhi, or -bodhi; the perfect universal wisdom of a Buddha; to perfect enlightenment

活兒子


活儿子

see styles
Mandarin huó ér zi / huo2 er2 zi
Taiwan huo erh tzu
Japanese katsu nishi
A name for the bodhi-tree; bodhi seed

涅槃風


涅槃风

see styles
Mandarin niè pán fēng / nie4 pan2 feng1
Taiwan nieh p`an feng / nieh pan feng
Japanese nehan fū
The nirvāṇa-wind which wafts the believer into bodhi; wind of nirvāṇa

煩惱冰


烦恼冰

see styles
Mandarin bīng / bing1
Taiwan ping
Japanese bonnō hyō
The ice of moral affliction, i.e. its congealing, chilling influence on bodhi; ice of affliction

畢境覺

see styles
Mandarin bì jìng jué / bi4 jing4 jue2
Taiwan pi ching chüeh
The ultimate enlightenment, or bodhi, that of a Buddha.

相似覺


相似觉

see styles
Mandarin xiāng shì jué / xiang1 shi4 jue2
Taiwan hsiang shih chüeh
Japanese sōjika ku
The approximate enlightenment which in the stages of 十住, 十行and 十廻向 approximates to perfect enlightenment by the subjection of all illusion; the second of the four degrees of bodhi in the Awakening of Faith 起信論; semblance enlightenment

等正覺


等正觉

see styles
Mandarin děng zhèng jué / deng3 zheng4 jue2
Taiwan teng cheng chüeh
Japanese tōshō kaku
samyak-saṃbodhi; complete perfect knowledge; Buddha-knowledge; omniscience; the bodhi of all Buddhas; cf. 等覺; 三藐; perfect supreme enlightenment

胎藏界

see styles
Mandarin tāi cáng jiè / tai1 cang2 jie4
Taiwan t`ai ts`ang chieh / tai tsang chieh
Japanese taizō kai
Garbhadhātu, or Garbhakośa-(dhātu), the womb treasury, the universal source from which all things are produced; the matrix; the embryo; likened to a womb in which all of a child is conceived— its body, mind, etc. It is container and content; it covers and nourishes; and is the source of all supply. It represents the 理性 fundamental nature, both material elements and pure bodhi, or wisdom in essence or purity; 理 being the garbhadhātu as fundamental wisdom, and 智 acquired wisdom or knowledge, the vajradhātu. It also represents the human heart in its innocence or pristine purity, which is considered as the source of all Buddha-pity and moral knowledge. And it indicates that from the central being in the maṇḍala, viz. the Sun as symbol of Vairocana, there issue all the other manifestations of wisdom and power, Buddhas, bodhisattvas, demons, etc. It is 本覺 original intellect, or the static intellectuality, in contrast with 始覺 intellection, the initial or dynamic intellectuality represented in the vajradhātu; hence it is the 因 cause and vajradhātu the 果 effect; though as both are a unity, the reverse may be the rule, the effect being also the cause; it is also likened to 利他 enriching others, as vajradhātu is to 自利 enriching self. Kōbō Daishi, founder of the Yoga or Shingon 眞言 School in Japan, adopted the representation of the ideas in maṇḍalas, or diagrams, as the best way of revealing the mystic doctrine to the ignorant. The garbhadhātu is the womb or treasury of all things, the universe; the 理 fundamental principle, the source; its symbols are a triangle on its base, and an open lotus as representing the sun and Vairocana. In Japan this maṇḍala is placed on the east, typifying the rising sun as source, or 理. The vajradhātu is placed west and represents 智 wisdom or knowledge as derived from 理 the underlying principle, but the two are essential one to the other, neither existing apart. The material and spiritual; wisdom-source and intelligence; essence and substance; and similar complementary ideas are thus portrayed; the garbhadhātu may be generally considered as the static and the vajradhātu as the dynamic categories, which are nevertheless a unity. The garbhadhātu is divided into 三部 three sections representing samādhi or quiescence, wisdom-store, and pity-store, or thought, knowledge, pity; one is called the Buddha-section, the others the Vajra and Lotus sections respectively; the three also typify vimokṣa, prajñā, and dharmakāya, or freedom, understanding, and spirituality. There are three heads of these sections, i. e. Vairocana, Vajrapāṇi, and Avalokiteśvara; each has a mother or source, e. g. Vairocana from Buddha's-eye; and each has a 明王 or emanation of protection against evil; also a śakti or female energy; a germ-letter, etc. The diagram of five Buddhas contains also four bodhisattvas, making nine in all, and there are altogether thirteen 大院 or great courts of various types of ideas, of varying numbers, generally spoken of as 414. Cf. 金剛界; 大日; 兩部; womb-container world

般涅槃

see styles
Mandarin bān niè pán / ban1 nie4 pan2
Taiwan pan nieh p`an / pan nieh pan
Japanese hatsu nehan
(般涅槃那) parinirvāṇa; 'quite extinguished, quite brought to an end; the final extinction of the individual.' M. W. The death of the Buddha. Nirvana may be attained in this life, parinirvāṇa after it; for the meaning of 'extinction' v. 涅槃. It may also correspond to the suppression of all mental activity. It is also the second of the three grades of nirvana, parinirvāṇa, and mahānirvāṇa, which are later developments and have association with the ideas of Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, and Mahāyāna, or the small, middle, and great vehicles; also with the three grades of bodhi which these three vehicles represent; and the three classes of śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas. Other forms are:般利涅槃那; 波利涅槃那; 般尼洹.

菩提分

see styles
Mandarin pú tí fēn / pu2 ti2 fen1
Taiwan p`u t`i fen / pu ti fen
Japanese bodai bun
bodhyaṅga, a general term for the thirty-seven 道品, more strictly applied to the 七覺支 q.v., the seven branches of bodhi-illumination. Also 菩提分法.

菩提場


菩提场

see styles
Mandarin pú tí chǎng / pu2 ti2 chang3
Taiwan p`u t`i ch`ang / pu ti chang
Japanese bodai jō
A place, plot, or site of enlightenment, especially Śākyamuni's under the bodhi-tree.

菩提子

see styles
Mandarin pú tí zi / pu2 ti2 zi
Taiwan p`u t`i tzu / pu ti tzu
Japanese bodaishi / ぼだいし
Japanese (given name) Bodaishi
bodhi-seeds, or beads, the hard seeds of a kind of Himalayan grass, also of a tree at Tiantai, used for rosaries; bodhi seeds

菩提寺

see styles
Mandarin pú tí sì / pu2 ti2 si4
Taiwan p`u t`i ssu / pu ti ssu
Japanese bodaiji / ぼだいじ
Japanese one's family temple; temple with one's family grave; (place-name, surname) Bodaiji
bodhi-vihāra, temple of or for enlightenment, a name used for many monasteries; also 菩提所; family mortuary temple

菩提心

see styles
Mandarin pú tí xīn / pu2 ti2 xin1
Taiwan p`u t`i hsin / pu ti hsin
Japanese bodaishin / ぼだいしん
Japanese aspiration for Buddhahood
The mind for or of bodhi; the awakened, or enlightened mind; the mind that perceives the real behind the seeming, believes in moral consequences, and that all have the Buddha-nature, and aims at Buddhahood.

菩提智

see styles
Mandarin pú tí zhì / pu2 ti2 zhi4
Taiwan p`u t`i chih / pu ti chih
Japanese bodai chi
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

菩提華


菩提华

see styles
Mandarin pú tí huā / pu2 ti2 hua1
Taiwan p`u t`i hua / pu ti hua
Japanese Bodai Ke
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

菩提障

see styles
Mandarin pú tí zhàng / pu2 ti2 zhang4
Taiwan p`u t`i chang / pu ti chang
Japanese bodai shō
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

阿說他


阿说罗部

see styles
Mandarin ā shuō luō bù / a1 shuo1 luo1 bu4
Taiwan a shuo lo pu
Japanese asetsuta
aśvattha, a tree, the ficus religiosa, or bodhi-tree, called also the 無罪樹 no-sin tree, because whoever goes around it three times is rid of sin. Also 阿濕波他; 阿舍波陀; 阿輸他.

龍華樹

see styles
Mandarin lóng huá shù / long2 hua2 shu4
Taiwan lung hua shu
nāga-puṣpa; 奔那伽 puṣpanāga, the dragon-flower tree, which will be the bodhi-tree of Maitreya, the Buddhist Messiah, when he comes to earth.

一切智智

see styles
Mandarin yī qiè zhì zhì / yi1 qie4 zhi4 zhi4
Taiwan i ch`ieh chih chih / i chieh chih chih
Japanese issai chi chi
The wisdom of all wisdom, Buddha's wisdom, including bodhi, perfect enlightenment and purity; 大悲 great pity (for mortals); and 方便 tact or skill in teaching according to receptivity; omniscience

七菩提分

see styles
Mandarin qī pú tí fēn / qi1 pu2 ti2 fen1
Taiwan ch`i p`u t`i fen / chi pu ti fen
Japanese shichi bodai bun
saptabodhyaṅga, also 七菩提寶, 七覺分, 七覺支, 七等覺支. Seven characteristics of bodhi; the sixth of the 七科七道品 in the seven categories of the bodhipakṣika dharma, v. 三十七菩提分 it represents seven grades in bodhi,viz,(1)擇法覺支(or 擇法菩提分 and so throughout), dharma-pravicaya-saṃbodhyaṇga, discrimination of the true and the fa1se : (2) 精進 vīrya-saṃbodhyaṇga, zeal, or undeflected progress;(3) 喜prīti-saṃbodhyaṇga., joy, delight; (4) 輕安 or 除 praśrabdhi-saṃbodhyaṇga. Riddance of all grossness or weight of body or mind, so that they may be light, free, and at ease; (5) 念 smrti-saṃbodhyaṇga, power of remembering the various states passed through in contemplation; (6) 定 samādhi-saṃbodhyaṇga.the power to keep the mind in a given realm undiverted; (7) 行捨 or 捨 upekṣā-saṃbodhyaṇga or upekṣaka, complete abandonment, auto-hypnosis, or indifference to all disturbances of the sub-conscious or ecstatic mind.

三世覺母


三世觉母

see styles
Mandarin sān shì jué mǔ / san1 shi4 jue2 mu3
Taiwan san shih chüeh mu
Japanese sanze(no)kakumo
A name for Mañjuśrī 文殊; as guardian of the wisdom of Vairocana he is the bodhi-mother of all Buddhas past, present, and future; mother of enlightenment in the three times

三佛菩提

see styles
Mandarin sān fú pú tí / san1 fu2 pu2 ti2
Taiwan san fu p`u t`i / san fu pu ti
Japanese san butsu bodai
The bodhi, or wisdom, of each of the Trikāya, 三身, i.e. that under the bodhi tree, that of parinirvāṇa, that of tathāgatagarbha in its eternal nirvāṇa aspect; enlightenment of the three buddha-bodies

上求本來


上求本来

see styles
Mandarin shàng qiú běn lái / shang4 qiu2 ben3 lai2
Taiwan shang ch`iu pen lai / shang chiu pen lai
Japanese jōgu honrai
Similar to the first half of 上求菩提下化衆生 Above to seek bodhi, below to save all. 本來 means the original or Buddha-nature, which is the real nature of all beings; seek the above original source

上求菩提

see styles
Mandarin shàng qiú pú tí / shang4 qiu2 pu2 ti2
Taiwan shang ch`iu p`u t`i / shang chiu pu ti
Japanese jō gu bodai
This term is used in Buddhism, but due to a licensing issue, we cannot show the definition

不惜身命

see styles
Mandarin bù xī shēn mìng / bu4 xi1 shen1 ming4
Taiwan pu hsi shen ming
Japanese fushakushinmyou / fushakushinmyo / ふしゃくしんみょう
Japanese (yoji) not sparing one's life for a worthy cause
The bodhisattva virtue of not sparing one's life (for the sake of bodhi); indifferent regarding one's life

久成正覺


久成正觉

see styles
Mandarin jiǔ chéng zhèng jué / jiu3 cheng2 zheng4 jue2
Taiwan chiu ch`eng cheng chüeh / chiu cheng cheng chüeh
Japanese kujō shōgaku
Perfect enlightenment long acquired; Śākya-Tathāgata in ancient kalpas having achieved complete bodhi, transmitted it to Mañjuśrī Avalokiteśvara, and others, i.e., their enlightenment is the fruit of his enlightenment. 法華經:壽量品.

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This page contains 100 results for "bodhi" in Chinese and/or Japanese.



Information about this dictionary:

Apparently, we were the first ones who were crazy enough to think that western people might want a combined Chinese, Japanese, and Buddhist dictionary.

A lot of westerners can't tell the difference between Chinese and Japanese - and there is a reason for that. Chinese characters and even whole words were borrowed by Japan from the Chinese language in the 5th century. Much of the time, if a word or character is used in both languages, it will have the same or a similar meaning. However, this is not always true. Language evolves, and meanings independently change in each language.

Example: The Chinese character 湯 for soup (hot water) has come to mean bath (hot water) in Japanese. They have the same root meaning of "hot water", but a 湯屋 sign on a bathhouse in Japan would lead a Chinese person to think it was a "soup house" or a place to get a bowl of soup. See this: Soup or Bath

This dictionary uses the EDICT and CC-CEDICT dictionary files.
EDICT data is the property of the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group, and is used in conformance with the Group's license.

Chinese Buddhist terms come from Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms by William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous. This is commonly referred to as "Soothill's'". It was first published in 1937 (and is now off copyright so we can use it here). Some of these definitions may be misleading, incomplete, or dated, but 95% of it is good information. Every professor who teaches Buddhism or Eastern Religion has a copy of this on their bookshelf. We incorporated these 16,850 entries into our dictionary database ourselves (it was lot of work).



Combined, these cover 355,969 Japanese, Chinese, and Buddhist characters, words, idioms, and short phrases.

Just because a word appears here does not mean it is appropriate for a tattoo, your business name, etc. Please consult a professional before doing anything stupid with this data.

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No warranty as to the correctness, potential vulgarity, or clarity is expressed or implied. We did not write any of these definitions (though we occasionally act as a contributor/editor to the CC-CEDICT project). You are using this dictionary for free, and you get what you pay for.

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Japanese Kanji Dictionary

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